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W A S T E W A T E R - W A S T E

ATV A 125E

Pipe Driving

September 1996

ISBN 3-934984-14-2

Gesellschaft zur Förderung der
Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA)
Theodor-Heuß-Allee 17
D-53773 Hennef
Postfach 11 65 . 53758 Hennef
ATV A 125E
The ATV Working Group 1.5.3 (formerly 1.6.4) "Trenchless Construction Methods" within
the ATV Specialist Committee 1.5,(formerly 1.6) " Implementation of Drainage Systems",
which has prepared this Standard, has the following members:

Dipl.-Ing. Möhring, Berlin (Chairman)

Dipl.-Ing. Becker, Berlin
Dipl.-Ing. Deisenroth, Köln
Dipl.-Ing. Dirkes, Essen
Dipl.-Ing. Donath, Nürnberg
Dipl.-Ing. Ensinger, München
Dipl.-Ing. Ernst, Dresden
Dipl.-Ing. Hähnig, Tübigen
Dr.-Ing. Hein, Saarbrücken (Retired)
BDir. Heinzmann, München
Dr.-Ing. Hornung, Stuttgart
Dr.-Ing. Howe, Köln
Dipl.-Ing Jochenhöfer, Bonn
Dipl.-Ing. Kühl, Hamburg
Dr.-Ing. Leonhardt, Düsseldorf
Uni.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Maidl, Bochum
Dipl.-Ing. May, Duisburg
Dipl.-Ing. Pinkernell, Moers
Dipl.-Ing. Rapp, Regensburg
Dipl.-Ing. Sievers, Berlin
Dipl.-Ing. Spiess, München (Retired)
Uni.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Stein, Bochum
Dipl.-Ing. Ueker, Bad Soden-Salmünster
Dipl.-Ing. Walter, Saarbrücken

The Standard presented here has been prepared within the

framework of the ATV committee work, taking into account the
ATV Standard A 400 "Principles for the Preparation of Rules and
Standards" in the Rules and Standards Wastewater/Wastes, in
the January. 1994 .version. With regard to the application of the
Rules and Standards, Para. 1 of Point 5 of A 400 includes the
following statement "The Rules and Standards are freely
available to everyone. An obligation to apply them can result for
reasons of legal regulations, contracts or other legal grounds.
Whosoever applies them is responsible for the correct application
in specific cases. Through the application of the Rules and
Standards no one avoids responsibility for his own actions.
However, for the user, prima facie evidence shows that he has
taken the necessary care.

All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Standard may
be reproduced in any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other process or transferred or translated into a
language usable in machines, in particular data processing machines, without the written approval of the

 Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA), Hennef 1996

September 1996
Produced by: JF. CARTHAUS GmbH & Co, Bonn

Translator's note:

The installation techniques described in this Standard are procedures which can be
grouped under the general term "Trenchless Technology". This technology is a relatively
new aspect of civil engineering and as such there is a lack of standard terminology. The
title of this Standard in its original German: "Rohrvortrieb" has no direct translation into
English. However, as a collective term for a number of trenchless techniques, the term
"Pipe Driving" has been selected as the most appropriate translation, as "Vortrieb" is
translated, in mining terms, as "driving" or "heading". In its turn "driving" is described as
"Digging a shaft, mine or tunnel in a more or less horizontal direction" and implies an
"impelling force in a particular direction". Therefore, following discussion with members of
the drafting committee, it was agreed that "Driving" was the most appropriate translation
for "Vortrieb". Hence "Rohrvortrieb" becomes "Pipe Driving" and "Vortreiben" is "Driving".
These translations are used not only within ATV Standard A 125 but also in all other ATV
Standards which cover or refer to the subject of "Rohrvortrieb".

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ATV A 125E

Preface 6

General 6

1 Area of application 6

2 Methods for unmanned active pipe driving 7

2.1 General 7
2.2 Non-manoeuvrable methods 7
2.2.1 Soil displacement methods 8
2.2.2 Soil removal methods 8
2.3 Manoeuvrable methods 9
2.3.1 Pilot pipe driving 9
2.3.2 Press boring pipe driving 9
2.3.3 Shield pipe driving 10
2.3.4 Horizontal water jetting 10
2.3.5 Horizontal-Directional-Drilling (HDD method) 10

3 Methods for manned active pipe driving 11

4 Construction and mechanical facilities, driven pipes and pipe

connections, shafts 11

4.1 Construction facilities 11

4.2 Mechanical and electrical facilities 12
4.2.1 General 12
4.2.2 Driving shield 12
4.2.3 Other installations 13
4.3 Driven pipes and pipe connections, shafts 13
4.3.1 Pipes 13
4.3.2 Pipe connections 17
4.3.3 Packaging 22
4.3.4 Marking 22
4.3.5 Connections 23
4.3.6 Quality surveillance 23
4.3.7 Shafts (manholes) 23

5 Preparatory planning 23
5.1 Inventory of available structures and facilities 24
5.2 Subsoil and groundwater conditions 24
5.2.1 Details for structural analysis 25
5.2.2 Details for methods and execution of pipe driving 25
5.3 Details on settlement 26
5.4 Cover 26
5.5 Structural calculation, driving forces 26
5.6 Preferred nominal sizes for product and jacket pipes 26
5.7 Start and finish shafts 27

6 Implementation 27
6.1 Competent firms 27

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6.2 Requirements on implementation 28
6.2.1 General 28
6.2.2 Driving protocols 28
6.3 Measurement and steering installations 29
6.4 Removal and conveyance 29
6.4.1 Types of removal 29
6.4.2 Removal conditions 30
6.4.3 Conveyance 30
6.4.4 Filling of cavities 30
6.5 Entry and exit openings 30
6.6 Drainage 30
6.6.1 Open drainage 31
6.6.2 Closed drainage 31
6.6.3 Combined drainage 31
6.6.4 Drainage using compressed air 31
6.6.5 Liquid stabilisation 32
6.6.6 Special procedures 32
6.7 Stabilising and lubricating means 32

7 Pipe driving under railway property of the

German Railways (Deutschen Bahn AG) 33
7.1 General 33
7.2 Protective measures 34
7.2.1 Operational protective measures 34
7.2.2 Constructional protective measures 34
7.3 Changes to track position 35
7.4 Employment conditions for driving procedures 35
7.4.1 Unmanned active methods 35
7.4.2 Manned active pipe driving 36
7.4.3 New installation methods 37

8 Pipe driving under Federal trunk routes 37

8.1 General 37
8.2 Operational and constructional protective measures 37

9 Pipe driving under Federal waterways 38

9.1 General 38
9.2 Operational and constructional protective measures 38

10 Normative references 39
10.1 Laws/decrees 39
10.2 Regulations for the prevention of accidents 39
10.3 Safety regulations 40
10.4 ATV/DVGW Rules and Standards 41
10.5 Additional standards 41
10.6 Standard specifications 42

Annexes 47

September 1996
ATV A 125E
Since the appearance of ATV Standard A 125 and the DVGW Advisory Leaflet GW 304
in December 1975 measures for pipe driving have gained in significance and today stand
equal with open construction methods for the construction of wastewater sewers and
drains. To this the further development of driving procedures including manoeuvrable
driving machinery for unmanned driving, the production of high-grade driven pipes for all
nominal diameters as well as the development of special construction methods have
particularly contributed.
The Standard or Advisory Leaflet is to be a guide for specialists involved in planning and
implementation. Through the application of this Standard no one is exempted from
responsibility for their own actions. The following documents are additionally available on
the subject "Pipe Driving":
- ATV Standard A 161 identical with DVGW Advisory Leaflet GW 312 "Structural
Calculation of Driven Pipes"
- ATV Standard A 132 and DVGW Guide W 309 Standard Performance Book for
Construction, Performance Range 911 "Pipe Driving - Throughpressing".
- General Technical Contract Conditions for Construction Services (ATV), DIN
18319" Pipe Driving Tasks".
- ATV Standard A 142 "Sewers and Drains in Water Catchment Areas"
DVGW Advisory Leaflet GW 304 and ATV Standard A 125 E are identical. Currently
DVGW are preparing Technical Rules for trenchless pipe laying procedures which,
following publication, supplement the definitions of GW 302 for the supply of gas and

Underground construction methods are always applied in sewer and pipeline
construction if this type of implementation is necessary or offers particular advantages for
reasons of traffic, construction, economy or due to their smaller influence on the
Along with pipe driving, shield driving, knife driving and other mining methods also
belong to underground constructional methods.

1 Area of Application
This Standard deals with the underground installation of prefabricated pipes of any
desired cross-section whereby a cavity is created in the soil, by displacement, ramming,
boring, pressing or through removal, into which the pipe is pulled, pushed or pressed.
With this, the pipes are driven in a straight or curved location line in a straight, inclined or
curved gradient. The soil at the working face is either displaced or conveyed away.
Crossing and displacement of existing sewers or drains constitute a special form of pipe
driving. For these the contents of the Standard can be applied analogously.
The pipes are connected to each other rigidly or flexibly in accordance with the material
used and the respective connection method.

September 1996
The finished pipe stretch serves either as product pipe for wastewater, gas, water, etc. or
as jacket pipe1) for the installation of product pipes, cables, etc.
The Standard can be applied analogously for shield and knife driving. It does not apply
for mining construction methods.

2 Methods for Unmanned Active Pipe Driving

2.1 General
Jacket or product pipes are driven with the aid of dynamic energy (ramming) or static
energy (pressing) through the subsoil from a start shaft or start construction trench into a
finish shaft or a finish trench. The soil is either displaced, removed at the driving face and
subsequently conveyed through the driven pipe length using worm screws, hydraulically
or pneumatically to the start shaft or start trench or, following completion of driving,
removed from the pipe as soil core.
Non-manoeuvrable or manoeuvrable driving methods are selected dependent on the
objective or positional accuracy of the driving.
2.2 Non-Manoeuvrable Methods
The final accuracy of this type of driving is, inter alia, very heavily influenced by the
subsoil (e.g. type of soil), inclusions and stratification and it decreases with the driven
length. From this there results employment limitations for pipelines which, for operational
reasons, require a precise positioning. It must be ensured that damage to neighbouring
installations is excluded through the determination of sufficient separation.
For employment in water bearing layers supplementary measures, e.g. groundwater
drainage, are necessary.

Table 1: Summary of presented non-manoeuvrable methods

Experience values for the area of
Serial Method External Driven Minimum
pipe length covering
diameter De (m) (mm)
2.2.1. Soil displacement hammer
2.2.1. Horizontal rammer/press with
2 closed pipe
2.2.1. Horizontal press system
2.2.2. Horizontal rammer with open pipe
2.2.2. Horizontal press boring equipment

1) Corresponds with a protective pipe in the sense of ATV Standard A 161 or GW 312 respectively.

September 1996
ATV A 125E
2.2.1 Soil Displacement Methods Soil Displacement Hammer

Displacement of the soil with the aid of rammer energy with automatic driving of the soil
displacement hammer using compressed air or hydraulically. Pipe laying takes place
either simultaneously or, with sufficiently stable soils, through subsequent pull or push
insertion. A shrinking of the hollow space made by the displacement body (soil
displacement hammer) of 5 to 15 % is to be taken into account here. The procedure is
employed in dry or moist, mixed grain displaceable loose soil, in general up to ca. 200
mm external diameter. Depending on the soil present the applicable driven lengths go up
to 25 m. The necessary minimum covering is 10 x De; below solid road surfaces the
minimum covering is to be increased. Horizontal Rammer/Press with Closed Pipe

Displacement of the soil through the driving of a closed steel pipe length (jacket or
product pipe) with the aid of rammer or press energy. Employment in general up to 150
mm external pipe diameter in displaceable loose soil. Supplementary measures in water
carrying soils are not necessary. Driven lengths as a rule up to 20 m, minimum covering
12 x De. Horizontal Press System

Displacement of the soil by injection of a pilot rod. Having reached the finish trench the
rod is connected to a conical puller head, in turn connected with jacket or product pipes,
and the complete train is withdrawn. Employment in all displaceable loose soils with
pipes up to 100 mm external pipe diameter. Supplementary measures in water bearing
soils are not necessary. Driven length in general up to 15 m, minimum covering 10 x De.

2.2.2 Soil Removal Methods Horizontal Rammer with Open Pipe

Driving of a jacket or product pipe length with open front end, with the aid of rammer
energy. The soil core which ensues in the pipe is, in general, pushed out, washed out or
bored out after completed driving. As a rule the area of application ranges up to external
pipe diameters of 1600 mm. In solid rock and in severely swelling plastic soils application
is possible only to a limited degree. The driven lengths are, dependent on the existing
soils and on the external pipe diameter, as a rule up to 70 m. The minimum covering is 2
x De, however, not less than 1.00 m.

Supplementary measures, e.g. lowering of the groundwater, are necessary in water

bearing soils, dependent on the groundwater level and the type of soil. Horizontal Press Boring Equipment

Driving of a jacket or product pipe length made of steel with the aid of a press station
with simultaneous mechanical removal of the soil at the cutting face using a boring head
and mechanical conveyance of the cuttings using a spiral conveyor. The drive of the
boring head with spiral conveyor is located in the start shaft or in the start trench.
Depending on the choice of boring head and the spiral conveyor the area of application
ranges, as a rule, up to 1600 mm external pipe diameter in loose and firm soil. In water
bearing soils supplementary measures are necessary, e.g. lowering of groundwater.
Driven lengths dependent on diameter, as a rule up to 80 m. The minimum covering is 2
x De, however, at least 0.80 m.

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2.3 Manoeuvrable Methods

Table 2: Summary of listed manoeuvrable methods

Experience values for the area of

Serial Method External pipe Driven length
(mm) (m)
2.3.1 Pilot pipe driving ≤ 200 ≤ 100
2.3.2 Press pipe driving ≤ 1300 ≤ 100
2.3.3 Shield pipe driving ≤ 1850 ≤ 250
2.3.4 Horizontal water ≤ 400 ≤ 250
2.3.5 Horizontal directional ≤ 1500 ≤ 1500
drilling (HDD

2.3.1 Pilot Pipe Driving

Driving of a pilot tube by soil displacement or removal. Survey takes place in the system
axis using theodolite, laser or transmitter-receiver principle, whereby the transmitter is
arranged in the system axis. Directional changes are carried out from the start shaft or
start trench by turning the pilot tube. Subsequent driving of jacket or product pipes using
widening by soil displacement or removal with simultaneous extrusion or extraction of the
pilot tube into the end shaft or into the end trench.

The application takes place for the production of connecting sewers and for the
installation of pipelines and cables up to 200 mm diameter. The achievable driven
lengths with the production of connector sewers is ca. 30 m, with the installation of
pressure pipelines and cables is ca. 100 m. Implementation requires displaceable and
mixed grain loose soil. In water bearing soils supplementary measures, e.g. lowering of
the groundwater, are necessary.

2.3.2 Press Boring Pipe Driving

Driving of jacket or product pipes with simultaneous soil removal at the working face
using a boring head. Survey is by laser beam. Changes of direction are carried out using
a hydraulically slewable control head.

Movement of soil takes place continuously using a spiral conveyor. Boring head and
spiral conveyor are, as a rule, driven from the start shaft or start trench. The area of
application ranges over external pipe diameters up to 1300 mm and over driven lengths
up to 100 m in loose soil. With cohesive soils with a firmer constituency the removal and
the conveyance of the soil can be simplified by addition of water at the working face.

In water bearing soils supplementary measures, e.g. application of compressed air, are

September 1996
ATV A 125E
2.3.3 Shield Pipe Driving
Driving of jacket or product pipes with simultaneous total area soil removal at the
mechanically and fluid supported working face using a boring head. Survey is by laser
beam. Changes of direction are carried out using a hydraulically slewable control head.
Soil conveyance takes place continuously, as a rule, hydraulically. Boring head drive is
located in the driving shield. Normally the area of application ranges over external pipe
diameters up to 1850 mm and, according to nominal diameter, over driven lengths up to
250 m in loose and firm soils with and without groundwater.

2.3.4 Horizontal Water Jetting2)

Driving of a pilot pipe length using the water-jetting method. The existing soil is loosened
by the bentonite suspension exiting at high pressure at the tip of the boring head and it is
then removed along the boring pipe length to the start shaft or to the start trench. The
bentonite suspension supports the borehole walls and reduces frictional resistance.

Survey is by transmitter-receiver principle. Steering takes place via the bore head with
oblique steering plate in connection with the jets at the tip of the bore head.

The product pipe made of steel, ductile cast iron or PE-HD is retracted by withdrawal of
the pilot pipe length from the finish shaft or finish trench into the start shaft or the start
trench with simultaneous widening by means of the scraper or widening head. During the
widening or withdrawal process bentonite suspension is applied for the support of the
borehole walls and for the reduction of frictional resistance via radially mounted jets.

The area of application, depending on the type of soil, to product pipe external diameters
up to 400 mm and driven lengths up to 250 m, whereby implementation is also possible
in curved location lines, if required without start or finish trenches. Application in
displaceable loose rock. Supplementary measures in water bearing soils are not

2.3.5 Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD Method)

Driving of a pilot boring with the carrying of a jacket pipe using the water jetting method
in a large bore system. The employment of the pilot boring takes place from the terrain
surface at an angle of 10° to 15°. The borehole motor located in the bore head is driven
with bentonite suspension, whereby the borehole walls are supported by the bentonite
suspension. For passage through rock a borehole motor with pilot drilling bit can be
mounted ahead.

Survey is by transmitter-receiver principle.

The steering of the pilot boring takes place by turning the angled header pipe mounted in
front of the drill pipe.

This section is supplemented for the supply of gas and water by the publication of special DVGW Technical Rules which are
currently in preparation.

September 1996
Widening of the pilot boring is achieved by withdrawal (also repeated) of the drill pipe
with the widening head placed behind it. Following this the product or jacket pipe is
inserted. During the widening and insertion process bentonite suspension for the support
of the borehole walls is continuously applied.

The area of application ranges, according to soil type, for product and jacket pipe
nominal widths up to 1500 mm and driven lengths of up to 1500 m, whereby the
implementation is possible in curved gradients (e.g. inverted siphons) only.

Employment in all soils, with the exception of non-cohesive gravel without cohesive
component. Supplementary measures in water bearing soils not necessary.

3. Methods for Man-Entry Pipe Driving

Pipes are driven from a start shaft or start trench through the subsoil to a finish shaft or
trench with the aid of a press system, if required, also with the engagement of
underground intermediate press stations.

The driving in straight or curved lines is made possible by a manoeuvrable shield which
is placed ahead of the first pipe.

Here, the soil at the working face is removed by hand, by mechanical means or through
liquid pressure jets and conveyed through the driven pipe length to the start shaft
mechanically, hydraulically or pneumatically.

Pipe driving in both loose soil and rock is possible. Rock can be removed by special
machines; blasting is also possible. A rock face examination is to be carried out before
and after blasting. It is to be determined whether safety measures for the support of the
working face are to be carried out; if required, care is to be taken that crushed rock does
not lead to wedging with the rock face and to a stopping of the pipe driving.

As a rule an internal diameter of at least 1200 mm is necessary; under compressed air at

least 1600 mm. The internal diameter of driven pipes may, in exceptional cases, be
reduced to 1000 mm, if
- a driven length of 80 m is not exceeded, and
- an advanced working pipe with an internal diameter of 1200 mm with at least 2000
mm length is available.
For the removal of water from water bearing soils the following possibilities exist (see
also Sect. 6.6):

- drainage of water through the driven pipe (open water drainage),

- lowering of the groundwater,
- support of the working face by compressed air and/or liquid.
4 Construction and Mechanical Facilities, Driven Pipes and
Connections, Shafts
4.1 Constructional Facilities

For the design and construction of start, end and rescue shafts or trenches as well as
other excavations, DIN 4124 applies. DIN 4123 is to be observed in the area of
September 1996
ATV A 125E
neighbouring structures. The relevant Rules and Standards and regulations of the
service operations involved and the accident prevention regulations are to be observed.
Verification against hydraulic subsidence during production of the trenches before
introduction of a groundwater resistant trench footing as well as the lift safety after
installation of the groundwater resistant footing is necessary. If prefabricated shafts
made from reinforced concrete, steel, fibre cement or other materials are used as start or
finish shafts a proof of stability is to be carried out.
Abutments for the reception and transfer of driving forces are to be dimensioned
according to the actual conditions. With this, along with permitted stresses in all loaded
components, account is also be taken of the permitted deformations which can be
accepted without danger by the neighbouring soil and the press installation. Movements
of the press abutment may not have any damaging effect on the trench revetting.
4.2 Mechanical and Electrical Facilities
4.2.1 General
The facilities and equipment used on driving construction sites must correspond with the
relevant accident prevention regulations as well as the generally accepted rules of
technology such as, for instance, the VDE Regulations. Manufacturer's instructions are to
be observed.
For the implementation of driving the following are to be employed
- measuring equipment for installation and for the accurate laying of the pipes
according to height and lateral position
- pressure meters and, as far as is necessary from a technical process aspect,
pressure monitors which are coupled with an overpressure valve. The pressure
monitors must switch off when 90% of the permitted pressing force appropriate to the
static calculation for pipes or pressing installation are achieved.

4.2.2 Driving Shield

The driving shield is to be designed to match the driven pipe, the driving technique and
the surrounding soil. In general it consists of a reinforced concrete construction.

The driving shield must have at least the external diameter of the driven pipe including a
pipe outer protection as necessary. Depending on the surrounding soil, the driving
procedure and the injection of lubricating and support means, a very slight enlargement
can be considered. This overcut can - referred to the half diameter - in particular with
movement in curves be up to 20 mm, depending on the type of soil and nominal
diameter, in special cases (e.g. rock, expansive clay), up to 30 mm. The selected
overcut is to be justified and verified and be determined with the customer.

The shield is, with its components, to be dimensioned for the expected forces. It is to be
so matched with the natural slope angle of the ground, if necessary with the construction
of compartments or with a hood shaped design, that an uncontrolled penetration of the
surrounding soil cannot take place. To minimise subsidences cavity filling is to be

The driving shield may be fitted with facilities for the injection of lubricating and support
agents for the reduction of skin friction.
September 1996
4.2.3 Other Installations
According to the manner of driving, length of the driven stretch, material of the driven
pipe and the type of surrounding soil, additional facilities such as pressure distribution
rings, guiding installations and intermediate pressing station are to be employed.
4.3 Driven Pipes and Pipe Connections, Shafts
4.3.1 Pipes
At the time of the preparation/publication of this Standard there were no standards
available in which the special requirements on driven pipes and pipe connections, for all
materials which come into consideration, are regulated. General requirements are
contained in Table 3:
Table 3: Material characteristic values for driven pipes
Material characteristic values3)
Material ATV Standard A Other materials not listed in °
161, DVGW GW A 161/DVGW GW 312
312 Tab. 2
Reinforced concrete +
Steel +
Vitrified clay +
Concrete DIN 4032, prEN 1916 + permitted oscillation ranges (2σA)
Steel fibre cement prEN 1916, DBV Advisory Leaflet: Bases for the
Dimensioning of Steel Fibre Concrete in Tunnel Construction
+ permitted oscillation range (2σA),
Fibre cement DIN 19850, prEN 588,
(except for asbestos cement)+ permitted oscillation range
(2σA), longitudinal compression strength
Cast iron DIN 28600 (DIN EN 545), DIN 19690 DIN EN 598) +
(ductile) permitted oscillation ranges (2σA), comp. stiffness (incl.
internal lining)
Glass fibre reinforced DIN 19565 + perm. oscillation
(GRP)(UP-GF) plastics ranges(2σA),, longitudinal compression strength,
circular stiffness
Polymer concrete PA-I 3939 + permanent oscillation
range (2σA), longitudinal compression strength
PE-HD DIN 8075, DIN 19537, DIN 16961, DIN 19566, + longitudinal
compression strength. comp. stiffness
PVC-U DIN 8061, DIN 19534, PA-I 3840 + permitted. oscillation.
range (2σA), longitudinal comp. strength, circular stiffness,
circular flexural strength

The requirements on driven pipes and pipe connections with composite sections are
determined by future operators taking into account the values of Table 3.

3) The complete table of all material characteristic values is given in Annex 1.

Corrosion Protection

Driven pipes and their connections can be subjected to internal corrosion due to the
substance being transported or external corrosion due to the surrounding earth or
groundwater. A far as the materials employed are not sufficiently resistant, corrosion
protection measures must be taken.

September 1996
ATV A 125E
The following applies for pipes made from steel and ductile cast iron:
In general a cement mortar coating in accordance with DIN 2614 serves for internal

External corrosion is dependent on soil and electrical parameters which can be assessed
according to DIN 50929 Part 3 and DVGW Standard GW 9. The normal corrosion
measures for pipelines are described in DIN 30675 Parts 1 and 2.

With driven pipes one must determine whether one is concerned with a jacket or a
product pipe.

With jacket pipes one can dispense with outer protection if the product pipe is self
carrying and the annular space is completely filled in accordance with DVGW Standard
GW 307 or a rusting off addition is applied to the wall thickness in accordance with DIN

With product pipes particular requirements have to be placed on the sheathing which
take into account loading with driving. The following applies:
a) Driven pipes made from ductile cast irons:
PE sheathing in accordance with DIN 30674, Part 1,
Cement mortar sheathing in accordance with DIN 30674, Part 2.
b) Driven pipes made from steel:
PE sheathing in accordance with DIN 30670,
PP sheathing in accordance with DIN 30678.
If required additional protection using cement mortar.
With particularly high shear loading with driving, special sheathing with increased
resistance to peeling are applied. Feed trials in accordance with, for example, AfK
Recommendation No. 1 are normal for the assessment of the sheathing following driving.
Comparative measurements using external probes in accordance with DIN 50925 can be
used for the verification of the effectiveness of an additional cathodic corrosion
protection. Basic Determinations

Details on material characteristic values of the pipe materials as well as methods for
verification can be taken from Table 3. Requirements of dimension and function as well
as their monitoring and marking are still to be determined. With regard to dimensions the
following are to be differentiated:

- dimensions to be provided by the manufacturer,

- general binding dimensions and tolerances.

September 1996
ATV A125E Manufacturer's Details

The manufacturer of driven pipes must give details on

- internal pipe diameter,

- external pipe diameter (maximum value),
- type of connection,
- dimensions in the area of the connection,
- construction length (average value determined at the internal diameter from largest
and smallest jacket length between the pipe faces).
In addition, details are to be given on
- quality assurance
with regard to the observance of the given details and the general binding requirements
in accordance with Sect. General Binding Dimensions and Tolerances Construction Length Tolerances

Table 4: Construction length tolerances in mm

DN All materials4
≤ 800 ±5
> 800 to ≤ 1200 ±8
> 1200 + 25
- 10 Perpendicularity of Faces

The perpendicularity is of particular significance for the transfer of the driving forces and
the dimensioning of the pressure transmission rings.

The deviation from the perpendicular is defined as the sum of the deviation of the overall
point reflection (image) from the perpendicular (opposite jacket line) and the deviation
from the perpendicular within the wall thickness s.

Perpendicularity of the faces is defined at each end of the pipe, in accordance with the
Fig. 1, as ∆a = max. a - min a.

Measurement takes place against a firm wall which is perpendicular to the pipe axis.

If there is no significant surface perpendicular to the pipe axis available as reference

surface ∆a can also be determined by double measurement at 180° of the rotated pipe
against any sloped surface .
One may deviate from the requirements of Table 4 with welded pipe connections.
Measurement procedures for the determination of deviation from perpendicularity, suitable for the construction site, are
described in Annex 2.

September 1996
ATV A 125E

Fig 1: Perpendicularity of the faces

Table 5: Permitted deviations from the perpendicular in mm

Concrete, Fibre- Vitrified Steel Cast GRP Polyme PE-HD
DN reinforced concrete, cement clay iron (UP- r PVC-U
steel fibre concrete (ductile GF) concret
) e
≤ 200 4 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.0
> 200 4 0.5 1.0 1.6 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
≤ 300
> 300 6 0.5 1.0 1.6 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0
≤ 1000
> 1000 8 0.5 - 1.6 3.0 1.0 1.5 -
≤ 2800
> 2800 10 - - - - - -

The requirements according to Table 5 apply analogously also for pipes with non-
scheduled perpendicular face surfaces (e.g. for curved routes). Deviation from the Straight

The deviation of a mantel line from the straight may, independent of the construction
length of pipes, be a maximum of:
Table 6: Permitted deviation from the straight in mm
DN All materials
≤ DN 1000 5
DN 1000 to ≤ DN 2000 10
> DN 2000 15

The deviation is measured over the complete length of pipe. For steel driven pipes 1.5
mm per metre construction length may not be exceeded.

September 1996
ATV A125E Deviation of the Pipe External Diameter

Table 7: Permitted tolerances of the maximum external pipe diameter in mm

DN All materials6 Concrete, reinforced Vitrified clay
other than concrete, reinforced concrete, steel fibre
concrete, steel fibre concrete and concrete
vitrified clay
≤ 300 +0
- 10
400 +0 +0
- 10 - 12
500 +0
- 15
600 +0
+0 - 15
800 +0 -8 +0
- 12 - 24
1000 +0
- 30
> 1000 +0 +0 -
≤ 2800 - 16 - 14
> 2800 +0 +0 -
- 24 - 20 Invert Conformity

The permitted deviation from the invert conformity (stepping) is given in Table 8 as
percentage of the nominal diameter. Moreover it is limited to 30 mm.

Table 8: Permitted deviation from invert conformity

DN All materials

All 1%

4.3.2 Pipe Connections Components Plug-in Connections
Plug-in connections for driven pipes consist of constructional elements to ensure
- sealing against water and other media,
- shear force stability,
- transfer of axial forces,
- corrosion proof joint sealing (with non-corrosion resistant pipe materials with internal

In addition DIN 1626 DIN 1628, DIN 1629, DIN 1630 and DIN 17172 apply for steel pipes.

September 1996
ATV A 125E Welded Connections for Steel Pipes
For welded connections the following apply additionally to (e.g. according to
DIN 1626 or DIN prEN 10217-1).

- seam preparation for butt welding,

bevel angle for joint sides 300 ± 5o
- step height 1.6 mm ± 0.8 mm,
- the welder employed must have a valid welding certificate according to DIN EN 287-
Weld seams carried out on driven pipes are to be tested as non-destructive; for jacket
pipes a sampling test applies. DIN EN 25817 applies for weld seam quality. Manufacturer's Details

The manufacturer is to provide comprehensive details, including detailed drawings, on
- dimensions and tolerances
- materials
of connections including the pressure transfer ring as well as on
- quality assurance
with regard to the observation of their own details and the general binding requirements
according to General Requirements Sealing

The connections for wastewater pipes and, if required, jacket pipes of gas and water
pipelines must be sealed against:

Under operational conditions

- an internal water overpressure of 0.5 bar (for water catchment areas 2.4 bar with
factory acceptance testing),
- an external water overpressure of 0.5 bar (to be agreed as necessary for greater
depths in groundwater).
Under Construction conditions
- an internal air overpressure in accordance with the requirements.
With higher external pressures due to lubricants the position of the sealing agent may
not, through this, change. The extent of the requirement is to be agreed in individual

The requirements on sealing of product pipes for gas and water are laid down in DVGW
GW 462/I, G 462/II, G 463, G 472 and DIN 4279.

September 1996
ATV A125E Deflection Capability

Connections must, with loading in accordance with Sect., must remain sealed
with the maximum permitted deflection. This results - in deviation from DIN 4060 - from
the change of the average joint gap width about the half thickness of the pressure
transfer ring according to Sect., however, at least by the values of Table 9 .

Table 9: Deflection capability in mm per m construction length

DN Max. deviation a

≤ 200 25
> 200 to ≤ 500 15
> 500 t0 ≤ 1000 10
> 1000 5

Fig 2: Deflection

Fig 2: Bends Shear Force Stability

The connections must remain tight under loadings according to Sect. with the
application of shear load/movement according to DIN 4060; 1988, Sect. Transfer of Axial Forces

When a pressure transfer ring is used for the transfer of axial forces the following applies
for its thickness
guidance value Dj of 0.1s.
Special consideration is to be given to bent route lines or gaping joints.

The values in Table 9 are not to be understood as permitted deviations for the press and steering procedure (see also

September 1996
ATV A 125E
Pressure transfer rings made from materials with the smallest possible lateral extension
are used for the transfer of axial forces, for which knotless wood and chipboard have
proved themselves.

Other materials for pressure transfer rings must correspond with the specifications of the
pipe manufacturer and must be matched with the configuration of the pressure transfer
ring and the pipe material

The width of the pressure transfer ring may not exceed the minimum wall thickness at
the front face. Slight offsets are recommended. Design of Pipe Connections, Joint Seals

Pipe connections (plug-in connections) have an external seal (for examples see Figs 3
and 4).

Independent of a later implementation of an internal sealing the pipe connections must

be so designed and manufactured that, with correct driving, all functions can be taken on
by the external seal.

To this belongs at least

- sufficient anchoring of the guide rings in/on the driven pipe,
- measures to avoid lateral infiltration.

Fig 3: Sketch of the principle of a pipe connection with single-sided fixed guide
ring with pipes made from concrete, steel-fibre concrete and reinforced

The joints of the external seal are tested for watertightness on completion of driving -
with manned driving individually. If with this there are leaking pipe connections a
functioning internal joint sealing in accordance with Table 10 is to be installed in
agreement with the customer. A testing of the subsequently installed joint sealing is to be
carried out in each case.

September 1996
With manned pipe driving an internal seal closure can be carried out if this is necessary
for operational reasons, such as, for example, with sewers.

With reinforced concrete driven pipes a front support shoulder of the seal chamber can
be produced at the tip from concrete or other materials (collar rings).

Fig 4: Sketch of principle of a pipe connection with loose guide ring

Only such sealing agents may be used with which a mutual influence between pipe
material and sealing agent is excluded. Suitability is to be verified.

Table 10: Internal sealing for driven pipes

1. Adhesive 2. Compressive
two component sealing agent elastomers
joint width
Final min 10 mm

joint depth Single layer Double layer

t t ≥ 2b
mm t ≥ 12 + b/3 t ≥ 2(12 + b/3)8)
Dry (moisture content < 5 %), Grease free, moisture
Properties of the face grease and dust free independent
Correct outcrops and holes
If backfill material used enlarge depth Immediate sealing effect,
of joint correspondingly compression of ring 20 %
Remarks to 60%, working
independent of
Notes BPG9) DIN EN 681-1
Processing according to details of the sealing agent manufacturer

Only with particularly high loadings
BPG = Bau- und Prüfgrundsätze des Instituts für Bautechnik, Berlin (Construction and Test Principles of the Institute for
Construction Engineering, Berlin)

September 1996
ATV A 125E Material for Connections (Guide rings)
The coupling of driven pipes must consist of one of the following materials or
combination of materials:

- pipe material (standardised or registered for that medium - gas, water, wastewater -
to be transported),
- stainless steel in accordance with DIN 17440, DIN EN 10088-1,
- coated steel (e.g. rubber elastomer),
- construction steel in accordance with DIN EN 10025, e.g. S 235 JR (only for manned
driving with rusting off addition in accordance with DIN 50929-3, based on
assessment according to DVGW GW 9).
Couplings made of steel with galvanised surface protection or with polymer coatings <
1000 µm are not permitted. Materials for Sealing Agents

External sealing - insofar as they are made of elastomers -must meet the requirements in
accordance with DIN EN 681-1.

Internal sealing for sewers produced by manned driving must meet the requirements of
the relevant Construction and Test Principles of the German Institute for Construction
Engineering (DIBt). Delivery Condition

The pipe connections - if required including the pressure transfer rings - are to be
delivered by the pipe manufacturer and, as far as possible, are to be pre-assembled.

4.3.3 Packaging
Driven pipes for non-manned driving are - if necessary with pre-assembled connections -
to be delivered packaged. The packaging must be matched to the demands of road
transport and storage at the construction site and allow single piece removal.

For delivery and storage of pipes made of reinforced concrete DIN 19695 applies, for
steel pipes the DIN Standard Specifications contained in the Technical Regulations of the

4.3.4 Marking
Driven pipes and connections are, as a minimum, to be marked with

- manufacturer's identification,
- date of manufacture,
- nominal diameter,
- test symbol, approval mark or DIN symbol (insofar as relevant),
- certification/monitoring markings,
- other details in accordance with the Standards for gas and water pipes.

September 1996
4.3.5 Connections
As no branch fixtures can be fitted with driven pipes, connections to road drains and
domestic connections are to be made through boring and subsequent attachment. For
this, laid down components known from laying in open construction and in the
appropriate pipe standard specification are to be used.

The manufacturer of driven pipes has to provide the necessary information for this.

4.3.6 Quality Surveillance

Observation of the requirements laid down in Sects, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.3.4 and 4.3.5 is to be
checked by surveillance monitoring consisting of self-monitoring and monitoring by an
outside agency. Basis for this procedure is DIN 18200.

Scope and frequency of tests - insofar as they are not regulated through standard
specifications or admissions - are to be laid down by the outside monitoring agency.

4.3.7 Shafts (Manholes)

Shafts for wastewater sewers and drains from driven pipes must correspond with DIN
19549 and the thereupon based material related standards for shafts. For the interface
between driven sewers and drains and shaft structure the following, in addition applies:

- in the area of a double joint a non-driving component may be employed which, in

accordance with ATV Standard A 127, is dimensioned for loading in open trenches
and which is connected to the neighbouring driven pipe using a pre-fabricated

- with driven pipe lengths < 1.00 m the connector can be dispensed with, whereby in or
on the shaft wall a jointed connection is always planned.

5 Preparatory Planning
The subsoil conditions, existing structures, supply and disposal facilities as well as the
and groundwater conditions influence the choice of driving procedure, the necessary
installations and the implementation of the pipe driving.

Therefore, in the planning stage and before the start of construction, it is necessary to
obtain sufficient information and to make available the appropriate documents. The
planning of third parties is also, if necessary, to be taken into account.

Before carrying out the pipe driving the maximum permitted deviations from the planned
height and lateral position of the driven stretch are to be determined. With this, it is
necessary to take into account that the pipeline, with the application of tolerances,
- meets its given tasks
- does not endanger other structures and installations.
Deviations in direction are only permitted in that the laid-down purpose of the pipe driving

September 1996
ATV A 125E
is maintained and other structures are not prejudiced.

For sewers and drains only controllable pipe driving methods should be employed. The
values of the maximum deviations from the nominal listed in Table 11 should not be
exceeded. For operability a gradient reserve should be planned.

Table 11: Max. deviation in mm from the nominal for drains and sewers
DN Vertical Horizontal
< 600 ± 20 ± 25
≥ 600 to ≤ 1000 ± 25 ± 40
> 1000 to < 1400 ± 30 ± 100
≥ 1400 ± 50 ± 200

5.1 Inventory of Available Structures and Facilities

Details are to be obtained on the position and condition of
- cables,
- pipelines,
- sewers,
- manhole shafts,
- foundations,
- artificial cavities,
- anchors and injected bodies,
- other remaining structural facilities in the area of the site,
as well as other structures, insofar as these influence or interfere with driving or, through
these, the usage and condition can be endangered. In cases of doubt the precise
situation is to be determined through exploration or search channels or other suitable
Necessary dislocations are to be initiated in good time. If necessary existing facilities are
to be secured through suitable measures.
It is recommended that the condition of the existing structures and facilities is determined
through perpetuation of evidence.
All planning documents must be available on the construction site.
5.2 Subsoil and Groundwater Conditions

Details on the subsoil and its characteristics as well as on the groundwater conditions are
necessary for
- structural calculation of pipes and trenches
- selection of the driving procedure and the implementation, of the pipe driving.
The available generally recognised rules of technology for the implementation of the
investigations and their evaluation are summarised in
- DIN TAB 113 - Reconnaissance and Investigation of the Subsoil
and in

September 1996
- DIN TAB 36 - Earthworks and Foundations.
The construction site conditions are to be so investigated that a classification in
accordance with the General Technical Contract Conditions for Construction Services
(ATV), DIN 18319 "Pipe Driving Projects" is possible (see also 5.2.2).

5.2.1 Details for Structural Analysis

The following are required for the structural calculation of driven pipes in accordance with
ATV Standard A 161/DVGW GW 312:
- type of soil with details on the group or specific gravity above and below water and
the angle of internal friction,
- level of groundwater, maximum/minimum, in construction and operating states,
- arrangement of details in calculation principles in accordance with ATV Standard A
161/DVGW GW 312 "Static Calculation of Driven Pipes",
- loading and installation conditions in accordance with ATV Standard A 161/DVGW
GW 312, Sect. 3.3.

5.2.2 Details for Procedures and Implementation of Pipe Driving

According to the requirements of the individual case the following are to be given for

Loose soil
- borehole log,
- grain shape and distribution,
- compaction density or consistency,
- max. and min. groundwater level,
- shear stability,
- modulus of elasticity and earth pressure coefficient,
- permeability coefficient,
- degree of contamination of the soil, ground-air and groundwater,
- conditions for waste disposal,
- aggressive effect of soils and groundwater,
- organic soils.
- borehole log and description of the condition,
- fault line and spatial orientation,
- hardness and removal ability,
- single axis compression strengths,
- amount of water, groundwater level maximum and minimum,
- degree of contamination of soil, ground-air and groundwater,
- conditions for waste disposal,
- aggressive effect of soils and groundwater.

September 1996
ATV A 125E
In difficult cases additional details on, for instance, unfavourable strata, slopes, swell
pressure, are necessary and are to be made available in the form of loading details
through supplementary investigations.

Attention is drawn to the General Technical Contract Conditions for Construction

Services (ATV), DIN 18319 "Pipe Driving Projects".

5.3 Details on Settlement

Taking into consideration the subsoil and groundwater conditions, the height of cover,
the usage of the terrain of the driven length and the structures above and/or in the area
of influence of the driven length details are to be made on permitted settlement.

If required, safety measures are to be determined.

5.4 Cover

Attention is drawn to Table 1 for non-directed driving.

With steered driving increased settlement is to be expected with H < 1.0m or < De and
advanced lifting cannot be excluded.

In order to avoid possible damage greater cover should, if necessary be selected.

5.5 Structural Calculation, Driving Forces

Before the start of the implementation of construction the load bearing capacity of the
pipeline taking into account the driving forces must be verified or provided initially. The
structural calculation of pipes to be installed in loose soil using the pipe driving procedure
takes place in accordance with ATV Standard A 161/DVGW W 312.

For pipes which are driven in rock engineering considerations are to be made in
individual cases taking into account the characteristics of the mountain

An estimation of the expected driving forces as a function of the site accuracy should be
carried out within the scope of planning.

For the installation of pipes dimensioned for driving in start and end shafts or trenches in
open construction different structural conditions are to be taken into account for this by
matching of the support.

Pipes for connection lengths, which are laid in open construction, are to be dimensioned
in accordance with ATV Standard A 127.

5.6 Preferred Nominal Sizes for Product Pipes and Jacket Pipes

The preferred nominal diameters of pipes for wastewater sewers and drains, for drinking
water supply and gas supply are given in Table 12:

September 1996
Table 10: Preferred nominal diameters for driven pipes
DN Wastewater Drinking water Gas
32 x x
40 x x
50 x x
80 x x
100 x x
150 x x x
200 x x x
250 x x x
300 x x x
400 x x x
500 x x x
600 x x x
800 x x x
1000 x x x
1200 x x x
1400 x x x
1600 x x x
1800 x x x
2000 x x
2200 x
2400 x
2600 x
2800 x
3000 x
3200 x
3400 x
3600 x
3800 x
4000 x

5.7 Start and Finish Shafts

In the wastewater network start and finish shafts are, if possible, to be so arranged that
these, with the employment of prefabricated shafts or shaft components, can be utilised
immediately or after completed assembly, as access manhole shafts. These shafts
should be used for the junction with domestic connections. The junctions and transitions
within the shaft are to be designed conveniently from a flow technology aspect.

6 Implementation
6.1 Competent Firms

Only competent firms, which have experienced personnel and suitable facilities, may be
entrusted with the implementation of pipe driving.

With the driving of product pipes for gas and water the firm must be additionally in
possession of the DVGW Certificate for Pipeline Constructors in the appropriate Group in
accordance with DVGW GW 301.

Verification for tasks on sewers and drains is considered as effective if the firm is in
possession of the appropriate certificate of the Quality Community "Quality Protection
Sewer Construction".
September 1996
ATV A 125E
6.2 Requirements on Implementation
6.2.1 General
All facilities and operating methods must correspond with the Accident Prevention
Regulations (UVV) and the generally recognised safety and industrial medical rules.

Driving is to be permanently monitored with regard to the driving forces, the type of soil
involved, in particular with regard to contamination, as well as the driving installation. If
obstacles which cannot be reduced and removed, escapes of gas, inadmissible
deviations from the planned pipe axis, inadmissible driving forces, chipping at the front
face of the pipe or cracks in the pipes occur, driving is to be suspended until the
determination of the necessary measures. The owner is to be informed. Suitable
measures are to be determined mutually.

Driving is to be so carried out that a functionable and watertight pipeline results. The
driven pipes, pipe connections and seals are to be examined for the requirements placed
on them and for freedom from damage before being lowered in the start shaft. Vitrified
clay driven pipes are, in addition, to be subjected to a test pressure of 15 bar with a muff
test equipment at both ends.

Should the driven pipeline be employed as product pipeline then it must correspond with
the required test pressure and the further demanded requirements. The stability and
watertightness tests are to be carried out according to the relevant regulations, standards
and advisory leaflets.

6.2.2 Driving Protocols

With non-manoeuvrable, unmanned systems, e.g. press boring method, the position of
the pipe length is to be measured and recorded at intervals which are to be laid down.

With manoeuvrable pipe driving with unmanned systems the following driving parameters
- as far as procedurally possible - are to be continuously, measured and recorded:
- driving forces,
- deviations according to height and to lateral position,
- rolling,
- driven lengths.
With press boring and shield driving the parameters are to be recorded in driving
intervals of max. 200 mm lengths or max. 90 secs. duration are to be measured
automatically and recorded mechanically. With this, it is to ensured that, with the
pressing of the driving presses and the removal tool, each respective maximum pressure
appearing during an interval is recorded. With the remaining parameters the mean value
from the last interval is to be recorded.

Alternatively, continuously working graphic measurement recorders are also permitted.

With pipe driving with manned systems the measured pressing forces of the main and
the intermediate press stations are to be continuously recorded and compared with the
calculated values. Deviations are to be justified. A protocol is to be made on the position
of the pipe length. With this the vertical and lateral position of the cutting shoe and the

September 1996
first pipe is to be monitored as a minimum every two metres and after every installed
pipe; the result is to be shown in a diagram. Additional monitoring of the survey system is
to be carried out regularly at suitable intervals.

The pressure is to be measured with the use of lubricants.

The customer is to be informed immediately when contamination is suspected.

The protocols must contain the date as well as show details on the position of the
construction site, soil and groundwater conditions.

6.3 Measurement and Steering Installations

The employment of non-manoeuvrable or manoeuvrable pipe driving depends on the

requirements with regards to laying accuracy.

With non-manoeuvrable pipe driving the direction of driving is predetermined before the
start of work in the start shaft or start trench by the careful erection of the mechanical
driving facilities. In particular with longer driven stretches and/or unfavourable or
changing soil conditions larger deviations can occur.

With manoeuvrable pipe driving the following parameters must be measured in the area
of the driving machinery and/or driving shield:
- vertical deviation,
- horizontal deviation,
- roll,
- slope,
- driven path.
For this, optical equipment, laser equipment and bubble levels can be used to measure
vertical deviations; optical equipment, laser equipment, gyroscopes to measure
horizontal deviations and inclinometers to measure slope and roll. In addition the paths of
the control cylinders are to be measured. Steering pressures must be indicated.

It is to be ensured that measurement and control facilities are so installed that they are
separated from the start trench walls and shoring planks which can have their location
changed through force or load inputs.

6.4 Removal and Conveyance

6.4.1 Types of Removal
Depending on the soil type and the pipe diameter the following types of removal of the
existing soil at the working face are possible:
removal by
- hand,
- mechanical aids,
- boring head,
- partial section machinery

September 1996
ATV A 125E
- full section machinery
- hydrostatic pressure jets
- blasting10)
6.4.2 Removal Conditions
It is to be ensured and checked that no more soil is removed from the working face than
the driving cross-section produces. With unstable soils it is to be prevented, with suitable
measures, that soil collapses, e.g. through installation of compartments, hood shield,
support at the working face (earth pressure, hydraulically, compressed air). The removal
of driving obstacles in front of the cutter from an accessible shield may only be carried
out under the protection of special auxiliary and safety measures.

6.4.3 Conveyance
For the horizontal conveyance of the loosened soil the following types of conveyance, in
general, come into consideration:
- bucket conveyance, with or without tracks, by winching or electrically driven tractors,
- conveyor belt,
- screw conveyor,
- hydraulic conveyance (flush conveyance),
- pneumatic conveyance,
- special procedures.

6.4.4 Filling of Cavities

Cavities between driven pipes and surrounding soil as well as cavities in the surrounding
soil which have resulted from driving must be filled with suitable material.

With the employment of soil displacement procedures and horizontal rammers with open
pipe (see Sect. a back-filling can be dispensed with if, due to the soil relaxation,
damage can be excluded.

6.5 Exit and Entry Opening

With the start of the driven stretch and on breaking into the end shaft or end trench,
special measures are necessary for the support of the working face to avoid soil and
possibly groundwater engulfment. For this the following, for example, come into
- auxiliary constructions with additional horizontal or vertical revetting,
- temporary groundwater sinking with tongued-wall sealing,
- injection of surrounding soil,
- inlet and outlet locks.
6.6 Drainage
Certain driving methods are suitable in groundwater so that, with this, drainage tasks, if
required, are limited to a single pumping out of the groundwater for the production of an
underwater concrete base for the start and end shafts or trenches.
Technical blasting certificate required.

Groundwater can be removed or contained through

September 1996
- open drainage,
- closed drainage,
- combined drainage,
- compressed air,
- hydrostatic support,
- special procedures (e.g. freezing techniques).

6.6.1 Open Drainage

Insofar as soil type and water intrusion allow and the manoeuvrability is not prejudiced,
the water can be diverted through the driven pipe to the pressing shaft and pumped out
from there. A flushing out of the working face is to be prevented by suitable measures.

6.6.2 Closed Drainage

Lowering of the groundwater is to be so dimensioned and carried out that the
groundwater level during the whole driving time is lowered sufficiently below the base of
the start and end shafts or trenches insofar as the shafts or trenches and exit openings
are not made watertight through constructional measures. At the end shaft or trench the
groundwater level is to be lowered sufficiently below the pipe base before driving breaks
into the end shaft or trench. During driving the groundwater level in the area of the
working face is to be lowered sufficiently.

The groundwater levels are to be checked before and after driving, e.g. through sounding

A closed drainage away from the working face should be carried out only in exceptional
cases for the removal of stratum water and then only temporarily. With this, suitable
measures are to be taken to prevent an outflow of soil.

6.6.3 Combined Drainage

A combination of closed and open drainage is possible.

6.6.4 Drainage Using Compressed Air

Employment comes into question for both unmanned as well as manned pipe driving.
Should personnel be employed under overpressure then the "Regulation for Work under
Compressed Air - Compressed Air Ordnance" is to be observed.

Pipes for manned driving under compressed air must have an internal diameter of at
least 1.60 m in the atmospheric range. Minimum dimensions in accordance with the
Compressed Air Ordnance for locks 1.60 m, 1.80 m for working spaces.

Personnel locks are to be so equipped and so operated that external assistance can be
brought in at any time with danger in the working chamber and all persons who are in the
working chamber can withdraw into the lock at all times. Therefore, as a rule, at least two
series locks are to be planned.

With all compressed air driving with which working chambers are arranged in the area of
the shield, i.e. the rearward pipe length is in free air, an emergency lock (cup lock) is
September 1996
ATV A 125E
to be held permanently at the shaft or trench in order that a pressure balance can be
achieved in the shortest time in the atmospherically extended pipeline.

The leading pipe and the shield and or the driving machine are to be connected together
up to the lock, resistant against extension. During pipe changing in the start shaft or in
the start trench recoil is to be prevented by a suitable stop device until the safe take-over
of the rearwards force from the compressed air in the working space by the skin friction.

6.6.5 Liquid Stabilisation

Liquid stabilisation of the working face in general assumes a completely mechanised
removal of the soil. The pressure and the viscosity of the support liquid is to matched to
the height of the groundwater level, the characteristics of the existing soil, the earth
covering and other constructional conditions.

6.6.6 Special Procedures

Special procedures are permitted insofar as their suitability can be proved.

6.7 Stabilising and Lubricating Means

With the injection of a suspension with thixotropic properties, e.g. bentonite suspension,
the friction resistance between pipe and soil occurring with driving can be significantly
reduced in cohesionless loose soil and in soils with only a slight cohesion, e.g. gravel
and sand soils. Care should be taken to achieve as even as possible a coating over the
whole pipe jacket surface. Injection pressures, viscosities and quantities used are to be
continuously monitored and so chosen that damage to the pipeline and neighbouring
structures is avoided.

With inaccessible sections the suspension can be injected at the boring head or into the
annular gap in the area of the driving machine follower; with accessible sections, via
injection nozzles in the driven pipes, which subsequently are to be permanently sealed
against pressure.

The environmental friendliness of stabilising and lubricating means must be verified in

both solid and fluid condition.

A side effect of the use of lubricating means can be the reduction of the top surface
settling through filling of the annular gap.

September 1996
7 Pipe Driving under Railway Property of the German Railways
Company AG (DB AG)
The following regulations give the status on the Rules and Standards of the German
Railways Company (DB AG)11).

7.1 General

The crossing of pipelines within the railway property of the DB AG are, as far as possible,
to be carried out using installation procedures which exclude or keep to a minimum
changes to the track layout and which disturb rail traffic only to a minor extent.

Safety of rail traffic must be ensured at all times. The minimum cover height (Upper edge
railway sleeper - upper edge pipe) in accordance with DS 804 50 and DS 836 may not be
undercut (hc ≥ 1.50 m and ≥ = di). All metallic pipes are to be coated with an effective
corrosion protection. The driving procedure may not damage the corrosion protection.

For intersection with gas and water pipelines within the property of the Federal German
Railway the "Gas and Water Crossing Standards" DS 180 of the German Railways apply.

With intersection of cable protection pipes, wastewater sewers and drains the Technical
Rules of DS 180 are to be applied analogously.

The applicant will be notified of the necessary documents for a crossing construction
measure by the Regional Area of the DB AG.

The permitted driven pipes will be designated by the DB AG

Additional requirements will be laid down by the DB AG for crossings of railways with a
track speed > 160 kph.

Under certain conditions driving tasks must be carried out, without interruption, in day
and night shifts and on Sundays and holidays. With interruptions of the driving, measures
are to be taken which prevent an endangering of the railway operation - e.g. through
collapse of the working face. In addition care is to be taken to provide, to a sufficient
degree, observation of the driven stretch and the location of the track. According to the
significance of the stretch of railway technical metered observation of the track is to be

This can be necessary, for instance,

- with non-cohesive soils (fluid sands)
- to avoid longer disruption of the rail traffic.
Respective regulations are to be observed for pipe driving under installations outside the responsibility of the DB AG.

7.2 Protective Measures

Start of construction in the area of the track is to be so agreed with the DB AG that

September 1996
ATV A 125E
monitoring by the DB AG is possible at all times.

Before the start of construction the Regional Area of the DB AG, in agreement with those
responsible and taking into account the local conditions, determines whether or which
special measures for the protection of the rail traffic are to be taken.

7.2.1 Operational Protective Measures

As operational protective measures for rail traffic the following come mainly into
- continuous surveillance and technical measurement monitoring (perpetuation of
evidence procedure) of the track bed for height and direction during driving and
control of the track bed during the subsequent period up to the consolidation of the
a) without imposition of slow travel,
b) with imposition of slow travel.
the necessary measurement protocols are to be presented to the Regional Area for
- installation of small auxiliary bridges or strengthened small bridges with limitation of
the permitted maximum speed of trains (max v usually between 60 and 90 kph). As a
rule no speed limitation is necessary for track safety without a trench under the track.
- speed limitations will be laid down specially by the DB AG, but are especially to be
expected on stretches of the main network.
- installation of auxiliary bridges (with slow driving zones).

7.2.2 Constructional Protective Measures

As constructional protective measures for the reduction of disruptions of the track bed,
the following come into consideration:
- selection of an installation procedure with which only small disturbances are to be
- the avoidance of settling,
- stabilisation of the soil through injection,
- the prevention of soil collapse at the working face,
- large cover heights which allow a formation of an arch over the pipes,
- avoidance of overcut or implementation of as small as possible an overcut beyond
the pipe diameter (including outer cover),
- injection of a bentonite suspension during driving and pressing of the overcut with
cement-bentonite mixture on completion of the driving,
- avoidance of curved travel under the track,
- continuous driving,
- immediate piping is necessary with pipe driving under rail tracks.
7.3 Track Bed Changes

Limiting values of the track bed change, which can serve as indication for the
intervention threshold, are to be worked out.

September 1996
The intervention threshold is to be seen as the track bed change at which the escalation
of a maintenance measure to an improvement of the track bed becomes necessary.

The applicable intervention threshold in individual cases is given by the Regional Area or
the Construction Region of the DB AG.

7.4 Employment Conditions for Driving Procedures

7.4.1 Unmanned Active Methods Non-manoeuvrable Methods Soil Displacement Methods
Soil displacement methods in accordance with 2.2.1 are allowed under the following

- the cover height (upper edge track sleeper to upper edge pipe) must be at least 12
times the pipe diameter (De), in any case at least 1.50 m,
- the driven length should be 100 times De and the external pipe diameter may not be
less than 200 mm. With driving over > 20 m, a technical measurement monitoring is
- a bundling of pipes is not permitted. The clear separations between parallel driving
are to be kept · 1.00 m, parallel pipelines may not be driven simultaneously.
- pipes are to be installed immediately.
With displacement hammers two stage procedures and stepped head are to be
preferred. Soil Removal Methods Horizontal Rammer with Open Pipe
Soil removal procedures with horizontal rammers in accordance with are allowed
under the following conditions:
- employment is limited to steel pipes,
- the overcut of the cutting shoe beyond the pipe (including coating) may not exceed 5
mm, referred to the radius,
- the earth core in the pipe is to be given the opportunity to relax through drainage
openings at the pipe end or in the drainage cone,
- the increased minimum wall thicknesses given by the machinery manufacturer are to
be observed,
- as procedure based necessary cover height hc · 2.50 x De + 0.70 m should be
sought. The minimum cover height of DS 804 (comp. 7.1) may not, even with small
pipe diameters, to be undercut,
- a rammer protocol is to be kept. The following are to be listed in the protocol: type of
rammer, driven length per time unit and pressure of the driving equipment. With
heavily reducing ramming rates the pipe is to be emptied. For this flushing
procedures are not permitted ,
- emptying following completion using a flushing procedure is only permitted if the
resultant flushing water can be trapped effectively and fed off without harm.
September 1996
ATV A 125E
With ramming in loosely layered non-cohesive soil particular care is to be given to
sinkages due to vibrations. Horizontal Press Boring Equipment

With pipes which are installed in press boring procedures in accordance with, the
boring head must remain a distance equal to the pipe diameter behind the pipe shield.

If no bentonite is injected the overcut may not exceed 5 mm.

With regard to the minimum cover height and the procedure based cover height details
as under Sect. 7.4.2 apply.

It is to be ensured and checked that no more soil is taken at the working face than results
from the driving cross-section. Manoeuvrable Methods Shield Pipe Driving
Manoeuvrable procedures in shield pipe driving in accordance with 2.2.3 should be
preferred if great driving accuracy is necessary or large driving stretches are planned.

An overcut of 10 mm referred to the radius is to be maintained. The additional conditions

laid down by the DB AG are to be observed. Horizontal Water Jetting and HDD Methods

Procedures in accordance with Sects. 2.3.4 and 2.3.5, require the approval in individual
cases of the responsible office of the DB AG if the cover height is not at least 2.00 m or
the external pipe diameter exceeds 180 mm. The borehole is to be supported with a
bentonite suspension. The additional conditions laid down by the DB AG are to be

7.4.2 With Manned Pipe Driving

With manned pipe driving the inner diameter of the pipes under rail tracks must be at
- Di = 1000 mm with driven lengths up to 25 m,
- Di = 1200 mm with driven lengths over 25 m
The overcut in loose soil, with pipes installed in the press procedure, may be 10 mm
referred to the radius, with pipes over DN 1000, if the overcut is compressed for the
support of the soil. Without compression the overcut may not be greater than 5 mm.

With interruption of the driving, measures are to be taken which prevent an endangering
of the rail traffic - e.g. through collapse of the working face. Additionally, care is to be
taken that there is a sufficient degree of surveillance of the driven stretch as well as of
the track system. Technical measurement monitoring is to be used according to the
significance of the stretch.

7.4.3 New Installation Procedures

September 1996
New installation procedures, which are not mentioned under Sects. 2. or 3, may only be
used under rail tracks with the agreement of the responsible office of the DB AG.

8 Pipe Driving under Federal German Trunk Roads

The following regulations give the status on Rules of the Federal Minister of Transport.

8.1 General

If water or gas pipelines are to be laid in public roads (traverse, lengthways) the technical
regulations contained in the authorising contract or specified therein apply analogously.

If a basic contract is concluded, the "General Technical Regulations" (part of the basic
contract) apply. In addition the generally recognised rules of technology - in particular
DIN 19630 - apply analogously.

Individual agreements are to be made for wastewater drains and sewers as well as cable
protection pipes.

8.2 Operational and Constructional Safety Measures

For the implementation of road traverses local regulations and the Road Traffic
Regulations (StVO) respectively are to be observed.

For the protection of road traffic, taking into account the type of driving, inter alia the
following measures, come into consideration, if required individually:
- limitations to traffic,
- use of additional auxiliary structures, such as auxiliary bridges and similar,
- continuous surveillance of the road stretch during pipe driving.
With temporary interruptions of the pipe driving, provisions are to be made which prevent
the endangering of the road traffic, e.g. through collapse at the working face.

Under special conditions the driving tasks must be carried out without interruption, i.e. in
day and night shifts and over Sundays and holidays. This can, for instance, be necessary
- with certain types of soil (e.g. fluid sands),
- to avoid unnecessarily long disruption of the road traffic,
- to avoid increased start-up resistance which can occur through long periods of

9 Pipe Driving under Federal German Waterways

The following regulations give the status on Rules of the Federal Minister of Transport.

9.1 General

For the intersection of public supply and wastewater disposal pipelines with Federal
waterways the regulations and conditions of a River and Shipping Police Authority in
accordance with § 31 of the Federal German Waterways Law, supplemented by the
Rules for the Traversing of State Waterways by Outside Pipelines (Pipe Crossing Rules
of 24 December 1933, RVBl. 1933, p. 149).

September 1996
ATV A 125E
In addition, the respective authorising contract is relevant.

9.2 Operational and Constructional Safety Measures

In the planning phase management agrees the position of the crossing with the
responsible Waterways and Shipping Office.

With this it is to be observed that, fundamentally,

- penetration of Federal waterways should be avoided in the area of embankments,
- supply and disposal pipelines may not be laid parallel to the canal axis in the
embankments or in the proximity of the foot of embankments.
In the course of the authorising contract the responsible Waterways and Shipping Office
in communication with the management lays down whether and which special measures
are to be made for the protection of the traffic on the waterway and for the protection of
structures of the waterway taking into consideration the selected method of driving.

Inter alia, the following come into consideration:

- slow traffic points,
- ban on berthing and anchoring,
- minimum pipe cover, if required anchoring of the bed (stone cover),
- surveillance of height and lateral position of the driven pipe stretch,
- surveillance of the waterway bed in the area of the pipe crossing before, during and
after driving work,
- verification of security against expulsion of air with driving under compressed air,
- provisions for the avoidance of an ingress of water during the construction period.

September 1996
10 Normative References
[Translator's note: these refer to German documents and, unless it is known that there is a full English translation, in which case the
title is in English, these are given in their original form with a translation in square brackets.]

10.1 Laws/Decrees 12)

Gesetz über explosionsgefährliche Stoffe

(Sprengstoffgesetz - SprengG)
[Law on explosive substances
(Explosives Law)]

Verordnung über gefährliche Stoffe

(Gefahrstoffverordnung - GefStoffV)
[Decree on dangerous substances
(Dangerous Substance Decree)]

Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoffe

(TRGS 900) "MAK-Werte-Liste"
Technical Rules for Dangerous Substances
[(TRGS.900 "Maximum Working Place Concentration Value List")]

Verordnung über Arbeiten in Druckluft

(Druckluftverordnung - DruckluftV)
[Decree on working in compressed air
[Compressed Air Decree)]

Verordnung über Arbeitsstätten

(Arbeitsstättenverordnung - ArbStättV
[Decree on working places
(Working Place Decree)]

Gerätsicherheitsgesetz (GSG)
[Equipment Safety Law]

10.2 Regulations for the Prevention of Accidents (UVV)12)

UVV "Allgemeine Vorschriften" ["General Rules"] (VBG 1)
UVV "Bauarbeiten" ["Construction Work"] (VBG 37)
UVV "Elektrische Anlagen und Betriebsmittel"
["Electrical Plant and operating Means"] (VBG 4)
UVV "Erdbaumaschinen - Bagger, Lader,
Planiergeräte, Schürfgeräte und Spezial-
maschinen des Erdbaus"
["Earth Working Machines - Excavators,
Loaders, Levellers, Scrapers and Special
Machines for Earth Moving"] (VBG 40)

Obtainable through bookshops or Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln

September 1996
ATV A 125E
UVV "Erste Hilfe" ["First Aid"] (VBG 109)
UVV "Fahrzeuge" ["Vehicles"] (VBG 12)
UVV "Gasleitungen, Arbeiten an"
["Gas Pipelines, Work on"] (VBG 50)
UVV "Heiz-, Flämm- und Schmelzgeräte für Bau-
und Montagearbeiten"
["Heat, Flame and Melting Equipment for
Construction and Assembly Tasks"] (VBG 43)
UVV "Kraftbetriebene Arbeitsmittel"
["Power Tools"] (VBG 5)
UVV "Krane" ["Cranes"] (VBG 9)
UVV "Lärm" ["Noise"] (VBG 121)
UVV "Lastaufnahmeeinrichtungen im Hebe-
["Load Carrying Facilities in Lifting
Operations"] (VBG 9a)
UVV "Leitern und Tritte" ["Ladders and Steps"] (VBG 74)
UVV "Rammen" ["Rammers"] (VBG 41)
UVV "Schweißen, Schneiden und verwandte
["Welding, Cutting and Associated
Processes"] (VBG 15)
UVV "Sprengarbeiten" ["Blasting"] (VBG 46)
UVV "Staub, Gesundheitsgefährlicher
mineralischer - "
["Dust, Health Endangering Mineral - "] (VBG 119)
UVV "Steigförderer" ["Continuous Conveyors"] (VBG 10)
UVV "Winden, Hub- und Zuggeräte"
["Winches, Hoists and Towing Equipment"] (VBG 8)
10.3 Safety Regulations12)
Sicherheitesregeln für Bauarbeiten unter Tage
[Safety Regulation for Underground Construction] (ZH 1/486)
Sicherheitsregeln für Arbeiten in Bohrungen
[Safety Regulation for Work in Boreholes] (ZH 1/492)
Sicherheitsregeln für Rohrleitungsbauarbeiten
[Safety Regulations for Pipeline Construction] (ZH 1/559)
Sicherheitsregeln für Arbeiten in umschlossenen
Räumen von abwassertechnischen Anlagen
[Safety Regulations for Work in Enclosed
Spaces of Wastewater Engineering Plants] (ZH 1/177)

Obtainable through bookshops or Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln

September 1996
Sicherheitsregeln für den Einsatz von
elektrischen Betriebsmitteln bei erhöhter
elektrischer Gefährdung
[Safety Regulation for the Employment of
Electrical Tools with Increased Electrical Danger] (ZH 1/228)
10.4 ATV/DVGW Rules and Standards
ATV A 127 Standards for the Structural Calculation of Drains and Sewers
ATV A 132/ Standardleistungsbuch für das Bauwesen,
DVGW W 309 Leistungsbereich 911 "Rohrvortrieb- Durchpressungen"
[Standard Performance Handbook for Construction
Engineering, Performance Range 911 "Pipe
ATV A 142 Sewers and Drains in Water Catchment Areas
ATV A 161/ Structural Calculation of Driven Pipes
DVGW GW 9 Beurteilung von Böden hinsichtlich ihres Korrosionsverhaltens auf
erdverlegte Rohrleitungen und Behälter aus unlegierten und
niedriglegierten Eisenwerkstoffen
[Assessment of Soils with Regard to Their Corrosion Behaviour on
Underground Pipelines and Tanks Made from Unalloyed or Lightly
Alloyed Iron Materials]
DVGW GW 301 Verfahren für die Erteilung der DVGW-Bescheinigungen für
[Procedures for the Award of DVGW Certificates for Pipeline
DVGW G 469 Druckprüfverfahren für Leitungen und Anlagen der Gasversorgung
[Pressure Testing Procedures for Pipelines and Plants for Gas
DVGW W 305 Prinzipskizze und Musterentwürfe für die Kreuzung von DB-Gelände
mit Wasserleitungen
[Sketch of the Principle for the Traversing of DB Properties by Water
DVGW W 307 Verfüllung des Ringraumes
[Filling of Annular Spaces]
10.5 Additional Standards
Güte- und Prufbedingungen des Güteschutzes Kanalbau "Gütegemeinschaft Herstellung
und Instandhaltung von Entwässerungskanälen und -leitungen e.V.", Postfach 1368,
53604 Bad Honnef
[Quality and Test Conditions of the Quality Protection Sewer Construction "Quality
Community for the Production and Maintenance of Drains and Sewers e.V."]
DS 180, DB-Gas- und Wasserkreuzungsrichtlinien
[DB Gas and Water Traversing Guidelines]

Obtainable through bookshops or Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straße 449, 50939 Köln

September 1996
ATV A 125E
DS 804, Vorschrift für Eisenbahn Brücken und sonstige Ingenieurbauwerke
(gültig ab 01.01.1983)
[Regulation for Railway Bridges and Other Engineering Structures
(valid from 01.01.83)]
DS 836, Vorschrift für Erdbauwerke (gültig ab 01.01.1985)
[Regulation for Earthworks (valid from 01.01.85)]
"Deutscher Betonverein" [German Concrete Association]
Grundlagen zur Bemessung von Stahlfaserbeton im Tunnelbau
[Principles for the Dimensioning of Steel-fibre Concrete in Tunnel Construction]
Richtlinien für die bautechnische Maßnahmen an Straßen in Wassereinzugsgebieten
[Guidelines for Technical Construction Measures on Roads in Water catchment Areas]
PA-I 3840 Abwasserrohre aus PVC-U DN 100 to DN 300 und Formstücke aus
PVC-U DN 100 to DN 300 für den unterirdischen Rohrvortrieb
[Wastewater pipes made from PVC-U DN 100 to DN 300 and fittings
made from PVC-U DN 100 to DN 300 for underground pipe driving]
PA-I 3939 Abwasserrohre aus Polynrrbeton mit Bezeichnung „Polycrete M1“und
zugehörige Steckkupplungen aus GFK in den Nennwerten DN 600 bis
DN 1000
[Wastewater pipes made from polymer concrete with the designation
"Polycrete M1" and associated couplings made from GRP in nominal
widths DN 600 to DN 1000]
AfK-Empfehlung Nr. 1 Kathodisch geschützte Rohrleitungen im Kreuzungsbereich mit
Verkehrswegen; Mantelrohre oder Produktrohre aus Stahl im Vortriebsverfahren
[Office of Classification (DIN) recommendation No. 1 Cathode protected pipelines in the
area of crossings with traffic routes; jacket pipes or product pipes made from steel in
driving procedures]
10.6 Standard Specifications
DIN TAB 36 Erd- und Grundbaumessungen
[Ground and Foundation Engineering Measurements]
DIN TAB 113 Erkundung und Untersuchung des Baugrundes
[Reconnaissance and Investigation of the Subsoil]
DIN 1045 Beton und Stahlbeton
[Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]
DIN 1626 Geschweißte kreisförmige Rohre aus unlegierten Stählen für
besondere Anforderungen
Technische Lieferbedingungen
[Welded Circular Pipes Made of Unalloyed Steels for Special
Technical Delivery Terms]
DIN 1628 Geschweißte Rohre aus unlegierten Stählen für besonders hohe
[Welded Pipes Made of Unalloyed Steels for Especially High
DIN 1629 Nahtlose Rohre aus unlegierten Stählen für besondere
[Seamless Pipes Made of Unalloyed Steels for Special Requirements]
DIN 1630 Nahtlose Rohre aus unlegierten Stählen für besonders hohe

September 1996
[Seamless Pipes Made of Unalloyed Steels for Especially High
DIN 2614 Zementmörtelauskleidungen für Gußrohre, Stahlrohre und
Formstücke, Verfahren, Anforderungen, Prüfungen
[Cement Mortar Coartings for Cast Pipes, Steel Pipes and Fittings,
Procedures, Requirements, Tests]
DIN 4032 Betonrohre und Formstücke
[Concrete Pipes and Fittings]
DIN 4035 Stahlbetonrohre, Stahlbetondruckrohre und zugehörige Formstücke
[Reinforced Concrete Pipes, Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipes and
Associated Fittings]
DIN 4060 Dichtmittel aus Elastomeren für Rohrverbindungen von
Abwasserkanälen und -leitungen;
Anforderungen und Prüfungen
[Sealants Made from Elastomers for Pipe Connections in Sewers and
Requirements and Tests]
DIN 4123 Geländesicherung im Bereich von Ausschachtungen, Gründungen
und Unterfahrungen
[Site Security in the Area of Excavations, Foundations and
DIN 4124 Baugruben und Gräben; Böschungen, Arbeitsraumbreiten, Verbau
[Excavations and Trenches; Slopes, Working Space Widths,
DIN 4279 Innendruckprüfung von Druckrohrleitungen für Wasser
[Internal Pressure Testing of Pressure Pipelines for Water]
DIN 8061 Rohre aus weichmacherfreiem Polyvinychlorid
[Pipes Made from Plasticiser-free PVC]
DIN 8075 Rohre aus PE hart (Polyäthylen hart)
[Pipes Made from PE Hard]
DIN 16961 Rohre aus thermoplastischen Kunststoffen mit profilierter Wandung
und glatter Rohrinnenfläche
[Pipes Made from Thermoplastic Synthetic Materials with Profiled
Walls and Smooth Internal Pipe Surfaces]
DIN 17172 Stahlrohre für Fernleitungen für brennbare Flüssigkeiten und Gase
[Steel Pipes for Pipelines for Combustible Liquids and Gases]
DIN 17440 Nichtrostende Stähle
[Stainless Steels]
DIN 18200 Überwachung (Güteüberwachung) von Baustoffen, Bauteilen und
Allgemeine Grundsätze
[Monitoring (Quality Monitoring) of Building Materials, Components
and Methods; General Principles]
DIN 18319 Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen für
[General Technical Contract Conditions For "Pipe Driving Work"]
DIN 19534 Rohre und Formstücke aus weichmakerfreiem Polyvinylchlorid (PVC
September 1996
ATV A 125E
[Pipes and Fittings Made from Plasticiser-free
PVC Hard]
DIN 19537 Rohre und Formstücke aus Polyethylen hoher Dichte (PE-HD) für
Abwasserkanäle und -leitungen
[Pipes and Fittings Made from PE-HD for Drains and Sewers]
DIN 19549 Schächte für erdverlegte Abwasserkanäle und -leitungen; Allgemeine
Anforderungen und Prüfungen
[Shafts for Underground Drains and Sewers; General Requirements
and Tests]
DIN 19565 Rohre und Formstücke aus glasfaserverstärktem Polyesterharz für
erdverlegte Abwasserkanäle und -leitungen
[Pipes and Fittings Made from Glass Fibre Reinforced Polyester
Resin for Underground Sewers and Drains]
DIN 19630 Richtlinien für den Bau von Wasserrohrleitungen; Technische Regeln
des DVGW
[Directives for the Construction of Water Pipelines; Technical Rules of
the DVGW]
DIN 19690 Technische Lieferbedingungen für Rohre und Formstücke aus
duktilem Gußeisen, für Abwasserkanäle und -leitungen
[Technical Delivery Terms for Pipes and Fittings Made from Ductile
Cast Iron for Drains and Sewers]
DIN 19695 Befördern und lagern von Beton-, Stahlbeton-und Spannbetonrohren,
zugehörigen Formstücken sowie Schachtringen
[Transport and Storage of Concrete, Reinforced Concrete and
Prestressed Concrete Pipes, Associated Fittings as well as Shaft
DIN 19850 Faserzementrohre und -formstücke für Abwasserkanäle
[Fibre Cement pipes and Fittings for Sewers]
DIN 28600 Druckrohre und Formstücke aus duktilem Gußeisen für Gas- und
Technische Lieferbedingungen
[Pressure Pipes and Fittings Made from Ductile Cast Iron for Gas and
Water Pipelines;
Technical Delivery Terms]
DIN 28610 Druckrohre aus duktilem Gußeisen mit Muffe; mit
Zementmörtelauskleidung, für Gas und-wasserleitungen; Maße,
Massen und Andwendungsbereiche
[Pressure Pipes Made from Ductile Cast Iron with Sleeves; with
Cement Mortar Lining, for Gas and Water Pipelines; Dimensions,
Composition and Areas of Application]
Din 30670 Umhüllen von Stahlrohren und -formstücken mit Polyethylen
[Cladding of Steel Pipes and Fittings with Polyethylene]
DIN 30674-1 Umhüllen von Rohren aus duktilem Gußeisen; Polyethylen-umhüllung
[Cladding of Pipes and Fittings Made from Ductile Cast Iron;
Polyethylene Cladding]
DIN 30674-2 Umhüllen von Rohren aus duktilem Gußeisen;
[Cladding of Pipes and Fittings Made from Ductile Cast Iron; Cement
Mortar Cladding]

September 1996
DIN 30675-1 Äußerer Korrosionschutz von erdverlegten Rohrleitungen;
Schutzmaßnahmen und Einsatzbereiche bei Rohrleitungen aus Stahl
[External Corrosion Protection of Underground Laid Pipeleines; Protective
Measures and Areas of Application with Pipelines Made from Steel]
DIN 30675-2 Äußerer Korrosionschutz von erdverlegten Rohrleitungen;
Schutzmaßnahmen und Einsatzbereiche bei Rohrleitungen aus
duktilem Gußeisen
[External Corrosion Protection of Underground Laid Pipeleines; Protective
Measures and Areas of Application with Pipelines Made from Cast Iron]
DIN 30678 Umhüllung von Stahlrohren mit Polypropylen
[Cladding of Steel Pipes Using Polypropylene]
DIN 50925 Korrosion der metalle; Nachweis der Wirksamkeit des kathodischen
Korrosionsschutzes erdverlegter Anlagen
[Corrosion of Metals; Verification of the Effectiveness of Cathodic
Corrosion Protection of Underground Laid Systems]
DIN 50929-3 Korrosion der Metalle; Korrosionswarscheinlichkeit metallischer
Werkstoffe bei äußerer Korrosionsbelastung; Rohrleitungen und
Bauteile in Böden und Wässern
[Corrosion of Metals; Corrosion Probability of Metallic Materials with
External Corrosion Loading; Pipelines and Components in Soils and
DIN EN 287-1 Prüfung von Schweißern;
Schmelzschweißen; Teil 1: Stähle
[Testing of Welders;
Fusion Welding; Part 1: Steels]
DIN EN 295 Steinzeugrohre und Formstücke sowie Rohrverbindungen für
Abwasserleitungen -und Kanäle
[Vitrified Clay Pipes and Fittings and Pipe Connections for Drains and
DIN EN 545 Rohre, Formstücke, Zubehörteile aus duktilem Gußeisen und ihre
Verbindungen für Wasserleitungen; Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren
[Pipes, Fittings, Accessories Made from Cast Iron and Their
Connections for Water Pipelines; Requirements and Test Procedures]
DIN EN 588-1 Faserzementrohre für Abwasserkanäle und -leitungen:
Teil 1: Rohre, Rohrverbindungen und Formstücke für
[Fibre Cement Pipes for Drains and Sewers
Part 1: Pipes, Pipe Connections and Fittings for Freefall Pipelines]
DIN EN598 Rohre, Formstücke, Zubehörteile aus duktilem Gußeisen und ihre
Verbindungen für die Abwasserentsorgung; Anforderungen und
Pipes, Fittings and Accessories Made from Cast Iron and Their
Connections for Wastewater Disposal; Requirements and Test
DIn EN 681-1 Elastomer-Dichtungen; Werkstoff-Anforderungen für Rohrleitungs-
Dichtungen; Anwendung in der Wasserversorgung und
Teil 1: Vulkanisierter Gummi
Elasomer Seals; Material Requirements for Pipeline Seals;
Application in Water Supply and Drainage, Part 1: Vulcanised Rubber]

September 1996
ATV A 125E
DIN EN 791 Bohrgeräte - Sicherheit
[Drilling Equipment - Safety]
DIN EN 996 Rammausrüstungen - Sicherheits Anforderungen
[Ram Equipment Safety Requirements]
DIN EN 10025 Warmgewalzte Erzeugnisse aus unlegierten Baustählen, Technische
[Hot Rolled Products made from Plain Constructional Steel, Technical
Delivery Terms]
DIN EN 10088-1 Nichtrostende Stähle, Teil 1: Verzeichnis der nichtrostenden Stähle
[Stainless Steels, Part 1: Schedule of Stainless Steels]
DIN EN 25817 Lichtbogenschweißverbindungen an Stahl, Richtlinie für die
Bewertungsgruppen von Unregelmäßigkeiten
[Arc Welded Connections on Steel, Standard for the Assessment
Groups for Irregularities]
prEN 588-3 Faserzementrohre für Abwasserkanäle und -leitungen:
Teil 3: Vortriebsrohre und Verbindungen
[Fibre Cement Pipes for Drains and Sewers
Part 3: Driven Pipes and Connections]
prEN 1916 Rohre und Formstücke aus Beton, Stahlfaserbeton und Stahlbeton
[Pipes asnd Fittings Made from Concrete, Steel Fibre Concrete and
Reinforced Concrete]
prEN 10208-2 Stahlrohre für Fernleitungen für Brennbare Medien
[Steel Pipes for Remote Pipelines for Inflammable Media]
prEN 10216-1 Nahtlose Stahlrohre für Druckbeanspruchungen
Technische Lieferbedingungen Teil 1: Unlegierte Stähle mit
festgelegten Raumtemperatur-eigenschaften
[Seamless Steel Pipes for Compressive Stresses
Technical Delivery Terms Part 1: Plain Steels with Fixed Room
Temperature Characteristics]
prEN 10217-1 Geschweißte Stahlrohre für Druckbeanspruchungen
Technische Lieferbedingungen Teil 1: Unlegierte Stähle mit
festgelegten Raumtemperatur- eigenschaften
[Welded Steel Pipes for Compressive Stresses
Technical Delivery Terms Part 1: Plain Steels with Fixed Room
Temperature Characteristics]

September 1996
Annex 1

Characteristics of Pipe Materials

Material Modulus of Unit Tensile Apparent Compressive Flexural Axial comp. Oscillation Standard
Elasticity weight strength limit of strength8) strength8) strength range8)23) specifications
ER Elasticity ßC ßBFS ßACS 2σA and
N/mm2 γR ßT ßE N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 authorisations
kN/m3 N/mm2 N/mm2
Concrete 30,0001) 24 - - 2)
63) (B 45) 27 0.4 . ßBTS DIN 4032
(B 55) 30 prEN 1916
Reinforced 30,0001) 25 4) 4)
(B 45) 275) 6)
(B 45) 27 BSt 500 P DIN 4035
concrete (B 55) 30 (B 55) 30 80 prEN 1916
Steel fibre 30,0001) 24.524) - - (B 45) 275) 63) (B 45) 27 0.4 . ßBFS prEN 1916
concrete (B 55) 30 (B 55) 30
Fibre cement 20,0001) 20 - - 2)
307) 557) 0.4 . ßBFS DIN 19850
DIN EN 588-1
prEN 588-3
2) 9) 10)
Vitrified clay 50,000 22 - - DIN EN 295- DIN EN 29511)
12) 12) 12) 13) 12) 12)
Steel 210,000 78.5 -
Cast iron 170,000 70.5 420 300 14) 55015) 16)
550 135 DIN 28600
(ductile) DIN EN 545
DIN EN 598
2) 17) 19)
GRP (UP- EK = 20 - - 90 DIN 19565
GF) 14,0001)
EL = 7000
Polymer 18,0001) 23 - - 2)
13 80 6 PA-I 3939
1) 2) 22) 20)
PE-HD EK = 1,000 9.5 - 23 ßBFS,K = 30 DIN 8075
EL = 150 ßBFS,L = DIN 19537
14.4 DIN 16961
PVC-U EK = 3,6001) 14 50 - 2)
ßBFS,K = 90 22)
DIN 8061
EL = 1750 ßBFS,L = 50 g21) DIN 19534
PA-I 3840
1) Figures are guide values which are determined in the ring direction of the pipe. If required by back solution from the annular stiffness
2) Verification of compression strength is unnecessary as dimensioning as a rule is according to ring flexural strength.
3) Higher values can be verified in accordance with DIN 4032, Sect. 7.3.1.
4) Tensile strength of concrete via the pipe equivalent strain increment in accordance with DIN 4035, limit of elasticity in accordance with DIN 1045.
5) Calculated values according to DIN 1045.
6) Flexural strength of concrete via the pipe equivalent strain increment according to DIN 4035.
7) Higher values can be verified in accordance with prEN 588-3.
8) For driven pipes observance of the tabular values is to be confirmed by an officially recognised testing institute and monitored by quality assurance
9) The ring flexural strength for pipes is ≤ DN 700 12 N/mm22
DN 800 15 N/mm 2
DN 1000 16 N/mm
10) For the calculation of permitted pressing forces2
(see DIN EN 295-7) a calculated value is applied
for pipes ≤ DN 250 of 100 N/mm 2
DN 300 of 85 N/mm2
≥ DN 400 of 75 N/mm
11) In addition the quality and test regulations of the Quality Community Vitrified Clay Industries e.V. apply
12) With loadings which are not mainly permanent (dead loads) the values in accordance with ATV Standard A 161/DVGW GW 312: 1990, Sect. 7.2 are relevant
13) The values for the minimum stretch limits amnd the tensile strength are given in Standard Specifications [DIN 1626, DIN 1628/prEN 10217-1], [DIN 1629, DIN 1630/prEN
10216-1] and
[DIN 17172/prEN 10208-2]. With steel types which are mainly passively loaded the values for minimum limit of elasticity may be applied as calculated value for the tensile and
loadings; then 1.36 times the value of the limit of elasticity may be applied for the flexural tensile and compressive loadings.
For steel pipes which are not mainly passively loaded the calculated value for flexural tensile and compressive loadings may not be increased. This applies in all cases under
rail tracks
and under aircraft traffic areas (see ATV Standard A 161/DVGW Standard GW 312, Sect. 7.2).
14) Referred to 0.2 % creep limits in accordance with DIN 28600.
15) Crown compression strength in accordance with DIN 28600/DIN EN 545.
16) Tensile strength is laid down in the Standard Specification therefore the application of footnote 8 is dispensed with. The flexural tensile strength is given as 550 N/mm2 in the
"Studie über erdverlegte Trinkwasser leitungen aus verschiedenen Werkstoffen", published in June 1971 by the Federal Minister of the Interior, Annexes 2 and 3 (see ATV
Standard A 127,
footnote 8).
17) The following values apply for the boundary fibre elongation for dimensioning: short-term εS = 1.2%, long-term εL = 0.8%. Verification takes place with ε = 4.s/dm . ∆dfracture/dm.
18) The KRV Standard A 7.1.16 applies additionally.
. 6
19) The creep strength with loading which is not mainly dead loading is to be verified for n = 2 10 change of load at 3 Hz and an R-value of 0.2 (boundary fibre stretch εU = 0.1
%; ε0 = 0.5 %).
20) The creep strength with loading which is not mainly dead loading is to be verified for n = 2 106 change of load at 3 Hz and an R-value of 0.5 (σU = 0.2 times; σ0 = 0.4 times

the stretch limit

i.a.w. DIN 8075).
21) The creep strength with loading which is not mainly dead loading is to be verified for n = 2 . 106 change of load at 3 Hz.
22) The permitted driving forces are tto be taken from manufacturer's details
23) Observance of required flexural strength, boundary fibre stretch or annular strength is to be verified after execution of creep strength test.
24) Dependent on steel fibre content.

September 1996
Annex 2
Measurement Procedure for the Determination of the Deviation from
Perpendicularity Suitable for Construction Sites
a) Measurement Procedure in Accordance with DIN EN 295-7
The pipe is laid on an as far as possible horizontal base. The measurement equipment is
placed on the pipe to be examined. The rotatable measurement arm is approx. 100 mm
from the cut pipe end.
The separation between the rotatable arm and the pipe end is measured at ca. 90o
intervals. The difference between the largest and smallest value of the measurements is
the deviation from perpendicularity measurements are made at both pipe ends.

Measurement equipment for determination of perpendicularity*)

30 Measurement eqpt
31 Support and fixture
32 Base
33 Gauge
34 Rotatable measurement arm (rotating arm)
35 Spirit level

*) Fig. D1 from DIN EN 295-7, Issue 12.95.

Reproduced with permission of the DIN
German Insitiute for Standardisation e.V.
Relevant for the application of th standard specification
is the issue with the latest date of issue, which can be
obtained from the Beuth Verlag, Burggrafenstraße 6
D-10787 Berlin

September 1996
b) Measurement Procedure in Accordance with prEN 1916, Pipes and Fittings
Made from Concrete, Steel Fibre Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

The determination of the deviation from perpendicularity at both pipe ends along a
longitudinal axis must be carried out by measurements of two internal shell lines s1, s2
and the two diagonals r1, r2 as shown below.

First, at one end of the pipe the internal diameter which is to be measured is to be
marked. From these markings the smallest lengths for s1 and s2 and the largest lengths
for r1 are to be determined by and r2 by moving the measurement device to and fro.

The deviation from perpendicularity of the sharp end and of the sleeve em are calculated
according to the following formula:

es = (s12 + r12 - s22 - r22)/2.(s1 + s2)

em = (s12 - r12 - s22 + r22)/2.(s1 + s2)

The resultant signs indicate the direction of the deviation from perpendicularity referred
to the measurement points 1 and 2. With through-press pipes the deviation from
perpendicularity must be checked at both ends of the pipe over the pipe wall thickness
by applying a straight graduated rod which is laid across the pipe at the diameter at three
equally distributed points.

September 1996