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ATV RULES AND STANDARDS

WASTEWATER - WASTE

ATV STANDARD
ATV-A 128E

Standards for the Dimensioning and


Design of Stormwater Overflows in
Combined Wastewater Sewers

April 1992
ISBN 3-934984-17-7

Marketing:
Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA)
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ATV-A 128 E

The ATV ad hoc Working Group 1.9.1/1.9.3 in the ATV Specialist Committee 1.9 "Assessment and
Treatment of Stormwater Discharge", who prepared this ATV Standard A 128, is made up from the following
members:

Dr.-Ing. Göttle, Kempten, (Chairman)


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Brunner, Karlsruhe
Dr.-Ing. Durchschlag, Bochum
Dipl.-Ing. Freund, Wiesbaden
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Geiger, Essen
Dr.-Ing. Gniosdorsch, Frankfurt
Dipl.-Ing. Jacobi, Darmstadt
Dr.-Ing. Meißner, München
Dipl.-Ing. Pawlowski, Berlin
Dr.-Ing. Pecher, Erkrath
Dipl.-Ing. Schitthelm, Düsseldorf
Dr.-Ing. Schmitt, Kaiserslautern
Dipl.-Ing. Sperling, Essen
Dr.-Ing. Verworn, Hannover
Dipl.-Ing. Willems, Essen
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolf, Kassel

The Standard presented here has been prepared within the framework of the ATV
committee work, taking into account the ATV Standard A 400 "Principles for the
Preparation of Rules and Standards" in the Rules and Standards
Wastewater/Wastes, in the January. 1994 .version. With regard to the application of
the Rules and Standards, Para. 1 of Point 5 of A 400 includes the following
statement "The Rules and Standards are freely available to everyone. An obligation
to apply them can result for reasons of legal regulations, contracts or other legal
grounds. Whosoever applies them is responsible for the correct application in
specific cases. Through the application of the Rules and Standards no one avoids
responsibility for his own actions. However, for the user, prima facie evidence shows
that he has taken the necessary care.

All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Standard may
be reproduced in any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other process or transferred or translated into a
language usable in machines, in particular data processing machines, without the written approval of the
publisher.

 Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA), Sankt Augustin 1992

German 0riginal produced by: Druck Carl Weyler KG., Bonn

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ATV-A 128 E

Contents
1 Scope of Application and Terms 7
2 Objective of Stormwater Treatment 7
2.1 Principles 7
2.2 Method of Approach 7
3 Requirements on Stormwater Treatment 8
3.1 Technical Requirements for the Normal Case (Normal Requirements) 8
3.2 Advanced Requirements 9
3.3 Overall Consideration of a Lake or River 9
3.3.1 Common Requirements in the Overall Drainage Area 9
3.3.2 Combined Requirements with Different Surface Waters 10
4 Planning Principles 10
4.1 Reduction of the Amount of Wastewater Produced 10
4.1.1 Rainwater Run-off 10
4.1.2 Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Flow 10
4.1.3 Sewer Infiltration Water Flow 11
4.2 Measures for Wastewater Treatment in the Combined Wastewater System 11
4.2.1 Intermediate Storage of Combined Wastewater 11
4.2.2 Redistribution of Rainfall Run-offs 11
4.2.3 Wastewater Treatment Measures 11
4.3 Structures with Overflow 12
4.3.1 Stormwater Overflows 12
4.3.2 Stormwater Tanks with Overflow 13
4.3.2.1 Stormwater Tanks Retaining the First Flush of Stormwater 14
4.3.2.2 Stormwater Tanks with Overflow for Settled Combined Wastewater 14
4.3.2.3 Composite Tanks 14
4.3.2.4 Sewers with Storage Capacity and Overflow 15
4.3.2.5 Main and By-pass Streams 16
4.3.3 Arrangement of Several Stormwater Tanks with Overflow 19
4.3.3.1 Parallel Stormwater Tanks with Overflow 19
4.3.3.2 Series Stormwater Tanks with Overflow 20
4.3.4 Stormwater Holding Tanks 20
5 Planning Scope 21
5.1 Determination of Actual Status 21
5.2 Determination of the Planning Status 21
5.3 Planning Periods 21
5.4 Standard and Variant Investigations 22
6 Calculation Principles 22
6.1 Sizes of Catchment Areas 22
6.1.1 Annual Precipitation hPr 22
6.1.2 Surface Areas ACA and Ais 22
6.1.3 Flow Time tf 23
6.1.4 Mean Terrain slope group SGm 23

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6.2 Discharges 23
6.2.1 Combined Wastewater Discharge to the Sewage Treatment Plant Qcw 23
6.2.2 Dry weather Flow in Daily Average Qdw24 24
6.2.3 Hourly Peak Flow with Dry Weather Flow Qdwx 24
6.2.4 Rainwater Run-off from Separate Areas QrS24 25
6.2.5 Rainwater Run-off Qr24 25
6.2.6 Critical Rainwater Run-off Qrcrit 25
6.2.7 Critical Combined Water Flow Qcrit 25
6.2.8 Mean Rainwater Run-off During Overflow Qro 26
6.3 Discharge Rates 26
6.3.1 Dry Weather Discharge Rate qdw24 26
6.3.2 Rainwater Run-off Rate qr 26
6.4 Dry Weather Concentration cdwc 27
6.5 Mean Mix ratio in Overflow Water m 27
7 Determination of the Necessary Total Storage Volume 27
7.1 Determination of the Permissible Overflow Rate 27
7.1.1 Influence of Heavy Polluters ap 28
7.1.2 Influence of Annual Precipitation ah 28
7.1.3 Influence of Sewer Deposits aa 29
7.1.4 Dimensioning Concentration in the Dry Weather Flow cd 30
7.1.5 Theoretical Overflow Concentration ccc 30
7.1.6 Permissible Annual Overflow Rate eo 30
7.2 Necessary Total Storage Volumes 32
7.3 Accountable Storage Volumes 33
7.4 Minimum Storage Volumes 33
8 Dimensioning of Individual Structures with Overflow 34
8.1 Simplified Distribution Method 34
8.1.1 Approach 34
8.1.2 Scope of Application 34
8.2 Verification Procedures 35
8.2.1. Special Basic Facts 35
8.2.1.1 Precipitation Loading 35
8.2.1.2 Registration of the Sewer Network 35
8.2.1.3 Fictitious Central Tanks 36
8.2.2 Approach 36
8.2.2.1 Preliminary Calculation to Determine Permissible, Model-Dependent,Overflow Loads 36
8.2.2.2 Determination of the Rehabilitation Requirement 37
8.2.2.3 Planning of Measures 37
8.2.2.4 Further Verification Parameters 38
8.2.3 Requirements on Pollution Load Calculation Methods 38
9 Dimensioning of Individual Structures with Overflow 39
9.1 Stormwater Overflow 39
9.2 Stormwater Tanks with Overflow 41

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9.3 Sewer with Storage Capacity and Overflow 42


9.3.1 Sewer with Storage Capacity with Top-end Overflow 42
9.3.2 Sewer with Storage Capacity with Bottom-end Overflow 42
9.4 Stormwater Holding Tanks 42
10 Construction and Operation of Structures With Overflow 43
10.1 Stormwater Overflows 43
10.1.1 General 43
10.1.2 Method of Construction of Stormwater Overflows with Overflow Weirs 44
10.1.3 Method of Construction of Stormwater Overflows with Floor Opening
(Spring Overflow) 45
10.2 Stormwater Tanks with Overflow 46
10.2.1 Method of Construction of Separation Structures and Overflows 46
10.2.2 Method of Construction of Stormwater Tanks with Overflow 47
10.2.3 Method of Construction of Sewers with Storage Volume 48
10.2.4 Method of Construction for Discharges 48
10.3 Maintenance and Operation 49
10.3.1 Maintenance Facilities 49
10.3.2 Cleaning and Flushing Facilities 50
10.3.3 Measurement Facilities 50
10.3.4 Other Records 50
11 Dimensioning Example 50
11.1 Local Situation 50
11.2 Necessary Total Storage Volumes 52
11.2.1 Simplified Distribution Procedure 53
11.2.2 Verification Procedure 53
11.2.2.1 Hydrologic Method 56
11.2.2.2 Hydrodynamic Method 56
11.2.2.3 Presentation of Results 57
11.3 Dimensioning of Stormwater Overflows 58
11.3.1 Stormwater Overflow SO1 in Commercial Area 2 58
11.3.2 Stormwater Overflow SO2 in Sub-area 3 58
12 Terms 59
13 References 60
Appendix 1 64
Notes on Advanced Requirements 64
Protection or Management Need 64
Effects 64
Assessment Criteria 66
Measures 67
Further action 67

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Appendix 2 68
Pollution Load Calculation Methods 68
2. Hydrologic-Empirical Methods 68
3. Deterministic Models 68
3.1 Hydrologic-Deterministic Models 69
3.2 Hydrologic-Hydrodynamic Models 69
4. Characterisation of Pollution Load Calculation Methods 70
Appendix 3 72
Appendix 4 73
Calculation Formulas for Figs. 12 and 13 73
Appendix 5 Discharge Diagram for the Simplified Dimensioning Procedure (Th. Bettmann) 74

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1 Scope of Application and Terms


These Standards apply for structures with overflows in the overall system of a combined wastewater sewer
system within the catchment area of sewage treatment plants. It replaces the previous ATV Standard A 128
from 1977/1.

Structures with overflows in combined systems are structures with an overflow into a lake or river such as,
for example, stormwater overflows (SO), stormwater tanks with overflows (STO) and sewers with storage
capacity and overflow (SSCO).

Stormwater holding tanks (SHT) are dealt with in ATV Standard A 117.

Stormwater sedimentation tanks (SST) serve for the treatment of stormwater with separate systems. They
are also not dealt with here. Information is given in the ATV Working Report in "Korrespondenz Abwasser"
(1980), Vol. 1.

2 Objective of Stormwater Treatment


For water management and cost reasons the priority task of the planning of measures for wastewater
collection and stormwater treatment is the avoidance of stormwater overflow into the sewer system wherever
this is possible. For the remaining discharges, for technical water management and economic reasons,
stormwater structures with overflow are located in combined wastewater sewers.

With precipitation run-off, high pollutant loads can occur which, with discharge into lakes and rivers, could
load these heavily. Although the loadings appear only temporarily these can exceed those from the effluents
of sewage treatment plants several times over during rainfall run-off. The task of stormwater treatment is so
to limit the rainfall run-off into the sewage treatment plants that there the desired effluent values are
maintained and, at the same time, the surge-type loadings of the lakes and rivers remain within acceptable
limits. The aim of stormwater treatment must be the best possible reduction of the total emissions from
stormwater overflows and sewage treatment plants within the scope of water management requirements. An
effective protection of lakes and rivers and of sewage treatment plants from excessive loadings is to be
expected if the necessary stormwater treatment takes place according to the criteria of these Standards.

2.1 Principles
The objective can be achieved with various formulations - from discharge avoidance to substance retention.
Stormwater overflows are fundamentally to be assessed together with the sewage treatment plant for
interrelated catchment areas of a section of a lake or river. Requirements on the sewage treatment plant run-
offs and on the stormwater overflow installations should be matched in their effectiveness for the lake or
river.

The regional and network specific quantities precipitation, flow time, gradients, sewage storage capacity,
heavy pollutants and areas drained with a separate system have a considerable influence on the overflow
quantity and concentration. These are therefore taken into account.

2.2 Method of Approach


Having taken into account the given possibilities of discharge reduction or discharge avoidance, both
prerelieved and non-prerelieved overflow structures are to be dimensioned for the remaining discharges.
The effectiveness of a stormwater treatment here depends not only on the available storage volume but also
particularly on the arrangement, design and operation of the installations (Chaps. 4 and 5).

Basically, there two procedures available for the dimensioning and verification of the objective of the
stormwater treatment:

- simplified dimensioning procedure using diagrams (Chap. 8.1),


- verification procedure using pollutant load lculations (Chap. 8.2).

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The objective is considered as being met if the requirements of these Standards, with regard to pollutant
retention, arrangement, design, dimensioning and method of operation of structures with overflows, are
observed.

3 Requirements on Stormwater Treatment


For different situations with lakes and rivers these Standards differentiate technical rules for the normal case
(normal requirements) and advanced requirements according to the situation of the lake or river.

While the normal requirements, which basically have to be met, are emission related advanced requirements
are planned on the basis of intramission considerations.

In the individual case it is to be decided which requirements are to be fulfilled. If a surface lake or river or a
system of surface waters is loaded via several stormwater overflows or sewage treatment plants then it is to
be verified both for every individual overflow structure and also for the total system, seen from the aspect of
related water management, that the requirements placed are fulfilled.

3.1 Technical Requirements for the Normal Case (Normal Requirements)


The technical rules for the normal case (normal requirements) are based on a pure consideration of
emission without assessment of the local situation of the lakes and rivers and extensively tie up with the
previous ATV Standard A 128. With lakes and rivers without special protection or management requirements
their observation is considered as sufficient. Deviations therefrom are to be justified in individual cases.

The loading of a surface lake or river through stormwater overflow is determined by the induced pollutants
and contaminants, their type, quantity, concentration as well as the duration and frequency of loading. As
substitute for these parameters the annual pollutant load of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is enlisted
as general indicator for pollution. Dimensioning and verification criterion is therefore a theoretical, fictitious
COD annual load which, in the mean over many years with average conditions, reaches the lake or river
through run-off precipitation water. It is made up of the annual load of the immediate overflowed combined
wastewater and the theoretical residual load of the stormwater jointly treated in the sewage treatment plant.

For the assessment of stormwater installations with overflow further criteria such as, for instance, the annual
overflow rate and the overflow frequency and duration can be enlisted. According to the current status of
knowledge it is not possible to make predictions on the actual pollutant concentrations of the combined
wastewater of individual rain events. For this, the interaction of the many components which contribute to the
pollution of the wastewater (eg. material accumulation and erosion on the surface and in the sewer) are too
complex. However, basic interrelationships can be formulated in order to describe the essential influences
on the annual pollutant load in their tendency. This is done here with a formulation of average pollutant
concentrations for rain and dry weather.

From this situation a "reference load case" was defined in the Standards for average conditions in Germany
for which a certain necessary storage volume in combined sewers is required. With this storage volume it
should be ensured that, with average conditions according to the current status of knowledge an effective
pollution protection is achieved. Deviations from the reference load case can lead to a reduction or increase
of the necessary storage volume. Through the matching of the storage volume to the local conditions the
load on lakes and rivers in individual cases is not greater than with average conditions.

The reference load case is based, in particular, on the following agreed values:

- average annual precipitation 800 mm


- COD concentration in rainwater run-off 107 mg/l
- COD concentration in dry weather run-off 600 mg/l
- COD concentration in the stormwater in the sewage treatment plant effluents 70 mg/l

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Deviations from the reference load case are taken into account as follows:

- the mean precipitation over many years has, as locally dependent dimension, considerable influence
on the stormwater pollution and on the overflow activity. Higher precipitation leads, as a rule, to
heavier loading of lakes and rivers so that, with dimensioning, it leads to an increase of the
necessary storage volume.
- the laid-down COD concentration of 600 mg/l in the dry weather run-off represents a theoretical
value
which, with the determination of the necessary total storage volume according to Chap. 7, may not
be undercut. A lesser pollution of the wastewater than 600 mg/l aids the pollution protection as the
necessary total storage volume is therefore not smaller. A higher pollution leads to a storage
volume increase (heavy pollution surcharge).
- in order to be able to carry out the dimensioning of the structures with overflow for a long planning
period despite the possible annual or long-term change of the effluent value of a sewage treatment
plant, the laying down of a theoretical constant effluent value is necessary. A mean COD run-off
value of 70 mg/l was laid down under the assumption of a constant residual pollution in the sewage
treatment plant effluent with wet weather. Actual measured deviations from this value have no
influence on the determination of the necessary storage volume for stormwater treatment.

The necessary total storage volume in the drainage network is determined taking into account the local
conditions (Chap. 7). Subsequently it can be distributed according to a simplified procedure (Chap. 8.1).
Insofar as the application limitations of the simplified procedure are observed a special verification of the
overflowed COD load is not necessary. The COD load serves solely as theoretical guidance value for the
application of the dimensioning process. How large this may be, dependent on local conditions, is
determined in the respectively applied EDP pollution load model in a preliminary calculation (Chap 8.2). A
comparison with measured values can only provide information.

3.2 Advanced Requirements


If a particular protection or management requirement exists, further requirements can be placed which are
deduced from intramission considerations. They are not dealt with in this Standard. Information is contained
on this in Appendix 1.

3.3 Overall Consideration of a Lake or River


For the complete assessment of a stormwater installation with overflow a total consideration for an
associated stretch of a lake or river or a waters system is necessary. This applies in particular for sections of
a lake or river into which several overflows discharge close together. With this, a self-cleaning section is to
be considered. The permissible total loading is, in such cases, to be distributed to the individual overflow
points taking into account the characteristics of the lake or river and the requirements on the individual
installations with overflow. The technical rules for the dimensioning of individual structures, according to
Chaps. 9 and 10 are fundamentally to be fulfilled.

In order to meet the aim of these standards the load overflow relationship with regard to the lake or river
together with the fulfilment of other legally required discharge values must be assessed and optimised
(Chap. 4). With the assessment of the stormwater overflow the loading of the lake or river due to the sewage
treatment plant is to be included.

3.3.1 Common Requirements in the Overall Drainage Area


If all overflow sewers of a drainage area empty into subsidiary and main waters with the same protection or
management requirements, then the dimensioning of the stormwater installation with overflow can be carried
out uniformly.

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3.3.2 Combined Requirements with Different Surface Waters
If several lakes and rivers, with different requirements, which still flow into a common main lake or river are
present in one drainage area in closer proximity of the catchment area under consideration, then the
requirements of the main lake or river are relevant. Should higher requirements be placed on the subsidiary
waters than on the main lake or river then a transfer of the combined waters overflow to the less sensitive
lake or river can be considered. For the subsidiary lake or river itself its own protection requirements are
relevant.

If waters with different requirements are separated by river areas (eg. a river and, independent of this, a
lake), then each lake or river must be considered as an entity with an associated level of requirement.

4 Planning Principles
The outline conditions described below should give an overview of the different measures for stormwater
treatment in the combined system.

Run-offs from settled areas, together with the diffuse substance input from agriculture and the atmosphere,
essentially determine the quality level of the lakes and rivers. Settled areas load lakes and rivers through

- stormwater discharges from separate systems,


- overflow from combined systems,
- discharges from sewage treatment plant effluents.

4.1 Reduction of the Amount of Wastewater Produced


Fundamentally it should be examined whether the amount of wastewater can be reduced as, with this, the
necessary investments and operating costs for a stormwater treatment can be diminished. In particular the
following measures come into question for the discharge of stormwater, domestic and industrial wastewater
and sewer infiltration water.

4.1.1 Rainwater Run-off


The amount of stormwater depends primarily on the size of the hard, impervious surfaces connected to the
sewer network. Measures for the reduction of the rainwater run-off are, for example:

- percolation of non-harmful, polluted rainwater (eg. ATV Standard A 138),


- direct discharge of lightly polluted discharge from roof surfaces and traffic surfaces into a lake or
river (the run-off from heavily polluted traffic, industrial or other surfaces is to be discharged, in any
case, into the wastewater or combined wastewater sewer network and/or is to be pre-treated),
- avoidance of discharge from non-compacted surfaces,
- use of rainwater as tap water.

The pollution of rainwater run-off can, furthermore, be reduced through the following measures:

- frequent street cleaning (as, inter alia, pollutants are tied to fine particles the effectiveness of street
cleaning using sweeping machines is limited),
- removal of the causes for the heavy pollution of discharge surfaces,
- street drains with improved pollutant retention (dry and wet gullies),
- frequent sewer cleaning,
- flushing aids.

4.1.2 Domestic and Industrial Wastewater Flow


With measures which aim to reduce the amount of domestic and industrial wastewater the effect on
stormwater treatment in the combined wastewater system - eg. due to increased concentrations or sewer
deposits - is to be verified. Measures for the reduction of the amount of domestic and industrial wastewater
are, for example:
- application of water saving techniques,

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- circulation systems in industrial operations.

4.1.3 Sewer Infiltration Water Flow


The dimensioning regulations of this Standard assume that the amount of sewer infiltration water is reduced
as far as possible. If this is not the case then large storage volumes result from dimensioning according to
this Standard. Measures for the reduction of sewer infiltration water are, for example:

- replacement of the usually non-permitted connection of land drains and seepage pipelines with
proper drains,
- the sealing of leaking sewers and drains,
- avoidance of faulty connections,
- avoidance of discharges from lakes and rivers into wastewater sewers.

4.2 Measures for Wastewater Treatment in the Combined Wastewater System


Stormwater treatment in the combined system can include the following measures:

- intermediate storage of combined wastewater and subsequent treatment in a sewage treatment


plant,
- redistribution of the rainwater run-off within the sewer network,
- wastewater treatment measures before discharge into a lake or river.

4.2.1 Intermediate Storage of Combined Wastewater


An intermediate storage of combined wastewater can already be achieved by the holding capacity of the
sewers. For constructional and operational reasons, however, it is sensible to retain and use storage spaces
specifically. This takes place through:

- stormwater tanks with overflows or sewers with storage capacity and overflow,
- stormwater holding tanks, (eg. ATV Standard A 117),
- deliberate backing-up of sewers (elevated overflow sills, discharge control in accordance with the
details given by ATV Working Group 1.2.4, 1985).

Rainwater run-off can also be stored in the interim on surfaces, such as, for example, by back-up on parking
areas or flat roofs or by a reduction of the inlets into the sewer network. As, with this, a limitation of the
usage is involved, these measures can only be brought into the planning in special cases.

4.2.2 Redistribution of Rainfall Run-offs


A redistribution of the rainwater run-off within the sewer network with the aim of using available storage
space evenly is, together with a discharge control, advantageous. Objective of a redistribution can also be
an evening out of the overflow characteristics of stormwater overflow systems (eg. quantity, duration,
frequency). The transfer of rainfall run-off into other sections of lakes or rivers requires an appropriate
receiving waters situation.

4.2.3 Wastewater Treatment Measures


Wastewater treatment processes presuppose balanced wastewater loadings. Quantity and characteristics of
the combined wastewater however vary so heavily that the information on wastewater treatment in sewage
treatment plants cannot be transferred without question to a stormwater treatment. Nevertheless the
following principles can be used for stormwater treatment:

- mechanical treatment through the settling effect as, for example, it is achieved in stormwater tanks
according to this Standard,
- high density and highly volatile fluids separators,
- centrifugal separators,

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- screens, micro-sieving, precipitation, flocculation,
- filtration of overflowed combined wastewater (eg. ground filtration).

The retention of floating substances can be achieved basically by floating or fixed scumboards. An improved
retention of coarse substance on the surface is possible using screens and sieves.

The technical wastewater measures must be subject to regular maintenance and monitoring.

With all measures it is to be continuously checked whether a central arrangement at the sewage treatment
plant or a decentralised arrangement in the drainage area meets the water protection requirements as well
as being economically justifiable.

Stormwater tanks in the area of the sewage treatment plant, depending on the local conditions, can also be
used as an intermediate storage with accidents involving water harmful substances in the sewer system. In
special cases this can also apply for stormwater tanks in the sewer network. Such an usage is to be agreed
with the responsible water authority.

4.3 Structures with Overflow


The effectiveness of a construction measure for the treatment of stormwater depends, apart from the
dimensions of the overflow tanks, on the arrangement of the overflow and storage structures in the sewer
network and their design. An overflow following primary treatment (so-called fine overflow), for example, for
even loading of the biological stage of the sewage treatment plant, is not permitted. Details on the method of
construction are contained in Chap. 10.

The upper edge of the overflow sill should, as a rule, lie above the water level of the dimensioned high water
level of the lake or river. However, as a minimum, efforts should be made that, with a ten year high water
level of the lake or river, the upper sill of the weir is still not overdammed with the relevant rainfall run-off in
the overflow sewer.

4.3.1 Stormwater Overflows


Stormwater overflows (SO) serve for the reduction of high combined wastewater discharge peaks (Fig. 1).
They may be located only where the critical combined wastewater discharge Qcrit can be further conveyed
at full height and the stormwater treatment is carried out subsequently in a storage structure further
downstream. Efforts should be made to site a structure where combined wastewater to be overflowed shows
the least pollution. It is, however, sensible to retain sufficient room for a possible, later, eg. through a
modification of the tanks, necessary expansion of the network.

If the commercial and industrial wastewater is considerably more polluted than domestic wastewater, or if
the heavily polluted discharge with the draining of stormwater tanks with overflow is discharged into a
combined wastewater sewer and if the necessary dilution of the combined wastewater in accordance with
Chap. 9 can no longer be ensured, then overflow can no longer take place via stormwater overflows.

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Fig. 1: Functional diagram of a stormwater overflow

With the discharge above the stormwater overflow of domestic or industrial wastewater from an area drained
using the separate system attention is drawn to the minimum dilution of the overflowed combined
wastewater, in accordance with Chap. 9.1.

Overflows into lake and rivers which at times carry little or no water should be avoided. If this is not possible
at least a critical rainfall intensity (i.e. at which overflow will come into action) of 15 l/(s.ha) is to be applied.

Emergency overflows are not, in the sense of this Standard, to be seen as stormwater overflows. They are to
be taken into account with verification procedures.

4.3.2 Stormwater Tanks with Overflow


The selection of the site of a stormwater tank with overflow (STO) is to be made taking into account the
water management and economic aspects. The greatest water management effect is achieved if the
stormwater tank with overflow is sited below heavily sedimented sewer sections or sub-catchment areas.
Reference values for the occurrence of deposits in the sewer network are provided as a diagram in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2: Reference values for the occurrence of sewer deposits

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If the gradient in the sewer network of the associated catchment area lies below the curve in Fig. 2 then one
must reckon with deposits. This tendency increases with velocities which become smaller and with dry
weather discharges. The relationships of the essential influences on the formation of sewer deposits are
emphasised in the inflow value aa in accordance with Chap. 7.1.3.

4.3.2.1 Stormwater Tanks Retaining the First Flush of Stormwater


Stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater (STRFF) are to be arranged if a pronounced flushing
surge is to be expected. As a rule, this is the case with small catchment areas with short flow times. They
store a combined wastewater flushing surge if this occurs at the start of the discharge event. They are not
flowed through by overflow water. The stored contents must then be conveyed to the biological treatment
stage of the sewage treatment plant.

Stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater are to be planned essentially for the discharge of
non-prerelieved drainage areas if the flow time with computed rain in the sewer network up to the tanks is
not more than 15 to 20 mins. If stormwater overflows are arranged in the catchment area above a
stormwater tank retaining the first flush of stormwater, then the total flow time in the catchment area of this
tank and not only the flow time below the stormwater overflow is to be applied.

4.3.2.2 Stormwater Tanks with Overflow for Settled Combined Wastewater


With increasing size of catchment area one must reckon with ever more balanced pollution concentrations
without exaggerated flushing surge. In this case stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined
wastewater (STOSC) are to be planned which aim to achieve a mechanical treatment of the combined
wastewater. As opposed to stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater, stormwater tanks with
overflow for settled combined wastewater have an overflow structure (OSC), which comes into action once
the tank is full and which feeds mechanically treated combined wastewater to the receiving water. As a rule
a tank overflow (TO) (see also Chap. 9.2) is placed upstream in series to limit the maximum tank
throughflow. Until they are filled STOSC act as a storage space and thereafter act as settling tank with
overflow for a partial inflow (as a rule Qcrit) into the receiving waters. At the end of the rainfall event the tank
contents must be fed to the biological stage of the sewage treatment plant.

Stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater are provided if:

- the flow time in the sewer network up to the tanks, with computation rain, is more than 15 to 20 mins
or if no further exaggerated flushing surge is to be expected,
- these tanks are in upstream series of other structures with overflow (networks prerelieved by SO or
STO),
- in exceptional cases the inflow to the tank can be more than the maximum possible throttle
discharge. (Such cases can be locally influenced by varying sewer infiltration water or melting
snow).

4.3.2.3 Composite Tanks


Composite tanks (CT) are provided if flushing surges (from neighbouring parts of the catchment area) and
also discharges with balanced pollution occur. They represent a combination of stormwater tanks retaining
the first flush of stormwater and stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater and consist
of a retention section and a treatment section. The in-coming combined wastewater is first stored in a
retention part designed as a stormwater tank retaining the first flush of stormwater. Once it is full the
combined wastewater that arrives subsequently flows through the treatment part which is designed as a
stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined wastewater. Combined tanks come into consideration for
the interface area between stormwater tank retaining the first flush of stormwater and the stormwater tank
with overflow for settled combined wastewater or, if flushing surges are to be expected from neighbouring
parts of the catchment area, with longer flow times. Composite tanks are dimensioned either as for
stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater or for stormwater tanks with overflow for settled
combined wastewater.

14 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Essential advantages:
- retention and treatment effect in one tank,
- division of volume between retention and treatment parts selectable,
- by subdivision into several chambers the back-up frequency and thus the maintenance resources in
the neighbouring throughflow part are reduced significantly.

Essential disadvantages:
- smaller treatment effect compared with a pure stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined
- stormwater,
- structurally and operationally more costly.
-
4.3.2.4 Sewers with Storage Capacity and Overflow
Sewers with storage capacity and overflow (SSCO) differ in their effect through the position of the overflow
structure. Sewers with storage capacity and overflow with top-end overflow (SSCTO) (Fig. 3) function as
stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater. Sewers with storage capacity and overflow with
bottom-end overflow (SSCBO) (Fig. 4) function as stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined
wastewater in the main stream without tank overflow. With dimensioning according to this Standard they are
basically equivalent to both stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater and stormwater tanks
with overflow for settled combined wastewater.

December 1992 15
ATV-A 128 E
Essential advantages:
- no structure in addition to the sewer necessary,
- emptying with natural gradient.

Essential disadvantages:
- cannot exclude deposits,
- volumes of SSCBO larger than with stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined
wastewater,
- with overflow of SSCBO partial washing out of storage volume contents into the lake or river.

A sewer with storage capacity and overflow can be arranged if a sufficient drag tension for the avoidance or
reduction of deposits is to be ensured or if flushing aids are installed. In addition it is to be ensured that no
harmful back-up results.

A bottom-end overflow may not come into operation as often as one at the top-end as otherwise, with large
rainwater run-offs, there is a danger that the pollution trapped in the storage volume is displaced by the
subsequent, less polluted combined wastewater. The storage volumes must therefore be larger than for
sewers with storage capacity and overflow with top-end overflow.

4.3.2.5 Main and By-pass Streams


Stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater, stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined
wastewater, composite tanks and sewers with storage capacity and overflow can be arranged in main or in
by-pass streams (Figs. 5 - 10). With main streams the discharge fed on to the sewage treatment plant is led
through the tank; with a by-pass stream it is fed past the tank. The draining of the tank into the by-pass can
take place deliberately using discharge regulation (qualified by-pass).

STREFF
TO

Qin Qd

Qo

Fig. 5: Stormwater tank retaining the first flush of stormwater in main stream

16 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Fig. 6: Stormwater tank retaining the first flush of stormwater in by-pass stream

Fig. 7: Stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined wastewater in main stream

Fig. 8: Stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined wastewater in by-pass stream

December 1992 17
ATV-A 128 E

Fig. 9: Composite tank in main stream (RP = retention part, TP = treatment part)

Fig. 10: Composite tank in main stream (RP = retention part, TP = treatment part)

Whether a stormwater tank with overflow is arranged in the main or by-pass stream depends on the local
height and site conditions. An arrangement in the by-pass is always advantageous if small height differences
between inflow and outflow exist so that the stormwater tank with overflow must be drained using pumps.
Nevertheless, more connecting pipelines than with a main stream flow and an additional separator structure
are necessary.

The main stream flow is suitable if sufficient height difference is available between inflow and outflow and
little freedom exists in the arrangement of the site. It offers operational and design advantages.

Stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined sewage should, if possible, be arranged in by-pass
streams as, generally, with this arrangement, combined wastewater is stored and overflows with a
somewhat lower pollutant concentration. The cause is that, at the beginning and end of a rainfall event the
dry weather discharge mixes with a relatively low rainfall run-off. Through slight dilution this combined
wastewater is more heavily polluted. With the by-pass stream it flows past the tank up to the scale of the
throttle discharge. Through this, the overall overflowed pollution load, in comparison with stormwater tanks
with overflow for settled combined sewage in the main stream, reduces somewhat.

If a controlled tank drainage is planned or considered for the future, in which the draining of the stored
wastewater to the sewage treatment plant does not take place immediately following the end of rainfall, then
the by-pass stream is to be used. Otherwise the stored combined wastewater is continuously mixed with the
subsequent dry weather discharge. There is a danger that, with this, more highly concentrated combined
wastewater reaches the lake or river with a subsequent rainfall event.

18 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

4.3.3 Arrangement of Several Stormwater Tanks with Overflow


With spatially separated sub-drainage areas such as, for example, with sections of communities or
neighbouring communities, enclosed drainage areas should be provided with their own stormwater tanks
with overflow. With the selection of the site of the tank it is to be investigated whether a technical and
economically practical discharge regulation or control is possible. The maximum permissible feed flow of the
sewage treatment plant may not be exceeded.

With the subdivision of larger catchment areas into several sub- areas the individual stormwater tanks with
overflow can be connected in parallel or in series.

4.3.3.1 Parallel Stormwater Tanks with Overflow


Here the total catchment area is so arranged that the tanks sited at the end of each sub-area are connected
in parallel. With this, stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater, stormwater tanks with overflow
for settled combined sewage and composite tanks are possible in both main and by-pass streams.

Tanks connected in parallel (Fig. 11, top) present the more advantageous solution for water pollution control
if they can be throttled, by section, according to the permitted sewage treatment plant discharge.
Modifications, such as, for example, with whirl separators are only practical for parallel connection as the
once separated suspended and floating solids can only in this way reach the sewage treatment plant
immediately and not reach further structures with overflow.

Essential advantages:
- stored combined wastewater reaches the sewage treatment plant completely,
- there is no mutual influence between the tanks,
- free choice of tank design,
- clear hydraulic conditions and simple dimensioning.

Essential disadvantages:
- often higher construction costs as a result of an integral delivery connector drain to the sewage
treatment plant (transporter sewer or wastewater collector drain).

December 1992 19
ATV-A 128 E

Fig. 11: Functional diagrams of parallel and series connected stormwater tanks with overflows

4.3.3.2 Series Stormwater Tanks with Overflow


With series stormwater tanks with overflow (Fig. 11, bottom) the upstream separated pollutants again mix
with stormwater and, under certain conditions, overflow at the subsequent overflow tank.

Basically, the throttle discharge of series overflow tanks should grow in the direction of flow so that the
stored contents of an upstream tank can be fed to the sewage treatment plant without leading to an overflow
at the next tank.

Series connected tanks with controlled overflow presume a very efficient sewer operation and a careful
maintenance of the plant components.

In individual cases the installation of measurement and control devices is to be examined with regard to the
relationship of usage to costs and maintenance. In the simplified dimensioning procedure, without control
devices the specific volumes of the downstream tanks are usually larger as a result of the longer flow times.
With regard to future development a later modification with control devices should be taken into account in
planning.

4.3.4 Stormwater Holding Tanks


Stormwater holding tanks (SHT) are to be installed if the sewer network cannot further convey stormwater
discharge peaks and an overflow of combined wastewater is not possible. If its run-off discharge rate qr
(Chap. 6.3.2) lies above 5 l/(s.ha) then it has no significant influence on the subsequent stormwater
overflows. In this case the complete catchment area including the areas above the stormwater tank with
overflow is relevant for the dimensioning of overflow structures.

20 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

If the run-off discharge rate qr of individual stormwater tanks with overflow is under 5 l/(s.ha) and above the
run-off discharge rate of the sewage treatment plant then this type of tank has a definitely unfavourable
effect on subsequent overflows due to its long drainage durations.

5 Planning Scope
The planning of stormwater overflow installations takes place based on ATV Standard A 101. Data for the
following conditions are to be determined:

- actual status,
- planning status.

For the rehabilitation of existing sewer networks both conditions are to be recorded; with new planning the
planning status only. In each case the total catchment area of a sewage treatment plant is to be recorded
(eg. general drainage plan). If required, the different planning levels are to be examined for this total
network.

5.1 Determination of Actual Status


The limitation and description of the catchment area with its water management conditions and constraints
belong, in particular, to the clarification of the definition of the problem. In addition, the combined effect of
stormwater treatment and sewage treatment plant is to be determined and the efficiency of the sewage
treatment plant is to be established.

The establishment of the actual status (inter alia number of inhabitants, areas, degree of sealing, dry
weather discharge, lakes and rivers) includes the assessment of the efficiency of the existing sewer system
and the sewage treatment plant.

Measurements of the dry-weather discharge as well as the total annual wastewater inflow of the sewage
treatment plant is to be brought into its determination. The dry-weather discharge is to be compared with and
supported by the water usage.

5.2 Determination of the Planning Status


In order to establish the planning status (planning objective) the following must, in particular, be taken into
account:

- town development plans,


- area usage plans
- building plans,
- outline plans of other infrastructural installations.

The necessary data for the planning of sewer network and sewage treatment plant can be extrapolated from
available data sources.

5.3 Planning Periods


As a rule, the following are to be used as planning periods:

- for the sewer network 50 - 100 years,


- for the sewage treatment plant 15 - 25 years.

December 1992 21
ATV-A 128 E
As a correct stormwater treatment can only be ensured if the throttle discharges passed on from the
stormwater overflow installations can be treated biologically to the full extent in the sewage treatment plant,
the stormwater overflow installations must be designed to the expansion status of the associated sewage
treatment plant. Therefore, the planning period of the sewage treatment plant of some 15 - 25 years is to be
used as the planning period of the stormwater treatment plants.

However, it must be verified that the stormwater treatment plants can also fulfil their function fully for the
larger planning period of the sewer system. If, for example, larger storage volumes are necessary for this
then the required space is to be kept free.

5.4 Standard and Variant Investigations


With the assessment of existing facilities, objectives (water management, operational, cost-oriented, etc) are
to be formulated based on usage times, usage durations, operational parameters, operational experiences
and the therefrom resultant information on operational difficulties. In particular the existing loadings and
reserve capacities are to be determined and assessed.

Investigations of variants are to be undertaken based on similar criteria as for the standard investigation.
However, different, objective dependent variants and alternative investigations are necessary. These should
be supplemented by cost investigations for better assessment.

The capability for implementation of the planned measures is to be examined. Intermediate conditions with
staged expansion are to be examined for the establishment of priorities.

6 Calculation Principles
For the complete catchment area of a sewage treatment plant that is drained using the combined system a
necessary total storage volume must, in accordance with this Standard, be determined for the intermediate
storage of combined wastewater. This applies equally for the simple distribution system (Chap. 8.1) as for
the detailed verification system (Chap. 8.2). The necessary initial data and the therefrom derived dimensions
are defined and described below.

6.1 Sizes of Catchment Areas

6.1.1 Annual Precipitation hPr


The annual overflow duration depends, inter alia, on the annual precipitation hPr (hPr can, for example, be
taken from the Year Book of the German Weather Service). With increasing amounts of precipitation the
combined wastewater is overflowed longer and therefore must also discharge more wastewater directly into
the lake or river. The precipitation hPr in mm is taken into account with the dimensioning (Chap. 7.1.2).

6.1.2 Surface Areas ACA and Ais


The catchment area covered or coverable by a sewer system is designated as drainage area ACA. It is
subdivided into a hard surface area Ared and an unhardened surface area (ACA less Ared). The hard surface
areas Ared are variously defined through different loss statements in EDP precipitation run-off models. The
computed part of a catchment area from which the rainfall run-off, after deduction of all losses, completely
reaches a combined sewer system is designated the impervious area Ais.

A is = VQ r /(10 ⋅ hPr .eff ) in ha (6.1)

with 3
VQr in m = annual rainfall run-off sum in the combined wastewater system,
hPr,eff in mm = effective precipitation (after deduction of losses).

22 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Separate areas do not count as effective discharge areas, combined areas with precipitation percolation only
with their effective discharge part. Outer areas and unhardened surface areas can, in general, be ignored.
The impervious surface area Ais is, as a rule, significantly smaller than the hard surface area Ared.

So far as no calculations or measurements are available the impervious area of the hard surface is to be set
as equal, i.e.:

A is = A red (6.2)

6.1.3 Flow Time tf


The damping of discharge waves is influenced by the concentration time. The concentration in prerelieved
sewer networks can only be determined with considerable effort. As it only slightly influences the relieved
annual pollution load it is alternatively replaced by the flow time. This can be calculated from the longest flow
path in the sewer network with complete filling or approximated from the time difference between the
maximum values of relevant time curves. Flow times from widely separated areas can, with minor
significance for the combined wastewater inflow, be ignored

6.1.4 Mean Terrain slope group SGm


In accordance with ATV Standard A 118 "Standards for the Hydraulic Calculation of Wastewater, Stormwater
and Combined Wastewater Sewers" the inclination of a drainage area is sub-divided into four groups:

Terrain slope group SG Mean Terrain Gradient JT


1 JT < 1%
2 1% µ JT µ ≤ 4%
3 4% µ JT µ ≤ 10%
4 JT > 10%

For the overall catchment area of a stormwater overflow installation the mean terrain slope group derives
from the equation

SG m = Σ ( A CA,i ⋅ SG i / Σ A CA,i (6.3)

with
A CA,i in ha = overall catchment area of the sub-area i,
SGi = terrain slope group (1,2,3 or 4) of sub-area i.

6.2 Discharges

6.2.1 Combined Wastewater Discharge to the Sewage Treatment Plant Qcw


The combined wastewater discharge Qcw is made up from the dry weather discharge Qdw together with the
rainwater run-off Qr. As a rule Qcw is to be applied with not less than 2Qpx + Qdw24 (see ATV Standard A
131). As Qcw is often determined for a point in time far into the future this value usually deviates from the
current combined wastewater discharge to the sewage treatment plant. Here there are two cases to
differentiate:

- the sewage treatment plant is, for the foreseeable future (8 - 10 years) still in a position to treat
biologically at least Q cw ≥ 2Q px + Q iw 24 , then the stormwater tanks are to be dimensioned to the
actual sewage treatment plant capacity,
- should the sewage treatment plant to be expanded in the foreseeable future then the dimensioning
of the stormwater tanks must already take into account the planning status of the future sewage
treatment plant.

December 1992 23
ATV-A 128 E
With parallel catchment areas the respective throttled discharges from the part areas may be more than 2Qpx
+ Qiw24 if it is ensured that, at no time, the dimensioning inflow Qcw to the biological stage of the sewage
treatment plant is exceeded. This verification can, for example, be carried out with discharge simulation with
the planning of the sewer network controls.

6.2.2 Dry weather Flow in Daily Average Qdw24


The theoretical dry weather flow relevant for the individual catchment areas from combined and separate
systems is made up from the wastewater discharges from the residential areas, including the small
commercial part, Qd, the commercial part Qc , the industrial part Qi and the sewer infiltration water Qiw24:

Q w 24 = Q d24 + Q c 24 + Q i24 in l / s (6.4)


Q dw 24 = Q s 24 + Q iw 24

with
Qd24 in l/s = I . ws/86400 (daily average value),
I = the number of connected inhabitants
ws in 1/(I.d) = annual average water consumption per inhabitant and day
Qc24 in l/s = daily average commercial wastewater flow calculated from the annual average
Qiw24 in l/s = annual average of the sewer infiltration water flow from separate and combined systems
with dry weather.

With all formulations consideration is to be given that the sum of the dry weather flow of one year, as a rule,
must correspond with the annual dry weather flow sum of the inflow to the sewage treatment plant.

Particular value is to be placed on the realistic recording of the inhabitants and of the water consumption.
Qc24 and Qi24 are to be determined on the basis of available figures taking into account future developments
separately. Only if this is not possible and values from comparable areas are not available should one
reckon with 0.2 to 0.8 l/(s.ha), according to the water consumption, referred to the respective impervious
surface area Ais, for commercial and industrial areas.
Sewer infiltration water is to be determined with the same care on the basis of available figures taking into
account future development. With this, care is to be taken that all possibilities to reduce the sewer infiltration
water have been exhausted. If continuous measurements of the flow are available in the sewage treatment
plant then an estimate of the quantity of the sewer infiltration water can be made using the minimum night
values with dry weather. Insofar as no measurements are available or can be carried out one may reckon
with up to 0.15 l/(s.ha) referred to the impervious area Ai depending on the groundwater conditions and the
condition of the sewers in the separate and combined systems.

Note: due to the reference to the impervious surface areas and the details for average daily values the figures given
deviate from ATV Standard A 118.

6.2.3 Hourly Peak Flow with Dry Weather Flow Qdwx


The daily peak Qdwx of the dry weather flow is most accurately obtained from measurements which, however,
are available only at the sewage treatment plant (see ATV Standard A 131). The generally relatively high
peak values in the catchment sub-areas are more and more flattened on the way to the sewage treatment
plant due to the overlapping of the flow curves. Insofar as no measurements are available Qdwx is
calculated from the dry weather flow, in the daily average, as follows (in l/s):

24 24 365 24 365
Q px = Q d24 + ⋅ ⋅ Q c 24 + ⋅ ⋅ Q i24
x ac bc ai bi

Q dwx = Q px + Q iw 24 (6.5)

with the indices c for commercial, i for industrial and


Qpx in l/s = daily peak of the wastewater flow (see ATV Standard A 131)

24 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Q d24 in l / s )
Q g24 in l / s ) = domestic and industrial wastewater from Eqn. (6.4),

Q i24 in l / s )
x in h = hourly duration per day according to ATV Standard A 118, eg. 14, 16 or 18 hr.
ac, ai in h = working hours per day (with an 8 hr shift)
bc, bi in d = production days per year

6.2.4 Rainwater Run-off from Separate Areas QrS24


With the storage dimensioning one must reckon with rainwater run-off over and above the sewer infiltration
water which appears with dry weather due to the barely avoidable inflow of stormwater into the wastewater
network of separate systems. If no measurements are available then one must reckon with a supplement of
100 % of the average domestic and industrial wastewater flow QwS24 (the index S stands for separate areas).
QwS24 is determined using Eqn. (6.4) on the respective separate area (average daily value).

QrS24 = QwS24 (6.6)

With larger separate areas (eg. over 10 ha) a rainwater run-off measurement is recommended for the
determination of the fundamental planning details.

6.2.5 Rainwater Run-off Qr24


The rainwater run-off Qr24 of the total area derives from the difference between the combined wastewater
flow Qcw to the sewage treatment plant, the dry weather flow Qdw24 at midday and the 24-hour average value
of the rainwater run-off from separate areas QrS24

Q r 24 = Q cw − Q dw 24 − Q rS 24 in l/s (6.7)

In catchment sub-areas the rainwater run-off Qr24 is made up from the combined wastewater flow at the
throttle Qt instead of the combined wastewater flow Qcw to the sewage treatment plant

Q r 24 = Q t − Q dw 24 − Q rS 24 in l/s (6.8)

6.2.6 Critical Rainwater Run-off Qrcrit


The critical rainwater run-off Qrcrit from a direct catchment area is determined as

Q rcrit = rcrit ⋅ A i in l/s (6.9)

with
rcrit in l/(s.ha) = critical rainfall intensity (see Chap. 9.1).

With growing flow time a flattening of the inflow waves occurs. Through this the stormwater overflows, the
sum of overflows and thus also the relieved pollution load decrease. This is taken into account with its
dimensioning (Chap. 9.1).

With the determination of the critical rainfall intensity for stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined
wastewater the reduced influence of the flow time remains unconsidered. It is to be calculated with a
constant rcrit.

6.2.7 Critical Combined Water Flow Qcrit


The critical combined water flow is the sum of the average daily value of the dry weather flow and the critical
run-off discharge of the immediately associated drainage area as well as, if necessary, all immediate top-end
throttle discharges from stormwater overflows and stormwater tanks

December 1992 25
ATV-A 128 E

Q crit = Q dw 24 + Q rcrit + Σ Q t,i (6.10)


with
Qdw24 in l/s = dry weather flow at midday from the immediate, intermediate catchment area (6.2.2)
Qrcrit in l/s = critical rainwater run-off from the immediate, intermediate catchment area (6.2.6)
Σ Qt,i in l/s = sum of all immediate upstream inflowing throttle discharges

6.2.8 Mean Rainwater Run-off During Overflow Qro


If one divides the relieved combined water discharge in one year at one overflow structure by the associated
total duration of the overflow event then one obtains the average overflow discharge from the structure. At
the same time, during the overflow process, the rainfall part Qr24 (6.2.5) discharges through the throttle. Both
discharges together give the mean rainwater run-off Qro during all overflow events in the course of one year

Q ro = VQ o (To ⋅ 3.6) + Q r 24 in l/s (6.11)

with 3
VQo in m = sum of combined water discharge in one year
To in h = summed overflow durations in one year.

For stormwater tanks with overflow the mean rainwater run-off Qro during relief overflow can be
approximated using the following equation as long as the run-off discharge rate qr (6.3.2) is smaller than 2
l/(s.ha)

Q ro = a f ⋅ (3.0 A i + 3.2Q r 24 ) in l/s (6.12)

a f = 0.50 + 50 /( t f + 100 ) for tf µ 30 min (6.13)


a f = 0.885 for tf > 30 min

with
af = flow time reduction of the rainwater run-off,
tf in mm = longest flow time up to the stormwater tank (6.1.3)
Ais in ha = impervious surface areas (6.1.2)
Qr24 in l/s = rainwater part in the throttle discharge.

With run-off discharge intensities over 2 l/(s.ha) the mean rainwater run-off Qro during relief overflow must be
determined by a verification procedure and Eqn. (6.11).

6.3 Discharge Rates

6.3.1 Dry Weather Discharge Rate qdw24


The dry weather discharge rate qdw24, referred to the annual mean, derives as quotient of the dry weather
flow Qdw24 (6.2.2) and the impervious surface area Ai (6.1.2)

q dw 24 = Q dw 24 / A is in l/(s) (6.14)

6.3.2 Rainwater Run-off Rate qr


The rainwater run-off rate qr, referred to the annual mean, derives from the quotient of the rainwater run-off
and the associated impervious surface area

qr = Q r 24 / A i in l/(s.ha) (6.15)

Two cases can be differentiated:


- current rainwater run-off rate,

26 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

- future rainwater run-off rate.

If the current rainwater run-off rate is smaller the future one then it is to be clarified, in individual cases,
whether the sewage treatment plant should be expanded, the stormwater tanks dimensioned for a smaller qr
or whether the development can, for the time being, be delayed (for this see Chap. 6.2.1, combined
wastewater discharge to the sewage treatment plant).

6.4 Dry Weather Concentration cdwc


For the calculation of the necessary storage volume in the overall catchment area of a sewage treatment
plant the COD concentration in the dry weather flow must be known. It is determined from measurements as
annual mean value in the inflow to the primary settling stage. If measurements are available from the outflow
of the primary settling stage only, then these values, as a rule, can be multiplied by 1.5. If measurements are
not possible then the mean COD concentration is determined from the following equation

c dw = (Q c ⋅ c d + Q c ⋅ c c + Q i ⋅ c i ) /(Q d + Q c + Q i + Q iw 24 ) in mg/l (6.16)

Here one is concerned with mean daily values which are derived from the annual mean. It should be noted
that the concentration ct for the complete dry weather flow, that is including the sewer infiltration water,
applies. If, within the catchment area, there are discharges with higher concentrations (eg. heavily polluted
commercial wastewater), the respective concentration values must be taken into account with the
dimensioning of subsequent overflow structures both in the simplified procedure (Chap. 8.1) and in the
verification procedure (Chap. 8.2).

6.5 Mean Mix ratio in Overflow Water m


The mean mix ratio between storm and dry weather during all overflow events results from the ratio of the
mean rainwater flow during all relief overflow events in one year, including the rainwater flow from separate
areas and from the simultaneously inflowing mean dry weather flow

m = (Q ro + Q rS 24 ) / Q dw 24 (6.17)

with
Qro in l/s = mean rainwater flow during overflows (6.2.8),
QrS24 in l/s = rainwater flow from separate areas (6.2.4),
Qdw24 in l/s = dry weather flow as daily mean (6.2.2).

7 Determination of the Necessary Total Storage Volume


The determination of the necessary total storage volume takes place for the whole catchment area of a
sewage treatment plant above the last overflow structure. The surface areas, discharges, flow times,
pollution concentrations and area characteristic values necessary for dimensioning are referred to this point
in the network. In place of the dimensioning inflow the actual sewage treatment plant inflow is to be applied
for the examination of the actual status.

7.1 Determination of the Permissible Overflow Rate


The permissible overflow rate is influenced by several parameters. The mean pollution concentration in the
overflowing combined wastewater, which depends on the mix ratio between stormwater and the domestic
and industrial wastewater, is decisive. The more heavily polluted the overflowed combined wastewater is the
less it may be relieved; this means the greater the necessary storage space will be. For the determination of
the permissible overflow rate within the complete catchment area, all values (eg. impervious surface areas,
flow times, mean terrain slope group) are necessary for the last throttle whose discharge is delivered
completely into the biological treatment stage of the sewage treatment plant, without further overflow.

December 1992 27
ATV-A 128 E
If the throttle discharges of overflow structures in parallel catchment sub-areas flow into a common inflow to
the sewage treatment plant, without there being a further overflow possibility available, then the storage
requirement for each catchment sub-area can be determined separately. The necessary dimensioning
parameters are, in this case, to be ascertained for each area at the throttle of the last overflow structure. The
condition is that the sum of the throttle discharges from all parallel catchment areas, even with controlled
discharges, at no time exceeds the capacity of the biological treatment stage of the associated sewage
treatment plant.

In this Standard a reference loading case is assumed for the determination of the total storage requirement
for combined wastewater. With average conditions the COD concentrations, in accordance with Chap. 3.1,
are

c dw : c r : c tp = 600 : 107 : 70 (7.1)

with the following abbreviations for the 24 hour values from the annual mean
cdw in mg/l = COD concentration in dry weather flow
cr in mg/l = COD concentration in the running-off rainwater
ctp in mg/l = COD concentration in the sewage treatment plant effluent with storm weather.

The mean COD concentration in the rainwater flow results from an assumed annual load of 600 kg per
hectare of impervious surface area which is flushed with average conditions of 800 mm annual precipitation
and a total discharge coefficient of 0.70. The portion of the precipitation which reaches the sewer network is
560 mm (effective precipitation).

The respective concentrations arising in the overflowed combined wastewater cco depend essentially upon
the dry weather concentration cdw, the rainwater concentration cr, the mix ratio of both parts during the
overflow and the sewer deposits. These influences are taken into account as follows.

7.1.1 Influence of Heavy Polluters ap


If a mean COD concentration of 600 mg/l is exceeded in the untreated dry weather flow then the necessary
storage volume must be enlarged. This is achieved through the heavy polluter surcharge ap which reflects
the increase of the pollution concentration

ap = 1 for cdw µ 600 mg/l (7.2)


ap = cdw/600 for cdw > 600 mg/l

with
cdw in mg/l = mean COD concentration in the dry weather flow from measurements or from the Eqn. (6.16)

7.1.2 Influence of Annual Precipitation ah


The annual relief overflow duration at stormwater tanks with overflow depends on the annual precipitation hPr
(hPr can be taken from the Year Book of the German Weather service). With increasing precipitation the
combined wastewater is relieved for longer periods and therefore also more domestic and industrial
wastewater is discharged straight into the receiving water. In order to keep the thus relieved annual pollution
load more or less constant a mathematical dependency of the pollution concentration of the long-term mean
annual precipitation is assumed for the determination of the permissible overflow rate. The influencing factor
results from the equation

ah = hPr /800 - 1 for 600 ≤ hPr ≤ 1000 mm (7.3)


ah = - 0.25 for hPr < 600 mm
ah = + 0.25 for hPr > 1000 mm

with
hPr in mm = long-term local annual precipitation.

With hPr over 1000 mm or below 600 mm the relationship between annual overflow duration and overflow
load, in general, no longer exists. With precipitation areas with more than 1000 mm one is here concerned
28 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

primarily with mountainous areas in which the snow element can no longer be ignored in the annual
precipitation. The simulation of thawed water flow cannot currently be formulated as a general rule of
technology.

Annual precipitation amounts below 600 mm are to be connected with increased pollution concentrations in
the rainwater flow so that a further reduction of the necessary storage volume can be excluded through
reasons of water pollution control.

7.1.3 Influence of Sewer Deposits aa


The current knowledge on all processes which lead to the build-up and removal of sewer deposits are
insufficient for a mathematical description. Therefore, only tendencies can be reflected with a surcharge with
the dimensioning of the storage volumes for the combined wastewater, assuming the reference loading
case.

Sewer deposits are, as a minimum, to be expected during the night-time hours in sub-areas of nearly all
combined wastewater sewers, primarily in the early sections and stretches with small gradients.

The depositing potential in a sewer network depends on the drag tension which occurs with dry weather as
well as with storm weather. The smaller the flow and the sewer gradient are the higher, as a rule, is the
tendency to sewer deposits. The base gradients in the overall drainage area of the sewage treatment plant
are relevant. As replacement, the area determined terrain slope group IGm (6.1.4) is applied. Together with
the dry weather discharge rate qdw24 (6.3.1) and the ratio xd from the daily mean Qdw24 (6.2.2) and the daily
peak Qdwx (6.2.3) of the dry weather flow

x d = 24 ⋅ Q dw 24 / Q dwx (7.4)

the addition for sewer deposits aa can be determined from Fig. 12 or Appx. 4. If, using operational
measures, attention is paid that, for example, it can be shown that sewer deposits can be excluded through
regular flushing with dry weather flow, then the addition for sewer deposits can be reduced or done away
with completely (aa = 0).

Fig. 12: Influence of sewer deposits

December 1992 29
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7.1.4 Dimensioning Concentration in the Dry Weather Flow cd


The pollution concentration in the dry weather flow has, with average conditions, according to Eqn. (7.1), the
value 600 mg/l. In order, with dimensioning, that local conditions can be taken into account, a locally relevant
dimensioning concentration is determined from the three significant influence values for heavy polluters,
annual precipitation and sewer deposits.

c d = 600 (a p + a h + a a ) in mg/l (7.5)

7.1.5 Theoretical Overflow Concentration ccc


The combined calculation for the determination of the mean pollution concentration in overflow water takes
place with the dimensioning concentration cd from Eqn. (7.5) and the mean mix ratio m according to Eqn.
(6.17)

c cc = (m ⋅ c r + c d ) /(m + 1) in mg/l (7.6)

If the impervious surfaces areas are loaded with a verifiable COD annual pollution load higher than 600
kg/ha then the rainwater discharge concentration cr can be calculated, analogous to the procedure in Chap.
7.1, as 560 mm effective precipitation in the Eqn. (7,6). Annual precipitation amounts deviating from the
reference load case are taken into account with the influence factor ah.

7.1.6 Permissible Annual Overflow Rate eo


As the unrelieved portion from the rainwater flow sum runs to the sewage treatment plant and loads the lake
or river with the concentration ctp, a pollution load balance can be produced together with the mean
concentration ccc. From the objective of the stormwater treatment there follows, for average conditions
(reference load case) with the given concentrations for the permissible overflow rate:

30 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Objective equation:

PL o + PL tp ≤ PL r
VQ r ⋅ (1 − e o ) ⋅ c tp ≤ VQ r ⋅ c r

with
PLo in kg = overflowed annual pollution load from combined wastewater overflows,
PLtp in kg = annual pollution load in the stormwater of the sewage treatment plant effluent,
PLr in kg = load flushed from the surface through rainwater,
VQr in m3 = rainwater discharge sum of an average year,
eo = quotient from the overflowed combined wastewater quantity as annual mean and the
rainwater discharge sum.

Solved with regard to eo there results, after applying the values from Eqn. (7.19) of the determination
equation for the permissible overflow rate

e o = 3700 /(c co − 70) in % (7.7)

With lakes and rivers with a mix ratio

MLWQ/Qpx > 100

with

MLWQ in l/s = mean low water flow into the lake or river,
Qpx in l/s = daily peak of domestic and industrial wastewater flow to the sewage treatment plant

the permissible annual overflow rate eo may be increased by a factor which increases linearly from the value
1.0 with MLWQ/Qpx = 100 up to the value 1.2 with MLWQ/Qpx ≥ 1000.

The permissible overflow rate eo is a theoretical value which has been derived from the reference load case
with hPr = 800 mm. The influence of other annual precipitation amounts is taken into account with the value
ah in Eqn. (7.5). The actual overflow rate e in a drainage area deviates more or less according to the local
precipitation conditions from the dimensioning value eo.

December 1992 31
ATV-A 128 E
7.2 Necessary Total Storage Volumes

Fig. 13: Specific storage volume in dependence on the rainwater run-off rate and the permissible
overflow rate

In order to be able to maintain the permissible overflow rate there needs to be a certain storage capacity in
the sewer network. The specific storage volume VS can be taken from Fig. 13. Also needed for this is the
rainwater run-off rate qr (6.3.2) from the dimensioning discharge of the biological treatment stage and from
the associated total catchment area.

The necessary storage space results as

V = VS ⋅ A i in m3 (7.8)

In Appendix 3 there is a form with which the necessary total storage volume can be determined manually. In
addition, in Appx. 4, approximation formulas for the diagram in Fig. 12 (influence of sewer deposits) and Fig.
13 (Specific storage volume).

A required specific total storage volume of 40 m3/ha represents, in general for water management and
economic reasons, an upper limit. If, from dimensioning in accordance with Chap. 7, a higher value is
necessary the reasons for this are to be given and, again, all possibilities according to Chap. 4 are to be
exhausted in order to reduce the loading of the lake or river. If the sewage treatment plant can accept a
rainwater run-off rate of more than 2 l/(s.ha) or, despite all efforts in accordance with Chap. 4 for the
reduction of the loading of the lake or river, a specific storage volume of over 40 m3/ha is necessary, then the
scope of application of Fig. 13 is exceeded. The determination of the necessary total storage volume then
takes place iteratively with a verification procedure according to Chap. 8.2 in the following manner:

32 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

- selection of the local applicable precipitation loading (Chap. 8.2.1.1),


- calculation of the mean stormwater pollution cr from 600 kg/ha COD annual load and the effective
precipitation,
- registration of the sewer network (Chap. 8.2.1.1),
- first estimate of the necessary total storage volume; precipitation run-off simulation with this volume
as central tank (Chap. 8.2.2.1),
- determination of the mean overflow inflow Qro according to Eqn. (6.11) and the mean mix ratio m
according to Eqn. (6.17),
- determination of the theoretical overflow concentration ccc according to Eqns. (7.5) and (7.6) ignoring
the influence of the annual precipitation (ah = 0),
- determination of the permissible overflow rate eo according to Eqn. (7.7) taking into account the
upper theoretical stormwater pollution cr
- comparison of the actual theoretical rate with the permissible overflow rate; if required, iterative
improvement of the necessary total storage volume until both values agree with each other.

7.3 Accountable Storage Volumes


In the simplified distribution procedure in accordance with Chap. 8.1 the following storage spaces can be
counted on top of the total volume:

- stormwater tanks with overflow up to 1.2 qr (6.3.2). On this scale the negative influence (eg.
lengthening of the overflow duration with subsequent overflow tanks) is still to be accepted even
without verification process according to Chap. 8.2,
- with stormwater activatable storage volume at sewage treatment plants, eg. in the retention capable
primary settling tank with tank overflow into the inflow,
- additional storage space which can be activated through movable weir sills,
- static sewer volume above stream of stormwater tanks with overflow - also storage sewer volumes -
under the horizontal in the height of the lowest overflow crest, reduced in accordance with Eqn. (9.6)
to the theoretical value of

Vs = (Vstat/Ais)/1.5 in m3/ha (7.9)

with 3
Vstat in m = static sewer volume in sewers as a rule from DN 800 or corresponding cross-
section area (water volume below the horizontal in the height of the lowest
overflow crest),
Ais in ha = impervious surface area of the associated part catchment area (6.1.2).

In the verification procedure in accordance with Chap. 8.2 all storage spaces are included, unreduced, into
the precipitation simulation model as they are actually available.

7.4 Minimum Storage Volumes


In order to be able to achieve sufficient settling effect in stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined
wastewater minimum retention times in the annual mean should be maintained during all relief overflows.
For this, the mean rainwater run-off during the overflows, Qro according to Eqn. (6.12), is used for the site of
the sewage treatment plant without taking into account the reduction of flow time (af = 1.0). With the
rainwater run-off rate qr for the sewage treatment plant there results the specific minimum volume for 20
mins retention time from the mean rainwater run-off during the overflows of

Vs,min = 3.60 + 3.84 qr in m3/ha. (7.10)

If the combined wastewater discharge Qcw of the sewage treatment plant is more than 2Qdwx, then the
rainwater run-off rate qr in Eqn. (7.10) can be limited to the value which results from 2Qdwx:

qr = [(48/xd - 1).Qdw24 - QrS24]/Ais in l/(s.ha) (7.11)

December 1992 33
ATV-A 128 E
For all stormwater tanks with overflow in the catchment area of the sewage treatment plant the same specific
minimum volume is to be applied.

Verified sewer storage volume can be calculated on the minimum volume. In this case the inflow sewer is to
be treated as a sewer with storage capacity and overflow with bottom-end overflow. In each case the
treatment conditions for the stormwater tanks with overflow (Chap. 9.2) or sewers with storage capacity and
overflow (Chap 9.3) as well as the requirements on the minimum mix ratio (Chap. 9.2) are to be maintained.

8 Dimensioning of Individual Structures with Overflow


The dimensioning of the stormwater overflow installations is completed in three steps:

- determination of the necessary total storage volume (Chap. 7),


- volume determination of individual stormwater tanks with overflow and sewers with storage capacity
and overflow using a simplified distribution procedure (Chap. 8.1) or verification procedure (Chap.
8.2),
- dimensioning of individual overflow structures according to normal requirements (Chap. 9).

If the scope of application of the simplified distribution procedure is exceeded, then it must be verified for the
planned measures that the objective of this Standard is being observed. The verification procedure in Chap.
8.2 serves for this purpose. The normal requirements on individual overflow structures (Chap. 9) are to be
maintained in any case. Attention is drawn to Appx. 1 for advanced requirements on the rainwater treatment.

8.1 Simplified Distribution Method

8.1.1 Approach
The approach with the dimensioning of individual stormwater tanks corresponds with the determination of
the necessary total storage volume (Chap. 7). At each stormwater overflow of a combined wastewater
network a certain total volume for combined wastewater storage must be available for the upstream
catchment area. The dimensioning parameters for the establishment of the permissible overflow rate
according to Chap. 7.1 are ascertained respectively for the total catchment area above the tank in question.
The associated discharge Qt here corresponds with the throttle discharge of this tank which can be
approximated as the mean value of the discharges at the beginning of retention and at the beginning of
overflow.

After the establishment of the permissible overflow rate the necessary storage requirement according to
Chap. 7.2 can be determined for the total catchment area lying upstream. If one removes from this the
already available accountable storage volume then one obtains the necessary size of the overflow tank in
question. It is to be investigated whether this volume is sufficient to maintain the treatment conditions and
that the necessary minimum volume according to Chap. 7.4 is not undercut.

8.1.2 Scope of Application


In order to be able to apply the simplified dimensioning using the distribution of the total volume to individual
structures the following scope of application must be observed. If this is not possible then a verification
procedure in accordance with Chap. 8.2 must be carried out in order to be able to take into account the no
longer negligible influence on the overflow which occurs with the exceeding of the scope of application.

- The rainwater run-off rate qr (Chap. 6.3.2) of the sewage treatment plant may not exceed 2 l/(s.ha).
- The rainwater run-off rate qr for the upstream total catchment area of a stormwater tank with
overflow may not be greater than 1.2 times the rainwater run-off rate of the sewage treatment plant.
- There may be, as a maximum, five stormwater tanks with overflow connected in series as, with
more, the inaccuracy of the simplified distribution procedure becomes too great.
- Throttle discharges from stormwater overflows must be at least as large as given in this Standard.
- The number of stormwater overflows in the catchment area of an overflow tank may not be greater
than five as with more than these the accuracy of the simplified distribution procedure is too great.

34 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

- Stormwater holding tanks within the catchment area in question must show a rainwater run-off rate
of at least qr · 5 l/(s.ha). Its volume, in the simplified procedure, does not count towards the
necessary total storage volume. It can only be taken into account in the verification procedure
(Chap. 8.2).
- The necessary specific storage volume Vs may not exceed 40 m3/ha.

8.2 Verification Procedures

8.2.1. Special Basic Facts


Verification procedures are to be employed when the scope of application of the simplified distribution
procedure according to Chap. 8.1 can no longer be observed. The determination of the necessary total
storage volume according to Chap 7.1 is, however, prerequisite for the maintenance of the normal
requirements. Assuming that the total storage volume is a single fictitiously arranged central tank upstream
of the sewage treatment plant, the model specific annual COD load, relieved as long-term mean from the
total network, is calculated using the verification procedure in a preliminary calculation. In subsequent
planning calculations an optimisation of the rainwater treatment measures can be carried out, whereby the
previously calculated COD overflow load for the central tank may not be exceeded.

8.2.1.1 Precipitation Loading


The verification procedures are to be based on long-term series of rainfall which show the best possible
relationship to local conditions. The rainfall series should cover a time period of at least ten years and
represent, from statistical aspects, the basic entirety of the local precipitation activity.

In general, the actual task setting allows the long-term precipitation series to be replaced by a suitable
rainfall series or a suitable rainfall spectrum. With this, it is to be verified that, with the replacement loading,
the local overflow behaviour, in comparison with the long-term simulation, can be described accurately. In
opposition to this, the description of the precipitation activity is of less significance. Further detail of this is
contained in the Report of ATV Working Group 1.9.3 (1989).

8.2.1.2 Registration of the Sewer Network


In normal cases, for economic reasons, the long-term simulation can not be carried out on a detailed
network (by section). Therefore, as a rule, a coarse network which is derived from the detailed sewer
network must be produced for the pollution load calculation. With this, in the first instance, the main collector
sewer is taken into account and secondary collection areas with comparable conversion behaviour
summarised into sub-areas. The subdivision of the area should cover the available and possible structure
sites already in the preliminary calculation. As a rule, the reproduction of the total catchment area of a
sewage treatment plant with a single transfer function is not permissible. Separate areas are dealt with as
follows:

- the dry weather discharge from separate areas, which is made up from the domestic and industrial
wastewater effluent and the sewer infiltration water effluent is treated as single discharge into the
combined wastewater network. Both dry weather discharge components should, as far as possible,
be derived from measurements (see Chap. 6.2.2),
- the stormwater portion from separate areas which reaches the combined wastewater network via the
domestic and industrial wastewater network can be represented in that the rainwater run-off
simulates the relevant impervious surface areas of a separate area and a fictitious stormwater
overflow (separate element) is added. The throttle discharge of this stormwater overflow is so
determined that the rainwater part, as far as possible determined from measurements with rainfall, is
transferred onward and discharged into the combined system. If no measurements are available the
hourly peak discharge with dry weather Qdwx from the separate area is selected as throttle discharge.

December 1992 35
ATV-A 128 E
The hydraulic equivalence of the coarse network and detailed sewer network is to be shown in a suitable
manner. For example, in simple cases, the flow time in all catchment sub-areas should be of comparably
size or, for example, the overflow volume as a result of annual dimensioning rain should be comparable at all
structures for coarse network and fine network.

8.2.1.3 Fictitious Central Tanks


The total volume determined according to Chap. 7.2 is arranged centrally in the by-pass, before the sewage
treatment plant, as stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined wastewater and without tank overflow
structure, sufficiently deep that no sewer volume can be activated (central tank). The throttle discharge of the
central tank corresponds with the inflow to the biological treatment stage of the sewage treatment plant.

8.2.2 Approach
Dimensioning applying the verification procedure is carried out in the following steps:

- preliminary calculation for the determination of the permissible model-specific COD overflow load for
a fictitious central tank,
- determination of the rehabilitation requirement,
- planning of measures,
- verification that the permissible overflow load, determined in the preliminary calculation, is not
exceeded.

The same model formulations and precipitation loadings are to be applied for all calculation variants.

8.2.2.1 Preliminary Calculation to Determine Permissible, Model-Dependent,


Overflow Loads
The preliminary calculation takes place with the pollution load model used in the verification procedure.
Formulations for accumulation (contamination collection on the surface and in the sewer with small drag
tension), removal of deposits and settling effect in drains and storage spaces as well as formulations for
flushing surges with increased concentrations at the start of rainfall are permitted only with the agreement of
the controlling authority. This regulation is necessary until assured information and generally accepted rules
are available for the actual processes in the sewer network and storage spaces.

For the preliminary calculation the coarse network is to be so modified that the annual combined wastewater
quantity arising in the catchment area of the sewage treatment plant is fed to the central tank, completely
and without back-up. For this one proceeds as follows.

Every overflow is included in the calculation in that the throttle discharge in the preliminary calculation is set
so large that even peak discharges can be transported, free of overflow and back-up, in the mainstream
through the structures (SO, STO, SHT), or past them in the by-pass, to the central tank. Through this
resultant or, in any case, existing overloading of sewer lines is to be removed mathematically by sufficient
enlargement of the sewer cross-section. The necessary cross-section enlargements for back-up-free
discharge of the annual combined wastewater volume can, for example, be estimated for the annual
dimensioning rainfall.

The overflow structure at the centrally placed stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined wastewater
in the by-pass thus represents, in the preliminary calculation, the sole overflow to the lake or river. The
locally dependent influences of separate areas, heavy polluters and the annual precipitation must be
observed according to the condition to be investigated in the preliminary calculation. Only the discharge
conditions in the network are so corrected that back-up-free discharge to the central tank is guaranteed.

The preliminary calculation with the central tank gives the model-dependent COD annual overflow load. This
parameter serves as objective parameter with the dimensioning of all planning or optimisation variants. It
may no longer be exceeded.

36 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

8.2.2.2 Determination of the Rehabilitation Requirement


The determination of the rehabilitation requirement assumes the determination of the available loading of the
lake or river through the application of the verification procedure on the actual status (see Chap. 5.1). In this
procedural step the characteristics of the catchment area (sewer system and sewage treatment plant) are to
be recorded with all characteristic values as are necessary for the application of the total storage
determination according to Chap. 7 and the application of the model. The pollution load calculation gives the
theoretical loading of the lake or river in the actual status.

The predetermined characteristic values are to be documented. With this one is concerned with operands
which serve for the comparison with the theoretical permissible loading of the lake or river in accordance
with the preliminary calculation (Chap. 8.2.2.1).

The comparison of the operands allows the assessment of stormwater treatment measures independent of
the applied verification method and independent of the selected parameter formulations.

8.2.2.3 Planning of Measures


With the planning of individual measures in the network the rules and notes given in Chap. 4 are to be
observed. The lessening effect of alternative measures on the overflow load can be fully accounted for
insofar as it is verifiable.

For the actual drainage system, that is taking into account all influences which were suppressed in the
preliminary calculation, the verification is to be implemented so that the overflowed COD annual load does
not exceed the value from the preliminary calculation.

In the verification procedure the overflowed COD annual load calculated for sewers with storage capacity
and bottom-end overflow without depositing is increased by 15 % compared with stormwater tanks with
overflow for settled combined wastewater. Through this global addition a smaller depositing effect in
comparison with stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater and a higher pollution load
in the sewage treatment plant effluent due to longer emptying durations of the volumetrically larger sewers
with storage capacity and overflow are taken into account.

Should a theoretical depositing effect in the storage spaces be applied, in agreement with the supervisory
authority, the percentage figure of the applied depositing effect in the sewers with storage capacity and
bottom-end overflow, in comparison with the depositing effect in the stormwater tanks with overflow for
settled combined wastewater, must be 10 % lower (eg. 15 % in stormwater tanks with overflow for settled
combined wastewater and 5 % in sewers with storage capacity and bottom-end overflow). In this case an
increase of the theoretical overflowed COD annual load of 15 %, as described above, is not necessary.
Depositing effect is understood to be the reduction of the COD concentration in the overflowed combined
wastewater in percent.

If alternative measures for the construction of storage volumes in accordance with Chap. 4 are brought into
play which lead to a system change in comparison with the initial status which was considered in the
preliminary calculation (eg. change of the degree of paving) then an adjusted preliminary calculation, taking
into account this system change, is to be carried out. The results of this preliminary calculation are relevant
for the assessment of the individual measures.

If, in the prognosis data, there are considerable risks with regard to planning safety and associated with
serious effects on the stormwater treatment measures, then verifications, including the preliminary
calculation also for planned intermediate conditions (eg. rehabilitated actual status) are to be carried out. If,
for the planning status, a considerably larger requirement for storage volume is necessary then the
measures are to be so planned that the requirements on the actual status are realised for an appropriate
transitional period.

December 1992 37
ATV-A 128 E
The following verifications are to be carried out for each individual measure:

a) observation of the minimum mix ratio according to Chaps. 9.1 and 9.2
b) observation of the wastewater treatment conditions in accordance with Chap. 9
c) verification of the theoretical emptying times
d) observation of the minimum volume according to Chap. 7.4
e) verification of the theoretical overflow characteristic figures according to Chap. 11.2.2.3, Table 2.

All verifications are to be documented clearly and comprehensibly. The load sum of all individual overflows
within the catchment area of a sewage treatment plant may not exceed the permissible, model-dependent
COD overflow load from the preliminary calculation.

The sum of all individual tank volumes may exceed or fall short of the necessary total storage volume in
accordance with Chap. 7.2 insofar as the above-given verifications are met. Should the sum of all individual
tank volumes of the planning calculation deviate considerably from the necessary total storage volume in the
network then this is to be justified.

8.2.2.4 Further Verification Parameters


For the assessment of the water management situation and advanced requirements on the stormwater
treatment, further parameters can be determined with the aid of verification procedures, from the analysis of
the combined wastewater system taking into account

- given planning details (development planning, usages),


- local conditions (implementability),
- economy (cost effectiveness).

These could be, for example:


- overflow discharge sum,
- overflow frequency,
- overflow duration,
- overflow load,
- overflow concentration,
- hydraulic loading of the lake or river with certain frequency,

in each case as annual mean value for the total system and for individual structures. The terms given are to
be found in more detail in the Report of ATV Working Group 1.9.3 (1989).

Using the verification it is to be established whether the theoretical overflow behaviour at the individual
structures is in the best possible relationship to the acceptance capacity of the receiving lake or river. Which
criterion is to receive a particular priority is to be determined based on the real characteristics of the lake or
river.

The taking into account of the residual load of the rainwater run-off part, which must also be treated in the
sewage treatment plant, can also be significant for the assessment of the conception of the stormwater
treatment measures.

8.2.3 Requirements on Pollution Load Calculation Methods


For the implementation of verification described in Chaps. 8.2.1 and 8.2.2 there are various pollution load
calculation methods available (see Appendix 2):

A. Hydrologic - empirical method


B. Hydrologic - deterministic models
C. Hydrologic - hydrodynamic - deterministic models

38 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

The selection of the suitable method depends essentially on the local overflow conditions and, from these,
whether the method can be matched to the local conditions, i.e. can be calibrated using available
precipitation discharge and concentration measures. The selected method, the verification parameters and
calculation formulations are to be agreed well in time between customer, planner and test authority.

The quality of the calculation method cannot fundamentally be assessed on the quality of the applied model
module alone. rather it is determined by to what extent area-dependent characteristics can be taken into
account and the model parameters of locally measured data can be calibrated for the actual application
case. Relevant for the quality of the calculation results is, in addition, the care with the involution of the initial
data.

The dimensioning of the individual measures with verification procedures is based on a comparison between
the theoretical effects of the planning variants and the preliminary calculation. The following belong to the
minimum provisions of verification procedures:

- sufficient detailed consideration of the catchment area and the drainage system (area sub-division),
- consideration of the local precipitation events in the form of statistically derived or measured
precipitation data in accordance with Chap. 8.2.1.1,
- simulation of the discharge formulation taking into account past events,
- simulation of the discharge concentration for impervious surface areas including the auxiliary
collector sewers in the sub-areas,
- taking account of the locally dependent dry weather discharge and its properties at least as daily
mean value,
- simulation of the discharge conveyance into the main collector sewers taking into account
translation,
- simulation of the material transport in the main collector sewers according to the combination
formulation with chronological overlapping of the rainfall and dry weather discharge and the
respective load components,
- simulation of the discharge and solids load distribution at all normal types of overflow structure
taking into account the pre-filling and balancing of the input, further transported and relieved
discharge sums and solids load,
- clear and comprehensible documentation of input data, the model formulations applied, the model
parameters and the calculation results.

9 Dimensioning of Individual Structures with Overflow


9.1 Stormwater Overflow
In order to avoid an excessively large pollution input into individual sections of the lake or river the
stormwater overflows must be designed with a minimum critical rainfall intensity between rcrit = 7.5 and 15
l/(s.ha). The values for the critical rainfall intensity are to be determined dependent upon the flow time from
Fig. 14 or from the following equation:

rcrit = 15.120/(tf + 120) in l/(s.ha) (9.1)


for tf µ 120 min
rcrit = 7.5 l/(s.ha)
for tf < 120 min

with
tf in min = longest flow time up to the stormwater overflow from the immediate catchment area without
taking into account the flow time in pure transport collector sewers.

The discharge to be further transported Qt results from the associated intermediate catchment area and all
upstream throttle discharges (Chaps. 6.2.6 and 6.2.7). Should throttle discharges Qt,i from upstream
stormwater overflows show, for example for design reasons, higher values than necessary in accordance
with Eqn. (6.10), then only the necessary value from Eqn. (6.10) needs to be applied with downstream series
stormwater overflows (see example Chap. 11.3.2).

December 1992 39
ATV-A 128 E

Fig. 14: Critical rainfall intensity dependent on flow time

Minimum mix ratio:


If, with commencement of overflow, there is a mix ratio between the rainfall and dry weather component
parts below 7 in the critical discharge then the mix ratio MSO is the basis for the stormwater overflow. If the
mean COD concentration in the dry weather discharge lies above 600 mg/l then the minimum mix ratio MSO
is to be increased in order to achieve a greater dilution

MSO = (Qt - Qdw24)/Qddw24 (9.2)


MSO · 7 for cdw µ 600 mg/l
MSO · (cdw - 180) for cdw > 600 mg/l

with
Qt in l/s = throttle discharge with commencement of stormwater overflow from Eqn. (6.10)
Qdw24 in l/s = daily mean value of the dry weather discharge (6.2.3)
cdw in mg/l = mean COD concentration in the dry weather discharge from measurements or from
Eqn. (6.16).

Daily mean value Qdw24 and concentration cdw are to be determined for the complete upstream catchment
area.

The minimum throttle discharge derives from Eqn. 9.2 as

Qt = (MSO + 1).Qdw24 (9.3)

It is relevant if it exceeds the value according to Eqn. (6.10).

Wastewater treatment condition:


If sewer storage capacity is available upstream of the stormwater overflow which can be activated by a lifted
sill with rainfall, then the throttle discharge may be reduced in comparison with the above given dimensioning
value only if the minimum mix ratio and the wastewater treatment conditions for the sewer with storage
capacity and bottom-end overflow can be observed (Chap. 9.3.2).

40 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

9.2 Stormwater Tanks with Overflow


Stormwater tanks with overflow must have at least a volume which meets Chap. 7.4. With stormwater tanks
with overflow for settled combined wastewater the treatment condition given below is to be met.

For design reasons stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater of less than 100 m3 and
stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater of less than 50 m3 are to be recommended.

The theoretical emptying time of stormwater tanks with overflow as quotient of the specific storage volume
VS and the related ran-off discharge rate qr should not exceed 10 to 15 hours. If this is not possible the
design and operation notes from Chap. 10 are to be observed.

Minimum mix ratio:


It is to be examined for each individual structure whether, in the long-term mean, a minimum mix ratio in
accordance with Eqn. (6.17) of MSTO ≥ 7 is maintained. If the mean COD concentration in dry weather lies
above 600 mg/l then the minimum mix ratio is to be raised in order to achieve greater dilution.

MSTO ≥ 7 for cdw µ 600 mg/l (9.4)


MSTO ≥ (cdw - 180)/60 for cdw > 600 mg/l

with
cdw in mg/l = mean COD concentration in the dry weather discharge from measurements or Eqn. (6.16).

In the simplified subdivision procedure the mean mix ratio MSTO is calculated according to Eqn. (6.17).

In the verification procedure the mean mix ratio at an overflow structure can be added from the results of a
long-term simulation as follows:

M = (cdw - ccc)/(ccc - cr) (9.5)

with
ccc = PLo/VQo
cr = PLr/VQr
VQo in m3 = combined wastewater quantity overflowed as annual mean and the descriptions in Chap. 7.1.6.

An undercutting of the permissible mix ratio can be avoided if, for example, heavily polluted wastewater from
commercial and industrial concerns are fed past overflow structures, a reduction of the amount of
wastewater is sought or the pre-treatment of heavily polluted wastewater is carried out. Should a significant
undercutting be unavoidable advanced measures are to be examined before the discharge of the overflow
water into the lake or river. In general, in such cases, a verification procedure in accordance with Chap. 8.2
is necessary.

Wastewater treatment condition:


In rectangular stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater the surface feed rate with a
non-reduced critical rainfall intensity of 15 l/(s.ha) should not exceed the value 10/h.

In the plug-flow part of a composite tank (Chap. 4.3.2.3) here only the discharge from the non-immediate
part of the catchment area is taken into account.

With stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater one can assume, without particular
verification, that a sufficient safety against sludge eddying is provided if the cross-section of the tank is so
determined that, with rainfall with non-reduced rainfall intensity of 15 l/(s.ha), the mean horizontal flow
velocity in rectangular tanks is not essentially more than 0.05 m/s.

The length of a rectangular tank should, in the flow direction, be at least twice the tank width. If a stormwater
tank with overflow is divided into individual chambers then this applies for these individual chambers.

December 1992 41
ATV-A 128 E
Circular stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater with tangential inflow, central
discharge and overflow structure for settled combined wastewater at the circumference (Fig. 17) which are
designed in accordance with the initial details of Chaps. 10.2.2 and 10.3.2 can be dimensioned with the
same surface feed rate of 10 m/h without verification of the flow velocity.

In order that the treatment conditions can be observed it is, as a rule, necessary to limit the tank inflow
through the tank overflow. However if the discharge can take place over the overflow structure for settled
combined wastewater without essentially exceeding the treatment conditions or if the tank overflow comes
into action only seldom (less than 10 times annually) then one can dispense with a tank overflow.

9.3 Sewer with Storage Capacity and Overflow

9.3.1 Sewer with Storage Capacity with Top-end Overflow


Sewers with storage capacity and top-end overflow, as a rule, are dimensioned as stormwater tanks
retaining the first flush of stormwater insofar as the conditions for these stormwater tanks can be met in
accordance with Chap. 4.3.2.1. Otherwise they are to be treated as sewers with storage capacity and
bottom-end overflow. They are also suitable for storage volumes below 50 m3.

9.3.2 Sewer with Storage Capacity with Bottom-end Overflow


Sewers with storage capacity and bottom-end overflow in the simplified distribution procedure receive a
supplement due to their poor settling effect. The specific storage volume VS is to be determined as for
stormwater tanks with overflow

VSSCBO = 1.5.VS.Ais in m3 (9.6)


with

VS in m3/ha = specific storage volume (7.2)


Ais in ha = impervious surface area of the associated catchment sub-area (6.1.2)

In the verification procedure the specialities for sewers with storage capacity and bottom-end overflow are to
be observed in accordance with Chap. 8.2.2.3.

The theoretical emptying duration of sewers with storage capacity and overflow should not exceed 15 hours.
The minimum mix ratio is to be maintained as for stormwater tanks with overflow.

Wastewater treatment condition:


In sewers with storage capacity and bottom-end overflow the horizontal flow velocity, with an unreduced
critical run-off discharge rate of 15 l/(s.ha), should not exceed 0.30 m/s at the start of the structure. A
smoothing stretch of sufficient length is to be provided in front of the structure with overflow, eg. through a
gradual widening in the ratio 1:10. If this velocity cannot be maintained with existing installations, eg. with the
back-up of sewers, then it is to be decided, within the sense of this Standard, whether the existing conditions
are still sufficient.

9.4 Stormwater Holding Tanks


Stormwater holding tanks are not dimensioned according to this Standard. Their effect on subsequent
structures with overflow depends on the run-off discharge rate. Stormwater holding tanks, in the simplified
distribution procedure, remain unconsidered in the dimensioning of overflow tanks if their throttle discharge
rate is greater than

qr > 5 l/(s.ha).

Their volume in this case cannot be added to the subsequent storage volume.

42 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Stormwater holding tanks with throttle discharge rates below 5 l/(s.ha) considerably influence the
subsequent structures with overflow. in these cases the volume distribution with the simplified dimensioning
procedure is no longer satisfactory; a verification in accordance with Chap. 8.2 must be carried out. In the
verification procedure stormwater holding tanks, other than in the preliminary calculation, are taken into
account with full volume and actual throttle discharge.

10 Construction and Operation of Structures With Overflow


Planning principles for the structures and their arrangement in a sewer network are contained in Chap 4.3.
Details of construction methods, maintenance and operation are dealt with below.

The structures should be so designed that, with dry weather discharge, no deposits can form.

The relief sewer is to be dimensioned for the greatest possible discharge from the upstream overdammed
sewer network in order to keep the structure with overflow free from back-up from the relief sewer with an
exceeding of the theoretical rainfall. With this, the possible blockage of the discharge sewer, with small
diameters of the discharge sewer, is to be taken into account. With larger diameters the throttle discharge of
the discharge sewer can be put into the calculation.

The discharge sewer to the sewage treatment plant should, as a rule, have a diameter no smaller than 0.30
m. In discharge sewers the installation of a control or exchangeable throttle device should be planned if the
further transported discharge is to be matched to the respective actual status of the sewage treatment plant.
The efficiency of the throttle is to be verified before being taken into service.

A higher selectivity of the discharge can, as a rule, be achieved through controlled slide valves, eddy
throttles or similar adjustable throttle devices. Even differing development statuses can be taken into account
through this or through a modification of the weir crest using added sills. Longer throttle stretches are not
recommended for this. If possible the overflow is to be kept free from floating material through scum boards.

For the later monitoring of the effect of structures with overflow the necessary free spaces and empty pipes
are to be provided for the installation of measuring equipment.

10.1 Stormwater Overflows

10.1.1 General
In order to be able to design stormwater overflows hydraulically correctly the remaining discharge in the
sewer should be at least 50 l/s. The connected impervious surface area Ai (6.1.2) should not be less than 2
ha. In addition the flow velocity in the sewers of the inflow and discharge areas, with dry weather, should be
at least 0.50 m/s. With smaller flow velocities attention is to be paid to a sufficient flushing effect.

With new construction of a stormwater overflow, with a satisfactory gradient immediately below the
stormwater overflow, a sufficiently large bottom step should be placed so that a possible, later necessary
stormwater tank can be operated with free flow. Lateral junctions in the area of the stormwater tank with
overflow are to be avoided in order to maintain hydraulically calculable flow conditions.

Attention is to be given to air feed to the stormwater tank with overflow and at the overflow weir.

The hydraulic calculation of stormwater tanks with overflow is determined in ATV Standard A 111 (in
preparation).

December 1992 43
ATV-A 128 E
10.1.2 Method of Construction of Stormwater Overflows with Overflow Weirs
A Stormwater overflow with overflow weir is to be provided if the rainfall run-off lies in the laminar regime.
With turbulent discharge there is usually a transition point in or before the stormwater overflow so that the
overflow conditions cannot be mathematically recorded. Through smoothing stretches with reduced base
gradients or suitable braking stretches a laminar discharge at Qcrit can be enforced.

These smoothing stretches are not necessary if the overfall crest is raised up at least to the pipe crown of
the inflow sewer.

Fig. 15 shows a diagram of a stormwater overflow with one-sided, raised weir. The throttle must feed the dry
weather discharge Qdwx into the inflow sewer without backing-up. Therefore, a greater base gradient is to be
arranged within the stormwater overflow by reduction of the cross-section. In exceptional cases this can also
be achieved through a step in the base. The base of the discharge sewer should lie at least 3 cm deeper
than the inflow sewer. At Qcrit a back-up due to the throttle may occur up to the height of the overflow crest.

The weir crest is horizontal and is to be arranged at least 0.5 m above the crown of the throttle. The overflow
crest should be smooth and well rounded.

In the interest of a large storage volume (high weir crest) the weir crown should be determined at least the
half cross-sectional height of the inflow sewer. With sufficient flushing of the inflow sewer it can be placed as
high as the permissible back-up level allows, so that an additional storage space is created.

With double-sided overflow the clear space below the throughflow channel should be at least 25 cm high
over the whole length.

For the most part, due to the throttle effect, the sharp edge formation of the throttle mouth is preferred This
should be accessible for cleaning tasks at all times from above (manhole shaft) or from a flooding-free stage.

Fig. 15: Stormwater overflow with one-sided, raised weir

44 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

10.1.3 Method of Construction of Stormwater Overflows with Floor Opening


(Spring Overflow)

If, due to the large gradient, the rainfall run-off takes place in the stable laminar regime then a stormwater
overflow with floor opening is to be provided. The inflow sewer must run in a straight line for a sufficient
length.

Fig. 16: Stormwater overflow with floor opening

The constructional design emerges from Fig. 16. The base plate may not, for hydraulic reasons, be placed
higher than the base of the inflow sewer. The critical combined wastewater discharge Qcrit must flow through
the floor opening, without the overflow sewer being acted upon. If an as small as possible extra loading in
comparison with Qcrit is required in the discharge sewer to the sewage treatment plant then a flat separation
plate is to be selected in the floor opening. With this the flat plate is to be reduced, in a transition stretch, to
the cross-section of the overflow channel. Otherwise a curved separation plate matched to the sewer profile
can be employed.

With very high requirements on the selectivity (extra loading with the greatest possible inflow less than 20 %
of Qcrit) an effective throttling is to be planned in the discharge to the sewage treatment plant (see also ATV
Standard A 111, currently in draft).

The base gradients in the inflow and overflow sewers are to be selected, if possible, with the same size.

The length of the floor opening should, with regard to the maintenance, be at least 50 cm. For the fulfilment
of these conditions a large base gradient must be available. A growing critical combined wastewater
discharge conditioned by the staged expansion of the sewer network requires an extension of the floor
opening by the moving back of the drop edge. This can, if required, take place through extension of
individual elements (prefabricated components) on the inflow side. In addition the separation plate can be
made capable of sliding.
December 1992 45
ATV-A 128 E

The drop stream must be ventilated.

10.2 Stormwater Tanks with Overflow

10.2.1 Method of Construction of Separation Structures and Overflows


A flow-dividing structure and tank overflow should, if possible, be combined in one structure.

With stormwater tanks retaining the first flush of stormwater in the main stream there is only one overflow
which is in front of the tank and comes into action only if the tank is filled. It is designated as tank overflow
structure (TOS). With stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater the overflow, over
which the mechanically treated combined wastewater flows into the receiving water, is designated overflow
structure for settled combined wastewater (OSC). With the maintenance of certain requirements one can
dispense with the tank overflow structure (see Chap. 9.2)

Tank overflow structures and flow-dividing structures are basically to be designed as stormwater overflows.
However, lateral junctions with sewers into the flow-dividing structure or into the tank flow structure are
permissible.

A scum board must be sited in front of the overflow structure for settled combined wastewater.

If, through a back-up device at the tank overflow, the overflow of the combined wastewater stored in the
sewer network and tanks is prevented from overflowing at the tank overflow, then the thus gained storage
volume can be added in the determination of the useful volume of the stormwater overflow.

The height or type of design of the flow-dividing structure (FDS) do not influence the overflow activity of the
tank overflow structure or overflow structure for settled combined wastewater. As long as the stormwater
tank with overflow is not filled the combined wastewater inflow will be fed in without the tank overflow to the
lake or river activating.

The upper edge of the overflow structure for settled combined wastewater determines the theoretical storage
volume of the stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined wastewater. It can lie below or above the
upper edge of the flow-dividing structure or the base of the inflow. The results of a back-up in the inflow
sewer are to be watched. The flow velocity in the inflow should, therefore, with Qdwx, be as far as possible
greater than 0.8 m/s in order, again, to remove deposits. This applies for an expansion circumstances from
taking into service up to the planning level.

The tank overflow structure may, with filled stormwater tank with overflow for settled wastewater, first
activate with rainfall whose run-off lies above the required critical combined wastewater discharge (see
Chap. 9.2). The upper edge of the tank overflow structure lies at least at the height of the overflow structure
for settled combined wastewater hOSC with critical combined wastewater overflow over the upper edge of the
overflow structure for settled combined wastewater. In addition, it is recommended so to design the inlet that
an even distribution of the inflow takes place and the turbulence in the tank is kept as small as possible.

In order to achieve a good treatment effect at the overflow structure for settled combined wastewater, as
long as possible overflow edges and a small overflow height should be sought. The overflow edges are, if
required, to be arranged in stepped height in order better to be able to measure the overflow event.

In opposition to stormwater overflows smoothing stretches are not necessary before the flow-dividing
structure and the tank overflow structure, however, for operational reasons and for monitoring with water
level measurements, they are recommended.

46 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

10.2.2 Method of Construction of Stormwater Tanks with Overflow


With the planning and construction of stormwater tanks with overflow, attention is to be paid to the local and
hydraulic conditions as well as to the later operating behaviour, to the maintenance and to the monitoring.

Amongst other reasons, the favourable cleaning and maintenance possibilities, the simple control and,
possibly, the smaller construction costs favour stormwater tanks with overflow in open construction. Within
residential areas it is, inter alia, for hygienic and conservation reasons, often appropriate to favour closed
tanks.

In addition, efforts should be made that the content of the tank after filling drains in free flow. If this cannot be
achieved then at least the continuously flowing dry weather discharge should be further conveyed without it
having to be raised.

With the design of stormwater tanks with overflow the following is basically to be observed:

- with staged tank extension or sub-division of the total volume it is, for operating reasons,
advantageous that the tank is so designed that the individual chambers are filled one after the other,
- the rectangular stormwater tanks with overflow with flat floor and without flushing facility should have
a longitudinal gradient of at least 1.0 % (better 2 %) and the lateral gradient is 3 to 5 %. With circular
tanks the gradient to the middle of the tank should be at least 2 %. Deposits are to be removed
regularly. Therefore cleaning and/or flushing facilities are to be planned. Automatic flushing devices
influence the tank design,
- if the dry weather inflow in the main stream is fed right through the tank an individual channel is to be
provided for this which is dimensioned for at least 3.Qpx + Qdw24,
- the base drop at the discharge sewer should be at least so large that there continues to be no back-
up in the inflow channel with the theoretical tank discharge,
- stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater are to be so designed that
conditions favourable for laminar flow are achieved. The relatively small retention times require an
even distribution of the inflow within the tank. This can be achieved through appropriate inlet and
outlet design,
- tangentially fed tanks should have a central throttle discharge and are to be so designed and
equipped that deposits are extensively avoided on emptying the tank. With stormwater tanks with the
overflow structure for settled combined wastewater at the tank circumference, this is to be arranged
in 4 quadrants (in an emergency in 3 quadrants) (Fig. 17),

Fig. 17: Functional diagram of a circular stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined
wastewater

December 1992 47
ATV-A 128 E
- tanks with which transverse or short circuit flow degrades the settling effect should not be employed
as stormwater tanks with overflow for settled combined wastewater
- with open tanks fencing off is necessary. Raised containing walls or side rails are to be planned at
the tanks. The relevant construction and accident prevention regulations are to be observed,
- with closed tanks, due to the formation of deposits, the roof should not be covered in,
- in order to avoid the accumulation of health damaging and potentially explosive substances closed
tanks are to be provided with ventilation openings. These openings can, at the same time, serve as
air exits on filling of these tanks and for light exposure. Within residential areas the air exhaust pipes
should be made as high as possible. In special cases forced ventilation is necessary,
- with segmented floors it is recommended that a serpentine channel is preferred to ridged floors. With
this the minimum velocity of 0.80 m/s with dry weather discharge Qdwx should be maintained in the
individual channels. The hydraulic loss of height should be accounted for with 0.01 to 0.02 m per
bend,
- the tanks are to be satisfactorily exposed,
- electrical installations in closed, wastewater carrying spaces are to be explosion protected,
- the tanks are to be designed with good access. Rescue routes must be capable of easy access.

10.2.3 Method of Construction of Sewers with Storage Volume


The weir crest of the tank overflow is placed as high as the back-up with maximum inflow allows. The profile
of the inflow sewer is continued with at least the same cross-section. Circular cross-sections with more than
1.5 m diameter or other cross-sections with a similar profile width and heavily angled floor surface are
practical. For the reduction of deposits the flow velocity with the dry weather discharge peak should not be
below 0.80 m/s and the water depth should be over 0.05 m. The drag tension should be 2 to 3 N/m2,
however, not less than 1.3 N/m2. With flow velocities below 0.50 m/s a possibility of flushing must be
ensured.

As tank overflow at the overflow point a high placed weir crest which must lie above the static sewer volume
comes into consideration. Discharge regulating slide valves or other suitable throttling devices are arranged
at the storage space end. Through these the discharge to the sewage treatment plant is limited with rainfall.

10.2.4 Method of Construction for Discharges


The tank discharge can be limited by suitable throttle installations, eg. eddy throttles, controlled throttle flaps
and slide valves or pumps and/or through long throttle stretches. Throttle stretches have the disadvantage
that they are no longer adjustable. Therefore they should only be provided in exceptional cases.

To avoid sludge deposits an as large as possible floor step should be provided at the outlet. Its depth is
based on the selected throttle device. Through this the discharge losses in the discharge sewer are
balanced.

Throttle stretches are to be so designed that the maximum permissible discharge with safety may not be
exceeded. With consideration of the danger of blockage the pipe diameter is not to selected smaller than
0.30 m. In special cases and if, through increased operational monitoring a danger of blockage can be
excluded then the diameter may be reduced to 0.20 m.

Throttle sliding valves can be arranged as individual sliding valves or as several at different heights. The
outlet cross-section in unregulated throttle slide valves should be at least 0.06 m2 and have a minimum
opening height of 0.20 m. as throttle slide valves do not serve primarily as closing devices they max be
placed under water.

An approximately constant discharge can be achieved through controlled throttle installations, eddy throttle
or other control devices.

With emptying by pumps a regulation of the discharge can be achieved which approximates to that of throttle
slide valves. With the selection of pump an as constant as possible discharge is to be sought. In addition the
following is to be observed:

48 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

- the emptying pump is to be equipped with sufficiently large opening in order to avoid blockages and,
if necessary, to allow flushing of the tank (opening ≥ 100 mm),
- the tank is to be emptied as rapidly as possible,
- the pressure pipeline of the pumps should, as a rule, junction with the sewer so that the theoretical
throttle discharge is not exceeded. A flushing of the tank is made possible through circulation flow or
other flushing aids.

The areas of application of various throttle devices are very different. With low throttle discharges (eg. below
30 l/s) attention is to be paid to depositing.

The throttle installation is to be so designed that an approximately constant discharge is achieved and the
maximum permissible discharge with all water levels in the tank is not exceeded. It must be matched to the
respective development status of the sewage treatment plant. Verification can be carried out with the aid of a
discharge-water level diagram. It is necessary for the maintenance of the objective of this Standard to
examine the discharge for acceptance through a simple, local measurement.

For reasons of economy as well as for the avoidance of large variations in discharge, in exceptional cases,
throttle stretches can also be formed over several sewer sections.

With flotation controlled flaps the design of the shafts is to be made accordingly.

Fixed slide valves and screens alone are not suitable as throttle installations.

In addition to operating installations a further pipeline should be provided through which the tank, with
operating defects, can be emptied (base outlet). In emergency it is slid open. Due to the danger of blockage
it should be arranged some 0.50 m above the outlet pipeline.

Slide valves at outlets are to be so designed that can be operated from outside the tank. Slide valve control
rods are to be extended to ground level.

The combined wastewater discharge from the stormwater tanks with overflow should be at least 2.Qpx +
Qdw24. In order to avoid unnecessary sludge deposits the tank floor may not be used for this outlet. With new
planning the drain following each overflow structure should be dimensioned for at least 3.Qpx + Qdw24 in order
to cope with unforeseen developments.

10.3 Maintenance and Operation

10.3.1 Maintenance Facilities


Maintenance and operation of stormwater overflow installations should be a component part of a total sewer
network operational concept. The fault free and, with regard to solid substances, complete discharge with
dry weather is for this a decisive precondition for the objective stormwater discharge.

With enclosed tanks easily accessible manhole and working openings are to be provided. As manholes must
also serve as escape routes it is practical to provide slip-free ladders or steps (see also Accident Prevention
Regulations).

Ventilation of the tanks should be sufficiently strong so that condensation water inside the tank is extensively
prevented. During the filling process the velocity in the ventilation openings my not exceed 10 m/s. An
opening is to be placed over the outlet for the removal of blockages there: if no throttle stretch is planned
then the submerged part of the throttle device must also be made accessible through a shaft which allows
the removal of blockages under water. As, with filled tanks, one may enter these shafts only up to the limit of
back-up, fittings for scaffolding are practical.

December 1992 49
ATV-A 128 E
10.3.2 Cleaning and Flushing Facilities
With the storage of combined wastewater sludge deposits occur, particularly with heavy throttling. This
sludge and the other tank contents must reach the sewage treatment plant or be disposed of harmlessly in
another manner. With this flushing installations have proved themselves; if required a later installation can
be considered. In every case it is to be ensured that the tank can be hosed out manually. Inflow water as
well as receiving water or groundwater may be employed for flushing. The hygienic requirements are to be
observed.

The employment range of flushing installations varies considerably. Experience and information are, for
example, contained in Kaul, 1986; Stier, 1986 and 1987; RW-Behandlung in BW, Stuttgart, 1987.

10.3.3 Measurement Facilities


In tanks of water management significance, registering water level measurement facilities should be installed
within the scope of the self-monitoring. In addition it is recommended that the throttle discharge and the
precipitation in the catchment area are measured. Through this the frequency of overflow of the overflow
structures and the effects of the stormwater tanks with overflow on the receiving water can be estimated.
This is particularly important with intramission considerations with extensive requirements and control of the
sewer network. the registration of the overflow frequency can take place on measurement tapes or on other
data carrying media. A remote transmission to a central monitoring location (as a rule to the sewage
treatment plant) is practical, in particular for the immediate transmission of defect and operational messages
as well as for deliberate emptying of tanks.

With the other tanks it is sufficient to check, at regular intervals, whether the formulations selected in the
calculation (eg. impervious surface areas, run-off discharge rate) still apply.

10.3.4 Other Records


It is to be recorded in an operational diary when the following take place:

- stormwater tanks with overflow examined,


- sludge deposits in what quantity and how removed,
- fittings and control devices inspected and serviced,
- measurement facilities examined and adjusted,
- which particular activities were observed.

Normal commercially available forms are available for the operational monitoring of stormwater tanks
(Hirthammer, 1989).

11 Dimensioning Example
11.1 Local Situation
A drainage area is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 18. The domestic and commercial wastewater amounts
occurring were summarised in the Table under "Inhabitants" with a water consumption ws = 180 l/(I.d).

Sub-area 1 is, as boundary community, connected via a stormwater holding tank SHT with 2000 m3 storage
content to a combined area. The throttle discharge is, in the mean between start of back-up and the water
level at activation of the emergency overflow, 100 l/s.

Sub-area 2 includes a commercial area in which heavily polluted wastewater occurs. It is to flow over a
stormwater overflow SO1.

Sub-area 3 contains the inflow of the commercial area stormwater overflow SO1. It is also to be overflowed
over a stormwater overflow SO2.

50 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Sub-area 4 junctions in the stormwater tank retaining the first flush of stormwater STRRF which must be
emptied with a pump. The throttle discharge is 2.Qpx + Qdw24.

Sub-area 5 is drained using a separate system. The wastewater drain junctions with the main collector
sewer in combined area 6.

Sub-area 6 receives the inflow from all other overflow installations. Here a stormwater tank with overflow for
settled combined wastewater STOSC is planned whose throttle discharge corresponds with the inflow to the
sewage treatment plant.

The biological treatment stage of the sewage treatment plant can accept a combined wastewater flow of 98
l/s. With dry weather a mean COD concentration of 475 mg/l was measured before the preliminary treatment
stage.

Example
C = combined area
S = separate area
hPr = 722 mm
ws = 180 l/(I ⋅ d)
Ais = impervious surface area
tf = flow time
SG = terrain slope group
Qiw24 = infiltration water flow
x = number of hours
cw = wastewater concentration

Sub-area 1 2 3 4 5 6 STP

Inhabitants 2240 550 420 1350 1100 5600 11260


Ais in ha 14 3 4 10 - 35 0
tf in min 10+7 2 3 7 - 20 66
SG - 1 2 2 2 - 1 37
x in h 1.26
13.8

Qw24 in l/s 4.7 1.1 0.9 2.8 2.3 11.7 23.5


QrS24 in l/s - - - - 2.3 - 2.3
Qiw24 in l/s 1.4 0.3 0.4 1.0 1.0 3.5 7.6
Qdw24 in l/s 6.1 1.4 1.3 3.8 3.3 15.2 31.1
Σ Qdw24 in l/s 6.1 1.4 2.7 3.8 3.3 31.1 31.1
Qnx in l/s 9.3 2.0 1.8 5.6 4.6 17.7 40.8
Qdwx in l/s 10,7 2.3 2.2 6.6 5.6 21.0 48.4
Σ Qdwx in l/s 10.7 2.3 4.4 6.6 5.6 48.4 48.4
Qt,Qcw l/(s.ha) 100 50 105.5 12.3 - 98 98
qr 6.7 16.2 14.6 0,85 - 0.98 0.98
cw in mg/l 600 1200 600 600 600 600 629
cdw in mg/l 462 951 412 443 418 462 475
Σcdw in mg/l 462 951 698 443 418 475 475

Fig. 18: Schematic plan and area characteristic values for a mathematical example

December 1992 51
ATV-A 128 E
11.2 Necessary Total Storage Volumes
First, a permissible overflow rate must be established for the total catchment area of the sewage treatment
plant. It is carried out as follows (associated Eqn. nos. are in brackets):

(6.4) Qw24 = 11260 . 180/86400 = 23.5 l/s,


(6.5) Qpx = 23.5 . 24/13.8 = 40.8 l/s,
(6.4) Qd24 = 23.5 + 7.6 = 31.1 l/s,
(6.5) Qdx = 40.8 + 7.6 = 48.4 l/s,
(6.6) QrS24 = 1100 . 180/86400 = 2.3 l/s,
(6.16) cdw = 629 . 23.5/31.1 = 475.0 mg/l.

From these discharge and concentration data further values can be calculated with the aid of the form
(Appx. 3):

Rainwater run-off
(6.7) Qr24 = 98 - 31.1 - 2.3 = 64.6 l/s,

DW discharge rate
(6.14)Qdw24 = 31.1/66 = 0,471 l/(s.ha),

Run-off discharge rate


(6.15) qr = 64.6/66 = 0.979 l/(s.ha),

Flow time reduction


(6.13) af = 0.5 + 50/(37 + 100) = 0.865,
however, minimum value = 0.885,

Mean rainwater run-off with overflows


(6.12) Qro = 0.885(3.0 . 66 + 3.2 . 64.6) = 358 l/s,

Mean mix ratio


(6.17) m = (358 + 2.3)/31.1 = 11.6,

Coefficient of influence DW concentration


(7.2) ap = 475/600 = 0.792,
however, minimum value = 1.0,

Coefficient of influence annual precipitation


(7.3) ah = 722/800 - 1 = - 0.097,

Coefficient of influence sewer deposits (Fig. 12 or Appx. 4)


xa value for sewer deposits
(7.4) xa = 24 . 31.1/48.4 = 15.4

Assuming a mean terrain slope group SGm = 1.26 in the left-hand diagram of Fig. 12, go up to the line for the
DW discharge rate qdw24 = 0.47, right to the line for the value xa = 15.4, then vertically down to the abscissa:
aa = 0.372,

Dimensioning concentration
(7.5) cd = 600 . (1.0 - 0.097 + 0.372) = 764 mg/l,

Theoretical overflow concentration


(7.6) cc = (107 . 11.6 + 765)/(11.6 + 1) = 159 mg/l,

Permissible overflow rate


(7.7) eo = 3700/(159 - 70) = 41.5 %,

52 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

These results show that, in the annual mean with maximum combined wastewater inflow, 67 l/s of rainwater
and 31 l/s dry weather discharge can be fed to the sewage treatment plant.

From the connected separate area one must reckon with a rainwater run-off qr of 2.3 l/s so that for the
combined wastewater treatment one can assume some 65 l/s of rainwater run-off or a run-off discharge rate
qr = 0.98 l/(s.ha). According to Fig. 13 or Appx. 4 there results a necessary specific storage volume and thus
a necessary total volume of

Vs = 21.6 m3/ha
V = 14.26 m3.

11.2.1 Simplified Distribution Procedure


First, it is examined whether the scope of application of the simplified distribution procedure is fulfilled (Chap.
8.1.2).

The run-off discharge rate of the stormwater tank with overflow is

(6.8) Qr24 = 100.0 - 6.1 - 0.0 = 93.9 l/s,


(6.15) qr = 93.9/14.0 = 6.7 l/(s.ha).

The available run-off discharge rate qr lies above the necessary minimum value of 5 l/(s.ha). As also the
permissible number of pre-overflows are not exceeded and the stormwater overflows are dimensioned
according to this Standard the simplified distribution procedure can be applied.

If now the same calculation according to the Form A 128 is carried out for the stormwater tank retaining the
first flush of stormwater there results 18.5 m3/ha for the specific storage volume and 185 m3 for the storage
volume. The emptying pump must be designed with this for 12.3 l/s or some 45 m3/h. From this there result
the following sizes for the stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined wastewater

total volume V = 1426 m3,


stormwater tank retaining
the first flush of stormwater V = 185 m3,
stormwater tank with overflow
for settled combined wastewater V = 1241 m3.

11.2.2 Verification Procedure


The drainage system upon which this example is based can be represented as an outline network according
to the system plan in Fig. 19. In this there are shown sub-division into 18 sub-areas and 31 calculation
stretches whereby, a combination of similar sections and the disregarding of subordinate sewers has already
been carried out. The degree of detailing in the presentation of the network is thus essentially coarser than is
normal in the network calculation.

For the application of a verification procedure the following peculiarities are to be pointed out:

- the network shows a stormwater holding tank with qr > 5 l/(s.ha) which is thus, in the simplified
distribution procedure in accordance with Chap. 8.1.2, is disregarded in the dimensioning of the
stormwater tanks with overflow,
- some sections are hydraulically overloaded for which the network contains a series of
interconnections.

This method of approach in the application of a verification procedure is shown in Fig. 20. Following this the
system processing in form of an example for a hydrological and a hydrodynamic calculation method is
sketched.

December 1992 53
ATV-A 128 E

Fig. 19: System plan of the drainage area

54 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

The characteristic values of the calculation stretches and sub-areas are to be taken from Table 1

Table 1: Characteristic values of the drainage network for a hydrodynamic calculation (coarse
network):
- Actual Inventory data taking into account structures with overflow
- Collector sewer data for the back-up free preliminary calculation with the central tank,
excluding structures with overflow

Existing sewer Preliminary


network calculation central
tank
No. Junction L Grad. DN Qv Design. Ais SG DN Qv
Above Below m ‰ mm l/s ha - mm l/s
1 103 102 120 5.0 600 433 F1/1 8.0 1 800 924
.2 102 101 120 5.0 700 650 0.0 - 1000 1663
3 101 SHT 120 5.0 800 924 F1/2 6.0 1 1000 1663
4 SHT 191 250 8.0 300 88 0.0 - 1000 2105
5 191 611 250 8.0 400 187 0.0 - 1000 2105
6 201 SO1 100 5.0 400 148 F2/1 3.0 2 600 433
7 SO1 302 50 5.0 300 69 0.0 - 600 433
8 302 301 50 7.0 400 175 F3/1 2.0 2 700 770
9 301 SO2 40 7.0 500 316 F3/2 2.0 2 700 770
10 SO2 611 10 20.0 300 138 0.0 - 700 1303
11 403 402 140 7.0 500 316 F4/1 4.0 2 600 512
12 402 401 120 7.0 500 316 F4/2 4.0 2 800 1094
13 401 STRFF 50 7.0 700 770 F4/3 2.0 2 800 1094
14 STRFF 611 20 5.0 300 69 0.0 - 900 1260
15 611 610 150 3.0 600 335 0.0 - 1400 3116
16 610 609 180 3.0 600 335 0.0 - 1400 3116
17 609 608 100 3.0 700 503 F6/1 4.0 1 1600 4424
18 608 607 210 3.0 700 503 F6/2 4.0 1 1600 4424
19 607 606 190 3.0 700 503 0.0 - 1600 4424
20 606 605 100 3.0 900 975 F6/3 3.0 1 1600 4424
21 605 604 150 3.0 900 975 F6/4 2.0 1 1800 6025
22 604 603 210 3.0 1000 1287 F6/5 8.0 1 1800 6025
23 608 681*) 100 7.0 400 175 0.0 - - -
24 681 682 80 7.0 400 175 F6/6 3.0 1 500 316
25 682 683 170 7.0 500 316 F6/7 2.0 1 600 512
26 683 603 100 7.0 500 316 0.0 - 700 770
27 603 602 250 3.0 1200 2079 F6/8 5.0 1 1800 6025
28 602 601 220 3.0 1200 2079 0.0 - 2000 7940
29 601 STOSC 110 3.0 1200 2079 F6/9 4.0 - 2000 7940
30 STOSC 701 50 4.0 400 132 0.0 - 400 132
31 701 702 50 4.0 400 132 0.0 - 400 132
*)
Dispensed with in the preliminary calculation of the central tank

December 1992 55
ATV-A 128 E

EDP PREPARATION COARSE NETWORK


SEWER NETWORK CALCULATION FROM NETWORK DATA

VERIFICATION OF THE HYDRAULIC


EQUIVALENCE OF THE COARSE NETWORK

POLLUTION LOAD CALCULATION ACTUAL STATUS

DETERMINATION TOTAL STORAGE VOLUME


IN ACCORDANCE WITH CHAP. 7.

PREPARATION
DERIVATION
OF COARSE
OF REHABILITATION
NETWORK IN ACCORDANCE
REQUIREMENT
WITH CHAP. 8.
PLANNING
(FICTITIOUS
OF REHABILITATION
CENTRAL TANK)
MEASURES

PRELIMINARY CALCULATION FOR FICTITIOUS CENTRAL TANK


THEORETICAL; MODEL-DEPENDENT OVERFLOW LOAD

POLLUTION LOAD CALCULATION REHABILITATION ALTERNATIVES

SELECTION OF THE REHABILITATION CONDITION

POLLUTION LOAD CALCULATION REHABILITATED CONDITION


VERIFICATION OVERFLOW LOAD < PERMISSIBLE LOAD

Fig. 20: Method of approach with the application of a verification procedure

11.2.2.1 Hydrologic Method


The network representation for the execution of the preliminary calculation with the central tank for the
determination of the theoretical, model-dependent overflow load is shown in the system graph in Fig. 21. The
system representation of the application of the verification procedure on the actual available or planned
network with inclusion of existing or planned stormwater overflows is shown in Fig. 22. In both cases an
outline system presentation with representation of 6 sub-areas, the structures in the system and the
interconnection of the individual elements is chosen.

11.2.2.2 Hydrodynamic Method


With the application of a detailed pollution load model with hydrodynamic discharge calculation a more
detailed system presentation is necessary than with the hydrological method. The outline network structure
in Fig. 19 is based on this.

For the preliminary calculation for the determination of the theoretical, model-dependent overflow load the
existing structures are dispensed with. Therefore an enlargement of the sewer diameter to ensure a back-up
free discharge to the fictitious central tank at the sewage treatment plant is necessary. The diameter
resulting from a rough measurement with the rainfall intensity r15(1) = 100 l/(s.ha) - the other characteristic
data remains unaltered - are included in Table 1. Furthermore it can be advantageous for the simplification
of the preliminary calculation to get rid of the existing interconnections, eg. by factoring out the stretch 608 -
681.

56 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

The verification for the actual available or planned network, including all special structures, can take place
immediately using the system according to Fig. 19.

11.2.2.3 Presentation of Results


The presentation of the most important results of a verification procedure is shown as an example in Table 2.
The therein contained values can be calculated with both the hydrologic as well as the hydrodynamic
method. Furthermore a pollution load calculation gives further results on the overflow behaviour of the total
system and the individual structures, such as, for example, overflow volumes, overflow load, overflow
duration and frequency. In addition the inclusion of other pollutant parameters is possible.

Fig. 21: Hydraulically equivalent replacement system for the preliminary calculation of the
permitted relief load - hydrological method

Fig. 22: System plan of the roughly subdivided drainage network - hydrological method

December 1992 57
ATV-A 128 E
Table 2: Structure and overflow characteristic values as result of verification procedures

Structure characteristic values Overflow characteristic values


Structure Volume Qt qr te ne To VOo Plo ccc mmin1)
m3 l/s l/(s.ha) h 1/a h m3 kg mg/l
SHT 2000 100 6.7 5.9 1 0.2 116 20 130 14
SO1 50 16.2 45 11 2313 290 125 35
SO2 105.5 14.6 45 12 3189 380 120 38
STRFF 185 12.3 0.85 6.0 84 128 23801 3150 132 12
SO5 5.6 Not counted
STOSC 1241 98.0 0.98 5.3 56 149 98289 14110 144 9
Sum 1426 98.0 0.98 127708 17950 141
Central 1426 98.0 119 130481 18280 140 10
tank
1) Mix ratio m is calculated for SO according to Eqn. (9.2), for SHT according to Eqn. (9.5).

11.3 Dimensioning of Stormwater Overflows

11.3.1 Stormwater Overflow SO1 in Commercial Area 2


The following applies for stormwater overflow SO1:
(9.1) rcrit = 15 . 120/(2 + 10) = 14.8 l/(s.ha),
(6.9) Qrcrit = 14.8 . 3. = 44.3 l/s,
(6.5) Qdw24 = 1.4 l/s,
(6.10) ΣQt,i = 0.0 l/s,
(6.10) Qt,SO1 = 44.3 + 1.4 + 0.0 = 45.7 l/s

For design reasons the throttle discharge of a stormwater overflow should not, however, lie below 50 l/s, so
that Qt = 50 l/s is selected (Chap. 10.1.1).

Minimum mix ratio


(9.2) mSO1 = (951 - 180)/60 = 12.9

An examination of the actual mix ratio gives


(9.2) mSO1 = (50 - 1.4)/1.4 = 34.7 > 12.9,
so that the requirement according to the mix ratio is maintained.

11.3.2 Stormwater Overflow SO2 in Sub-area 3


The same formulas are used as in the last Chap.

(9.1) rcrit = 15 . 120/(3 + 120) = 14.6 l/(s.ha),


(6.9) Qrcrit = 14.8 . 4.0 = 58.5 l/s,
(6.5) Qdw24 = 1.3 l/s,
(6.10) ΣQt,i = 45.7 l/s,
(6.10) QtSO2 = 58.5 + 1.3 + 45.7 = 105.5 l/s

For the inflow of the above lying stormwater overflows it is not the actual throttle discharge of 50 l/s but
rather the theoretically required discharge of 45.7 l/s which is to be applied (Chap. 6.2.7). The minimum mix
ratio is

(9.2) mSO2 = (698 - 180)/60 = 8.6

Actually available is
(9.2) mSO2 = (105 5 - 2.7)/2.7 = 38.1 > 8.6

so that here a sufficient dilution is available when the stormwater overflow comes into action.

58 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

12 Terms
Symbol Unit Technical term
ACA ha Catchment area connected to a sewer network
Ais ha Impervious surface area
Ared ha Hardened surface area
aa - Coefficient of influence for sewer deposits
ac h Working hours per day in a commercial concern
af - Flow time factor
ah - Coefficient of influence for annual precipitation
ai h Working hours per day in an industrial concern
ap - Coefficient of influence for heavy polluters
bc d Production days per year in a commercial concern
bi d Production days per year in a industrial concern
COD - Chemical oxygen demand
CT - Composite tanks
c Index for "commercial"
ccc mg/l Theoretical combined concentration in overflow water (COD)
cdc mg/l Theoretical dimensioning concentration in DW discharge (COD)
cdwc mg/l Mean COD concentration in DW discharge
cr mg/l Mean COD concentration in running off rainwater
ctp mg/l Mean discharge concentration of the sewage treatment plant (COD)
cw mg/l Mean COD concentration in domestic and industrial wastewater
DW - Dry weather
d - Index for "domestic"
e % Annual overflow rate, overflow discharge rate
eo % Permissible annual overflow rate
FDS - Flow-dividing structure
hPr mm Long-term mean annual precipitation
hPr,eff mm Effective mean annual precipitation
I - Number of inhabitants
i - Index for "industrial"
JT % Terrain gradient
MLQ l/s Mean low water discharge
m - Mean mix ratio in overflow water
mSO - Minimum mix ratio for stormwater overflows
mSTO - Minimum mix ration for stormwater tanks with overflow
OSSC - Overflow structure for settled combined wastewater
PLo kg Overflowed annual pollution load
Plr kg Annual pollution load flushed from the surface by rainfall
Pltp kg Annual pollution load in stormwater of the STP effluent
Q l/s Discharge
Qc24 l/s Daily mean of the commercial wastewater discharge calculated from the annual
mean
Qcrit l/s Critical combined wastewater discharge
Qcw l/s Combined wastewater discharge to the sewage treatment plant
Qd24 l/s Daily mean of the domestic wastewater discharge calculated from the annual mean
Daily mean dry weather discharge
Qdw24 l/s Daily peak of dry weather discharge
Qdwx l/s Daily mean of the industrial wastewater discharge calculated from the annual mean
Qi24 l/s Infiltration water discharge as annual mean
Discharge over the Overflow structure for settled combined wastewater
Qiw,Qiw24 l/s Daily mean of rainwater run-off
QOS l/s Critical rainwater run-off
Mean stormwater discharge during overflows
Qr24 l/s Daily mean of rainwater run-off from separate areas
Qrcrit l/s Throttle discharge
Qro l/s Discharge over the tank overflow

December 1992 59
ATV-A 128 E
QrS24 l/s Wastewater discharge in daily mean
Qt l/s Wastewater discharge from separate areas in daily mean
QTO l/s Daily peak of wastewater discharge
Qw24 l/s Discharge rate
QwS24 l/s Dry weather discharge rate in daily mean
Qwx l/s Run-off discharge rate
q l/(s.ha) Rainfall intensity at which a stormwater overflow will come into action
qdw24 l/(s.ha) Terrain slope group according to ATV Standard A 118
qr l/(s.ha) Mean terrain slope group
rcrit l/(s.ha) Stormwater holding tank
SG - Stormwater overflow
SGm - Sewer with storage capacity and bottom overflow
SHT - Sewer with storage capacity and overflow
SO - Sewer with storage capacity and top overflow
SSCBO - Stormwater tank with overflow
SSCO - Stormwater tank with overflow for settled combined wastewater
SSCTO - Sewage treatment plant
STO - Stormwater tank retaining the first flush of stormwater
STOSC - Tank overflow
STP - Overflow duration at a structure summed over one year
STRFF - Theoretical emptying time of a stormwater tank
TO - Flow time
To h Storage volume
te h Annual mean overflowed combined wastewater quantity
tf min Rainwater run-off sum for one year
V m3 Usable volume of a sewer with storage capacity and bottom overflow
VQo m3 Specific storage volume
VQr m3 Specific minimum storage volume
VSSCBO m3 Static sewer volume
Vs m3/ha Flow velocity with dry weather discharge
Vs,min m3/ha Flow velocity with full filling
Vstat m3 Water consumption per inhabitant and day
vdw m/s Hourly formulation according to ATV Standard A 118
vf m/s Peak coefficient to take into account sewer deposits
ws l/(I.d)
x h
xa -

13 References
ATV (77/1) Arbeitsblatt A 128, Richtlinien für die Bemessung und Gestaltung von Regenent-
lastungen in Mischwasserkanälen, GFA 1977.
ATV (77/2) Arbeitsblatt A 118, Richtlinien für die hydraulische Berechnung von Schmutz-,
Regen- und Mischwasser Kanälen, GFA 1977.
ATV (77/3) Arbeitsblatt A 117, Richtlinien für die Bemessung, die Gestaltung und den Betrieb
von Regenrückhaltebecken, GFA 1977
ATV (83/1) Arbeitsblatt A 115, Hinweise für das Einleiten von Abwasser in eine öffentliche
Abwasser Anlage, GFA 1983.
ATV (83/2) Arbeitsblatt A 105, Hinweise für die Wahl des Entwässerungsverfahrens (Misch-
verfahren/Trennverfahren)), GFA 1983.
ATV (84) Arbeitsblatt A 119, Grundsätze für die Berechnung von Entwässerungsnetzen mit
elektronischen Daten-verarbeitungsanlagen, GFA 1984.
ATV (88) Arbeitsblatt A 110, Richtlinien für die hydraulische Dimensionierung und den
Leistungsnachweis von Abwasser Kanälen und Leitungen (GFA 1988).
ATV AG 1.2.4 (85) Arbeitsbericht "Abflußsteurung in Kanalnetzen", Korrespondenz Abwasser
H. 5/1985.

60 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

ATV AG 1.2.6 (86) Die Berechnung des Oberflächenabflußes in Kanalnetz-modellen, Teil 1 -


Abflußbildung. Arbeitsbericht de ATV-AG 1.2.6 "Hydrologie der Stadtent-
wässerung" gemeinsam mit dem DVWK, Korrespondenz Abwasser H. 2/1986.
ATV AG 1.2.6 (87) Die Berechnung des Oberflächenabflußes in Kanalnetz-modellen, Teil 2 - Abfluß-
Konzentration. Arbeitsbericht de ATV-AG 1.2.6 "Hydrologie der Stadtentwässerung"
ATV AG 1.9.3 (85) Veranlassung und Anwendungsziele zur Durchführung von Schmutzfracht
Berechnungen. 1. Arbeitsbericht der ATV-AG 1.9.3 "Schmutzfrachtberechnung",
Korrespondenz Abwasser H. 8/1985.
ATV AG 1.9.3 (86) Der Schmutz-Niederschlag-Transport-Prozeß-Phänomeno-logische Beschreibung
und Terminologie. 2. Arbeitsbericht der ATV-AG 1.9.3 "Schmutzfrachtberech-
nung", Korrespondenz Abwasser H. 3/1986.
ATV AG 1.9.3 (88) Charackterisierung von Schmutzfrachtberechnungsmethoden - Anwendungsziele,
Systemstruktur, Datenbasis, Ergebnisse.
4. Arbeitsbericht der ATV-AG 1.9.3 "Schmutzfrachtberechnung", Korrespondenz
Abwasser H. 3/1988.
ATV AG 1.9.3 (89) Ausgewählte Grundlagen für die Anwendungsziele von
Schmutzfrachtberechnungensmethoden. 5. Arbeitsbericht der ATV-AG 1.9.3
"Schmutzfrachtberechnung", Korrespondenz Abwasser H. 12/1989.
Brunner, P.G. (75) Die Verschmutzung des Regenwasserabflußes im Trennverfahren, Untersuchun-
gen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Niederschlags-Verhältnisse im
voralpinen Raum. Berichte aus Wassergütewirtschaft und Gesundheitsingenieur-
wesen der TU München, Nr. 9, 1975
Durchschlag, A. (89) Bemessung von Mischwasserspeichern im Nachweisverfahren der Berücksichti-
gung der Gesamtemission von Mischwasserentlastung und Kläranlagenablauf.
Schriftenreihe für Stadtentwässerung und Gewässerschutz, Bd. 3, 1989.
Euler, G., Die Berechnung des Schmutzfrachtabflußes aus Niederschlägen. Eine
Jacobi, D., vergleichende Darstellung und Wertung der Modellansätze. Techn. Berichte Nr. 33
Heizelmann, CH. (85) aus dem Institut für Wasserbau, Fachgebiet Ingenieurhydrologie und Hydraulik der
TH Darmstadt, 1985.
Geiger, W.F. (84) Mischwasserabfluß und dessen Beschaffenheit, ein Beitrag zur Kanalnetzplanung.
Berichte aus Wassergütewirtschaft und Gesundheitsingenieurwesen der TU
München, Nr. 50, 1984
Göttle, A. (79) Ursachen und Mechanismen der Regenwasser verschmutzung, ein Beitrag zur
Modellierung der Abflußbeschaffenheit in städtischen Gebieten. Berichte aus
Wassergütewirtschaft und Gesundheitsingenieurwesen der TU München, Nr. 23,
1978.
Hailer, W. (86) Einfluß des Einzugsgebietes auf die Rückhaltung von Schmutzfrachten an
Regenüberlaufbecken. Korrespondenz Abwasser: Teil 1, H.6/1986, Teil 2 H.
7/1986.
Hirthammer (89) Betriebsaufzeichnungen zur Überwachung von Regenüberlaufbecken. Formblatt
der ATV-Landesgruppe Bayern, Hirthammer Verlag, München, 1989.
Jacobi, D. (88) Unterscheidungsmerkmale von Schmutzfrachtberechnungsmethoden.
Korrespondenz Abwasser H. 1/1988.
Kaul, G. (86) Mindestabfluß von Drosseleinrichtungen in Mischwasserkanälen. Korrespondenz
Abwasser H. 7/1986.
Krauth, Kh. (79) Der Regenabfluß und seine Behandlung beim Mischverfahren. Stuttgarter Berichte
zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Bd. 66, München, 1979.
Meißner, E. (88) Vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Abschätzung entlasteter Jahresschmutzfrachten aus
Mischkanalisationen. Korrespondenz Abwasser, H. 11/1988.
Paulsen, O. (87) Kontinuierliche Simulation von Abflüssen und Stofffrachten in der Trennent-
wässerung. Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Wasserwirtschaft, Hydrologie und
landwirtschaftlichen Wasserbau der Universität Hannover, Nr. 62, 1987.
Pecher, R. (86) Kosten der Regenwasserbehandlung in mischkanalisierten
Entwässerungsgebieten und Auswirkungen auf den Gewässerschutz. gwf Wasser
Abwasser, H. 8/1986.
Pfeiff, S. (88) Die Entwicklung der Methoden zur Berechnung der Regenentlastungen von
Mischwasserkanälen. Schriftenreihe für Städtentwässerung und Gewässerschutz,

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ATV-A 128 E
Heft 2, 1988, S. 55-72

62 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Schmitt, T.G. (85) .Der instationäre Kanalabfluß in der Schmutzfrachtmodellierung. Schriftenreihe des
Instituts für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft der Universität Karlsruhe, Bd. 42, 1985.
Sperling, F. (85) Auswirkung von Regenwassereinleitung aus Mischkanalisationen auf die
Gewässergüte. Vortrag 18, Essener Tagung, Febr. 1985.
Stier, E. (86) Untersuchungsprogramm an Regenüberlaufbecken in Bayern, Zwischenbericht.
Korrespondenz Abwasser, H. 1/1986.
Stier, E. (87) Planungshilfen für die Gestaltung von Regenüberlaufbecken. Informationsberichte
Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, H. 1/1987.
- Abschlußbericht des Forschungsvorhabens "Lokale Steuerungseinrichtungen in
Kanalnetzen": RWTH Aachen, Institut für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, 1990.
- Regenwasserbehandlung in Baden-Württemberg. Ministerium für Umwelt, Heft 20,
Stuttgart 1987

December 1992 63
ATV-A 128 E

Appendix 1

Notes on Advanced Requirements

Presented by the ATV Working Group 2.1.1 "Principles and Decision Aids for Advanced Requirements on
Combined Wastewater Discharges Taking into Account the Nature of the Running Waters" with the
collaboration of

Dipl.-Biol. Borchardt, Kassel


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Brunner, Karlsruhe
Dipl.-Ing. Krejci, Dübendorf (CH)
Dr. rer. nat. Mauch, Augsburg
Dipl.-Ing. Sperling, Essen (Spokesman)
Dr. habil. rer. nat. Statzner, Essen
Dr.-Ing. Stotz, Stuttgart
Dr.-Ing. Winter, Bremen
Prof. Dr-Ing. Wolf, Kassel

ATV Standard A 128 defines normal requirements on stormwater structures with overflow. With the
observation of these normal requirements and with the lack of special protection or management needs of
the affected section of lake or river it is assumed that no essential impairment of the usage of the lake or
river takes place through the combined wastewater overflows.

Fundamentally sewage treatment plant discharges and combined wastewater overflows should be
considered together. However, it should be pointed out that an automatic tying to advanced requirements for
sewage treatment plant effluents is, from the point of view of the Working Group, to be avoided as the
reasons are often not transferable to combined wastewater overflows.

ATV Working Group 2.1.1 is currently preparing a report for the definition of advanced requirements with
overflow into flowing waters. The following information can be given in advance.

Protection or Management Need

Type and scope of advanced requirements on combined wastewater overflows are derived from the water
management objectives. Subject to detailed considerations the examination of advanced requirements is
necessary where a particular protection or management need of the flowing waters exists, in particular if

- a management plan with regard to relevant parameters has been published,


- requirements which are based on intromission relevant parameters are placed on the sewage
treatment plant effluent over and above the minimum requirements,
- appropriate intromission considerations give an essential impairment of the nature of the lake or
river as a result of the combined wastewater overflow considered.

Effects
The following summary shows the structure of possible effects of wastewater overflows on flowing waters as
well as the respectively relevant substance groups and parameters

64 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Ecological effects of
combined wastewater discharges

Acute effects Hydraulic


- near bottom flow velocity
- bottom shear stress
Material
- oxygen content
- suspended substance content (solids)
- acute toxicity (in particular NH3) - Single
- pathogenic germs event

Material
Delayed effects - oxygen content (org.C, NH4-N, sediment)
- toxic substances (in particular NH3, NO2)
- sedimentation of solids
- pathogenic germs in the sediment

Long-term effects Material


- organic persistent substances
- metals - Annual
- inorganic and organic sediments load
- eutrophying substances

The effects are characterised briefly below.

The surge-type increased discharge through combined wastewater overflows can effect a bottom instability
and a resuspension of sedimented solids (see suspended and turbid matter). Higher flow velocities
rearrange substrates and create stress in invertebrates (fish nourishing animals) and fishes.

Rearrangement of substrate causes a drifting or dying off of organisms and results in, as a minimum, critical
shear stress following high discharges. This critical shear stress is dependent upon the morphology of the
lake or river and on the type of substrate. Rearrangement of substrates are particularly effective even in
winter.

The oxygen-depleting substances from combined wastewater overflows have a damaging effect on flowing
waters organisms, if the oxygen concentration sinks below a boundary level or if the reduction in a time unit
climbs above a critical size. A delayed oxygen-depleting effect of combined wastewater overflows can also
occur with resuspension of sediment. The better the water quality the more essential is the undisturbed
oxygen content for the maintenance of the organism spectrum of the respective water quality class.

Turbid and suspended matter influences the biological picture (and thus the saprobic index) in the area of
depositing. They are damaging, with short and long range effect, both as direct pollutant parameter
(thickening of substrate, removal of light) as well as carrier of contaminants (eg. heavy metals, PCB). With
surge-type accrual of the turbid matter (dependent upon the flow velocity) the damaging effects can be
observed up to the dying off of organisms at untypical times.

Synergism: solids, with high flow velocities, have the effect of a "sand blaster". Difference to naturally high
flow velocities (flood water): flood water usually occurs gradually, combined wastewater overflow occurs
suddenly. With sufficient available hollow space and interstice system in the flow bed, in the first case many
organisms manage to escape without drift; in the second case usually not. If additional pollutants have an
effect the protective space is again left and is thus useless. The increased feed of suspended matter can fill
the interstice system in the flow bed and thus remove living space.

The toxic effect of ammoniac is known and has been seen practically with the dying off of fish following
combined wastewater overflows. The persistent toxicity for sensitive organisms (eg. fish breeding) is, on the
other hand, in practice hardly documented.

December 1992 65
ATV-A 128 E
Wastewater, particularly raw sewage from combined wastewater overflows also carries pathogenic germs
which, over a certain flow time, remain virulent in flowing waters.

The increasing damaging effect of mineral oil is reported upon. Here it is mainly the surfaces of lakes and
rivers and the contact surfaces of substrates which are affected.

Due to numerous recent sewer film investigations the possible significance of heavy metals in together with
particular substances in the overflows is pointed out. However, here it can be observed that floating sewer
film in retention spaces settles quickly.

The same applies for the organic micro-pollutants (eg. CHC, PAK). However, the enrichment by, for
example, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and other solvents, PCB through, for example, adsorption in
sewer film, sediment and lipophilic substances exceeds the harmful effect. Sub-lethal effects over the
nutrient chain are to be presumed.

The nutrients which come from combined wastewater overflows have probably only a small share in the long
range effects (eg. nutrient load in the North Sea). At certain times of the year combined wastewater
overflows can contribute to the short range effects (eutrophication) in the area of the overflows.

Damaging effects of combined wastewater overflows can be considerably greater in times of high biological
activity (vegetation period, spawning time) than at other times.

Assessment Criteria

Advanced requirements are to be examined in the following cases:

1. The self-cleaning potential of the lake or river is too small for the pollutants potential of the
catchment area.
The evaluation of the relationship of overflow discharge of the catchment area to the low water
discharge into the lake or river taking into account the material transport and the material conversion
in the lake or river is, for example, suitable as criterion.
2. Concentrations and/or loads of relevant parameters place the desired usage of the lake or river in
question.
This case can, for example, be present with heavy polluters or with particular usages of the lake or
river (eg. swimming waters).
3. The maximum overflow discharges set the bottom of the lake or river in motion. Then the channel is
not sufficiently capable of dealing with the discharge which in any case bans discharge for reasons
of water engineering.
The evaluation of the maximum total discharge of the relevant catchment area to the flood water
discharge (maximum discharge with design rainfall with the repetition time of one year to the flood
water discharge into the lake or river with the same repetition time) is, for example, suitable as
criterion.
4. The flowing waters section has no significant refuge space for organisms.
This is the case when, for example in the area of greater, effected by the overflow, bottom velocities
in the lake or river, neither interstice system nor still water zones are available which make it
possible that organisms typical of lakes and rivers remain.
5. Possibilities for migration and remigration for drifted organisms are, in addition to lacking refuge
space, disrupted.
Flow stretches can no longer be populated after drifting away if migration obstacles (eg. drop) exist
or flow stretches or lake or river characteristics (eg. with regard to the temperature), atypical for the
drifted organisms, prevent migration or remigration.

66 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Measures

Consequent priority in comparison with the measures for the reduction of effects, is to be given to the
measures for reduction of the causes. Fundamentally the following measures come into consideration:

1. Measures in the catchment area, eg.


- percolation, unsealing, surface retention, roof grassing,
- relevant reduction of toxic substances at the site of occurrence,
- deliberate material retention in specially dimensioned and designed spaces (eg. weather
dependent controlled storage of domestic and industrial wastewater with indirect dischargers),
- if required, discharge of rainwater run-off into other lakes or rivers or precipitation area,
2. Measures in the sewer system, eg.
- deliberate material retention in specially dimensioned and designed flow stretches behind the
overflow of structures with overflow and before the lake or river,
- increased retention of rainwater run-off, eg. in storage spaces or by discharge control,
- further decentralisation of the retention spaces within a total drainage concept; with this special
observation also with surface intensive indirect dischargers.
3. Measures in and at the lake or river, eg.
- improvement of the bottom and bank structure of the lake or river below the overflow structure
through refuge spaces,
- creation of accessible migration possibilities for organisms upstream and downstream of the lake
or river,
- deliberate discharge delay in specially dimensioned and designed flow stretches below a
structure with overflow before discharge into a lake or river (eg. diversion stretch),
- deliberate discharge delay of bottom proximate flow velocity or shear stress, for example, in
specially dimensioned and designed discharge profiles in the lake or river,
- improvement of the degradation of consumptive materials.

It is recommended, with the assessment of measures in and at the lake or river for the reduction of material
and hydraulic effects of overflows, that an experienced flowing waters ecologist is brought in..

Further action

The shortly to be expected 1st Report of the ATV Working Group 2.1.1 includes a selection procedure with
whose aid situations can be determined which require more detailed considerations with regard to advanced
measures.

With this material and hydraulic effects are taken into account. In addition the differences between types of
lake and river such as, for example, mountain, plain, dammed and tidal waters, are embodied. With the aid
of examples it is shown how the procedure is to be applied.

December 1992 67
ATV-A 128 E

Appendix 2

Pollution Load Calculation Methods

1. General

All pollution load calculation methods simulate the precipitation, discharge and material transport processes.
Therefore, fundamentally, both material balances as well as discharge balances can be carried out.

Detailed information on which application aims of the described methods are to be achieved, which system
structures can be dealt with, which database is available or can be taken into account, which verifications
are to be carried out and which lake or river related statements can be made can be found in ATV-AG 1.9.3,
1988. A presentation of the calculation formulations of various named models can be found in Jacobi, 1988.

2. Hydrologic-Empirical Methods
The mean annual precipitation events are described in an area dependent rainfall spectrum. The local
discharge formation is hydraulically recorded for each of the therefrom derived model rainfalls. The
discharge concentration at the surface , i.e. the together flowing of the discharge effective precipitation from
the surfaces and the discharge transformation in the sewer are represented globally with simple hydrologic
formulations ( eg. flood plan).

The pollutant concentration and its temporal process are described for every discharge event with the aid of
empirical formulations. "Mean" conditions are represented using "mean" loadings which encounter "mean"
initial conditions in the drainage network.

The characteristic values of the model rainfall (frequency, duration) contained in the local rainfall spectrum
are transferred to the overflow characteristic values. With this the non-linear transfer behaviour of the sub-
system and, through this, the modification of the statistic dimensions remain unconsidered.

The results which are achieved in accordance with this calculation method represent approximate mean
conditions insofar as the rainfall spectrum used is representative of statistic criteria. As the overflow
characteristic values are derived from model rainfall and mean pollution concentrations are assumed they
can only be checked in long-term measurements.

3. Deterministic Models
Deterministic models attempt to represent mathematically and to combine the total precipitation-discharge
activity in the individual sub-systems and process phases (see ATV-AG 1.9.3, 1986).

Locally measured precipitation series are used in their actual chronological sequence as input data. The
therefrom resultant discharge activity on the surface and in the sewer separately simulated with hydrologic
and hydraulic formulations.

According to the differentiated discharge calculation deterministic pollution load calculation models also
represent more or less in detail the processes with material transport, and combine these with the results of
precipitation discharge calculations. In addition input data can be derived from locally specific
measurements. If such measurements are not available then the parameters must be transferred from
experience in similar areas.

Different algorithms are applied for the description of material accumulation on the surface and in the sewer.
In these various influencing parameters, such as duration of dry periods, time of the year, traffic activity,
development structure, area structure, street cleaning and winter service can be taken into account.
With the representation of the material erosion various empirical algorithms are also applied. They differ from
one another according to the degree of detailing with the sub-division of the area - in part both sub-systems,
surface and sewer, are considered together, in part dealt with separately - and within these whether the
68 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

material erosion is simulated dependent or independent of events. Relevant influencing parameters are
gradient, roughness, surface structure, network structure, rainfall and/or discharge intensity and thus the
transport capacity of the discharge.

The formulations for the description of the material accumulation and the material erosion can, however, only
be covered by region through the hitherto available measurements.

The material transport is either simulated as plug-flow or the transport stretch is dealt with as a completely
mixed or partially mixed reactor.

After calibration on measurement data the models given in Chaps. 3.1 and 3.2 are basically in a position to
simulate, continuously and chronologically, discharge and pollution loads and, taking into account the
transfer behaviour of the sub-systems, to represent the actual overflow behaviour of a drainage system
chronologically. The pertinent determination of the input data and model parameters here relevantly
determine the quality of the calculation results.

3.1 Hydrologic-Deterministic Models


With hydrologic-deterministic models the discharge activities on the surface and in the sewer are simulated
separately hydrological formulations.

The discharge concentration on the surface is represented with hydrologic formulations (transfer functions).
With the description of the discharge transformation in the network the discharges, but not the water levels,
are worked out. The translation and retention behaviour with discharge in the sewer is described with the aid
of transfer functions, i.e. linear, time invariable transfer behaviour of the "sewer" sub-system is assumed.
The application of hydrologic methods is limited. If change of flow or back-up occurs at overflow structures
then hydrodynamic methods are to be preferred.

3.2 Hydrologic-Hydrodynamic Models


The hydrologic-hydrodynamic models and hydrologic-hydrodynamic-deterministic models differ from each
other essentially in the simulation of the discharge transformation in the sewer network.(transport module),
the with this associated degree of detailing with the division of the area and in the relevant modelling with
heavy loading, in particular with flat, back-up prevalent and meshed networks.

The discharge concentration on the surface is represented with hydrologic formulations (transfer functions)
as described under Chap. 3.1.

Hydrodynamic calculation formulations are applied for the description of discharge transformation in the
sewer which, along with the discharge, also show the water levels. With this, for example, the situation at
special structures can be dealt with, the available sewer volume can be taken into account and overloading
in the network can be verified. In the hydrodynamic formulations the St. Vernant Equations (movement and
continuity equation) are solved numerically, starting with various assumptions. In addition one differentiates
implicit and explicit solution methods (difference procedures). To save calculation time the St. Vernant
Equations are, in part, simplified. Here, it should be noted, that a disregarding of the local acceleration or the
convective acceleration involves errors with opposing tendency. (ATV Standard A 110).

December 1992 69
ATV-A 128 E
4. Characterisation of Pollution Load Calculation Methods

Symbols Used

A Hydraulic-empirical procedure
B Hydrological-deterministic models
C Hydrologic-hydrodynamic-deterministic models
+ Taken into account/possible
O Conditionally taken into account/conditionally possible
- Not taken into account/not possible

METHODS
1. APPLICATION AIMS
Grouping and dimensioning of stormwater overflows + + +
Examination and correction of the overall conception + + +
Priority of individual rehabilitation measures + + +
Quantifying of overflow quantities, durations, frequencies | + +
Preparation of management concepts | + +
Statements on material accumulation and erosion - + +
Advanced and scientific application aims - { {
2. SYSTEM STRUCTURE
Area structure, calculable { + +
Network structure, calculable
- branched + + +
- meshed - { +
- subject to back-up - { +
Advanced hydraulic specialities (pumps, etc) - { +
Special operational and constructional characteristics (control/flaps, etc) - { +
3. DATABASE
3.1 Discharge related:
Statistically derived precipitation data
- single event
i = const + + +
i = f(t) { + +
- model rainfall spectrum + + +
- local rainfall spectrum + + +
Measured rainfall data
- single event - + +
- series - + +
- continuum - + {
Area data
- Qdw (dimensioning discharge) + + +
- Qdw (chronologically, locally variable) { + +
- tf (full filling or from time coefficient) + - -
- Ais + + +
- further data (gradient, inhabitants...) + + +
Network data
- geometric + + +
- hydraulic { + +
Parameters for:
- discharge formation + + +
- discharge concentration - { +
Receiving waters data
- discharge (t) - + +
- water level (t) - { +
3.2 Quality related
Mean local pollution concentration and chronological
concentration process + + +
Area dependent and time dependent pollution characteristic values for:
- material accumulation - + +
- material erosion - + +
- material transport - + +
Preloading of receiving waters - { {

70 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

4. VERIFICATION STANDARD
Verification possible
- Details of the on average relieved
annual discharge sum (%) + + +
annual pollutant load % for various substance characteristic values, derived + + +
from the calculation results
- Details of the relief characteristic values derived from hydrographic curves + + +
- Statistical information on frequency, duration, discharge sum, pollutant load
derived from the above for various substances { + +
Interaction with the water regime and preloading in surface waters for each event
and for the annual average - + +
Method capable of calibration - + +
Calculation results verifiable using measurements
- in general + + +
- in detail - + +
5. STATEMENTS RELATED TO SURFACE WATERS
With regard to:
the discharged mean annual load for
- BOD5/COD + + +
- further substances + + +
further loading parameters (discharge sum, duration, frequency, pollution load)
the chronological combination of stormwater { + +
overflow and lake or river - + +

The overview should show the different possibilities of pollution load calculation and the associated
assumptions. They should ease the selection of the suitable method for the fulfilment of a certain tasking.
Here there are two different things to differentiate. On one side one must be clear which statements with
regard to the question posed - dependent upon the available initial data - are to be expected; on the other
side it is to be examined which initial data must, as a minimum, be taken into account in order to reach
concrete results. A specification of the requirements on the pollution load modelling to fulfil the various tasks
is given in Jacobi, 1986.

The details in the tables characterise the fundamental possibilities of the method groups, not those of the
individual offerer who can be assigned to the respective method group. Within the same method group
different calculation algorithms can be applied which take into account different initial data and parameters.
These can be derived either from correlation relationships or can be physically interpreted directly. Therefore
it is to be examined in individual cases to what extent a specially offered pollution load calculation method
has all the characteristics which they, as representative of one of the listed method groups, could in principle
have.

December 1992 71
ATV-A 128 E

Appendix 3

Ref. No. Date:

Total catchment Area of a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)


Project:
____________________________________________________________________________________
Sewage treatment plant: ________________________ Surface water: ________________________________
Mean annual precipitation German Weather Service hPr = mm
Impervious surface area Ais = ha
Longest flow time in tot. area significant areas only tf = min
Mean terrain slope group SGm = Σ (SGi ⋅ ACAi)/(Σ (ACAi) SGm = -
MW discharge of STP biology with wet weather Qm = l/s
DW discharge, 24 hr daily mean from combined and separate areas Qdw24 = l/s
DW discharge, daily peak from combined and separate areas Qdwx = l/s
Rain run-off from separate area 100 % Qw24 from sep. area QrS24 = l/s
COD conc. in DW discharge annual mean incl. Qiw24 cdw = mg/l
Mean infiltn. water discharge contained in Qdw24 Qdw24 = mg/l
Utilisation value of STP n = (Qcw - Qiw24)/(Qdwx - Qiw24) n = -
Rain run-off, 24 hr daily mean Qr24 = Qcw-Qdw24-QrS24 Qr24 = l/s
Run-off discharge rate qr = Qr24/Ais qr = l/(s.ha)
DW disch. rate from tot. area qdw = Qdw24/Ais qdw24 = l/(s.ha)
Flow time reduction af = 0.5 + 50/(tf + 100);·≥ 0.885 af = -
Mean rain run-off with overflow Qro =af.(3.0 + 3.2qr) ⋅ Ais Qro = l/s
Mean mix ratio m = (Qro + QrS24)/Qdw24 m = -
xa value for sewer deposits xa =24Qdw24/Qdwx xa = -
Coeff. of influence DW conc. ap =cdw/600; ≥ 1.0 ap = -
Coeff. of influence annual precip. ah = hPr/800-1; ≥ 0.25; ≤ 0.25 a h = -
Coeff. of influence sewer deposits from A 128, Fig. 12; Appx. 4 a a = -
Dimensioning concentration cdc = 600(ap + ah + aa) c dc = mg/l
Theoretical overflow concentration ccc = (107m + cdc)/(m + 1) c cc = mg/l
Permissible overflow rate eo = 3700/(ccc - 70) e o = %
Specific storage volume from A 128, Fig. 13; Appx 4 Vs = m3/ha
Required total volume V =Vs ⋅ Ais V = m
Form A 128

72 December 1992
ATV-A 128 E

Appendix 4

Calculation Formulas for Figs. 12 and 13

Calculation formulas for the influence of sewer deposits aa from the mean terrain slope group SGm, the daily mean
Qdw24 in l/s, the daily peak Qdwx in l/s and the dry weather discharge rate qdw24 in l/(s.ha):

dl = 0.001.[1 + 2(SGm - 1)]


xa = 24.Qdw24/Qdwx
τ = 430.qdw240.45.dl
aa = (24/xa)2.(2 - τ)/10
but: aa ≥ 0

Calculation formulas for the determination of specific tank volume Vs in m3/ha from the rainfall discharge rate qr in
l/(s.ha) and the permissible annual overflow rate eo in %:

H1 = (4000 + 25qr)/(0.551 + qr)


H2 = (36.8 + 13.5qr)/(0.5 + qr)
Vs = H1/(eo + 6) - H2
but: Vs,min·≥ 3.60 + 3.84qr
with: qr ≤ [(48/xa - 1)Qdw24 - QrS24]/Ais

Area of application of last formula:


0.2 ≤ qr ≤ 2.0 l/(s.ha),
25 ≤ eo ≤ 75 %,
Vs,min ≤ Vs ≤ 40 m3/ha.

December 1992 73
Appendix 5 Discharge Diagram for the Simplified Dimensioning Procedure (Th. Bettmann)
Area specific input data Area specific input data No. Combined wastewater Qcw Area specific input data
impervious surface area Ais of inhabitants I receipt of STP flow time tf

Commercial discharge Industrial discharge Domestic discharge


Qc24=0.2 to 0.8 Qi24= 0.2 to 0.8 l/(s.ha)° Qd24= I.ws/86400

Working hours per Production days per


day ac,i (1 shift = 8 hrs year bc,i (d)

Flow time reduction


af = 0.50+50/(tf+100) tf ≤ 30 min
Wastewater discharge Domestic and industrial wastewater discharge Rainwater run-off af = 0.885 tf > 30 min
Qw24=Qd24+Qc24+Qi24 Qwx=24.Qd24/x+24/ac.365/bc.Qc24+24/ai.365/bi.Qi24 QrS24=Qw24 (Sep. area) for qr < 2 l/(s.ha)

Infiltration water yield Dry weather discharge


Qiw24=0.00 to 0.15 Qdwx=Qwx+Qiw24 Rainwater run-off Mean relief inflow
Qr24=Qm-Qdw24-QrS24 Qro=VQo/(To.3.6)+Qr24) Mean mix ratio
Total area Qro=af.(3.0.Ais+3.2.Qr24 m=(Qro + QrS24)/Qt24 ≥ 7
Dry weather flow for cdwc > 600 mg/l
Qdw=Qw+Qiw24 m ≥ (cdwc - 180)/60

PLo+PLtp ≤ PLr
Dry weather discharge
qdw24 = Qw24/Ais Stormwater discharge
q’ = Qr24/Ais cdw:cr:ctp = 600:107:70

Influence value heavy polluter Influence value for sewer deposits Influence value for annual precipitation Dimensioning conc. in dry Theor. overflow conc.
aw = 1 cdw ≤ 600 mg/l xa = 24.Qdw24/Qdwx ad = hPr/800 - 1 600 · hPr <·1000 weather
aw = Cdw/600 cdw > 600 mg/l dI = 0.001.[1 + 2.(SGm - 1)] ad= - 0.25 hPr < 600 cdc = 600.(ap + ah + aa)
ccc = (m.cr + cdc)/(m + 1)
τ = = 430.qdw24 ad = + 0.25 hPr > 1000
aa = (24/xa)2.(2 - τ)10 aa ≥· 0

H1 = (4000 + 25qr)/(0.551 + qr)


Permissible overflow rate
eo=100.(cr - ctp)/(cco - ctp)
H2 = (36.8 + 13.5qr)/(0.5 + qr)

qrmin = {[(48/xa)-1].Qdw24 - QrS24}/Ais


Specific tank volume
Area specific input data Area specific input data Area specific input data Vs,min =3.60+3.84 qrmin
dry weather conc. cdw mean slope group SGm annual precipitation hPr 0.2 ≤ qr ≤ 2.0 l/(s.ha) Vs=H1/(eo + 6) - H2
25 ≤ eo ≤ 75%
Vs,min ≤ Vs ≤ 40 m3/ha

°for qr < 2 l/(s.ha) ° |


Total area for cdw > 600 mg/l ° |
m · (cdw-180)/60 ° | Total volume
Stormwater discharge rate qr=qr24/A V = Vs.Ais
cd=600.(ap+ah+aa) cco=(m.cr+cd)/(m+1)

74 December 1992