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GERMAN ATV STANDARDS

WASTEWATER - WASTE

STANDARD
ATV - A 140 E

Rules for the Operation of Sewers

Part 1: The Sewer Network

March 1990
ISBN 3-934984-24-X

Marketing:
Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA)
Theodor-Heuss-Allee 17
D-53773 Hennef
Postfach 11 65 . 53758 Hennef
ATV-A 140 E

This Work -Sheet has been prepared by the ATV Working Group 1.7.3 "Rules for the Operation of Sewer
Networks" within the ATV Specialist Committee 1.7 "Operation and Maintenance of Drainage Systems".

The following Gentlemen have contributed:

Baudirektor Blank, München


Oberbaurat Conrad, Marl
Oipl.-Ing. Fuchs, Berlin
Stadtbauamtsrat Heine, Hamm
Baudirektor Hoffmann, Pirmasens , ( Speaker.)
Oipl.-Ing. Kemmann, Troisdorf
Bauoberrat Köhler, Frankfurt
Bauoberrat Kristeller, Frankfurt
Baudirekto Löhr, Mülheim/Ruhr
Dipl.-Kfm Müller, Schieder-Schwalenberg
Baudirektor Poppe, München
Oberbaurat Simon, Köln/Bochum
Kanalmeister Scheffer, Herne
Stadtbaurat Schneider, Stuttgart
Stadtbaurat Schüler, Stuttgart

The Work Sheet presented here has been prepared within the framework of the ATV committee work, taking
into account the ATV Work Sheet A 400 "Principles for the Preparation of Rules and Standards" in the Rules
and Standards Wastewater/Wastes, in the October 1986 version. With regard to the application of the Rules
and Standards, Para 1 of Point 5 of A 400 includes the following statement:

"The Rules and Standards are freely available to everyone. An obligation to apply them can result for
reasons of legal regulations, contracts or other legal grounds. Whosoever applies them is responsible for the
correct application in specific cases. Through the application of the Rules and Standards no one avoids
responsibility for his own actions. However, for the user, prima facie evidence shows that he has takeri the
necessary care,

All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Work Sheet
may be reproduced in any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other process or transferred or translated into
a language usable in machines, in particular data processing machines, without the written approval of the
publisher.

© Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA), St. Augustin 1990

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Contents
PREFACE ...............................................................................................................................6
1 PREAMBLE .....................................................................................................................6
2 OPERATION ....................................................................................................................7
2.1 Preamble ..............................................................................................................7
2.2 Inspection (Surveillance) ....................................................................................8
2.2.1 Preamble ........................................................................................................8
2.2.2 Sewers ...........................................................................................................8
2.2.3 Shafts .............................................................................................................8
2.2.4 Stormwater Overflow Structures.....................................................................8
2.2.5 Outlet Structures ............................................................................................8
2.2.6 Inverted Syphons ...........................................................................................8
2.2.7 Pump Stations. Pressure Pipes. Stormwater Tanks.......................................8
2.3 Cleaning ...............................................................................................................9
2.3.1 Preamble ........................................................................................................9
2.3.2 Sewers ...........................................................................................................9
2.3.2.1 High Pressure Washer Vehicles (HP Vehicles).............................................9
2.3.2.2 Combined High Pressure and Vacuum Vehicle with or without Water
Reclamation ..................................................................................................9
2.3.2.3 Cleaning of Sewers with the Aid of Winches .................................................9
2.3.2.4 Cleaning of Sewers by Hand.........................................................................9
2.3.2.5 Scouring Plate (Wash Truck) ......................................................................10
2.3.2.6 Robot Procedures .......................................................................................10
2.3.2.6.1 Pipe Cutter Robots ...............................................................................10
2.3.2.6.2 Pipe Milling Robots ...............................................................................10
2.3.2.7 Special Procedures .....................................................................................10
2.3.2.8 Manhole Shafts ...........................................................................................10
2.3.2.9 Open Wastewater Drains ............................................................................12
2.3.3 Road Drains .................................................................................................12
2.3.4 Connection Sewers ......................................................................................12
2.3.4.1 Cleaning Using HP Vehicles .......................................................................12
2.3.4.2 Cleaning Using Sp;ral.s or Rods/Poles . .....................................................12
2.3.5 Special Structures ........................................................................................12
2.4 Servicing ............................................................................................................13
2.5 Combatting Rats................................................................................................13
2.5.1 Prearnble......................................................................................................13
2.5.2 Production of a Combat Plan........................................................................13
2.5.3 Execution and Monitoring .............................................................................13
2.6 Discharger Surveillance....................................................................................14
2.7 Defects ...............................................................................................................14
2.8 Flood Protection ................................................................................................14
2.9 Employment of Outside Agencies ...................................................................14

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3 DARNAGE REPAIR (STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE) ...........................................................14


3.1 Preamble ............................................................................................................14
3.2 Organisational Arrangements ..........................................................................15
3.3 Repair and Renewal ..........................................................................................15
3.3.1 Shafts/Special Structures .............................................................................15
3.3.1.1 Shaft Covers ...............................................................................................15
3.3.1.2 Compensating Rings ...................................................................................15
3.3.1.3 Climbing Devices ........................................................................................16
3.3.1.4 Sealing of leaks...........................................................................................16
3.3.1.5 Repair of Lower Shafts................................................................................16
3.3.1.6 Shaft Renewal.............................................................................................16
3.3.2 Passable Sewers..........................................................................................16
3.3.3 Impassable Sewers ......................................................................................17
3.3.4 Open Wastewater Drains, Industrial Systems (eg- tanks) ............................17
3.4 Rehabilitation.....................................................................................................17
3.4.1 Preparation...................................................................................................17
3.4.2 Rehabilitation Processes ..............................................................................17
4 VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................17
4.1 Vehicles..............................................................................................................17
4.1.1 Preamble ......................................................................................................17
4.1.1.1 Noise Protection..........................................................................................18
4.1.1.2 Vehicle Checks ...........................................................................................18
4.1.2 High Pressure Washer Vehicle (HP Vehicle)................................................18
4.1.3 Combined High Pressure Washer and Suction Vehicle .....................................18
4.1.4 Combined High Pressure Washer and Suction Vehicle with Water
Reclamation.................................................................................................18
4.1.5 Suction Vehicle.............................................................................................18
4.1.6 Suction-Pressure Tanker ..............................................................................19
4.1.7 Sludge Trough Vehicle .................................................................................19
4.1.8 Crane Sludge Trough Vehicle ......................................................................19
4.1.9 Mult-bucket System Vehicle.........................................................................19
4.1.10 Sewer Television Vehicle................................................................................19
4.2 Equipment ..........................................................................................................19
4.2.1 Preamble ......................................................................................................19
4.2.2 Savety Equipment - Rescue Equipment .......................................................20
4.2.2.1 Gas Mask and Breathing equipment ...........................................................20
4.2.2.2 Safety and Rescue Harness Equipment .....................................................20
4.2.3 Warning Equipment......................................................................................20
4.2.3.1 Oxygen Measurement and Explosion Warning Equipment .........................20
4.2.3.2 Gas oetection Equipment ............................................................................20
4.2.4 Cover Lifting Equipment ...............................................................................21
4.2.5 Ventilation Equipment ..................................................................................21
4.2.6 Lights............................................................................................................21
4.2.7 Winches........................................................................................................21
4.2.1.1 Hand Rope Winches ...................................................................................21
4.2.7.2 Power Driven Winches ................................................................................21
4.2.7.3 Rack Steel Winches According to DIN 7355 ...............................................21
4.2.8 Scouring Plates (Wash Truck)......................................................................22
4.2.9 Leakage Test Equipments and Pipe close-offs ............................................22
4.2.10 Electrical Equipment ....................................................................................22

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5 CARE OF PERSONNEL ...................................................................................................23
5.1 Preamble ............................................................................................................23
5.2 Personal Precautions........................................................................................23
5.3 General Care ......................................................................................................23
6. REPORTING MATTERS-ORGANISATION ...........................................................................23
6.1 Preamble ............................................................................................................23
6.2 Reports...............................................................................................................23
6.3 Records ..............................................................................................................24
6.4 Delivery Notes and Service Certification.........................................................24
6.5 Operation Planning ...........................................................................................24
6.5.1 Short Term ...................................................................................................24
6.5.2 Longer Term.................................................................................................24
6.6 Preservation of Evidence..................................................................................25
APPENDIX EXAMPLE OF A SERVICE INSTRUCTION ...............................................................26
ANNEX 1 .............................................................................................................................27
ANNEX 2 ............................................................................................................................29
ANNEX 3 .............................................................................................................................31
ANNEX 4 .............................................................................................................................32
ANNEX 5 ............................................................................................................................33

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Preface
Wastewater systems are built and operated for the harmless collection and discharge of domestic and
industrial wastewater and stormwater in order of maintain the purity of lakes and rivers.

The significance of this environmental policy objective and the size of the investments demand a technically
safe and from a functional aspect, effective and economic operation of these wastewater systems.

In view of these important and responsible tasks the wish has been passed on to the ft.TV to put together a
set of Rules and Standards for the operation of sewer systems.

For this, a Working Group of specialists from communities and business concerns was formed which has
prepared these rules.

This set of Rules and Standards is to be prov;ded for all those concerned in the operation of sewer systems
as an aid and as an incentive.

From these "Rules for the Operation of Sewer Systems, Part I, The Sewer Network" there result principles
for the formulation of service and operating instructions.

The model for a service instruction is attached as appendix to these Rules and Standards.

The "Rules for the Operation of Sewer Systems, Part II, Stormwater Overflows" will, essentially, include the
operational peculiarit;es of stormwater overflows and indicate the principles for the production of service and
operating instructions.

1 Preamble
Sewer systems are operated by area corporate bodies, wastewater boards and industrial concerns.
Hereafter they are referred to as operators.

1.1

The operator maintains an efficient sewer network with the associated stuctures (inter alia: manhole shafts,
side entrances, structures with overflows stormwater sewage treatment plants, stormwater holding tanks,
stormwater overflow tanks, pump stations).

Systems must be so planned and cc.nstructed that they meet the safety and operational requirements. They
must, at all times, be operationally ready. With this, working safety and economy are to be taken into
account. This is ensured by measures for maintenance. Within this Work Sheet this is to be understood as:

- monitoring, cleaning, servicing, repair of damage.

For these tasks sufficient and well trained personnel, efficient vehicles and eQuipment are necessary. A
detaileddetermination of intervals for maintenance as well as of modern safety aspects (anticipation of the
introduction of the new accident prevention regulations and safety rules) has not yet taken place in this Work
Sheet. A common opinion on this has not yet been finalised.

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1.2

The Correct operation of a sewer system assumes:

- allocation of areas of tasks and responsibility for personnel


- precise local knowledge of the sewer network with its operational installations and system component
parts
- knowledge of the operational relationships within the sewer network as well as the possible faults and
their correction
- within water protection areas special reQuirements are to be placed on the overflow sewers .For this
ATV Work Sheet A 142 is, in addition, to be observed.

1.3

With the tasks to be carried out there are certain rules to be observed which result from laws, ordinances,
regulations, from local byelaws, standards, from tarif and other agreements as well as service and
operational instructions (see Appx. 1).

1.4

Furthermore, the following are, in particular, to be held ready and followed:


- master plans of the sewers and structures
- functional descriptions of special structures
- circuit diagrams for electrically operated systems
- water law approva1s and author;sations
- permit contracts.

2 Operation
2.1 Preamble

In order to mainta;n the sewer network in a correct and functional condition it is necessary that it is
maintained regularly. In the service instructions mainly specific, locally different danger situations are to be
pointed out (eg. gases, dangerous discharges, structures, modification of water courses, traffic).

With the entry into the sewer systems (observation of the - accident prevention directives of the
Bundesverband der Unfallversicherungsträger der öffentlichen Hand, BAGUV (Federal Association of
Accident Insurers of the Public Authorities)) care is to be taken that, for the safety of staff, the harmlessness
of the air in the system is checked using test equipment (see Sect.4.2.3) and efforts are taken for the
satisfactory ventilation of the system. The latter can be achieved by:

- natural airing by opening neighbouring shafts (time resources)


- forced supply and extraction of air (equipment resources).

To meet the tasks set special vehicles and equipment are also employed. With these, the manufacturers'
operating instructions are always to be observed.

Note: personnel requirements for the individucal vehicles and equipment see Sect. 4.

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2.2 Inspection (Surveillance)

2.2.1 Preamble
Surveillance is the monitoring of the drainage installations for their functional efficiency in all required and
necessary areas. It should take place at regular intervals in such a manner that a correct operation of all
plant within the sewer network is guaranteed. Documentation of this necessary (Surveillance Protocol) .

2.2.2 Sewers
Surveillance can take place by driving or walking through the sewers, by use of mirrors, photography and
sewer television as well as through other measures.

Films, photographs and video tapes can be kept as evidence and documentation respectively.

With the surveillance of the sewer the following points are to be observed:

penetration of roots, deposits in the pipe base, provision of connections, incorrect connections, collapse,
leaks, influence of third parties, appearance of cracks, fragmentation, joint and sleeve seals, deformation,
material changes due to acids, gases and other influences.

Note: observation of ATV Work Leaflet M 143.

2.2.3 Shafts
With shaft structures care.is to be taken that the shaft frame and the shaft cover fit correctly. With incorrect
fitting the appropriate measures must be taken (securing of shaft frame, fitting of anti-rattle rings, etc).
Equally, with shaft monitoring, care is to be taken that a correctly levelled fitting of the street cover exists and
an exam;nation of the existing ladder system is carried out.

2.2.4 Stormwater Overflow Structures


The monitoring of stormwater overflow structures should take place with the ongoing monitoring of the
stormwater outlet structures (including stormwater outlet sewers).

2.2.5 Outlet Structures


The monitoring of outlet structures is regulated through the charges and conditions of the authorisations and
is to be included and described in the local service instructions.

2.2.6 Inverted Syphons


A monitoring of inverted syphons is to take place according to operational requirements. With this,
monitoring care is to be taken that the inverted syphon functions correctly. For this the inverted syphon upper
and lower chambers are to be monitored.

2.2.7 Pump Stations. Pressure Pipes. Stormwater Tanks


The monitaring of wastewater pump stations, pressure pipes and stormwater tanks is regulated in .the ATV
Work Sheet "Service and Operation Instructions for the Personnel of Wastewater Pump Stations, Pressure
Pipes and Stormwater Tanks".

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2.3 Cleaning

2.3.1 Preamble
Attention is to be paid to a harmless disposal of the products of clearance.

2.3.2 Sewers
2.3.2.1 High Pressure Washer Vehicles (HP Vehicles)
Execution of the task:
After the working site has been secured the shaft cover is opened using the operati6nally approved
equipment. The cleaning jets of the high pressure hose are placed, via direction rollers, in the direction of
washing on the bottom of the pipe. The washing process is then carried out.
Deposited material is, as a rule, with this process, removed using a vacuum vehicle.

Following the washing process and before dismartling the equipment, the success of cleaning is checked.

Note: The jets are to be so adjusted that turning in the mounting is avoided. The use of the jets and the water pressure
must be matched to the constructional conditions (avoidance of darnage to material).

2.3.2.2 Combined High Pressure and Vacuum Vehicle with or without Water Reclamation
Mode of operation for the washing process as described under Sect. 2 .3 .2 .1.

With the work with a combined vehicle the sedimentation product washed away with the washing process
can be sucked immediately into the vehicle's sludge compartment in one process step.

2.3.2.3 Cleaning of Sewers with the Aid of Winches


Both motor driven and hand operated winches are in use. Preparation ofthe working site is as described
under Sect. 2.1.

Mode of operation: essentially winches are employed in orde to remove awkward objects, roots and solid
deposits (see also Sect. 2.3.2.6).

With engine driven and hand operated winches the winch cable must be taken from shaft to shaft via the
sewer section. For this purpose toggle rods. floats or the HP vehicle can be used. In order to carry out this
task staff must descend into the shaft (observation of accident prevention regulations). After pulling through
the cleaning equipment and before dismantling it the success of cleaning is to be checked.

2.3.2.4 Cleaning of Sewers by Hand


To this procedure belong: cleaning with rods/poles and or power driven spirals and draw brushes.

Mode of operation: tasks with rods/poles and draw brushes should be carried out by at least three men.

Organisation of the working size and entry into the sewer system as described under Sect. 2.1.

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2.3.2.5 Scouring Plate (Wash Truck)
This mechanical cleaning method is used in passable sewers with larger quantities of wastewater. Small
scouring plates can be brought complete into the sewer; larger ones broken down into component parts and
reassembled in special structures planned for this. Through the water building up behind the plate the latter
is propelled forwards. The washing jet necessary for the washing away of the deposits is produced by an
opening in the plate. Insofar as workers have to be employed in the sewer for the operation and control of
the scouring plate during the cleaning process, a concessional approval is to be obtained in accordance with
the Accident Prevention Regulation (UVV) "Local Drainage Systems" .Due to the special danger a further
person in addit;on to the operating personnel is to be employed in the sewer as observer. In addition, as is
also otherwise required, one person each is to be stationed in the shaft and on the surface. The material
washed away is to be removed continuously from the downstream shaft.

2.3.2.6 Robot Procedures

With these procedures blockages and hard deposits can be removed using remote controlled robots in non-
passable sewers with pipe sections of DN 200- 600. These equipments are driven byseparate units.

Preparation and clearance of the working site as well as entry into the sewer system are described under
Sect. 2.3.1.

2.3.2.6.1 Pipe Cutter Robots


The removal of obstacles to discharge (projecting domestic connections, steel, wood obstacles, etc) is
carried out with remotely controlledpipe cutting robots. These equipments are driven by high pressure wash
units.

The robots are pneumatically baced in the pipe immediately in front of the site of damage. The equipments
must work free of shaking and act gently on the pipes. Positioning, cutting process and subsequent
inspection ot the cutting site must be possible via the integrated television equipment.

2.3.2.6.2 Pipe Milling Robots


Hard deposits and encrustacions which cannot be removed with high pressure washing are removed using
rembtely controlled pipe milling robots. Drive of these equipments is via a separate oil pressure unit. Due to.
the central positioning of this eQuipment a pipe conserving processing can also be achieved here.

The milling head of the equipment is remotely controlled and freely adjustable so that even narrow cross-
sections and pipe offsets, etc., can be opened up without damage.

Using the robot, deposits of all materials up to 100% pipe filling can be milled out. The milling process is
controlled via a separate television system.

2.3.2.7 Special Procedures


Sewers which do not allow a predetermined cleaning process are cleaned using special procedures. These
procedures are to be laid down locally. The following are considered as special procedures: eg. surge
flushing, ball cleaning, large section cleaning.

2.3.2.8 Manhole Shafts


The cleaning of shafts also belongs to the cleaning of sewer networks. With the tasks on the shafts the dirt
traps must also be emptied, the walls of the shafts cleaned (sprayed off) as required and the matching faces
of the manhole covers cleaned.

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2.3.2.9 Open Wastewater Drains
Understood as open wastewater drains are systems which operate in free gradient as streams and which
continuously discharge domestic and industrial wastewater or combined wastewater. They are usually hard
surfaced at the base.

Open wastewater drains should, if possible, be forced off and must be marked with appropriate warning and
prohibition signs.

Descent to the bottom of the drain may only be undertaken via stepways erected for the purpose.

Embankments are to be mowed several times a year. with these tasks the embankments are always to be
inspected for damage due to animals (holes due to rabbits, rats, muskrats, mice) and damage ascertained is
to be repaired immediately (in agreement with nature protection authorities).

Note: account is to be taken of special dangers (eg. High flow rates) through appropriate precautions (laying down in
service instructions) .

In order to be able to remove the results of clearance and cutting from these drains correctly, a driveway
should be provided at the upper edge of the embankment, possibly on one side only. Embankments longer
than 5 m should be interrupted with a horizontal working strip, at least 1 m wide. Inaddition it should be
nsured that a horizontal working strip, at least

1 rn wide, is available above the solidly built area.

2.3.3 Road Drains


The cleaning of road drains should be carried out using special vehicles.

Note: watch out for road traffic!

2.3.4 Connection Sewers


2.3.4.1 Cleaning Using HP Vehicles
Employment and mode of operation as described in Sect. 2.3.2.1.

2.3.4.2 Cleaning Using Sp;ral.s or Rods/Poles .


A team of two men is recommended.

2.3.5 Special Structures


Special structures are, for instance:
stormwater overflows, stormwater tanks with overflow, stormwater holding tanks, collection structures, outlet
strucutes, inverted syphons and drop structures.

In principle all these structures can be cleaned using laid down procedures.

Note: account is to be taken of special dangel-s (eg. Steep sections, drops) through appropriate precautions (if required
laying down in service instructions).

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2.4 Servicing

Under the term servicing are the measures for the preservation of the desired status of an inspect.ion item.
To these belongt in particulart the tasks and measures on mechanical and power driven installations which
are necessary in order to ensure the maintenance of the working safety and the efficiency of the sewer
network. The tasks should be standardised, carried out at regular intervals and laid down in a work plan with
acknowledgement.

Within the sewer network, and in particular with special structures, servicing of electrical and power driven
installations is also to be carried out. Such servicing is to be carried out with observation of the appropriate
Accident Prevention Regulations (UVVs), manufacturing firmst operating instructions and local conditions.

Such installations are, for instance:

- back pressure valves


- sliding valves
- mechanical throttles
- switchboard plant
- pumps.

2.5 Combatting Rats

2.5.1 Prearnble
The sewer network is a refuge for rats. In order to prevent their spread or to keep them within reasonable
numbers a specific combatting using food bait is necessary. Use of gas in the sewer network to destroy rats
is not permitted.

2.5.2 Production of a Combat Plan


In order to carry out a systematic combatting of rats a plan of action should be produced. Thus it shculd be
achieved that, within a short interval evenly and as far as possible simultaneously, the complete sewer
network (catchment area) is covered with means to combat rats. With sewer networks which overlap
communities the communities involved should produce a common combat plan.

The combat plan should contain:


- marking of the location of the area to be covered
- points to be covered:
- here it should be laid down which shafts and special structures are to be laid wth bait.
- duration
the teams are to be given a certain period of time for laying so that this can be carried out in as
concentrated manner as possible.

2.5.3 Execution and Monitoring


Bait for combatting rats must be hrought into the sewer network. With this, there are also possibly the
remains of old bait to be removed. With laying outside the enclosed sewer network special measures are to
be taken. After ca. eight days it should be monitored (random sampling) to see whether the ba;t has been
taken.

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2.6 Discharger Surveillance

The surveillance of discharges from pr;vate properties into the sewer system or receiving water respectively
takes place according to statutory and local bye-law regulations. It takes place closely follow;ng the ATV
Work Sheet A 115 (Notes for the Discharge of Wastewater into a Public Wastewater System). Surveillance
must be recorded by protocol. The surveillance points (eg. monitor;ng shaft) must be accessible at all times.

2.7 Defects

Defects, as soon as discovered, are to be reported immediately to the next superior. The latter decides on
the measures to be taken. Attention is drawn to ATV Work Sheet A 108 and ATV Leaflet M 141.

2.8 Flood Protection

Within the meaning of this Work Sheet under flood protection are understood the measures necessary in
order of

- prevent damaging back-ups from receiving waters into the wastewater system and
- to ensure the divers of wastewater with closed outlets.

It is to be determined what and from which office measures are to be taken at certain water levels. A written
record of the individual measures is recommended and, over a certain number of measures, is necessary
(Serivce Instruction).

Service Instructions should contain:


- delegation of responsibilities
- catalogue of measures
- structure and location plans
- warning plans with addresses and telephone numbers.

This service instruction is to be checked annually and brought up to date. It must be available at the offices
concerned in its latest edition before the start of the flobd period.

2.9 Employment of Outside Agencies

The employment of outside agencies can be necessary for the most varied of tasks.

3 Darnage Repair (Structural Maintenance)


3.1 Preamble

Repair of darnage is continuously necessary for the maintenance of the sewer network. It limits itself to the
repair of darnage and structural modifications of small scope which are indicated as being necessary
following, for example, surveillance as well as cleaning or road works.

The necessary constructional work is to be carried out using own teams (governmental work) or try outside
firms according to information on the damage and following determination of priorities.

The work is to be monitored and inspected by a responsible member of staff. With this, efforts are to made
as far as possible to use the same materials and to observe the principles of the ATV Work Sheets (eg. ATV
Work Sheet A 241 Local Drainage Structures).

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Execution of these tasks is to be carried out in close contact wth the road traffic authorities, the police, public
utilities, statutory accident insurers, etc.,as well as under observance of the appropriate regulations.

Here, in particular, attention is to be paid to a sufficient ventilation of the sewer systems as well as to the use
of explosion proof equipments (see also Sects. 2.1 and 4.2.1).

3.2 Organisational Arrangements

Every task for damage repair should be documented (preseryation of evidence). According to the type and
scope of the tasks the following steps, from the first report of the damage or cause respectively, should be
established:

- registration of the damage report


- determination in which manner damage repair should take place (government enterprise or outside
agency)
- allocation of tasks
- execution and monitoring of tasks
- acceptarlce inspection (acceptance protocol) or, if required. endorsement (eg. monitor;ng of claims
under
- warranty)
- documentation on cases of damage and scope of repair.

3.3 Repair and Renewal

Repairs, rehabilitation and renewals come into consideration. Decisive for the execution of the measures is
the constructional condition. A further sub-division results from the necessity of carrying out the tasks by
government enterprise or to allocate them to outside agencies this the scope of work and the employment of
equipment are decsive.

3.3.1 Shafts/Special Structures


3.3.1.1 Shaft Covers

(Manhole frames, manhole covers, dirt traps, note classification – Class A to F)

- lift manhole frames and undercoat or exchange


Note: for lifting and undercoating there are special equipments, vehicles and materials
- exchange manhole covers or uncerlay with ant-clatter rings
- provide manhole covers with paved surround or new surrounding surface with bituminous material
- exchange dirt trap.

3.3.1.2 Compensating Rings


(Supporting rings made from concrete in accordance with DIN 4034)

Undercoat, exchange or new installation of compensating rings (pay attention to construction height. eg. ATV
Work Sheet A 241 Local Drainage Structures).

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3.3.1.3 Climbing Devices


(eg. cast, plastic coated light alloy, stailess steel)

Replace missing and damaged climbing devices. With installation follow asembly instructions. Attention is to
be paid that the material, form and step height are the same within each shaft.

3.3.1.4 Sealing of leaks


Measures are dependent on Quantity of water and water pressure.

Chisel out leaking points, clean and fill or bore-hole injection.

Note: processing directions of the materials to be used are to be followed.

3.3.1.5 Repair of Lower Shafts


Before starting work care is to be taken to provide a sufficient and correct water drainage (equipment see
Sect. 4.2.9).

Recommendation: ready-mix products should be employed for concrete. mortar and screeding due to the
often small quantities (better working, continuous high quality).

- sealing of pipe junctions


- repair or renewal of offsets
- repair or renewal of gulleys.

3.3.1.6 Shaft Renewal

To this belong the following tasks:

- breaking up of parts of the shaft or the complete shaft


- installation of individual new shaft parts

1. Base supporting rings )


2. Shaft rings ) Upper shaft =
3. Shaft necks ) precast concrete parts
4. Compensating rings ) accord to DIN 4034
5. Shaft covers

renewal of complete shaft including lower shaft. Here standards for new construction are to be observed.

3.3.2 Passable Sewers


Before execution of the tasks the measures for the correct water drainage are to be determined and strictly
maintained due to the often changing water level (observe UVV).

- Tasks for darnage repair are:


- sealing of connections
- improvement of faulty sites
- sealing and processing of incorrectly made connect;ons
- injections
- exchange of individual or several damaged pipes
- inclusion of an additional control shaft at a site of darnage.

March 1990 16
ATV-A 140 E
3.3.3 Impassable Sewers
Tasks for damage reapair are:
- injections
- repair of damage after exposure
- exchange of individual or several damaged pipes
- installation of an additional control shaft at a site of damage.

3.3.4 Open Wastewater Drains, Industrial Systems (eg- tanks)


Tasks for darnage repair are:
- renewal of base shell ar.d s;de plates
- control of embankments
- safety of embankments
- gardening tasks
- Repair and screeding of step systems, railings and fencing.

3.4 Rehabilitation

The rehabilitation of sewers and shafts is gaining more and more in significance whereby the procedures
are to be based on the respective damage. Before repair of damage it is to be examined as to whether a
renewal or rehabilitation is more economic (see also ATV Leaflet M 143 "Inspection, Repair, Rehabilitation
and Renewal of Drainage Sewers and Pipelines").

3.4.1 Preparation
For all procedures the sewer and/or shaft walls are to be cleaned and pretreated. Hard deposits are to be
milled out, protruding connection pieces and obstacles are to be cut off and root growths removed.

3.4.2 Rehabilitation Processes


coating process (eg. mortar coating)
relining process (pipeline, short pipe, wrapped pipe, hose relining)
mounting process (partial, fulllining).

Note: before caraying out rehabilitation processes it must be investigated whether reduction of cross-section is
acceptable on hydraulic grounds.

4 Vehicles and Equipment


4.1 Vehicles

Note: for terms see DIN 30702, for requirements see DIN 30 705 and DIN 30 701 .

4.1.1 Preamble
As only high value, expensive special equipments and vehicles are employed in sewer operations their
repair and servicing is to be carried out in special workshops only.

The sewer operation and these workshops should have a considerable influence on the procurement of
vehicles and equipment and particular attention should be paid to the reduction of noise.

Notes on the crew: details on crews apply to single vehicles. If several units are combined into one working group then
the employment of personnel can be matched to the operational requirements.

March 1990 17
ATV-A 140 E

4.1.1.1 Noise Protection


Noise causes illness. With the majority of vehicles the vehicle engines are used to drive installed pumps. As,
inter alia, the noise increases with the increase in engine revs, a reduction in noise can be achieved if the
engine performance is so selected that the connected units can be driven at half or reduced revs.

4.1.1.2 Vehicle Checks


Before starting, the following, inter alia, should be checked by the driver:

fuel, 0il levels, lighting, indicators, warning lights, rotating lights, emergency signals, emergency switches,
tyres, brakes, battery, cooling water, driver's logbook, tachograph.

At the end of the work the vehicle should be tanked up and, before being parking in the garage, the worst of
the dirt should be cleaned off.

4.1.2 High Pressure Washer Vehicle (HP Vehicle)


Crew: 1 driver and at least 1 co-driver .

Employment: cleaning of sewers, shafts and structuires.

Note:
- the water container is to be filled from-the mains via standpipe and sandfilter,
- with temperatures below -1° C only such vehicles should be employed which are equipped for winter
swervice (lagging and auxiliary heating).

4.1.3 Combined High Pressure Washer and Suction Vehicle


Crew: 1 driver and at least 1 co-driver.
Employment: cleaning of sewers, shafts, structures and cesspits

- before driving on the suction arm is to be locked in the travelling position,


- otherwise as for 4.1.2.

4.1.4 Combined High Pressure Washer and Suction Vehicle with Water Reclamation
Crew: 1 driver and at least 1 co-driver.

Employment: as for 4.1.3 combined HP washer and suction vehicle.

4.1.5 Suction Vehicle


Crew: 1 driver and at least 1 co-driver.

Employment: drawing off of solids and deposits from sewers road drains, cesspits and tanks.

Note: as for 4.1.3.

March 1990 18
ATV-A 140 E

4.1.6 Suction-Pressure Tanker


Crew: 1 driver and at least 1 co-driver.

Employment: emptying and cleaning of petrol separators and upstream sludge traps.

Note:
- the driver must be in possession of a valid ACR Certificate (European Agreement on the Transport of
Dangerous Cargo on Roads) in accordance with the regulations of the GGVS (Dangerous Cargo
Ordinance
- Roads),
- the driver is to ensure the operational readiness of the special equipment mounted on the vehic'e in
accordance with the GGVS,
- otherwise as for 4.1.3.

4.1.7 Sludge Trough Vehicle


Crew: 1 driver and at least 1 co-driver.

Employment: emptying of road drains with sludge buckets (catch pits).

4.1.8 Crane Sludge Trough Vehicle


Crew: employment and note: as for 4.1.7.

Further note: to drive on, the crane jib is to be brought to the travelling position. Crane cable is to be checked
daily and to be changed with signs of wear.

4.1.9 Mult-bucket System Vehicle


Crew: 1 driver.

Employment: transporting away of deposits from sewers, tanks and road drains.

Note: for loading, unloading or tipping of full skips the supporting legs are to be extended. The vehicle may
not be moved with extended supporting legs. When being driven empty the loading chains are to be secured
safely for travel. Skips may only be filld so full that a slopping over, even with sudden braking, is prevented
with certainty.

4.1.10 Sewer Television Vehicle


Crew: 1 driver and at least 1 co-driver.

Employment: examination of sewers.

4.2 Equipment

4.2.1 Preamble
For the employment of the equipments listed below the regulations of the statutory accident insurance
agencies and the operating instructions of the manufacturer apply.

For details see Safety Regulation GUV 11.6. If the equipments are employed in enclosed spaces of sewage
technical installations then the regulations for electrical operatng means in explosiyely endangered areas are
to be observed.

March 1990 19
ATV-A 140 E

4.2.2 Savety Equipment - Rescue Equipment


4.2.2.1 Gas Mask and Breathing Equipment
- equipments with hoses are locally tied
- breathing equipments dependent on the outside air,
- oxygen self-preservers are escape equipments independent of the surrounding air which serve for self-
protection in cases of danger only
- compressed air breathing equipments according to DIN 58645 are employed for rescue of accident
victims and for work in non-breathable air. Equipment users must be medically checked according to
Principle G 26 (Group 3). They are to take part in t:aining at least annually. Only full masks may be used
as breathing connection,
- regeneration equipments are oxygen equipments dependent on the surrounding air with a weight of
below 5 kg. They can be used for rescue and work purposes. The user must be medically fit according to
the principles of G 26 (Group 2).

All equipments are to be serviced in accordance with manufacturers' instructions by a trained equipment
servicing operator.

4.2.2.2 Safety and Rescue Harness Equipment


Safety ropes according to DIN 7471 "Safety Harnesses, Safety Ropes" connect the recovery or holding beld
(also rescue belt) to the securing point.

Safety ropes can be part of an abseil or rescue lift equipment which always to be employed if only one
securing person ist present. They may not be used to move loads.

For securing in and rescue from shafts and cesspits recovery belts (DIN 7478 Form A) or rescue belts are to
be used.

Safety belts incorporated into working trousers are a sensible combination of personal protective equipment
and working dress.

4.2.3 Warning Equipment


4.2.3.1 Oxygen Measurement and Explosion Warning Equipment
These serve for the continuous mcnitoring of the air present in the sewer system. They are employed as
single substance or combination measurement equipments and measure the oxygen content, toxic
substances (hydrogen sulphide) as well as inflammable and potentially explosive gases and vapours. When
set boundary values are achieved optical and acoustic alarms are given.

4.2.3.2 Gas oetection Equipment


These are for the measurement of toxic gases and vapours in the air according to the test tube process. The
equipments consist of a bellows or rubber ball pump for volume determination (stroke according to the
details on the test tube), possibly with extension tube, and the appropriate measurement test tube.

Before each use the equipments are to be checked for leaks.

To 4.2.3 and 4.2.3.2:

The equipments are to be protected from large Quantities of moisture and dampness. The measurement of
the sewer air can take place from the upper rim of the shaft via a floating sonde (eg. carbon dioxid CO2 and
hydrogen sulphide H2S are heavier than air and lie on the surface of the water).

March 1990 20
ATV-A 140 E

4.2.4 Cover Lifting Equipment


For safe lifting of shaft covers ( e.g. shaft keys, hooks, lever equipments with hooks, clips or tongs, drivable
cover lifting equipments for heavy covers).

Pick-axes (picks) may not be used.

4.2.5 Ventilation Equipment


For mechanical feeding and evacuation of air in drainage systems.

Note: details of employment in service instructions.

4.2.6 Lights
Within drainage systems only explosion proof lights may be employed.

There are: helmet lamps, handlamps, working site searchlights, etc.

4.2.7 Winches
4.2.1.1 Hand Rope Winches
Employment: removal of deposits androot growths from sewers.

Note: Only those winches may be employed and operated which in their design meet the requirements of the
UVVs. Gears must be protected against contact. Ropes are to be checked monthly for their condition and
sprayed with water repellent oils. Only loading. hooks with a safety device may be used.

4.2.7.2 Power Driven Winches


Employment: removal of deposits from sewers and tanks.

Note:
- only winches with silenced engines may be employed,
- the oil levels in the engine, gearbox and hydraulic tank are to be checked daily. As required engine oil
and/or hydraulic oil is to be topped up.
- air filter cleaning, oil changes and lubrication of bearings are to be carried out at least every 100
operating hours. During operation of the winch, support is to be on supporting legs and not the wheels
and trailer wheel.
- Otherwise as for 4.2.7.1.

4.2.7.3 Rack Steel Winches According to DIN 7355


Employment: on installation/dismantling and possibly cleaning of slide valves, flushing flaps and other tasks
in large sewers and tanks.

Note: modern winches are equipped with self-operating friction disc brakes and and safety pawls
andpossibly even with adjustable lift catches.

March 1990 21
ATV-A 140 E

4.2.8 Scouring Plates (Wash Truck)


Employment: cleaning of sewers from deposits by washing away.

Note: scouring plates can consist of individual parts which can be taken in and out through every shaft cover
(62.5 cm).

For assembly clamping wedges with split pinning of the threaded connections are to be preferred. Insofar as
this is not possible ring nuts are to be used.

4.2.9 Leakage Test Equipments and Pipe close-offs


4.2.9.1
Mechanical test connections for circular sections of DN 100 - 600 consist of two pipe close-offs, one with a
filler device, isolation valve, manometer and one with an air release connection piece.

(Test connections can also be employed individually as pipe close-offs).

4.2.9.2
Pneumatic test connections for circular sections DN 100 - 4000 consist of two pneumatic pipe close-offs, one
with a filler device, isolation valve and manometer and one with a ventilation connection piece.

From DN 600 upwards separated pipe close-offs are practical.

4.2.9.3
Coupling test equipments for circular sections from DN 300 - 2000 to pressurise individual pipe connections.

4.2.9.4
Gas bags for circular sections of DN 100 - 1200. For the inflation of these cylindrical sealing bodies an
intermediate safety valve, with pressure limit according to the manufacturer's details, is absolutely
necessary.

4.2.10 Electrical Equipment


For tasks within the area of sewers only generators with the protection type "IP 44" according to DIN 40050
(protection against contact and water spray) may be emloyed.

Protective earthing or earthing using earthing pins may not be established. All sockets mounted securely to
the electrical generator (light 220 V, power 380 V) must be fused via a fault current circuit breaker.

Electrical tools and lights to be employed within the sewer area must have flexible NSHöu connection lines
(heavy duty flexible rubber cable, inflammable and oil resistant) and waterproof plugs. The total length from
electrical generator to the user equipment may, with voltages up to 220 V, be a max of 250 m, with voltages
up to 380 V max 125 m. As extension cabl es onl y those wi th waterproof connectors may be used.

Note: see also Sect. 4.2.1.

March 1990 22
ATV-A 140 E

5 Care of Personnel
5.1 Preamble
The operator has, under observance of the laws, ordinances, regulations and tarif as well as further
agreements, to take measures, in close cooperation with the staff representation, which protect personnel
from injury and which make the task as easy as possible.

5.2 Personal Precautions

For the protection of the life and health of the staff the following preventative measures are necessary:

- industrial medical examinations


- supply and cleaning of working and protective dress
- supply of safety and rescue equipment
- supply of skin protection cleaning and disinfection means
- monitoring of industrial safety at the operating site
- training of personnel.

5.3 General Care

Under this the following are to be mentioned particularly:


design and construction of safe sewer structures and sewers
the organisation of vehicles and equipment of the rest rooms and the firm's operating depot
possibilities for washing and rest during pauses (eg. enlarged vehicle cabins)
possibilities for changing
possibilities for showering and washing
sufficient time for washing
facilities for disinfection.

6. Reporting Matters-Organisation
6.1 Preamble

In order to obtain an overview of sewer operation, operational procedure, its effectiveness and costs,
particularly with regard to the calculation of charges, certain records are essential.

6.2 Reports

The necessary entries are to be made daily in the operating reports (see Annex 2). Reports are to be
presented at laid down time intervals.

All significant occurrences, special tasks, tasks on machines, vehicles, equipment and constructional
systems are to be entered insofar as they are not noted elsewhere.

For individual large systems special records can be necessary.

March 1990 23
ATV-A 140 E

6.3 Records

Service reports and/or hourly records {see Annax 2) are to be completed daily and presented at times in
accordance with the directions of the operational management. Overtime (see Annex 5), allowances, journey
time, etc. are to be justified. With changing places of work these are to be given in the records.

Operational equipment and inventory are to included in the contents list (see Annex 3). Receipts and issues
are to be entered. Stocktaking is to be carried out annually. With larger stocks an inventory file is
recommended (see Annex 4.).

6.4 Delivery Notes and Service Certification

These certificates serve for the calculation of outside services and are are to be presented to management
without delay. Delivery notes must contain details on scope of delivery, receipt date, point of usage, and
purpose of usage and are to be signed by those responsible.

From service certificates the following must be visible:


work site, date, firm carrying out work, type and scope of tasks (if required, give position N°. of service
specification).

With work paid by the hour the following are to be, in addition, noted:
number and names of workers and their hours worked (broken down according to specialists, helpers, etc.),
material usage according to type and quantity, operational times of equipments and vehicles with details of
type, useful load, and service.

Not to be certified are travel times and kilometre distances.

Service cerificates are to be signed by those responsible with details of the location and date.

Fundamentally measurements of quantities are to prepared together with the contractor and to be signed by
him. A copy of the measurement of quantities is to be handed to him.

6.5 Operation Planning

Personnel and equipment must be used economically taking into account regulations. To this belong
vehicles which are always operationally ready (if possible with radio equipment) and an operatians plan
which possibly includes the employment of outside firms.

6.5.1 Short Term


- The weekly and/or daily employment is to be agreed and prepared well in time in order to avoid losses of
time.
- The operation planning is to be delegated in accordance with the physical spread of the sewer system to
be operated on.

6.5.2 Longer Term


- Determination of the annual work programrrie taking account of the seasonal concentrations.
- Servicing plans (inter alia for holding tanks, stormwater overflow tanks, outlets, inverted syphons,
vehicles and equipments.
- Holiday plans
- Service plans (on-call, stand-by duty, inspections outside normal working times).

March 1990 24
ATV-A 140 E
- Winter service.
- A The locally laid down winter serv;ce (salting) must be ensured for paths and roadways on private
properties on which public wastewater systems are located. This, for practical purposes, takes place
through a spreading plan. Spreading material is to be provisioned appropriately.

6.6 Preservation of Evidence

This is necessarry for possible damaging effects by third parties on the wastewater system.

The execution of construction projects can have a detrimental effect on sewers and their structures.
Therefore it is necessary before the start and after the completion of the constructional work to examine the
system affected together with the owner of the building and to make a written recording of this. With this it is
also to be checked whether the conditions laid down have been kept.

Other damaging influences could be: subsidences, excavationst bringing in of concrete or road making
materials, illegal discharges (in particular of a type damaging to constructional material).

March 1990 25
ATV-A 140 E

Appendix
Example of a Service Instruction

This example represents only the framework of a Service Instruction

Based on this framework a Service Instruction can be produced and matched to the local conditions.

Operator
Legal liability for the promulgation of the Service Instruction (§ 28 UVV "Local Drainage")

Service Instruction
for scope of application - circle of personnel affected (operating staff)
space limitations (constructional installations)

Effective date
Duty of the circle of personnel affected to observe the UVVs (if required, name significant UVVs)

Contents of Service Instruction (essential criteria)


- monitoring of the system
responsibilities, reports, damage repair
- accident protection
responsibility for own protection, training, practice
- prohibition of alchohol and smoking
- resources/protective means
careful handling, examination of usage, eg. prohibition of arbitrary modification
- conduct in case of accident
reports, rules for conduct
- note on occurrence of gases/ventilation
(see Annex to Service Instruction)
- special precautionary measures for specific parts of system, testing of sewer air, ventilator, roping,
prohibition of entry to persons outside the operation. Particular details on special structures, measures
for extremely endangered sewer sections.
- Special precautionary measures in heavily endangered traffic areas (see Annex to Service Instruction)
safeguarding, special security measures
- avoidance of dangers of infection/hygiene regulations personnel cleanliness, preventative examination
- organisational arrangements (eg. signatures, dispositions)
control plans, responsibilities, reporting matters

Introduction

___________________
Office -Signature

Annex to Service Instruction (occurrences of dangerous gases in the operating system, heavily endangered
traffic areas)

March 1990 26
ATV-A 140 E

Annex 1
The most important regulations, safety rules and leaflets are here listed. They apply always in the latest
ecition.

1 Laws and Decrees

(Source of supply: documents with BG (Federal Law), GUV (Legal Accident Insurance) N°. to be obtained
from the responsible accident insurer, all others from Carl-Heimanns-Verlag KG, Luxemburger Straßs 449,
5000 Köln 41

Regulations on pressure containers, pressure gas containes and filling installations (Pressure Container
Regulation - DruckbehV) (GUV 92.1).

Regulation on electrical syste:ms in explosion endangered spaces (ElexV)(ZH 1/309).

2 Accident Prevention Regulations

(Source of supply: responsible accident insurers)


VBG 1 - GUV 0.1 General regulations
VBG 109 - GUV 0.3 First aid
VBG 16 - GUV 2.9 Compressors
VBG 4 - GUV 2.10 Electrical plant and resources
VBG 5 - GUV 3.0 Power driven tools
VBG 15 - GUV 3.8 Welding, cutting and associated work processes

VBG 9- GUV 4.1 Cranes


VBG 8- GUV 4.2 Winches, lifting and towing equipments
VBG 9a - GUV 4.6 Load acceptance devices in lifting operations

VBG 10 - GUV 4.11 Continuous mechanical handling equipment

VBG 74 - GUV 6.4 Ladders and steps


VBG 54 - GUV 7.4 Local drainage (sewer works)
VBG 61 - GUV 9.9 Gases
VBG 121 - GUV 9.20 Noise

(VBG = Vorschriftenwerk der Berufsgenossenschaften = Regulation of the Trade Associations)

March 1990 27
ATV-A 140 E

3 Standards, Safety Rules, Principles, Leaflets and Pamphlets

(Source of supply: documents with BG (Federal Law), GUV (Legal Accident Insurance) N°. to be obtained
from the responsible accident insurer, all others from Carl-Heymanns-Verlag KG. Luxemburger Straßs 449,
5000 Köln 41)

GUV 10.4 Standards for Safety and Rescue Equ;pment


GUV 10.10 Safety Rules for the Equipment of Work Places with Fire Extinguishers
GUV 11.9 Safety Rules for Pipeline Construction Work
GUV 12.9 Standards for Liquid Jets (Spraying Equipment)
GUV 14.3 Safety Rules for Hoistable Passenger Carrying Means
GUV 16.10 Standards for Power Operated Windows, Doors and Gates
GUV 16.11 Safety Rules for Step Irons and Iron Walkways
GUV 17.5 Safety Rules for Wastewater Treatment Plants -Construction and Equipment -
GUV 17.6 Safety Rules for Tasks in Enclosed Spaces of Technical Wastewater Systems -Operation -
GUV 19.8 Explosion Protectibn Standards for the Avoidance of Danger through Explosive Atmospheres
with Sample Collection - Explosion Protection Standards - (EX-RL)
GUV 19.9 Standards for the Use of Liquid Gas
GUV 20.5 Instruction on First Aid in Accidents
GUV 20.13 Eye Protection Leaflet
GUV 20.14 Breathing Protection Leaflet
GUV 20.15 Protective Helmet Leaflet
GUV 20.16 Protective Shoes Leaflet
GUV 20.17 Protective Gloves Leaflet
GUV 20.19 Protective Clothing Leaflet
GUV 20.28 Leaflet for Safety and Rescue Equipment
GUV 20.33 Acoustic Protection Leaflet
GUV 25.1 Leaflet - Warning Clothing
GUV 26.12 Leaflet - Working and Protective Scaffold;ng
GUV 40.6 Bandage Book (parcelled)

4 Other Documentation

ATV Work Sheets and Leaflets


DIN Standards
VDE (Association of German Electro-Technicians) Regulations (Catalogue see VBG 4 - GUV 2.10)

March 1990 28
ATV-A 140 E

Annex 2 – Page 1

March 1990 29
ATV-A 140 E

Annex 2 – Page 2
4 Operation Accounting

March 1990 30
ATV-A 140 E

Annex 3
Inventory

March 1990 31
ATV-A 140 E

Annex 4
Inventory File

March 1990 32
ATV-A 140 E

Annex 5 – Page 1
Overtime for the Month

March 1990 33
ATV-A 140 E

Annex 5 – Page 2

March 1990 34