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Microprocessors are regarded as one of the most important devices in our everyday machines called computers. Before we start, we need to understand what exactly microprocessors are and their appropriate implementations. Microprocessor have functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. Microprocessors are also used in other advanced electronic systems, such as computer printers, automobiles, and jet airliners .Typical microprocessors incorporate arithmetic and logic functional units as well as the associated control logic, instruction processing circuitry, and a portion of the memory hierarchy. Portions of the interface logic for the input/output (I/O) and memory subsystems may also be infused, allowing cheaper overall systems. While many microprocessors and single chip designs, some high-performance designs rely on a few chips to provide multiple functional units and relatively large caches. When combined with other integrated circuits that provide storage for data and programs, often on a single semiconductor base to form a chip, the microprocessor becomes the heart of a small computer, or microcomputer. Microprocessors are classified by the
semiconductor technology of their design (TTL, transistor-transistor logic; CMOS, complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor; or ECL, emitter-coupled logic), by the width of the data format (4bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, or 64-bit) they process; and by their instruction set (CISC, complex-instruction-set computer, or RISC, reduced-instruction-set computer). TTL technology is most commonly used, while CMOS is favoured for portable computers and other battery-powered devices because of its low power consumption. ECL is used where the need for its greater speed offsets the fact that it consumes the most power. Four-bit devices, while inexpensive, are good only for simple control applications; in general, the wider the data format, the faster and more expensive the device. CISC processors, which have 70 to several hundred instructions, are easier to program than RISC processors, but are slower and more expensive. A microprocessor can do any information processing task that can be expressed, precisely, as a plan. It is totally uncommitted as to what its plan will be. It is a truly general-purpose informationprocessing device. The plan, which it is to execute—which will, in other words, control its operation—is stored
electronically. This is the principle of “stored program control”. Without a program the microprocessor can do nothing. With one, it can do anything. Furthermore, microprocessors can only perform information-processing tasks. To take action on the outside world, or to receive signals from it, a connection must be provided between the microprocessor’s representation of information (as digital electronic signals) and the real world representation.
The first digital computers were built in the 1940’s using bulky relay and vacuumtube switches. Relays had mechanical speed limitations. Vacuum tubes required considerable power, dissipated a significant amount of heat, and suffered high failure rates. Some systems achieved processing rates up to 1,000 operations per second. In 1947, Bell Laboratories invented the transistor, which rapidly replaced the vacuum tube as a computer switch for several reasons, including smaller size, faster switching speeds, lower power consumption and dissipation, and higher reliability. In the 1960s Texas Instruments invented the integrated circuit, allowing a single silicon chip to contain several transistors as well as their interconnections. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, produced in 1971. Originally developed for a calculator and revolutionary for its time, it contained 2,300 transistors on a 4-bit microprocessor that could perform only 60,000 operations per second. The first 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8008, developed in 1972 to run computer terminals. The Intel 8008 contained 3,300 transistors. The first truly
general-purpose microprocessor, developed in 1974, was the 8-bit Intel 8080, which contained 4,500 transistors and could execute 200,000 instructions per second. By 1989, 32-bit microprocessors containing 1.2 million transistors and capable of executing 20 million instructions per second had been introduced. Reductions in both device size and power dissipation are essential in achieving these high densities. Smaller device sizes also allow faster switching speeds, which in turn permit higher processor clock rates.
Increased density also lets designers add circuitry to increase the amount of work performed within a cycle. On many benchmarks, high-end microprocessors are two orders of magnitude faster than the DEC VAX-11/780 minicomputer, a performance standard in the 1970’s. Key distinctions between mainframe and highperformance microprocessor-based systems often are simply physical size, ability to handle large amounts of I/O, and software issues.
MICROPROCESSOR DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE:
Its instruction set comprises the group of available low-level operations. INTEL MICROPROCESSORS: • 4004 (1970): Intel's Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin designed and implemented (respectively) the first general-purpose microprocessor. A powerful aspect of programmability arises from the ability to OF Several functional classifications can be used to classify microprocessors. a set of register. used in a hand-held calculator built by Busicom of Japan. with the instruction control unite fetching the next instruction. This operation code specifies the operation as well as the location of the operands. For performance reasons. interprets the operation code.A basic difference between a microprocessor and other logic chips is the functional flexibility afforded by the microprocessor’s programmable nature. specify which instruction will be executed next. The different types of microprocessors used most frequently are as follows: 1. each executing in a different pipeline stage. Separate caches may be used for instruction and data. creating a memory hierarchy. Multiple levels of cache are how a popular solution to the performance problems created by the increasing gap between processor and memory speeds. High-end designs dispatch multiple instructions each processor cycle. selection is often based on the outcome of a test involving computed results. was part of a four-chip set called the 4000 Family: . The functional unit may again interpret the operation code. and one or more caches. Then the process repeats. Since main memory access times are relatively slow. one or more functional units. read the required operands from the register or memory perform the specified operation and store the result in either the register set or memory. the instruction control unit fetches an instruction from main memory. CLASSIFICATION MICROPROCESSORS: A typical microprocessor chip set includes an instruction control unit. or operation code. or a unified cache may hold both. Conceptually. A programmer uses sequences of these low-level instructions to create a desired higher-level function. faster memory units are frequently employed to cache recently used portions of main memory. These caches are typically an order of magnitude faster than main memory. Therefore the personality of a microprocessor-based system can be readily modified without the hardware modifications usually associated with nonprogrammable logic systems. implementations commonly segment the instruction processing into stages and allow multiple instructions to overlap. and then dispatches the instruction to a functional unite. The 4004 processor. Each instruction has a specific binary pattern. smaller.
graphics and communications intensive applications with more than 3 million transistors. the 8088 was a 16-bit processor with an 8-bit external bus. 80386 (1985).4-bit central processor • • IBM PC and its clones gave Intel a dominant position in the semiconductor industry. The success of the • • • • • .000 transistors. It was still an invention in search of a market however. This chip became the most ubiquitous in the computer industry when IBM chose it for its first PC.o 4001 . the Pentium supports demanding I/O.320-bit RAM memory o 4003 . 8080 (1974): The 8080 were 20 times as fast as the 4004 and contained twice as many transistors. and doubled the volume of information that could be processed. It was perhaps most notable as the processor in the first kit computer. Many novices were introduced to desktop computing with a "286 machine" and it became the dominant chip of its time. The 386. This 8-bit chip represented a technological milestone as engineers recognized its value and used it in a wide variety of products. featured 275.10-bit I/O shift register o 4004 . the Altair. as the technology world was just beginning to view the microprocessor as a solution to many needs. 8088 (1979): Created as a cheaper version of Intel's 8086.048-bit ROM memory o 4002 . which ignited the personal computing phenomenon. in 8008 (1972): The 8008 increased the 4004's word length from four to eight bits. this 16-bit chip is referred to as the first "modern" microprocessor.2. Pentium (1993): Adding systems-level characteristics to enormous raw compute power. the 486 had more than a million. Pentium¨ Pro (1995): The newest Pentium has dynamic instruction execution and other performance-enhancing features such as a large L2 cache in the chip package. which became the bestselling microprocessor in history. 80286 (1982) : With 16 MB of addressable memory and 1 GB of virtual memory. It contained 130.000 transistors and packed serious compute power (12 MHz) into a tiny footprint. 80486 (1989) :The price/performance curve continued its steep climb with the 386 and later the 486 --32bit processors that brought real computing to the masses.
Consistent with Intel's strategy to deliver unique processor products targeted for specific markets segments.25-micron technology. It was designed to significantly enhance Internet experiences.5 million transistors. • • The Intel family of Processors Chip Year add ed Dat a Bu s wid Addr ess Bus widt h (in Spe Transis ed tors (in MH z) . The processor incorporates 9. audio and graphics data efficiently. The processors incorporate the Pentium III processor's 70 SIMD instructions. • gaming software • and educational Pentium¨ II (1997): The 7. providing additional performance for e-Commerce applications and advanced business computing. It is designed for systems with multiprocessor configurations. corporate data warehousing. Pentium III Xeon (1999): The Pentium III Xeon processor extends Intel's offerings to the workstation and server market segments.5 million transistors.addition to its more than 5. The Pentium III Xeon processor’s advance cache technology speeds information from the system bus to the processor. and electronic and mechanical design automation. Systems based on the processor can be configured to scale to four or eight processors and beyond. and was introduced using 0. the Intel Celeron processor is designed for the value PC market segment. the Pentium II Xeon processors feature technical innovations specifically designed for workstations and servers that utilize demanding business applications such as Internet services. Celeron (1999): Continuing Intel's strategy of developing processors for specific market segments. digital content creation. and it delivers excellent performance for uses such as • Pentium III (1999): The Pentium III processor features 70 new instructions. which is designed specifically to process video. which enhance multimedia and streaming video applications. Pentium II Xeon (1998): The Pentium II Xeon processors are designed to meet the performance requirements of mid-range and higher servers and workstations.5 million-transistor Pentium II processor incorporates Intel MMXTM technology. It provides consumers great performance at an exceptional value. significantly boosting performance. allowing users to do such things as browse through realistic online museums and stores and download highquality video.
5 MILLI ON 9. input and output controls) on one small chip.000 29.000 134.7 7 812 133 1620 2550 1633 1633 3366 75100 60166 150 200 233 300 400 600 400 600 350 6.5 MILLI ON 7.5 MILLI ON 4-BIT MICROPROCESSORS: 199 32 1 199 32 1 486DX 199 32 2 1 486DX 199 32 4 2 PENTI UM PENTI UM PRO PENTI UM II PENTI UM II XEON CELE RON PENTI UM III 199 32 3 199 64 5 199 64 7 199 64 8 199 64 9 199 64 9 Historically. Introduced in late 1971. a 4-bit design.2 MILLI ON 1. which performed calculations a single bit at a time. The Intel 4004. In the late 1960s. many scientists had discussed the possibility of a computer on a chip.5 MILLI ON 7. The Intel 4004 chip took the integrated circuit down one step further by placing all the parts that made a computer think (i. Many of the chips introduced at about the same time by other companies were. The basic design of the early microprocessors was derived from that of the desk calculator.2 MILLI ON 2.3 MILLI ON 5. mere calculator chips.5 MILLI PENT 199 64 IUM 9 III XEON 64 100 0 350 100 0 ON 9.5 MILLI ON 3. Programming intelligence into inanimate objects had now become possible. central processing unit.185 MILLI ON 1.00 0 275. was the grandfather of microprocessors. Intel's Ted .00 0 1. it was not designed as a general-purpose computer. The shortcomings of the 4004 were recognized as soon as it was introduced. in fact.th bits) (in bits ) 8080 197 4 8086 197 8 8088 197 9 80286 198 2 386DX 198 5 386SX 198 8 486DX 198 9 486SX 487SX 8 16 8 16 32 32 32 8 20 20 24 32 24 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 64 64 64 64 2 510 4. But it was the first general purpose computing device on a chip to be placed on the market. memory.000 29. Some of them were even serial-by-bit devices.5 MILLI ON 7. but nearly everyone felt that integrated circuit technology was not yet ready to support such a chip.0 MILLI ON 2.00 0 275. the 4-bit microprocessor was the first general-purpose microprocessor introduced on the market. The 4004 was the world's first universal microprocessor.e. the 4004 was originally designed for a Japanese manufacturer as the processing element of a desk calculator.
bit microprocessors are still based on similar designs. designed as a successor to Intel’s 8008. 8-bit microprocessors coexist with 16-bit microprocessors as the design standard. In fact. Taking into account all of its design inadequacies and its limited performance. decoding control. most 16-bit microprocessors were limited to packages with a maximum of 40 to 48 pins. The early 8080 competitors were introduced with at least a nine-month delay and failed to dislodge it. today they are technically obsolete. This ensured the continued success of the 8080 because its performance was then sufficient for many applications.produced product ever with more than 5. 8-BIT MICROPROCESSORS: Today.bit CPU. With its 4 . he was the first person to recognize that the new silicongated MOS technology might make a single-chip CPU (central processing unit) possible. The 8008 was not intended to be a general-purpose microprocessor. but rather to economic. the 8008 was an overwhelming success. and the microprocessor is still the most complex mass . Hoff and the Intel team developed such architecture with just over 2. several 4-bit chips continue to be among the best sellers of all microprocessors: prime examples are the National Semiconductor COP400 and the NEC uPD75XX series. Because of their extremely low cost. Technically.Although 4-bit microprocessors played an important role in the early years of the microcomputer revolution. The 8080 is still sold today thought It has been largely eclipsed by successor products—most notably the 8085 microprocessor. 8-bit designs have more than adequate power . they still offer an attractive alternative to low-end8-bit microprocessors. INTEL (8-BIT MICROPROCESSORS): The 8080. As originally design. and several additional powerful designs were introduced later. however. This was not due to physical. decoder. constraints: industrial tester of the time was generally limited to 40-pin DIPs. command register. Intel was the first company to invest in the development of support chips and software for its products. Today's 64 . the 4004 was one heck of a little invention.Hoff felt differently. the 8085 accounts for roughly one of every four 8bit microprocessors sold. the powerful 8-bit microprocessors were introduced at a price that was only slightly higher than the price of the 4040. introduced in 1972-1973. The ancestor of today’s 8-bit microprocessors was the Intel 8008. control monitoring of machine commands and interim register. Although 16-bit chips provide higher performance computationally. the 8080 long remained the most powerful product on the market.300 transistors in an area of only 3 by 4 millimetres. Within a short period of time.5 million transistors performing hundreds of millions of calculations each second numbers that are sure to be outdated fast. however. IT was to be a CRT display controller for Data point. was the first powerful microprocessor introduced on the market. Furthermore. Today. the 4004 became obsolete and was replaced by the 4040. Then. Several other microprocessors of similar performance were introduced on the market within a year after the 8080 appeared. for many applications—plus the advantage of lower cost.
The 8080 does not have an indeed register but is equipped with register pairs than can be used to provide a similar facility. It therefore uses a faster clock. In the 1990s the number of transistors on microprocessors continued to double nearly every 18 months. Depending on the function used in the comparison. In the average. and the 8080A-1 with a 3MHZ clock. A typical instruction is executed in two microseconds on either microcomputer. the PowerPC620. For this reason assembling a complete microprocessor-based system required both hardware and software expertise. and Motorola. Only five years later in 1976 companies realized that microprocessors could be used to build inexpensive personal . However. In the early 1970’s there were few support chips and microprocessors were programmed to perform functions that are now done by a wide variety of hardware chips. transferred 64 bits of data at once. the 8080A-2. containing 5. The internal architecture of the 6800 is equipped with tow accumulators.5 million transistors. In 1965 Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a computer chip would double every year. The most significant different in performance is achieved not by comparing a standard 8080 to a standard 6800—their performance is essentially similar—but by considering a faster version of either the 8080 or the 6800. The clock simply supplies the pulses needed by the internal micro program of the control unit. the Ultra Spark-II. and the Digital Equipment Corporation's Alpha 21164A.4 million transistors. The 8080 is available in three versions: the standard 8080A with a 2MHZ clock. The 6800 has a special indeed register (IX) that facilitates access to tables stored in the memory. developed jointly by Apple. The standard 6800 use a 1MHZ clock. The overall performances of the 8080 and the 6800 are similar. containing 7 million transistors. They tend to be somewhat more complex but generally similar to those of the 8080. The 6800 has essentially the same internal architecture as the 8080. The design of the 6800 was obviously inspired by the 8008 and the then prevalent minicomputer philosophy. they were first used in computer systems for a negative reason. In the mid-1990s chips included the Intel Pentium Pro. by Sun Microsystems. The 6800 is also available in two versions.MOTORALA (8-BIT MICROPROCESSORS): The 6800 was introduced by Motorola as a direct competitor to the 8080. containing 5. though there are some differences at the register level. MICROPROCESSOR APPLICATIONS: When microprocessors appeared. The rate of change followed an early prediction made by American semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore. The 6800 instructions reflect the fact that it was introduced after the 8080. By the end of the decade microprocessors contained many millions of transistors. and performed billions of instructions per second. the 8080 uses simpler microinstructions and requires twice as many microinstructions as the 6800. either of the two microprocessors can be said to be marginally faster. .3 million transistors. IBM. containing 9. the clock rates do not mean that the standard 6800 is twice as fast as the standard 8080A. a prediction that has come to be known as Moore's Law.
This makes the programming tasks more difficult than with traditional systems. should be considered as slaves. In the early 1970s the necessary combination of hardware and software expertise was rarely found outside the computer manufacturing industry. i. and programmable thermostats. FUTURE TRENDS: Cheaper systems will result from greater integration of support circuitry within the microprocessor chip. Programmed instructions are sent to these devices by the microprocessor. the computer establishment saw them only as low-cost processors for simple control applications. This was not perceived as a problem. the UART. These processors. handheld electronic games. most microprocessor systems actually use multiple processors distributed over several chips. washing machines. Many of the early microprocessor applications found markets by accident rather than by design. spreadsheets.. animation. all of the traditional chips that were merely interface devices in the past are now fully programmable. Programs include word processing. Yet the technology had been there all along. while maintaining acceptable response times. because when microprocessors were introduced. programmable videocassette recorders (VCRs). electronic mail. Newer cars incorporate microprocessor controlled ignition and emission systems to improve engine operation.e. Initially. such as microwave ovens. The trend of incorporating larger portions of the computer system may advance to placing multiple microprocessors on a single chip. increasing fuel economy while reducing pollution. (Naturally with time costs have diminished and integrated circuits have been improved). Higher degrees of system integration and additional performance on a chip will open new arena for microprocessor use. such as productivitymotivated object-oriented programming. the first 8-bit microprocessor. But now. as well as new . In fact. and database processing. however. with the faster microprocessors coupled with specialized peripheral controller chips. Microprocessors are utilized in computer systems ranging from notebooks computers to small personal computers to supercomputer-class workstations. It then took several more years to manufacture computers that were adequate for business and professional purposes. such as CRT and floppy disk controllers. residing in peripheral devices. graphics. Additional processing capacity will support abstractions. With the continuing progress of LSI technology. it is possible to control fast devices such as CRT’s and disks. such applications were limited by the relatively low speed of early microprocessors. or other system chips. microprocessors appear in many everyday household products. Owing to their low cost and flexibility. the Intel 8008. it does result in standardized systems. New product development had generally been a direct result of the dissemination of technical information. the PIO. Microprocessors are now used for controlling virtually every computer peripheral that does not require bipolar speeds. was designed for direct control of a CRT display. Processors can often be found in the peripheral chips of the system.computers.
Currently it is the secondperforming general-purpose microprocessor. had 442 SPECint2000 and 335 SPECfp2000 results at 1GHz.4GHz and 1. compression.5 GHz.06 GB/s delivered on the Pentium-III processor's 133MHz system bus. This extends the SIMD capabilities that MMX technology and SSE technology delivered by adding 144 new instructions. and enhanced graphics. Pentium 4 processor's 400 MHz (100 MHz "quad pumped") system bus provides up to 3.2 GB/s of bandwidth. In addition to the L1 8 KB data cache. The world champion is Compaq/Digital Alpha 21264B CPU delivering 544 SPECint2000 and 658 28 SPECfp2000 at 833 MHz The previous Intel chip. The bus is fed by dual PC800 Rambus channel. In 2000-chip manufacturer Advanced Micro Devices debuted a 1 GHz microprocessor. the Pentium 4 processor includes an Execution Trace Cache that stores up to 12 K decoded micro-ops in the order of program execution. The Pentium 4 is available in 1.products. virtual reality. Intel's Net Burst microarchitecture doubles the pipeline depth to 20 stages. Pentium-III "Coppermine". It employs 256-bit interface that delivers data transfer rate of 48 GB/s at 1. The on-die 256KB L2-cache is non-blocking. This allows basic integer Pentium-4 is the first completely new x86-processor design from Intel since the Pentium PRO processor. Two Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) on the Pentium 4 processor are clocked at twice the core processor frequency. Its die size is 217 mm2. RECENTLY LAUNCHED MICROPROCESSORS: • Intel’s Pentium-4 processor: The Pentium-4 is fabricated in Intel's 0.18-micron CMOS process.5Hz bins. with its P6 microarchitecture. power consumption is 50W. including speech and pen-based character recognition systems. 8-way set associative.5GHz the microprocessor delivers 535 SPECint2000 and 558 SPECfp2000 of performance. Pentium-4' microarchitecture is known as Net Burst. . These instructions include 128-bit SIMD integer arithmetic and 128-bit SIMD double-precision floatingpoint operations. simulations of other architectures. It has many interesting features. was introduced in 1995. Pentium-4' Net Burst microarchitecture introduces Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions 2 (SSE2). The high-speed processor contains approximately 22 million transistors. This 29 compares to 1. At 1. The Pentium 4 processor expands the floating-point registers to a full 128-bit and adds an additional register for data movement. Compared to the Intel Pentium-III processor. the fastest microprocessor ever massproduced for personal computers.
(Pylkin. Interesting is that this method was firstly introduced by “Elbrus team” in their E2K processor design. (Alexin Pylkin.) • Elbrus E2K: Russian company Elbrus International has disclosed the technical details of its revolutionary new microprocessor E2K. Intel's forthcoming processor. The E2K project is a commercial version of the design has already been used in the Russian Space Mission Control and the Russian Missile Defence System. including Digital/Compaq Alpha. introducing cutting-edge techniques such as super scalar design. occupy 300 mm2. to execute in a half clock cycle.instructions such as Add. has worked together for nearly 40 years. Since 1992 the team works in tight cooperation with Sun Microsystems. Over the decades. The same team has taken a great part in developing Sun UltraSPARC processor.5-micron process. it was often far ahead of Western rivals. This extraordinary performance results from an incredibly efficient architecture design that has been continually refined by the Elbrus team. Logical OR. The Elbrus team. 30 Elbrus technology does not infringe on any Western intellectual property and it is protected by 70 US patent applications. consume 60 Watts. and score only 45 SPECint95 and 70 SPECfp95. which will be manufactured in the same process. sharedmemory multiprocessing and explicitly parallel instruction computing (EPIC) before similar products or even papers on the subjects were available here. Fabricated in a 0. and Sun Solaris operating system. The E2K design was described in Microprocessor Report article by Keith Diefendorff in Feb 1999.2GHz and deliver 135 SPECint95 and 350 SPECfp95. The previous chip was manufactured in February 1998 in 0. mostly for the former Soviet Union's and Russia's defence establishment. etc. Logical AND. Alexei) • Intel announced new brand name for its Merced IA-64 microprocessor – Itanium: So. The microprocessor will function 3 to 5 times more quickly than Intel Merced while still running all legacy MS DOS and Windows software. would operate at 800MHz. . new HP/Intel microprocessor family has rather long list of brand names. The integer register file runs also runs at the double frequency. Sun UltraSPARC compilers. By contrast. Subtract. yet require only 35 Watts of power and occupy 126 mm2 of silicon. The technology underlying the E2k delivers computing performance that exceeds all other existing and planned processors. it turns out.18-micron process. led by a supercomputer architect Boris Babaian (another transcription -Babayan). the chip would run at 1.
EPIC. office machines. PlayDoh. microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. power tools. remote controls. Alexei) MICROCONTROLLER: A microcontroller (also microcontroller unit. These however all required external chip(s) to implement a working system. with other more capable processors available over the next several years. with both RAM and ROM on the same chip. MCU or µC) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit consisting of a relatively simple CPU combined with support functions such as a crystal oscillator. They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt. appliances. etc: Itanium. IA-64. raising total system cost. The first computer system on a chip optimised for control applications microcontroller was the Intel 8048 released in 1975. Thus. the introduction of EEPROM . One had an erasable EEPROM program memory. Merced. P7. Most microcontrollers at this time had two variants. (Pylkin. which was significantly more expensive than the PROM variant which was only programmable once. Nevertheless still it is not known about future Itanium performance as well as other metrics.code names. McKinley. Experimental systems with Itanium samples inside were demonstrated at last Intel Developer Forum. read/write memory. Itanium is sampling now. In 1993. as well as a. simplicity is emphasized. timers. and making it impossible to economically computerise appliances. memory. Wide-Word. power consumption while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts. Deerfield. serial and analog I/O etc. enabling low power consumption (milliwatts or microwatts). Some microcontrollers may operate at clock frequencies as low as 32 KHz. typically small. and toys. History: The first single chip microprocessor was the 4 bit Intel 4004 released in 1971. Madison. Microcontrollers are designed for small applications. watchdog. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices. making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor. and numerous applications. as this is adequate for many typical applications. in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers and other high-performance applications. and input/output devices. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip. SuperParallel Processor Architecture (SP-PA). This chip went on to be found in over a billion PC keyboards. such as automobile engine control systems.
and may lack human interaction devices of any kind. Embedded Design: The majority of computer systems in use today are embedded in other machinery. keyboard. small or custom LCD displays. and peripherals for computer systems. and sensors for data such as temperature. light level etc. or other recognizable I/O devices of a personal computer. Possible interrupt sources are device dependent. telephones. and 32 bit microcontrollers under $5. These are called embedded systems. screen. many have minimal requirements for memory and program length. such as automobiles. and data received on a communication link. relays. and low software complexity. with no operating system. appliances. and often include events such as an internal timer overflow. Atmel introduced the first microcontroller using Flash memory. with the cheapest microcontrollers being available for well under $0. with both memory types. humidity. radio frequency devices. The ISR will perform any processing required based on the source of the interrupt before returning to the original instruction sequence. a logic level change on an input such as from a button being pressed. While some embedded systems are very sophisticated.for examples. Other companies rapidly followed suit.25 in 2009. ADDRESSING MODES: An instruction specifies the location of the data that it is going to process by using one of the existing . solenoids. Embedded systems usually have no . When certain events occur. Where power consumption is important as in battery operated devices. disks. allowing both rapid prototyping. LEDs. Cost has plummeted over time. printers. interrupts may also wake a microcontroller from a low Typical input and output devices include switches. M68HC11 has the following six different addressing modes: • Inherent addressing • Immediate addressing • Extended addressing • Direct addressing • Indexed addressing • Relative addressing INTERRUPTS: It is mandatory that microcontrollers provide real time response to events in the embedded system they are controlling.memory allowed microcontrollers (beginning with the Microchip PIC16x84) ) to be electrically erased quickly without an expensive package as required for EPROM. completing an analog to digital conversion. and In System Programming. an interrupt system can signal the processor to suspend processing the current instruction sequence and to begin an interrupt service routine (ISR). The same year.
For those wanting Ethernet one can use an external chip like Crystal Semiconductor CS8900A. Even if the cost of a CPU that has integrated peripherals is slightly more than the cost of a CPU + external peripherals. . There is also a digital to analog converter that allows the processor to send data to the device it is controlling. they won’t be able to do anything with the analog signals that may be being sent to it by a device. the chip can be placed in a much smaller. So the analog to digital converter is used to convert the incoming data into a form that the processor can recognize. since it would be costly to provide a system with external. Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) block makes it possible to receive and transmit data over a serial line with very little load on the CPU. i.. which periodically test the temperature around them to see if they need to turn the air conditioner on. Dedicated Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) block makes it possible for the CPU to control power converters. One of the most common types of timers is the Programmable Interval Timer. 1s and 0s. Once it reaches zero. or Microchip ENC 28J60. etc. etc. without using lots of CPU resources in tight timer loops. microcontrollers may not implement an external address or data bus as they integrate RAM and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU. or program memory may be field alterable flash or erasable read-only memory. OTHER Since embedded processors are usually used to control devices. In addition to the converters. they sometimes need to accept input from the device they are controlling. having fewer chips typically allows a smaller and cheaper circuit board. many embedded microprocessors include a variety of timers as well. and perform other useful operations. PROGRAMS: Microcontroller programs must fit in the available on-chip program memory. This is the purpose of the analog to digital converter. Using fewer pins. Realtek RTL8019.power sleep state where the processor is halted until required to do something by a peripheral event. This is useful for devices such as FEATURES: HIGHER INTEGARATION: In contrast to general-purpose CPUs. Integrating the memory and other peripherals on a single chip and testing them as a unit increases the cost of that chip. the TPU can detect input events. thermostats. but often results in decreased net cost of the embedded system as a whole. the heater on. Compilers and assembly language are used to turn high level language programs into a compact machine code for storage in the microcontroller’s memory. read only memory that can only be programmed at the factory. generate output events.e. Since processors are built to interpret and process digital data. cheaper package. the program memory may be permanent. motors. A PIT just counts down from some value to zero. expandable. Depending on the device. In addition to counting down. resistive loads. it sends an interrupt to the processor indicating that it has finished counting. and reduces the labour required to assemble and test the circuit board. memory. Time Processing Unit or TPU for short is a sophisticated timer. or PIT for short. All of them allow easy interfacing with low pin count.
Furthermore. PWM generators. The decision of which peripheral to integrate is often difficult. instruction words for the processor may be a different bit size than the length of internal memory and registers. A microcontroller instruction set usually has many instructions intended for bit-wise operations to make control programs more compact. Microcontrollers have proved to be highly popular in embedded systems since their introduction in the 1970s. for example: 12-bit instructions used with 8bit data registers.Some microcontrollers use Harvard architecture: separate memory buses for instructions and data. Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system interconnect peripherals such as timers. Microcontroller architectures vary widely. allowing control or detection of the logic state of an individual package pin serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs) other serial communications interfaces like I²C. event counters. and watchdog volatile memory (RAM) for data storage ROM.ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to complex 32. Where Harvard architecture is used. EEPROM or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage clock generator . For example. RAM. resonator or RC circuit many include converters in-circuit debugging Support analog-to-digital and • This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the amount of wiring and circuit board space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips. Manufacturers have to balance the need to minimize the chip size against additional functionality.often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal. Some designs include general-purpose microprocessor cores. each pin may interface to several internal peripherals. Other designs are purpose built for control applications. This allows a part to be used in a wider variety of applications than if pins had dedicated functions. or I/O functions integrated onto the package.A microcontroller is a single integrated circuit. with one or more ROM. The microcontroller vendors often trade operating frequencies and system design flexibility against time-to-market requirements from their customers and overall lower system cost. a general purpose • • • • • • • • programming . EPROM. and on low pin count devices in particular. with the pin function selected by software. commonly with the following features: • central processing unit .or 64-bit processors discrete input and output bits. allowing accesses to take place concurrently.
so fixed point or floating point arithmetic are performed by program code. Over 4 billion 8-bit microcontrollers were sold in 2006. They can also be found in any electrical device: washing machines. According to Semi co. Some microcontrollers have environments to aid developing certain types of applications. where a microcontroller could have a single instruction to provide that commonlyrequired function. Other versions may be available where the ROM is accessed as an external device rather than as internal memory. which prevent using standard tools (such as code libraries or static analysis tools) even for code unrelated to hardware features.A typical home in a developed country is likely to have only four general-purpose microprocessors but around three dozen microcontrollers. Microcontrollers typically do not have a math coprocessor. Many microcontrollers are so quirky that they effectively require their own nonstandard dialects of C. cheap microcontroller The use of field-programmable devices on a microcontroller may allow field update of the firmware or permit late factory revisions to products that have been assembled but not yet shipped. using parts programmed at the time of manufacture can be an economical option. Manufacturers have often produced special versions of their microcontrollers in order to help the hardware and software development of the target system. however these are becoming increasingly rare due to the widespread availability of programmers. which are easier to use (can be erased electronically) and cheaper to manufacture. or versions of general purpose languages such as the C programming language. These ’Mask Programmed’ parts have the program laid down in the same way as the logic of the chip. These languages are either designed especially for the purpose. Compilers for general purpose languages will typically have some restrictions as well as enhancements to better support the unique characteristics of microcontrollers. Microcontroller vendors often make tools freely available to make it easier to adopt their hardware. Programmable memory also reduces the lead time required for deployment of a new product. ready for reprogramming after a programming ("burn") and test cycle. at the same time.processor might require several instructions to test a bit in a register and branch if the bit is set. Where hundreds of thousands of identical devices are required. Programming environments: Microcontrollers were originally programmed only in assembly language. A typical mid range automobile has as many as 30 or more microcontrollers. telephones etc. Interpreters are often . but various high level programming languages are now also in common use to target microcontrollers. EPROM versions are rare and have been replaced by EEPROM and flash. Originally these included EPROM versions that have a "window" on the top of the device through which program memory can be erased by ultra violet light. microwave ovens. such as SDCC for the 8051. Since 1998. Volumes: About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers and microprocessors.
If there are more registers.used to hide such low level quirks. the registers. increasing the latency. A simulator will show the internal processor state and also that of the outputs. When an electronic device causes an interrupt. Typically these interpreters support interactive programming. this saving and restoring process takes more time. as well as allowing input signals to be generated. the intermediate results. a duplicate register set that is only used by the interrupt software. and can is the quickest way to debug and analyze problems. Hitachi SuperH • MIPS (32-bit PIC32) • NEC V850 • PIC (8-bit PIC16. BASIC and FORTH on the Zilog Z8 as well as some modern devices. have to be saved before the software responsible for handling the interrupt can run. PIC18. Interrupt Latency: In contrast to generalpurpose computers. Low-latency MCUs generally have relatively few registers in their central processing units. eZ80 And many others. • Hitachi H8. Recent microcontrollers are often integrated with on-chip debug circuitry that when accessed by an Incircuit emulator via JTAG. allow debugging of the firmware with a debugger. Interpreter firmware is also available for some microcontrollers. Simulators are available for some microcontrollers. they can exercise conditions that may otherwise be hard to reproduce at will in the physical implementation. TYPES OF DEBUGGER: List of common microcontrollers as of 2008 there are several architectures: • 68HC11 • 8051 • ARM • Atmel AVR • Free scale CF (32-bit) • Free scale S08 . or they have "shadow registers". some of which are used in very narrow range of applications or are more like processors than microcontrollers. BASIC on the early microcontrollers Intel 8052. For example. While on the one hand most simulators will be limited from being unable to simulate much other hardware in a system. microcontrollers used in embedded systems often seek to minimize interrupt latency over instruction throughput. 16-bit dsPIC33 / PIC24) • PowerPC ISE • PSoC (Programmable System-onChip) • Rabbit 2000 • TI MSP430 (16-bit) • Toshiba TLCS-870 • Zilog eZ8. and then must be put back after it is finished. such as in Microchip’s MPLAB environment. These allow a developer to analyze what the behaviour of the microcontroller and their program should be if they were using the actual part.
Two of them are: Clock rate and word size. Architecture: The computer architecture refers to the design and construction of a system: Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): It performs mathematical operations. Computers can be either a digital or analog type. COMPUTER: The computer is an electronic device performing multilevel operations on input data and producing desirable output. Control Unit (CU). The quality of the microprocessor performance is measured by several parameters. • MICROPROCESSOR: In mainframe computers CU and ALU are both separate units but since 1971 both units have existed on the same chip. Digital computers operate on discrete numbers 0 or 1 (series of “on” and “off” switches). This was the beginning of the microprocessor era and PC computers. The computer is a system consisting of hardware and software. CU fetches the instructions from RAM and stores it in the instruction register. The • Processor: It is the “brain” of a computer.and an ALU. Switch “On” corresponds to 1 and 0 to off. The CPU (central processing unit) consists of a CU . Each 0 and 1 is referred to as BIT. Most computers use eight bits to represent a number or a letter. it directs and coordinates the operations of the entire computer. (0 Voltage = 0 and 5 V = 1). • CLOCK RATE: The computer has a master clock that determines the speed at which the microprocessor can execute an instruction.
” The processor performs step by step instructions that are given by ROM. 32 MB RAM means that the RAM can hold 32 million bytes of data. RAM is a holder of data and also instructions. ROM – Read Only Memory: A set of chips containing permanent instructions about the “boot process. CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor: This is a battery-powered chip that retains data about the computer configuration when the computer is turned off. the computer must have a separate system for loading all the instructions to RAM. • • WORD SIZE: The number of bits the microprocessor can manipulate at one time varies from computer to computer. CMOS. When the processor turns into a “word processor” the instructions for this activity are copied from the disk to RAM. It is like scratch paper– volatile (after the computer is turned off all data is gone). The computer holds (stores) data in RAM and copies it to the CPU and from the CPU (processor) back to RAM. It consists of thousands of circuits that each hold one bit of data.” Because RAM is empty at the beginning of the processing. There are three types of computer memory: RAM. (A 32 bits word size computer can process 32 bit data at a time. All this is done through the “BOOT PROCESS. The boot process is • • • Memory: Memory is one of the most important elements of every computer. .speed at which the microprocessor completes an instruction execution cycle is measured in MHz – megahertz (Millions of cycles per second) or GHz – gigahertz (Billions of cycles per second). A microprocessor with a large word size can process more data in each instruction cycle. and ROM. The computer memory is electronic circuitry that holds data and program instructions until it is their turn to be processed.) RAM – Random Access Memory: It is a temporary holding area for data before and after they are processed.
DVD OPERATING SYSTEM: Operating system consists of Set of computer programs that manage and control hardware resources and provide an interface between the user and computer. The hard disk drive is formatted into the tracks.Now. CONCLUSION: This whole conclude us that microprocessor contributes to microcontroller and in same fashion microcontroller contribute to computers.therefore a series of instructions from ROM that are preparing the computer to perform its work. CD-RW. • Bus: BUS is an electronic path that connects the main parts of the computer. It works like a “normal” bus with 32 seats. UNIX. Capacity of hard disk drive = cylinders x surfaces x sectors x 512 EX. • Hard disk drive: It consists of one or more platters (flat and rigid disks made of aluminium or glass that are coated with magnetic oxide. Sectors are subdivisions of the platters and tracks (9 sectors each stores 512 bytes) and 40 tracks usually. The main storage computer device is the hard disk drive. (Data bus is a sub-unit of system bus). in a disk that hold the data Cylinders are stacks of tracks in a disk. WINDOWS. CDROM. I remember about Morley Wordings. The system bus transports data back and forth between the processor and RAM or hard disk drive. Examples: DOS. Such that a microcontroller used in our PC becomes • Storage: None of the computer operations would be useful for practical life if we did not have a place to store it. days the Electronics instrument consist of these microcontrollers even from a small watch to a super computer.) Each platter has a read-write head associated with it. Macintosh and Linux operating system. With invention of microprocessor (4004) we go towards the first step of technology. cylinders. sectors and groups of sectors. which further on further on goes to a fully equipped Gadget generation. OS2. A 32-bit bus transports 32 bits of data at a time. Tracks are concentric circles . Floppy diskette. Data bus transports data between the processor and parts of the computer. that technology is doubled in 1X1/2 yrs.
reference..ht ml http://reference.chips.chips..html Microprocessor-based control systems -Naresh Kumar Sinha Microprocessor architecture programming-William F.com/ency clopedia/M/micropro.htm http://searchciomidmarket.com/micro processor..com/idxhst.wikipedia..docstoc.com/muse um/processor/processorhistory.freshpatents.ht ml http://microchip-technology.techtarget. REFERENCES: • Thanks to the • • • • http://education.org/wiki/List_of_In tel_microprocessors http://www.yahoo.ph p http://www.pictutorial.blogspot.sid183_gci212568.allrefer.com/docs/1048868 6/Microprocessor http://microchip-technology.00.com/ http://www.5u.ht ml http://www.com/idxhst.com/ http://www. htm http://www.5u. Leahy and • • • • • http://www..html • • • • • • • • .com/browse /microprocessor http://en.tayloredge...com/data_digital.com/ http://trensains.old in a year.com/refere nce/encyclopedia/entry/micropro http://8051micro.net/? page_id=86 http://www.com/Syst em-and-method-for-processingsemiconductor-material-usingradiant-energy-sourcedt20060615ptan20060127293.com/sDefinition/ 0.howstuffworks. technology.
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