Medical Aerosol Deposition in the Human Lung

Dr. Stefan Rief

Workshop on Microstructure Simulation and Virtual Material Design Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

Overview

I. II.

Introduction Model of the Human Lung

III. Simulation of Respiration and Hygroscopic Aerosols IV. Current State and Outlook

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

I. Introduction “Simulation of Aerosol Dynamics in the Human Lung” originates from a joint project of

•Medical Background

•Modeling and Simulation

•Computer Tomography

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

I. Introduction Aims of the Project
• Prediction of aerosol deposition in the lung • Optimization of particle sizes -> Reduced amount of applied medicine • Knowledge of absorbed dose

New Challenges for ITWM‘s Filter Simulation Technology
• Virtual model of a human lung • Simulation of the respiration cycle • Hygroscopic particle growth Cask of a lung

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

Overview

I. II.

Motivation Model of the Human Lung

III. Simulation of Respiration and Hygroscopic Aerosols IV. Current State and Outlook

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

II. Model of the Human Lung
(Kitaoka Kitaoka, Model of a human airway tree (Kitaoka, 1999): • Outer boundaries of the organ (heart, backbone, diaphragm, …) are given by a set of algebraic equations • Lung is based on a dichotomous tube model • Branches are characterized by di – tube diameters Θi – branching angles r – flow dividing ratio

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

II. Model of the Human Lung
(Kitaoka Kitaoka, Model of a human airway tree (Kitaoka, 1999): • 9 rules determine the branching, e.g. conservation of flow rates at branches tube length = 3 * tube diameter branching is planar successive branching planes are perpendicular flow-dividing ratio = volume-dividing ratio minimum flow rate terminates branching

• Morphometric characteristics are in good agreement to literature and lung casks

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

II. Model of the Human Lung

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

II. Model of the Human Lung
~1000 tubes ~7000 tubes

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

Overview

I. II.

Motivation Model of the Human Lung

III. Simulation of Respiration and Hygroscopic Aerosols IV. Current State and Outlook

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

III. Simulation of Respiration and Hygroscopic Aerosols Model of the Respiration Cycle
• instationary, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations p=0

• constant pressure at the inlet (trachea) • time-periodic pressure variations at the outlets • no-slip conditions on the tube walls p(t) = sin(w*t)

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

III. Simulation of Respiration and Hygroscopic Aerosols Hygroscopic Aerosols
• due to large humidity, aerosol particles grow significantly during the respiration cycle • particle growth obeys a nonlinear ODE parameterized by - surface tension of water - saturation rate of air - temperature - ‘mobility’ of water in air - … • diameter has to be updated in each time step • additional collision check due to particle growth
Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

Overview

I. II.

Motivation Model of the Human Lung

III. Simulation of Respiration and Hygroscopic Aerosols IV. Current State and Outlook

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

IV. Current State and Outlook Achievements
• Geometric model of a virtual human lung • Growth of hygroscopic aerosols • Respiration cycle

Still To Do
• detailed deposition study of aerosol particles of different size providing 1) suggestion for an optimum aerosol particle size 2) quantitative statement about absorbed dose Validation Existing Data

Rief Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006

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