PRACTICAL – 1 AIM: Difference between Windows 98, Windows NT and NT- Workstation Windows 98: Windows 98 is desktop operating system made up by Microsoft

that runs on Intel/Cyrix/AMD/Pentium and Intel 80x86. Windows 98 is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16 bit/ 32 bit monolithic product based on DOS. Windows 98 stores files in items called folders on different machines/drives. Win 98 offers support for a number of new technologies including FAT 32, AGP, USB, DVD, and ACPI. Windows NT: Windows NT is a windows Microsoft flagship operating system. It currently comes in two flavors, NT workstation V4.0 and NT, advanced server. Win NT server is the fastest growing network operating system in American Business today. Win NT server incorporatesMicrosoft Networking based on IBM’s peer to peer PC-Net. The Microsoft Win NT operating system supports the concept of preemptive multitasking, multithreading and networking. It provides fault tolerance, enhanced reliability, multiprocessing, POSIX support, extensive security features. Difference between WIN 98 and WIN NT: Intended Purpose:

ATTRIBUTE Server/Mainframe Desktop/Workstation Hand Held Real Time Hardware Support:

Windows 98 Only low endserver can run on this operating system For general desktop use Not appropriate Not appropriate

Windows NT Microsoft intends NT server use For Workstation use Not appropriate Not appropriate


Windows 98: Intel/Cyrix/AMD/Pentium 486µp. Windows NT: Intel/Cyrix/AMD/Pentium Windows NT 3.51 was ported to DEC alpha, SGI, MPIS and IBM/Motorola power PC, that is no longer supported Windows NT server enterprise edition was ported to DEC alpha. Maximum Number of Bits:

Windows 98: 16/32 bits Windows NT: 32 bits File System Supported: Windows 98: Preffered file system: FAT 32(NR WF) File system can read/write: VFAT(RW), FAT(RW), SMB(RW) File system read only and can write through optimal software: ISO 9600(RW), CD(RW), DVDVideo(R), DVD-ROM(R) Windows NT: Preffered file system: Fat 32(NRWF) File system can read, write and format: FAT(NRWF) File system read only and can write through optimal software: ISO 9600, DFS Text Command Shell: Windows 98: DOS Command Line Windows NT: DOS Command Line Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server: Windows NT is a Microsoft windows personal computer operating system designed for users and business needing advanced capacity. NT technology is the base for the Microsoft successor operating system, windows 2000, windows NT is actually two products: Windows NT Workstation Windows NT Server Windows NT Workstation: The workstation designed for users, especially business users, who need faster performance and a system little faster, safer than Win 98. Microsoft says that 32 bit application run 20% faster on this system than Win 95 (assuming both 32 MB RAM). Since older 16 bit application run in a separate address space, one can crash without crashing other applications or the operating system security and management features not available on Win 95 and provided. The Workstation has same desktop user interface as Windows 95.

Windows NT Workstation 4.0 system Requirements: 486/25 MHz or Pentium based system 12 MB RAM 110 MB hard disk space VGA or higher resolution display adapter The server is designed for business machine that need to provide services for network attached computers. The server is required together with an intended server probably the second most installed network server operating system after Novell Netware operating system. Windows NT server components can be broken down into following categories: Networking components Internet/Intranet components Inter-operability components Application enabling components Administrative components Workstation components PRACTICAL – 2 AIM: Introduction to various memory management techniques. Memory Management: It describes how the operating system organizes and manages th available memory and it shows how you can use the services provided by the memory manager and other system software components to manage memory is your application partition efficiently. The memory management is usually divided into following areas: Hardware Memory Management: Memory management at the high level is concerned with the electronic device that actually store data. This includes things like RAM and memory cache. Operating System Management: In the memory management, memeory must be allocated to user programs and reused by other program when it is no longer required. Application Memory Management:

It involves supplying the memory needed for a program’s object and data structure from limited resources available and recycling that memory from reuse when it is no longer required. Memory Management Techniques:

Fixed Partitioning: Main memory is divided into a number of static partitions at system’s operation time. A process may be loaded into a partition of equal or greater size. STRENGTH: It is simple to implement and little overhead. WEAKNESS: Insufficient use of memory due to internal fragmentation.

Dynamic Partitioning: Partitions are dynamically created so that each process is loaded into a partition of exactly the same site as the process. STRENGTH: No internal fragmentation, more efficient use of memory. WEAKNESS: Insufficient use of processors due to need for comparison to counter external fragmentation.

Simple Paging: Main memory is divided into number of equal size frames. Each process is divided into a equal size pages of same length as frames. A process is loaded by loading all of its processes into available frames. STRENGTH: No external fragmentation. WEAKNESS: small amount of internal fragmentation.

Simple Segmentation: Main memory is divided into number of segments. A process is loaded by loading all of its segments into dynamic partition that need not to be contiguous. STRENGTH: No internal fragmentation. WEAKNESS: Need for compaction

Virtual Memory Paging: As with simple paging, except that it is not necessary to load all of pages of process. Non-resident pages that are needed are brought in later. STRENGTH: No internal fragmentation, higher degree of multiprogramming, large virtual process space. WEAKNESS: Overhead of complex memory management

This transfer is also referred to as internal routing of packets. performance management functions accounting and traffic management functions. The input port.PRACTICAL – 3 AIM: Simulation of ATM Switch Performing Throughput with Mixed Load Condition Switching: It is the process of transfer of packets from input to output port. the cell switch fabric that performs actual routing and the output modules at output ports Control Plane: This plane represents the function related to the establishment and control of VP/VC connections unlike the user data cells information in control cell payload is not transparent to the network. The CAC carries out the major signaling function required. The switching functions are: • User Plane: Main function of an ATM switch is to relay data cells from input to output port. This function can be divided into three functional blocks. The switch processes only the cell header and the payload is carried transparently. These operations can be subdivided as fault management functions. Management Plane: This is concerned with monitoring the controlling the network to ensure its correct and efficient operation. Hardware Memory Management: The switch is assumed to perform cell relay and support of control and management functions. Traffic Control Functions: The switching system may support CAC. • • • • Structure of ATM Switch: An ATM switch has three basic components: . usage/network parameter control and congestion control. the VPI/VCI information is derived and used to route the cells into appropriate output port. We will regard UPC/NPC functions as handled by switch management while special buffer management actions are supervised by switch management. The other functions are VCI translation and Switching. The switch management is responsible for supporting the ATM layer operation and maintenance procedures. As soon as the cell comes in through the input port.

Technical Aspects: • Queue Size: The size of the queue depends on the performance requirements of the use queuing method in use. 0 can be installed on Intel x86.• • • Input Module: It accepts the packets at the input port and then processes them. In general. A switching element is the basic unit of switch fabric. You can dual boot DOS/Win 95 and NT but DOS/Win 95 must be installed first and applications must be installed twice. Switching Elements: These are the basic switching building blocks. PRACTICAL – 4 AIM: Installation of Windows NT 4. MIPS R4x00 and DEC Alpha AXP. The System Partition is for the hardware-specific files and is on the Active partition. Output Module: It processes the packets just before transmission on the output port. The simulation can also be used as a protocol analyzer tool to study the total system effect by a particular ATM network protocol. . The Boot Partition is for the OS files and can be on the System partition. The NT Hardware Qualifier is used on Intel machines to identify hardware. You can install NT from a CD using DOS drivers if the NT drivers do not exist. the rate of incoming and outgoing cells. Memory Control: In order to control the switching element. The simulation is used as a network planning tool. the switching element consists of an interconnection network and input controller for each incoming lines and output controller for each outgoing line. At the input port the routing information of the cell is analyzed and the cell then is diverted to the correct output port. PowerPC.0 Windows NT 4. The queue size is reflected in number of cells buffers which are supported by switching elements. It can be implemented in a single integrated circuit element. Memory Speed: The access time of the queuing elements depends on the queuing method in use. The number of outlets of the switching elements. • • ATM Simulation: An ATM network simulation has been developed to provide a means for researchers and network planners to analyze the behavior of the ATM network without expense of building a real network. The IC and OC are coupled by the interconnection network. Switching Fabric: It provides the means to route the packets from input port to output port. additional control logic is required.

For dual boot. Licence Groups can be created if many users use one computer or one user uses multiple computers. Convert.7 or later . Setup automatically formats with FAT16 up to 4Gb. You run the Licensing Program by double-clicking Licensing in Control Panel. It is possible to convert ONCE from Per Server to Per Seat licencing. Network Administration Tools for NT Workstation enables the computer to administer NT servers and domains. the idea is to enable correct licensing information to be obtained. permission preserved when moving files from a Netware server or NT file compression is required. You could opt for Per Seat Licensing which applies per client. The icons must be manually set up. The Macintosh requires System OS 6. License Manager is started from the Administrative Tools menu. Services for Macintosh allows a Macintosh to share files and printers. You can add or remove CALS and also specify how licensing information is replicated to a master server or Enterprise Server that handles lots of domains.exe will preserve data when changing from FAT16 to NTFS. Member servers can move between Domains but PDCs and BDCs remain in the Domain because the Domain Security Identifier (SID) is created on NT installation.0. Services for Macintosh. As far as licensing goes you need a Server License agreement for each server and a Client Access License (CAL). In addition you can perfom the one-way change from Per Server to Per Seat licensing. the tools being installed in the \svrtools directory. A user who connects to a folder on one workstation and then accesses a file from another workstation is deemed to have two connections. You can view the licensing for the whole organisation and look at the usage. drive C: must be FAT16 and a minimum of 2Mb must be formatted on drive C: of a RISC computer. simple network administration and AppleTalk routing support. Domain names can be changed though. Per Seat Licensing is more suitable in a multiple server environment. With this any number of clients can access any server. For the CALs you can use Per Server Licensing which is the number of clients allowed to access a particular server.NTFS is used if file-level security is required. If NTFS is required than the partition is marked for conversion after installation. starting with the PDC. Member servers just have their own SID rather than the Domain one. This allows you to view the licencing mode for each backoffice product including NT Server.

Portable. file system. Internet Information Server (IIS). network cards. Installing Networking . There are 4 phases to the NT installation: • • Initialising Installation .exe from the CD in DOS/Win 95 to install NT rather than use the minimal NT OS on the three floppy disks provided. • • For Winnt. type of Server. Finishing . NT only uses Custom. • • • • . RAS.skips the free space check on the setup boot disks. /u .detection of hardware. /f .only create boot disks. licensing mode (Server). the Setupldr program is used from the CD. Compact and Custom setups are the options for AppleShare.time. /s . You can run Winnt. NT files location.exe the following switches control the setup process: • • • • • /x . /b . /i . a password for Admin. partition. workgroup or domain for this computer.LAN. Typical. Emergency Repair Disk. video. A PDC requires a unique Domain name. For RISC computers. A NetBios computer name cannot be the same as a Domain name.stops the setup disks being created. the domain is then automatically created. /ox . /udf . Exchange Inbox configurations.specify the file name (default Dosnet. Services for Macintosh is installed via the Services tab of the Network program a MacFile menu is then added to the Server Manager.location of NT source files used with /u switch.Installation method (Workstation). Gathering Information .Uniqueness Database File is specified for unattended installations of unique computers with individual settings. /c .unattended installation followed by an answer file.prevents verification of files. network protocols. used with /s switch.inf) for the setup information.floppyless installation.

The text mode version is called Winnt. install the applications required on the reference computer.log. boot from a DOS/Win 95 floppy and type sys c: to remove the NT boot loader.txt.sys c:\Boot. The Unattend. It is best to use one answer file for an unattended group install and use the UDFs for computer specific settings such as computer name. To remove NT.sif whilst the graphical mode one is called $winnt$. use sysdiff /diff snapshot_file difference_fileto create a difference file.specifies the drive used for the temporary setup files (default is the drive with the most room). For hardware components that need extra files installed need individual directories in $oem$\Oemfiles\Textmode. this works by first creating a snapshot of a reference computer using sysdiff /snap snapshot_file. and can also be used to pull down other applications. renamed and used with the /u switch to identify unique settings for a computer.inf in the system32 directory. or apply it to an existing NT installation.* . You can use these files to create your own Unattend. System Management Server (SMS) is used for large rollouts. The Initial Parameter Files created from the command line switches.exe utility must be used.txt answer file can be copied from the resource kit.txt file. /l . then the Sysdiff. You can then place the difference file in $oem$\Oemfiles\$$root and add the sysdiff /apply difference_file to the$oem$\Oemfiles\Cmdlines. delete the following: • • • c:\Pagefile.exe is used only for upgrading from earlier versions of NT.• /t . the Unattend. Restart the system from the hard disk.ini c:\nt*. Uniqueness IDs are listed in the answer file referencing the numerous UDFs (perhaps one per computer).creates log file $Winnt.txt file or the graphical menus in Setup. If an application does not support scripted installation. Other applications can be installed by creating a directory called $oem$\Oemfiles and placing the extra components in there. • Winnt32.

The NT Kernel System . telephone lists etc.dos The Winnt folder Program files\Windows NT You can remove an NTFS partition from the NT Setup program.loads the OS Boot.contains the system configuration files Device drivers • • • .ini . The Directory Replicator Service can be set to start automatically from Server Manager or the Services program in Control Panel.builds the OS selection menu . Directory replication allows you to just maintain one directory. Fdisk in DOS 6. the logon scripts should be replicated to them all. On a periodic update the Export Server on seeing updated files in the subdirectory sends an update notice to each of the Import Computers.sys . Ntoskrnl. Directory Replication makes the same files available at multiple servers so not overburdening any one server when commonly used files are being accessed by many users. The same goes for System Policy files.• • • c:\bootsect.contains the boot sector of another operating system such as Win 95.used only for SCSI based systems that have the BIOS disabled on the SCSI adapter. They in turn download the updated files and delete the old files. User's logon scripts must reside on the domain controller that validates the user. typically read only files.hardware detect program Ntbootdd.22 will remove an NTFS partition but not a logical drive. the password must never expire and the account must have 24 hours access. The boot sequence files required on an Intel x86 machine are as follows: • • • • • Ntldr .exe . The account must be a member of the Backup and Replicators Group. An NT Server can act as an Export Server and uses \System32\Repl\Export\subdir to hold the group of files.dos . When there are more than one domain controller in a domain. An account is created for the replication purpose for each Import computer. Ntdetect. The Import Computer must log on as a member of the local Replicators Group and be configured to receive files.

Ntldr is loaded (this is the responsibility of the Partition Boot Sector Code) and this controls the operating system selection process and hardware detection. 6. . Microprocessor changed to flat memory mode 6.exe and the Local Security Authority (LSA) Lsass. beginning with Winlogon.dos if the OS is not to be NT) 9. 5.exe which is Session Manager. 3.exe. The services load which involves starting Smss. The Kernel is initialised along with the drivers 10. The first sector also contains the Partition Table which is scanned by the MBR for the System Partition.exe) makes a final pass through the registry looking for services marked to load automatically. Boot sector from the active partition is loaded into memory 4. Power on self test 2.ini and build OS selection screen 8. The Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) and the System Hive is loaded with the drivers 3.dll The Boot sequence is as follows: 1. Load NT The NT load process then starts and operates as follows: 1. (Load the selected operating system and Bootsect. Start minifile system drivers which is code to access files on FAT and NTFS systems. The User logs on whilst the Service Controller (Screg. 5. Master Boot Record (MBR) is loaded and ran from the first sector. Ntoskrnl.exe loads 2. Read Boot.• Hal. 7. The Win32 Subsystem starts. Run Ntdetect.

exe is The message I/O Error accessing boot sector multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\\bootss means that Bootsect.dll in case of video driver failure.ini file in the root of the active partition needs the Read-only option to be turned off. file Editing the Boot.exe is missing or corrupt. Switches can be added to the [operating systems] and these are the following: • /basevideo for loading NT in VGA mode (vga.ini file is missing you get the message that ntoskrnl.dos is missing. You can either edit Boot. /noserialmice=comx /sos causes the names of drivers being loaded to be shown instead of the dots on the blue load screen. The[operating systems] lists the OSs.exe means that Ntoskrnel. • • • • • • • • If the Boot. \winnt missing. /crashdebug automatic recovery and restart. . missing.The message Couldn't find NTLDR means that Ntldr.sys and vga. missing. good for troubleshooting parity is The message the following file is missing or corrupt: root\system32\ntoskrnl. /baudrate=nnnn default is 9600Kb/s when a modem is attached and 19200Kb/s with a null modem cable attached. /maxmem=n the maximum amount of RAM that windows will use.ini directly or use the Emergency Repair disk to fix it.exe is The message NTDETECT failed means that Ntdetect. The [boot loader] determines the OS to boot to plus a timeout setting. /debug this automatically loads debugger when windows starts /debugport=comx /nodebug no debugging information being monitored. The default is the path to the default OS when the timeout expires.

The Emergency Repair Disk contains the following files: • • • • • • • • • Setup. The ARC may need to be modified. Run Rdisk.nt Autoexec. The rdisk /s option saves user account information and can take up more than a floppy disk's worth._ Config.exe to either update or create an Emergency Repair Ntbotdd._ Security.log System._ Sam._ Software. NT automatically Syss the floppy and the files that are required on the floppy are Ntldr. An NT boot disk is created FROM NT.nt Ntuser.sys (for a BIOS-disabled SCSI adapter). When booting from the floppy some files are loaded from the hard disk.The Drivers Resource Kit provides a command line utility called Drivers. It is important to make regular updates of the emergency repair disk as not only account information but disk drive configurations like mirror sets or volume sets are kept on the disk and if these are not up to date then it may be impossible to recover some data. If files are missing or corrupted.da_ Compressed files (using the _) can be expanded using Expand. Boot. The Last Known Configuration is good if a new device driver is faulty or the video driver is bad or SCSIport driver is accidentally disabled._ Default.exe which can be used to show which drivers have loaded. then you can use the Emergency Repair Disk or expand r to install new versions of the files or use rdisk. The operator needs to be a member of the administrators group or the Power Users Group. Ntdetect.exe. . It loses all configuration changes since the last startup.

Kernel Build Number and Stack Dump .this is the recent history of events that occurred in the stack (recently acquired data).the build number of the kernel. FRM.runs the debugger. Stack Trace . DSR. Error Code Driver Information . RI. CTS. The five sections to the Stop screen are: • • • Debug Port Status Indicators .To use the ERD.COM port parameters used by the Kernel Debugger on the target computer. CD. the link time stamp and the names of the drivers loaded at the time of the crash. • • When debugging the following terms are often used: • Symbol file . SND. OVL. Exception . The following options can be selected for the repair process: • • • • Inspect registry files Inspect startup environment Verify Windows NT system files Inspect boot sector The blue Stop screen has some codes that are helpful in determining the cause of the error. Structured Exception Handling (SEH) . • • • • .preferred load address. Host Computer . event that disrupts the process.exceptions in software are trapped to see if they can be handled so that the process can continue. Debug port information .MDM.this is a file that has been compiled debug code built in and can replace the 'debug free' version which is normally used by the OS. PRT. boot the computer with the Setup boot disk and then select the r option when asked if you wish to repair files.

or maybe the /crashdebug switch if the computer is prone to crashing. dumpchk and dumpexam. Debuggers include NT Symbolic Debugger (NTSD) (User mode). Debugging can be done locally using a null modem cable. CSNW is installed from the Services tab of the Network program. CDB (User Mode). Watson (use the command drwatson). Debugging application crashes is carried out by Dr. If the NetWare server that you connect to uses NDS then the Preferred Server option is not required instead the Default Tree and Context are used. The text file created is called Drwtsn32. The Dumpexam creates a text file called memory. Notify When Printed. The utilities used to examine the contents are dumpflop. Dumpchk performs a validity check on a crash dump to make sure that it can be read by a debugger. The Client Service for Netware (CSNW) is used with NT Workstation and Win 95 to allow direct connections to file and print resources on Netware Servers 2.ini file of the Target computer must have the /debug switch set. there is support for Netware 4. Kernel Debugger displays the files loaded during the boot and load sequences. the files are found in Support\Debug\platform directory. Other options are Add Form Feed. This is done through theGateway box and requires a share to the NetWare volume. Print Banner and Run Login Script Gate Service for Netware (GSNW) is used on NT Servers to access files and printers on Netware servers. In addition. CrashDump is enabled in the Startup/Shutdown tab of System Properties and this dumps the RAM contents to the pagefile when a Stop occurs.txt from the dump file memory. There is also an option to create a binary crash dump file. The Kernel Debugger files must be copied to the Host computer and decompressed before installing. Netware Core Protocol (NCP).• Target Computer .where the stop errors occur.Large Internet Protocol (LIP) and Long file Names are also supported.x or later.dmp. The server has one login and uses this to allow access to Novell's server directories and printers for any NT client thereby getting around Netware's 5 user limit for login and the need to run CSNW. Kernel Debugger (Kernel mode) and WinDBG (User and Kernel Mode). GSNW also contains CSNW. GSNW is configured in the same manner as CSNW other than a Gateway has to be configured.x using NDS or Bindery Emulation and Login scripts. remotely using a modem RAS connection or using a Crashdump. To get GSNW running follow these steps: .log. The boot.

Syscon Directory Service Manager for NetWare (DSMN) is used to allow management of a mixed NT and NetWare server environment using NT directory Services. Create a group called NTGATEWAY on the Netware server. NetWare clients can use file and print service on an NT box with NWLink and FPNW installed . • • • Set up the correct permissions for the account on the Netware server.x. NetWare user and group account information is copied to the PDC and changes copied the other way. and of permissions. policies RConsole is a remote view PConsole provides tools to manage print servers. folders and files from a Netware server.12 server.• Set up a user account on the NetWare server with the same name and password as an account on the NT server. NDS is used in NetWare 4. An NT client running NWLink can run applications on a NetWare server. The NT Server Migration Tool for Netware transfers user/group accounts. The Server Message Block (SMB) does not need to be added to each NetWare client. The database of users and permissions is the Bindery in 3. Include the user account in NTGATEWAY. The executable file isNwconv. Use the tools Syscon orNWAdmin or NetAdmin. An NT client with NWLink and CSNW (or GSNW) can connect to NetWare servers for file and print services. NetWare is server centric rather than Domain-Network centric. The add-on utility File and Print Services for NetWare (FPNW) is used to allow Netware clients access to resources on an NT server making it appear as if it were a Netware 3. NetWare clients can run applications on NT servers that have NWLink. Syscon is used to set up user accounts.12. Netware Directory Services is good for large corporations. volumes.exe.

and assign drive letters to partitions Scan disks and recover from errors Migrate disk configurations from one installation of NT to another Create or extend volume sets by combining existing regions of free space Create and delete fault tolerance volumes Navigating in Disk Administrator To start Disk Administrator. you can:        Graphically display the status of all disks attached to the computer Create and delete disk partitions (and logical drives within extended partitions) Format. When you start Disk Administrator for the first time after installing Windows NT Server. label.1 . you’ll see the dialog box shown in Figure 7. Although you can think of Disk Administrator as a replacement for the DOS FDISK utility (and a few others such as FORMAT and CHKDSK).PRACTICAL – 5 AIM: WORKING WITH DISK ADMINISTRATOR TO CREATE & DELETE PARTITIONS AND ASSIGNING DRIVE LETTERS TO VARIOUS PARTITIONS. With Disk Administrator. Introducing Disk Administrator Disk Administrator is a graphical utility that lets you administer disk resources on your NT computer. it goes far beyond these capabilities. log on with administrator privileges and Click Start Programs Administrative Tools Disk Administrator option.

Notice that each type of partition is color-coded. and the size of each region.2 This view graphically shows you the layout of physical disk regions. Click OK. So far. the drive letter assigned to each partition or logical drive. I’ve used the term region .indicating that a new disk configuration has been detected. Once you dismiss the warning. the file system used to format each volume. and the color-code legend appears near the bottom of the Disk Administrator window. Making Commitments The second most confusing part of Disk Administrator’s behavior is that some changes (such as creating and deleting partitions) don’t actually take place until you commit the changes to disk. you’ll see the Disk Configuration view. Understanding Partitions and Volumes I often encounter even seasoned administrators who are confused about the various types of partitions and the differences between partitions and volumes. an example of which is shown in Figure 7. You can change the displayed colors by clicking Colors and Patterns on the Options menu.

The limit reduces to three primary partitions if you need an extended partition on the drive. is not directly usable for storage. . Just as in DOS and other operating systems. I’ll now nail down exactly what partitions and volumes are. an extended partition is the only way to get there. click Yes to confirm. On the Partition menu. Primary vs. An extended partition. Creating a Primary Partition You can create up to four primary partitions on each physical hard disk drive. An extended partition can be organized into one or more logical drives. Here’s how to create a primary partition: 1. a partition.3. Extended Partitions Each physical hard disk drive can contain between one and four partitions. Two types of partitions are available: primary and extended. It must be further subdivided into logical drives that need to be individually formatted. you need to organize the drive into one or more partitions before you can put anything on a hard disk. Why have extended partitions? Recall that you can’t have more than four partitions on a single physical drive. 3. A partition is a portion of the physical hard disk that functions as if it were a physically separate drive. A primary partition is a disk partition from which an operating system can describe an area of the disk that could be either free space. If there’s already a primary partition on this physical drive. or a volume. click Create. Once you create a primary partition. A primary partition can range in size from 1MB (not a very useful size) to the length of the entire physical drive. If you see this warning. each with its own drive letter. on the other hand. starting with the fundamental building block —the partition. you’ll see a warning message as shown in Figure 7. Click to select the region of free space that you want to convert to a primary partition. If you need more than four logical drives on a single physical hard disk. 2. the entire partition can be formatted and accessed as a single drive letter.

5. Click Yes to confirm. 4. Click OK.Remember that if you reboot the computer under DOS. as shown in Figure 7. DOS can only see one primary partition per physical disk drive.4.5. The dialog box provides you with the minimum and maximum sizes of the primary partition. type the size of the primary partition that you want to create. In the Create Primary Partition dialog box. If you create a primary partition that’s either too large for DOS to handle or it’s starting and ending points on the drive are too large for DOS. It can be as large as the entire region of free space that you selected in step 1. . you’ll get a warning message shown in Figure 7.

Click to select the region of free space that you want to convert to an extended partition. . Disk Administrator automatically assigned drive letter H to the new partition. Here’s how to create an extended partition: 1.6 shows the resulting disk configuration display. as described later in this chapter. An extended partition can range in size from 1MB to the size of the entire physical drive. Creating an Extended Partition You can create one extended partition on each physical hard disk drive. which is tagged as Unformatted. you can create up to three additional primary partitions on each drive that contains an extended partition.Figure 7. If you do. The new partition is now ready to be formatted. Notice that the remaining region not included in the partition is still tagged as free space.

click Create Extended. . DOS won’t be able to access the logical drives that you create on this extended partition. The dialog box provides you with the minimum and maximum sizes of the extended partition.2. 3.8. In this situation. Click OK. It can be as large as the entire region of free space that you selected in step 1. Click Yes to confirm. you’ll get a warning message shown in Figure 7. If you create an extended partition that’s either too large for DOS to handle or its starting and ending points on the drive are too large for DOS. as shown in Figure 7. type the size of the extended partition that you want to create. 4. On the Partition menu. In the Create Extended Partition dialog box.7.

Creating a Logical Drive Once you’ve created an extended partition. No drive letter is assigned. . Disk Administrator changed the direction of shading in the second region on Disk 2 to indicate that it represents free space on an extended partition. Here’s how: 1. (You’ll assign logical drives in the next section.) Notice that the status line at the bottom of the window indicates that this region represents an empty extended partition. Click to select a region of free space within an extended partition in which you want to create a logical drive.Figure 7. you need to create logical drives within that partition. since no logical drives have yet been created on the extended partition.9 shows the resulting Disk Configuration view.

click Delete. empty extended partition. or exit Disk Administrator and confirm the change by clicking Yes. The color legend near the bottom of the Disk Administrator window indicates which color applies to which type. 3. as described later in this chapter. click Commit Changes Now on the Partition menu. Here’s how to delete a partition or a logical drive within an extended partition: 1. Deleting Partitions and Logical Drives Occasionally. you may need to reorganize and delete some of your disk partitions or logical drives. Notice that the remaining portion of the extended partition is still tagged as free space. 2. It can be as large as the entire region of free space that you selected in step 1. The new logical drive is now ready to be formatted. or logical drive. which is tagged as Unformatted. Because you’ve selected a free space region that belongs to an extended partition. . but the direction of shading indicates that it’s part of the extended partition. Notice also that the color bar at the top of the logical drive is different from the color bar of a primary partition.Disk Administrator automatically assigned drive letter I to the new logical drive. The following sections tell you how to accomplish this. click Create. To commit the deleted partition to disk. Click to select an existing primary partition. In the Create Logical Drive dialog box. lick OK. On the Partition menu. On the Partition menu. The dialog box provides you with the minimum and maximum sizes of the extended partition.2. type the size of the logical drive that you want to create. Disk Administrator knows that you want to create a logical drive.

On the Tools menu. So far. 2. click FAT or NTFS. you must commit the changes to disk. A partition is a portion of the physical hard disk that functions as if it were a physically separate drive. using the FORMAT command. in the File System list. I’ve used the term region to describe an area of the disk that could be either free space. you can proceed with the formatting procedure.PRACTICAL – 6 AIM: WORKING WITH DISK ADMINISTRATOR TO CREATE & DELETE VOLUME SETS. or a volume. See Figure 8. you can format volumes from the Command Prompt. Click to select an existing primary partition or logical drive. Creating a Volume Once you’ve created a primary partition or a logical drive in an extended partition. starting with the fundamental building block —the partition. depending on which format you want to use. a partition. 1. Once the changes are committed. I’ll now nail down exactly what partitions and volumes are. Alternatively. you must turn it into a volume by formatting it. Understanding Partitions and Volumes I often encounter even seasoned administrators who are confused about the various types of partitions and the differences between partitions and volumes.1. Just as in DOS and other operating systems. . Formatting a Partition Before formatting a new partition or logical drive. 3. This allows the operating system and applications access to the drive. In the Format dialog box. click Format. you need to organize the drive into one or more partitions before you can put anything on a hard disk.

this is your only choice. In the Format dialog box. If you’re formatting with the NTFS file system. but it’s best to go with the default. . If you’re formatting using the FAT file system. which varies depending on the size of the volume. See Figure 8. you can select a fixed allocation size. click Default allocation size.4. in the Allocation Unit Size list.2.

6. Click the General tab. You’ll get a final warning that all data will be deleted from this partition or logical drive. However. If you select compression. (Drive letters are the only sticky things that you should ever let near your drives. click OK. . as described in the previous section. type the name that you want to assign to the volume. 8. click Properties on the Tools menu. In the Format dialog box. click the drive letter that you want to assign to this volume. Assigning a Drive Letter Disk Administrator assigns drive letters to new partitions and logical drives automatically. On the Tools menu. The volume label can be up to 11 characters. If you don’t want to assign a drive letter. The new volume label immediately appears in the Disk Configuration view in Disk Administrator.5. In the Assign Drive Letter dialog box.2. you can assign it a volume label at the same time. click Close. files and folders written to this volume will be automatically compressed. You can begin to access the newly formatted volume from NT Explorer. some applications prefer to use specific drive letters for specific purposes. The display of the partition or logical drive will now be updated with the file system and volume label. and so forth. 7. click Start. click to select the Enable Compression checkbox. When you see a dialog box indicating that formatting is complete. Click OK to confirm that you want to proceed with the formatting operation. This capability is sometimes called static assignment of drive letters. They’ll be automatically decompressed when read. This option is available only on volumes formatted with NTFS. the Command Prompt. and click OK. Some folks call it sticky drive lettering. you may want to change these drive letters to suit your needs and preferences. whether or not it already has a drive letter assigned to it.) Here’s how to assign a sticky drive letter to a volume: 1. For example. If you’re formatting with NTFS and you want the entire contents of the volume compressed. 9. If you want to quick format the volume. Windows NT lets you assign drive letters to each volume in Windows NT. click to select the Quick Format check box. 2. applications. click Assign Drive Letter. Click to select a volume. type the new volume label. click Do not assign a drive letter. Assigning a Volume Label When you format a volume. If you want to change or add a volume label after a volume is formatted. Unlike DOS. as shown in Figure 8. Quick formatting writes the file system data structures but doesn’t take the time to check the disk area for bad sectors. In the Format dialog box. In the Volume Label field.

you can convert it to NTFS while leaving your data intact. You can even create a logical volume that’s bigger than your largest hard disk. including those used for network connections. you can create a volume set that acts like a drive containing 12GB of space. if you have three 4GB hard disks. For example. you type the following command: CONVERT K: /FS:NTFS Just substitute the drive letter that you want to convert in this command. The new drive letter (or no drive letter.3 shows three regions selected. aren’t included in the list. Here are the steps required to create a volume set: 1. 2. 3. The volume set can span more than one physical disk (which is why it’s sometimes called volume spanning) and can include multiple free space regions from a single disk. Figure 8. Click OK. you need to use the CONVERT command from a Command Prompt. Creating a Volume Set You can create a volume set out of several regions of free space. You can glue up to 32 free space regions into a single volume set. While holding down the CTRL key. so you can clear this amount of space on the volume and try again. you can extend an existing NTFS volume by adding free space regions to it.) To do this. the conversion may not succeed. if you elected not to assign one) will immediately appear in the disk configuration display of the volume that you selected in step 1. continue holding down CTRL while you click to select additional regions of free space. Managing Volume Sets A Windows NT volume set assembles a series of smaller regions of free space into one large logical volume. so if your volume is almost completely full of files and folders. The conversion requires some free space on the volume to perform the conversion. Converting a Volume from FAT to NTFS If you have a volume that’s already formatted as FAT and contains data. For example. The CONVERT utility will tell you how much free space it needs for the conversion. to convert drive K to NTFS. Click Yes to confirm. Any drive letters in use. (This technique is often called in-place file system conversion. What’s more. . click to select another region of free space that you want to include in the volume set.Disk Administrator presents a list of all available drive letters. If you want to include more regions. Click to select the first region of free space that you want to include in the volume set.

On the Partition menu. In the Create Volume Set dialog box. and as large as all of the selected regions combined. Then click OK. It can be as small as the smallest region.4. type the total size of the volume set that you want to create. . The dialog box provides you with the minimum and maximum sizes of the volume set. the three regions appear as a single large volume. The Disk Configuration view is immediately updated with the volume set information. click Create Volume Set. a volume set of 8194KB has been created from a 4MB region and two 4GB drives. To applications. As shown in Figure 8.3.

. Click to select the NTFS volume that you want to extend.” Extending an Existing Volume You can extend the size of an existing NTFS volume or volume set by adding one or more regions of free space to it. you can easily format it and assign a volume label and drive letter to it.Once you’ve successfully created a volume set. and you’ve committed the changes to disk. under the section “Creating a Volume. Here’s how: 1. as shown in Figure 8.5. Just click to select any region participating in the volume set and follow the instructions presented earlier.

see Figure 8. .6.If you’re extending an existing NTFS volume set.

or mirror sets. To applications. the two regions appear as a single large volume. In the Extend Volume Set dialog box.You can’t extend existing FAT volumes or volume sets. 3. a Volume Set . type the total size of the volume set that you want to create. making use of yet another 4GB drive. drive K. click Extend Volume Set. Deleting To delete a volume set. and as large as all of the selected regions combined.7 shows that the NTFS volume. On the Partition menu. The dialog box provides you with the minimum and maximum sizes of the volume set. Figure 8. While holding down the CTRL key. Then click OK.8 shows that the drive K NTFS volume set has been extended from 4099MB to 8194MB. making use of a new 4GB drive. 2. continue holding down CTRL while you click to select additional regions. stripe sets. has been extended from its original 4MB to 4099MB. Figure 8. click to select a region of free space that you want to add to the existing volume or volume set. It can be as small as the existing NTFS volume (or volume set) plus 1MB. The disk configuration display is immediately updated with the extended volume set information. To add more regions of free space.

Click on Start Run command DCPROMO. 6. The Active Directory Installation Wizard will open. Click Next. On the Partition menu.• • • • Click to select any region participating in the set. Next. click Delete. . All participating regions are tagged as free space. DOMAIN TREES or JOIN THE EXISTING FOREST OF DOMAIN TREES. The disk configuration display is immediately updated to reflect the deleted volume set. Specify Domain Name for the new Domain. Select the option: DOMAIN CONTROLLER and click for NEW DOMAIN option and the click NEXT. STEPS TO CONFIGURE WIN NT SERVER AS PDC: 1. 3. 7. Click Yes to confirm.EXE 2. two options come: Either select option to CREATE NEW FOREST OF 4. PRACTICAL 7 AIM: CONFIGURING WINDOWS NT SERVER AS A PDC. Specify the location for the Active Directory. 5. If you want to present it on web select the option concerned and displayed.

6. The emergency repair disk stores only Registry configuration information. 5. 7. not your data.EXE utility to create and update an emergency repair disk .NT and AUTOEXE. Close the command prompt Window. the software hive.NT files used when initializing a Windows NT virtual DOS machine into a directory off the Windows NT root directory called \REPAIR. and the CONFIG. Click Yes When asked if you want to overwrite the current repair information. This utility has two options—update the repair information or create a new repair disk. Click Yes When asked if you want to Create an Emergency Repair Disk. The emergency repair disk is not a replacement for regular backups. Remove the emergency repair floppy for safekeeping. RDISK. 8. Creating an ERD. The utility asks if you want to create an ERD containing this information. 3. ERD is used to restore the last time you performed an emergency repair disk update. The ERD includes the security account manager(SAM) database. Click Exit to close the rdisk program. When you choose to update repair information. Click the start menu and select Programs 2.PRACTICAL 8 AIM: CREATING WIN NT SERVER EMERGENCY REPAIR DISK( ERD ). the default hive. Insert a new floppy disk into drive A and click OK. . Command Prompt. 4. Type rdisk at the command prompt and press enter.EXE copies the system hive. 1. the security hive. disk configuration. Click Update Repair Info. the security accounts manager. and numerous other system parameters.:. You can use the Windows NT RDISK.

and delete user accounts. modify. log on with administrator privileges and click Start Programs Administrative Tools User Manager for Domains. create. The upper half displays a list of user accounts. The lower half presents a list of local and global groups. and what rights each user and group has. Think of User Manager for Domains as your interface to the SAM database of your domain and other domains on your network. Navigating in User Manager for Domains: To start User Manager for Domains. you can administer system-wide policies dealing with how accounts behave. local groups. . what events are audited. and global groups. but they can’t manage administrator accounts or domain policies. (Members of the Account Operators group can also administer accounts. NT Server automatically creates the two accounts Administrator and Guest. In addition.) You’ll see the window shown in Figure 15-1.PRACTICAL 9 AIM: ADMINISTERING WINDOWS NT ACCOUNTS. Introducing User Manager for Domains: User Manager for Domains is a graphical utility used to view.

click Select Domain on the User menu.By default. if there are multiple administrators performing account maintenance on the network at the same time. click Refresh on the View menu. If you’re the only administrator in the network making changes to the account database. In the Select Domain dialog box. but it helps to understand . you won’t see each others’ changes displayed immediately. you’re looking at the accounts in your own domain. This utility periodically polls for changes made by other administrators on the network. This will force the utility to gather the latest information. type or click the domain that you want to administer and click OK. (This synchronization activity isn’t performed continuously because it can lead to added network traffic. To attach this utility to another domain. User Manager for Domains can administer accounts in other domains as well.) Establishing Account Policy Before creating any new user accounts. what you see in the User Manager for Domains windows reflects the actual state of the SAM database. it’s a good idea to establish overall policies regarding how accounts should behave. However. If you want to be sure that what you’re seeing is absolutely up to date. You can modify this behavior any time.

. Password Length. The password parameters are:   Password Expiration. You’ll see the Account Policy dialog box shown in Figure 15-2. You can either allow blank passwords (which is the default). I recommend expiring all user passwords every 30 to 60 days. To administer account policy. or expire after a certain number of days. and apply these restrictions to all accounts. You can make passwords live forever. click Account on the Policies menu. (See “Administering Windows NT Security” later in this chapter for details on modifying the behavior of individual accounts. I recommend setting a minimum length of at least eight characters. The default is a 42-day expiration on all passwords.) Password Restrictions The Account Policy dialog box enables you to establish specific restrictions on passwords.these settings before you create individual accounts. or specify a minimum length.

You can allow passwords to change any time. then use this information to force a user into changing his or her password to something brand new. You can direct NT to save a history of previous passwords. but knowing about each lockout is well worth the hassle—you may discover a security breach. If you click to select the Users must log on in order to change password check box at the bottom of the dialog box. Some of these folks write programs to perform many repeated logon attempts over a short period of time. I’m a firm believer in implementing an account lockout policy for failed logon attempts as a key element in any security policy. If you want to force all users to disconnect from all servers when the logon time limit is reached. I recommend setting this to four attempts. but he or she can’t connect to additional servers. The default allows changes immediately. NT won’t extend this courtesy. click to select Forcibly disconnect remote users from server when logon hours expire. shown in Figure 15-2. Although this is easy for them. you can specify whether an administrator needs to intervene to reenable the account after lockout by clicking forever. You can also click Duration and type the number of minutes that the account should remain disabled. as shown in Figure 15-2. The default keeps no history. the user’s existing server connections remain active. It then forces the user to change the password. Account Lockout Restrictions Unauthorized users often attempt to gain access to a computer or network with a valid user account name (which is easy to guess in many organizations). It’s less convenient for you. By default. I recommend keeping a history of at least four passwords. Logon Time Restrictions As I discuss later in this chapter. All they have to do is guess the password. Some users swap between two standard passwords whenever their password expires. or prevent changes for a certain number of days. This will cause NT to cut immediately all connections that the user has to servers in the domain when the logon hours expire. Under Lockout Duration. you can specify the maximum number of minutes between any two failed logon attempts for lockout to occur. With the Account Policy dialog box. you can disable the abused account after the number of failed logon attempts that you specify under Lockout After. Under Reset Counter After. it provides little password security. Normally when this time limit expires.  Password Uniqueness. Preparing for User Account Creation . I highly recommend selecting forever. an administrator (probably you) will have to intervene. so that you hear about every account lockout that occurs on your network. Set this field to its maximum value. NT allows a user to log on once after his or her password has expired. with no minimum waiting period. I recommend setting the minimum waiting period to seven days. Password Aging. If a user’s password expires. you can specify a maximum number of logon hours for each account.

Preparing a User Profile Strategy Perhaps you have individual users who log on to the network from various computers during the day. Both roaming and mandatory profiles live on a server and are downloaded to your computer when you log on to the network. Roaming profiles act like your shadow. there’s a file called . Mandatory profiles are similar to roaming profiles. under a separate subdirectory for each user. you’ll need to specify a location where user profiles are centrally stored. click Copy To. called user profiles. the profile for KENGR on my NT server would be stored in G:\WINNT\PROFILES\KENGR. and mandatory. following you from one computer to the next as you log on to the network. you can resolve duplicates by adding numbers to the end of the user name. User names can be up to 20 characters long. In either approach. The second approach that seems to work well involves concatenating the first letter of the first name with the last name (for example. You’ll need to add all individual user accounts yourself. Every time a person logs on. and you’d like that environment to follow the user around from one computer to the next. If you use names longer than eight characters.NT provides only the Administrator and Guest accounts by default.x clients on your network. Click the User Profiles tab. During user account creation. Windows NT Server enables you to centralize and download these environments. you need to decide on a naming convention for them. To change the user or group that’s allowed to use the profile. Perhaps you want to present the same environment to all your users and control it centrally. and provide a destination on the network. I recommend limiting their length to eight characters. Of course. The profiles are generally stored in the System Root\PROFILES directory. roaming. each person has their environment of desktop and menus set just how they like them. he or she is greeted with his or her familiar desktop environment. if you have non-NT network clients. Local profiles are local to the computer on which they’re created and don’t follow you if you log on to another computer. User Profiles There are three flavors of user profiles: local. click Change. but they’re created and controlled by the network administrator. you’ll need to decide how you want to manage user profiles. Within each profile directory. which control how users’ environments are configured. BCLOWN). so that you can use the names for users’ home directories for DOS and Windows 3. You create a user profile with the System application in Control Panel. select an existing profile that you want to copy. Select a computer that is running Windows NT Server. Preparing User Account Names Each user account must have a unique name. Before creating accounts. In addition. For example. to avoid problems caused by users tweaking their environments in nonstandard ways. you’ll have to find an alternative approach to naming home directories.

Password. Windows for Workgroups. specify a UNC path name to the user’s home directory (for example. On the User menu. You can specify a unique batch filename for each user. So. regardless of which domain controller accepted their logon.) You can configure the user account to place the home directory on the user’s local computer. By taking this approach. Home Directories Each user account has a home directory associated with it. you can be sure that users are working in a consistent environment. click New User. \\TOWER3\ HOMEDIRS\KENGR). or use a common batch file for several users. or you can opt to store home directories on the network.DAT. Logon Scripts A logon script is simply a batch file that’s automatically run when you log on to the Windows NT Server network from an NT. if a user will be logging on from computers running different operating systems. You then use directory replication to keep up-to-date copies on other domain controllers. Typically.MAN. and whether the account itself should expire. DOS. change the name to NTUSER. but they’re the only way to go if you’re logging on to the network from a non-NT computer. whether to restrict logons to certain workstations. whether to restrict the user’s logon hours. and Confirm Password fields. you’re assured that users will have access to their logon scripts. Type the appropriate values in the Username. Adding a User Here’s how to add and configure a new NT user account: Account 1. Logon scripts are stored in the directory SystemRoot\SYSTEM32\REPL\IMPORT \SCRIPTS. (This is similar to the UNIX home directory concept. If you take the latter approach. since users can then access their home directories regardless of which computer they use to log on to the network. you’ll need to decide in which groups you want the user to be a member. . The latter approach is more flexible. NT automatically creates this directory and sets permissions on it to allow access only by the user account that you’re creating. Logon scripts aren’t as powerful as profiles. If you place home directories on the network. When you create a user account. to be used for storing personal files. you can specify the name of its logon script. Description. one master set of logon scripts is stored on the primary domain controller (PDC). or OS/2 computer. Full Name. as they would be if you used mandatory profiles. you may want to assign both a user profile and a logon script to his or her user account. as shown in Figure 15-3. Preparing Account Restrictions For each user account that you create. you’ll need to identify a server and directory where you want them to be located. When you create the account.NTUSER. To convert this to a mandatory profile.

3. passwords are managed centrally by the MIS group. If you want to prevent this particular account password from expiring. job titles. If more than one user will share this account. click to select the groups that you want this account to join. However. to ensure that they’re not easily guessed passwords. Click Groups. shown in Figure 15-4. click to select the User Cannot Change Password check box. 5. click OK. 4. In some enterprises. When you’re done adding groups. There may be rare specific instances when you want a password to live forever. you may want to prevent the users from changing passwords on each other. If you don’t want the user to be able to change the account password. 2. In this situation. You can use it for department names. I recommend leaving the option cleared and allowing users to change their own passwords.The Description field is optional. you should avoid this. office locations. Doing this overrides the account policy that you set earlier in this chapter. and so forth. If neither situation applies to you. In the Group Memberships dialog box. Forcing your users to change their passwords to something unknown to administrators provides maximum security. Then click Add. If you want this account temporarily disabled so that no one can use it. I advise against letting users share accounts. . click to select the Account Disabled check box. This check box is selected by default. 6. click to select the Password Never Expire check box. Click to select the User Must Change Password at Next Logon check box. under not member of. you’d want to prevent users from changing their own passwords. but for maximum security.

click Local Path and type the path on the user’s local computer. click Connect. type the UNC path to it in the User Profile Path field. if this account has a centralized user profile. By default. all accounts are members of the Domain Users group.” . if the home directory of this user will exist on the local computer. See the section earlier in this chapter called “User Profiles. type its filename in the Logon Script Name field. As shown in Figure 15-5. If this account has a logon script. select a drive letter. click OK. When you’re done. Under Home Directory. Click Profile. 7. and type the UNC path to the user’s home directory. If the home directory is on the network.You can also withdraw the account from group memberships by clicking the groups under Member of and clicking Remove.

When you’re done. click User May Log On To All Workstations. as shown in Figure 15-6. Click Hours. If you want to restrict the hours during which the user can log on. . Click the Logon To option. In the Logon Workstations dialog box. 9. click OK. Then click OK. if you don’t want to restrict the locations from which the user logs on. shown in Figure 15-7. The default setting allows the user to log on at any time. Hours marked with a dark blue bar are the hours during which the user is allowed to log on. select the hours that you want to restrict and click Disallow. If you want to restrict logons to a subset of computers. click User May Log On To These Workstations and type the computer names from which the user can log on. You’ll see the Logon Hours dialog box.8.

Depending on your choices during NT installation. Click Account. When you’re done. Click Dialing. click Never under Account Expires if you want the account to live forever. . click End of and type the date on which you want it to expire. shown in Figure 15-8. Then click OK.You can specify up to eight computer names from which the user can log on. you may have additional options in this dialog box. 10. click to select the Grant dialing permission to user check box if you want the user to be able to dial in to the network using RAS. In the Dialing Information dialog box. shown in Figure 15-9. click Help to learn about these additional options. If you want it to expire. click OK. If so. In the Account Information dialog box. 11.

double-click the account that you want to modify. 12.You can also set the RAS callback behavior for this account by clicking the appropriate choice under Call Back. In the User Manager for Domains window. . Figure 15-10 shows the User Properties dialog box. click Add in the New User dialog box to add it to the account to the database. You’re presented with a dialog box that’s strikingly similar to the New User dialog box. click Preset To and type the phone number. Managing a User Account If you’ve added a user account. When you’re done modifying the account. If you want the server to call back the user at a fixed telephone number. you already know almost everything about managing it.

Several group accounts are created for you automatically when you install Windows NT Server. The group name is required and can be up to 20 characters long. However. Under Not Members. 2. Type the name of the group in the Group Name field. . the check box is accessible. let’s take a look at the lower half. and click Add. Creating a Global Here’s how to create a global group with User Manager for Domains: Group 1.Notice that you can’t change the Username field. and you can unlock the account by clearing the check box. Descriptions are optional but are very useful when viewing a long list of groups. but all of the remaining options are accessible and identical to what you encountered when adding the account originally. where the group accounts live. is normally inaccessible. Adding a Group Account Now that you’ve become an expert on the upper half of the User Manager for Domains window. Type a description of the group in the Description field. On the User menu. One additional check box. called Account Locked Out. Then you’re using the Add button to move them to the list of group members (the Members list). click New Global Group. select the user accounts that you want to include in this global group. if the account is locked out due to failed logon attempts (described earlier in this chapter). You’ll see the accounts move from the Not Members list to the Members list. You’re selecting accounts from a list of users that aren’t currently members of the group (the Not Members list). This can be a little confusing.

Click OK to add the global group. select a user account or group that you want to add to the local group that you’re creating. The accounts are removed from the Members list and moved to the Not Members list. Deleting Accounts and Groups You can delete any user accounts and groups that you create. click the user account or group that you want to delete. Having said that. click OK. For example. On the User menu. In User Manager for Domains. 2. Click OK in response to the warning and click Yes to confirm the delete. click New Local Group. click Delete. you may want to get rid of their user account completely. The bottom line is that once you delete an account. When you’re done. Deleting an account has some important consequences that you need to consider. . On the User menu. If you want to delete user accounts or groups from the new local group. but you can’t delete built-in user accounts or groups. you already know everything you need to know about modifying groups. Repeat step 2 for each user or group that you want to add. Type the name of the group in the Group Name field. select the user accounts under Members that you want to remove and click Remove. So the new account won’t have any of the permissions that the old account had. 4. Then click Add. In the Add Users and Group dialog box. all of your other options are identical to those presented when you created the group. you can’t bring it back. double-click the group that you want to modify. To do so.Deleting user accounts from the group is just the opposite. Other than the fact that you can’t change the group name. 3. 5. 3. Creating a Local Here’s how to create a local group using User Manager for Domains: Group 1. Likewise. there are certainly situations in which you may want to delete accounts. deleting and recreating an account with the same name yields a different internal SID. Select the user accounts under Members that you want to remove and click Remove. if a group disbands. Click OK to add the local group. Click Add. Managing a Group If you’ve added groups. if someone leaves the organization permanently and you’ve taken ownership of all of their files. Since each account has a unique SID (security ID) associated with it. it makes sense to delete its associated group. Type a description of the group in the optional Description field.

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