# Heat Transfer File

Page 1

Heat Transfer
Submitted by:

Zeeshan Zaki
Muzammil Ali
Submitted to:

Index
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Detail
Page
Dirt factor in double pipe heat exchanger (co current flow)
2
Dirt factor in double pipe heat exchanger (counter current flow) 11
Heat losses of insulation
20
Heat Transfer through bricks
23
25
Number of Turns of cooling coil
27

Heat Transfer File
Page 2
Experiment Number 1
Object:
To determine the dirt factor of double-pipe heat exchanger when cooling
water is flowing co-current
Formulae:
1. ∆T1 = THI −TCI
2. ∆T2 = THO −TCO
T + TCO
3. ∆TCBM = CI
2
T + THO
4. ∆THBM = HI
2
∆T2 − ∆T1
5. ∆TLMTD =
ln ∆T2 − ln ∆T1
6. ∆THOT = THI −THO
7. ∆TCOLD = TCO −TCI
8. m HOT = P ′ × AI
9.
10.
11.
12.

Approach 1
Approach 2

Range 1
Range 2

 COLD = VCOLD × ρ
m

 HOT CW ∆THOT
Q
=m
HOT

 COLD CW ∆TCOLD
Q
=m
COLD

Q
=Q
−Q
LOSS

HOT

COLD

πD
4
π D32 − D22
14. AO =
4
15. AIS = π × D1 × L
D32 − D22
16. De =
D2
equation 6.3
2
1

13. AI =

(

)

DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer (text) page 105
(Area of cylinder formula)
DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 105

VCOLD
AO

V

17. vCOLD =
18. v HOT =

HOT

AI
1

3
19. h = k ( 0.027 )( Re ) 0.8  C P µ   µ
D
 k   µW

0.14

Sieder–Tate equation for turbulent flow DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 103
equation 6.2 & Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering volume 1 page 369
1

20.

1
k
k
0.8  C µ  3
0 .8
h = ( 0.027 )( Re )  P  = ( 0.027 )( Re ) ( Pr ) 3
D
D
 k 

 CP µ 

 k 

Prandl Number Pr = 
21.

µ=

1

2.1482 (θ − 281 .435 ) +

(8078 .4 + (θ − 281 .435 ) )  −120
2

(µ in Poise)

Heat Transfer File
Page 3
Correlation for viscosity of water in Poise (P) for θ in Kelvin table 6, page 683
Coulson and Richardson Chemical Engineering, Volume 1, Fifth Edition
22.

µ=

1

21 .482 (T − 8.285 ) +

(8078 .4 + (T −8.285 ) )  −1200
2

(Rearranged formula for µ in Ns/m2 for T in Celsius)
ρvD

GD

23. Re = µ = µ
where G = m / A
D
ID
= hi × 1
24. hio = hi ×
DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 105
OD
D2
equation 6.5
hio × ho
25. U C =
DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 106 equation 6.7
hio + ho
Q LOSS
26. U D =
DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 107 equation 6.11
AIS × ∆TLMTD
U C −U D
27. R D =
DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 108
U C ×U D
equation 6.13
Legend:
∆ T1 and ∆ T2 are called approach. THI, THO, TCI and TCO are the temperature at the hot
inflow and outflow, cold inflow and outflow respectively.
∆ TCBM and ∆ THBM are the bulk mean temperature of cold and hot streams
∆ THOT = Temperature decrease of hot fluid
∆ TCOLD = Temperature increase of cold fluid
∆ TLMTD = Log mean temperature difference
CW, CP = heat capacity of water = 4.184 J/kg = 1 Btu/lb

Q
= heat flow rates for heat loss, hot and cold water respectively
LOSS , Q HOT , QCOLD
 = mass flow rate with subscripts for hot and cold water
m
P ′ = pressure reading on the meter for the hot fluid in psi (lb/in2) or kg/cm2
AI, AO = Area of cross section of inner pipe and outer pipe/annulus respectively
AIS = Internal Surface area of the pipe
ρ = Density of water taken as 1g/cc =1000kg/m3= 62.382 lb/ft3
D1 and D2 are the inner and outer diameter of inner pipe respectively
D3 and D4 are the inner and outer diameter of outer pipe respectively
De is the equivalent diameter used for calculating Reynolds Number and heat transfer
coefficient for hot fluid flow in the annulus
v = Fluid velocity
k = Thermal conductivity
Re = Reynolds Number
h = Heat transfer coefficient or film coefficient (subscript “i" for inner coefficient, “o”
for outer and “io” for inner biased on outer diameter)
G = Mass flow rate per unit area (proportional to P’)
UC = Clean Overall heat transfer coefficient
UD = Dirty Overall heat transfer coefficient
RD = Dirt Factor or resistance to heat flow in heat exchangers due to scaling
D in Re and h is called characteristic diameter which is De for outer and D1 for inner
pipe

678 263 W/ (m2 K) Pressure: 1 Psi (lb/in2) = 0.3048 m/s Fluid velocity: 1 ml/s = 0.906 0. 14.3048 m Area: 1 in2= 6.0154 diameter Equivalent diameter De 5.0209 Inner diameter Pipe Inner D1 1.287 0. Process Heat Transfer by Donald Q Kern table 11 page 844.85x10–4 AO 9.616 0.823 0. The inner pipe is called a ½ inch pipe and outer pipe is 1½ inch designation.10 1.349 0.605 0.85 dm Mass: 1 lb = 453.54 cm 1 ft = 0.01054 9. AIS.854 0. The data for pipes can be obtained from Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook (7th edition) table 10–18 page 10–72.60 2 2 2 cm in ft m2 Parameter AI 1.958 0.213 Psi Density: 1 g/cm3 = 62.373 5.15 (18) Table 1–4. The outer diameter of pipes was noted and standard thickness of schedule 40 pipes was subtracted to get inner diameter of the pipes.133 789x10–4 Ns/m2 1 lbm / (ft s) = 1.0484 diameter Inner D3 4.050 0.451 6 cm2 1 ft2= 0. 16 respectively. Outer pipe .488 164 Ns/m2 10 Poise P = 1 Pa.794 1.472 18.54 0.966 2.0929 m2 3 3 Volume: 1 ft = 28 316.00200 1.730 735 W/ (m K) Heat transfer Coefficient: 1 Btu/ (h ft2 °F) = 5.1 Ns/m2 or Pa s 1 lbm/ (ft h) = 4.368 AI.196 0.Heat Transfer File Page 4 Conversion factors between MKS and FPS Length: 1 in = 2.382 lb/ft3 Temperature: o 9  F =  o C ×  + 32 5  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) K = °C + 273. page 1–4 to 1–10 Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook Observations: Pipe Symbol Cm in ft m Outer D4 4. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S Peters (4th edition) table 13 page 888.79 x10–4 AIS 3677 570 3.518 0.0410 diameter Outer D2 2.069 0. s = 1 Ns/m2 1 cP (centi poise) = 1 mNs/m2 Velocity: 1 ft/s = 0. AO.060 Length L 560 220. 15.9237 g Viscosity dynamic: 1 dyn s/cm2 (poise P) = 0.84 1.09 0.135 0.127133 ft3/h = 3. De were calculated by formulae 13.5315 x10–3 ft3/s Thermal Conductivity: 1 Btu/ (h ft °F) = 1.159 0.07035831 kg/cm2 1 kg/cm2 = 14. Unit Operations for Chemical Engineers by McCabe Smith sixth edition appendix 3 page 1068.

5 ∆ T1 ∆ T2 ∆ TLMTD 4.8 116.8 3.3 0 119.8 7.00 46.0 0 121.80 27.3 9.3 36.1 70.00 50.8 2.90 25.42 114.1 17.4 0 117.22 111.20 22.0 33.0 93.2 95.20 113.1 0 119.0 5.50 45.27 113.80 27.50 17.81 14.12 14.9 5 ∆ THOT 114.14 14.46 115. 2.8 46.0704 0. ∆ TLMTD.75 46.6 7.50 11.25 46.0 5.4 46.8 96.9 92.3 9.22 0.0585 0.8 117.84 115.8 115.5 4.14 14.06 0.00 22.75 11.5 33.5 33.15 17.0 5.90 87.0 2.50 48. ∆ THOT.0 5.48 58.00 11.50 46.78 ∆ THOT ∆ T1 ∆ T2 ∆ TLMTD 6.06 MKS m kg/s 0. 6 & 7 respectively.5 2.00 18.14 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 MKS  V Time (ml/s) s 14.5 31.00 47.00 24.7 5 117.0 Temperature for water streams (Fahrenheit): Hot Cold ∆ THB ∆ TCB ∆ TCOL Outle Outle Inlet Inlet M M D t t 122.1 30.0 3.0 4.8 96.42 70.3 92.05 15.00 10.0 32.11122 0.6 89.5 2.8 96.5 30.3 9.0 5.0 4.0 9.5 0 118.0585 FPS  V m ft3/h lb/s 0.00 13.1551 0.70 87.20 114.0 48.48 m kg/s 0.43 7.10 23.5 34 36 35 36 36 36 36 48.0704 0.00 49.50 9.70 16.6 10.42 58.5 33.0 4.00 19.0 95.06 0.00 20.00 9.80 19.3 47.2 92.06 0.3 92.8 95.245 0.22 111.80 87.6 ∆ TCOL D 32.0 5.80 87. 4.60 17.2 14. ∆ THBM.50 46.50 29 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 35 35.4 7.75 16.14 14.95 7.1288 8.0 31.01 ∆ T1.9 118.245 0.00 45.8 118. Temperature converted to Fahrenheit by conversion relation number 17. 3.00 20.43 7.0585 0.245 14.8 36.25 86.11122 0.5 3.5 33.0 5.90 87.75 47.8 96.00 87.00 16.80 25. ∆ T COLD calculated by formulae 1.3 9.0 47.11122 0.Heat Transfer File Page 5 Temperature for water streams (Celsius): Hot Cold ∆ THB ∆ TCB Outle Outle Inlet Inlet M M t t 50.37 12.0 4.5 29.22 111.06 0.95 18.80 84.70 86. ∆ TCBM.00 9.8 96.1288 0.00 45.95 8.0 0 122. 5.50 48. Flow Observation: Hot P kg/cm2 0.05 28.10 23.0704 0.50 17.2 17.0 33.31 113.50 48.50 19.51 12.8 115.95 8.25 10.14 14.3 48.4 33.1 17.2 118.8 32.43 .1551 0.14 14.11122 0.2 6.1 48.50 17.2 37.245 0.0 0 122.9 91.245 0.89 12.0 5.3 9.11122 0.42 70.00 12.00 46.46 15.4 89.3 46.22 111. ∆ T2.10 115.0 118.0 117.1288 0.2 4.50 15.4 92.48 58.2 14.22 111.06 0.11122 Cold FPS  V  V (ml/s) m lb/s ft3/h V ml 111.3 21.1 91.9 6.245 0.5 2.1551 0.00 50.30 18.

11122 0.06 0.06 0.22 0.1 22.14 1000 1000 1000 22.0997 The values of m HOT. m COLD calculated by formulae 8 & 9 respectively.0997 0.25 45.75 5.0452 0.11122 111.1 22.245 14.75 .14 14. MKS values are converted to FPS by conversion relations 4 & 11.25 0.0452 0.0452 0.14 14. 5.75 5.0997 0.25 45.245 0.1 45.11122 0.06 0.245 0.22 111.22 111.Heat Transfer File Page 6 0.

70 589.70 1745.245 0.24 35.9276 1.90 0.11122 0.8972 0.01 192.42 FPS ∆ Q HOT ∆ Q ∆ Q COLD LOSS m HOT lb/s Btu/s Btu/h m COLD lb/s Btu/s Btu/h Btu/h 0.0452 ∆ Q LOSS 1767.103 0.74 3229.764 1.26 4174.05 3.6755 1.29 4174.992 6350.88 5557.1170 1.1595 0.213 1.0997 1. ∆ Q COLD & ∆ Q LOSS calculated by formula 10.00 8.34 47.14 566.245 0.64 45.245 0.59 1223.61 kJ/s 93.26 17.65 56.958 ft2 MKS FPS UD UD W/m2 K Btu/(h ft2 °F) 16.74 319.74 21.5359 1.56 342.0452 0.74 3229.45 172.23 4021.61 946.1551 0.544 1.02 5953.11 3339.89 1620.44 1.11122 0.30 3969.80 1932.11122 0.32 2.11122 0.245 1.11 3229.1595 0.87 11.75 100.0452 0.1288 0.245 0.8972 6031.64 184.12 739.16 3969.36 1047.47 97.85 6.04 1396.245 0.30 216.36 2.0585 0.39 8.36 1279. Overall Dirty Heat Transfer Coefficient: AIS = 0.02 MKS ∆ Q COLD m COLD kJ/s kg/s 0.1288 0.0997 0.245 0.0997 0. .654 1.39 946.Heat Transfer File Page 7 Heat Loss Calculation: ∆ Q HOT m HOT kg/s kJ/s 0.61 946.63 ∆ Q HOT.103 1.368 m2 = 3.71 1223.56 739.76 UD is calculated by formula 26.36 1163.00 27.16 5. 11 and 12 respectively.30 4366.37 1628.88 5529.75 216.8972 0.1551 0.56 1178.323 1.0585 0.11122 0.03 1163.0704 0.11122 0.245 0.245 0.11122 0.1551 0.23 3969.44 33.39 978.49 8.0704 0.05 630.11122 0.0704 0.30 3572.11122 1861.69 1163.37 0.1288 0.95 4763.103 1.0585 0.

3586 0.7 7086.6420 0.046 0.3713 0. • The Viscosity can be correlated by formula 22 and can be converted to FPS using conversion relation 6.3711 0.6201 0.6 0.969 1.969 1.1959 0.072 0.3 849.404 0.7 Fluid Velocity is calculated by formula 17 and 18.3590 0.000567 0.072 0.000573 0.6400 0.7 545.852 1.6212 0.389 1.371 1.6395 0.814 1.3705 0.6 0.000567 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.Heat Transfer File Page 8 Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity DATA: MKS FPS T Kelvin T Celsius k W/m K T Fahrenheit k Btu/(h ft °F) 303 333 30 60 0.3590 0. .2359 0.000754 0.969 1.6409 0.000584 0.000742 0.000742 0.852 1.3590 0.6420 0. Data for thermal conductivity can also be obtained from Process Heat transfer by D Q Kern Table 4 page 800 and in detail from Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S Peter and Timmerhaus (table 4 Page 876).824 1.63 ×10 TF + 0.969 1.73 0.000742 1.1959 0.433 ×10 TC + 0.000566 0.371 1.796 1.3711 0.072 0. Equations for linear interpolation are used and developed to give a routine and simple correlation rather than interpolating between different values from the references.000579 0.2359 0.1959 0.796 1.5732 30–60°C −4 k = 4.969 1.7 7086.1516 849.7 7086.7 545.060 0. Calculation: Thermal Conductivity Viscosity K k k k µ µ HOT COLD HOT COLD HOT COLD W/(m K) Btu/(h ft °F) Ns/m2 lbm/ft h Ns/m2 lbm/ft h 0. Fifth Edition page 346.3590 0.796 1.73 139.386 1.6 0.659 85.000574 0.3706 0.060 0.381 The equations for linear interpolation using the above data are: Equation Range −3 k = 1. Volume 1.7 v COLD ft/s ft/h 0.6411 0.969 1.1516 0.000580 1.7 7086.6 0.3701 0.6 0.3700 0.7 7086.6191 0.7 7086.7 7086.2 705.6402 0.3 849.368 1.969 7086.3584 0.6212 Fluid Velocity: MKS v HOT v COLD m/s 0.796 FPS v HOT ft/s ft/h 1.000766 0.000742 0.3697 0.000564 0.969 1.3712 0.6 0.401 1.3578 0.616 0.6422 0.356 0.2 545.2359 0.000742 0.413 1.6212 0.1516 0.2 705.3590 0.969 1.000766 0.3163 86–140°F • This data was obtained from Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering.3 705.796 1. Be careful in the units of volume and area! The units must match.000750 0.046 0.6191 0.3578 0.7 7086.6212 0.6205 0.365 1.046 0.6212 0.6424 0.060 0. • The thermal conductivity and viscosity will be calculated at the bulk mean temperatures.

382 62.2 545.6205 0.365 1.060 0.796 0.060 0. The Reynolds number for MKS is very close to that of FPS this shows precision in calculation.382 62.060 0.382 62.072 0.000742 0.086 5.015 0.677 3.000742 0.796 1.000 5.413 1.796 1.3 849.368 1.000573 0.050 0.60 0.174 5.382 62.015 0.6420 0.382 62.060 0.196 0.015 0.382 62.050 0.000766 0.000742 0.072 0.60 0.852 1.694 3.015 16260 16330 16295 16260 16052 16087 15776 15914 15880 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0.6420 0.6411 0.000584 0.000573 0.015 0.382 62.686 3.196 0.852 1.057 5.6212 0.196 5600 5687 5600 4795 4747 4795 3710 3710 3710 Reynolds Number has been calculated by formula 23.7 7086.015 0.382 7086.000 5.000579 0.796 1.015 0.196 0.7 1.050 16249 16318 16283 16249 16041 16075 15765 15903 15868 62.000574 0.6212 0.000742 0.000579 0.785 3.7 7086.6409 0.000742 0.6424 0.60 0.6212 0.796 1.Heat Transfer File Page 9 Reynolds Number: MKS HOT COLD ρ kg/m3 v m/s µ Ns/m2 D1 m Re ρ kg/m3 v m/s µ Ns/m2 De m Re 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0.814 1.050 0.60 0.694 3.7 545.382 62.050 0.382 62.386 1.060 0.7 7086.060 0.050 0.000750 0.795 Cp J/kg K 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 µ Ns/m2 0.000 .60 0.382 849.382 62.000584 0.000 5.60 0.824 1.000742 0.6212 Pr 5.7 7086.6422 0.000754 0.382 62.000567 0.000766 0.050 0.000580 0.196 0.000564 0.6191 0.046 0.7 1.000766 0.060 0.6191 0.823 3.000567 0.382 62.389 1.6402 0.050 0.7 7086.371 1.000567 0.000574 0.6201 0.060 0.382 62.000750 0.7 7086.60 0.2 705.000580 COLD k W/m K 0.000566 0.000 5.060 5604 5691 5604 4799 4750 4799 3713 3713 3713 FPS HOT COLD ρ lb/ft3 v ft/h µ lb/ft h D1 ft Re ρ lb/ft3 v ft/h µ lb/ft h De ft Re 62.000566 0.6395 0.174 5.196 0.000742 k W/m K 0.60 0.60 0.401 1.382 62.060 0. Reynolds Number is greater than 2100 showing that the flow is turbulent in both inner and outer tubes so that equation C µ  Pr =  P  Prandl Number:  k  MKS HOT Cp J/kg K 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 µ Ns/m2 0.7 7086.2 705.371 1.060 0.000766 0.060 0.046 0.404 0.7 7086.3 705.196 0. The precision is lost because of recursive conversions and propagation of error.6400 Pr 3.000567 0.050 0.3 849.6212 0.382 62.000742 0.749 3.196 0.000754 0.046 0.382 62.000742 0.7 545.072 0.000742 0.000564 0.015 0.015 0.739 3.196 0.

735 Heat transfer coefficients MKS HOT COLD Overall Clean Overall Dirty hi hio ho UC Dirt Factor UD RD 2 2 W/(m K) 4078 4088 4083 4078 4049 4054 4011 4030 4025 2998 3005 3001 2998 2977 2980 2948 2962 2959 416.3590 0.8451 0.852 1.1 61.32 2.2 75.9 344.796 1. The value of hio and UC were calculated by formula 24 and 25 whereas values of UD were already calculated.4 421.00 8.91 370.0584 0.34 47.365 1.2 483.897 4.26 17.810 3.05 3.3713 0.9 hio ho UC 87.853 4.36 Heat transfer coefficients FPS COLD Overall Clean Overall Dirty HOT hi 483.44 33.0 62.08 74.76 0.371 1.3320 3.0079 0.64 45.1061 0.Heat Transfer File Page 10 FPS HOT COLD Cp Btu/lb µ lb/ft h k Btu/(h ft °F) Pr Cp Btu/lb µ lb/ft h k Btu/(h ft °F) Pr 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.91 308.1011 0.59 66.2 76.903 3.389 1.796 0.401 1.75 308.796 1.3578 0.9 62.90 0.371 1.3578 0.8 76.796 1. overall Heat transfer coefficients: ID/OD = D1/D2= 0.413 1.24 35.2477 The values of hi and ho were calculated by formula 20 in which the characteristic diameter D was D1 for inner pipe and De for outer pipe.368 1.0855 0.42 66.12 419.02 66.1 423.3711 0.3586 0.0449 0.4858 0.16 5.75 308.26 416.19 371.854 Heat transfer coefficient.990 4.3590 0.846 4.1558 0.27 55.0252 0.386 1.39 8.3706 0.824 1.3705 0.9 344.3590 0.988 4.861 3.825 3.1432 0.852 1.2 487.937 3.20 55.0186 0.4 344.6778 0. is done because water is incompressible in the short temperature range.839 4.404 0.74 21.87 11.2 423.32 55.3700 4.873 3.3701 0.0178 0.911 4. The approximation of (µ /µ W) = 1.3584 0.25 RD 2 Btu/(h ft °F) 515 517 516 516 513 514 509 511 511 Dirt Factor UD 2 701 703 702 703 698 699 693 696 695 0.0 74.858 4.56 75.8 87.796 1.2 87.3712 0.833 3. made in equation 20.3711 0.0274 0.911 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.3697 0.87 m K/W 16. .0436 (h ft °F)/Btu 2.3590 3.3590 0.814 1.85 6.47 97.02 368.44 1.819 3.

678 263 (h ft2 °F)/Btu (from conversion factor 13) The value of RD FPS calculated by converting the value of RD MKS is found to be: RD CONVERTED = 0. This shows that the calculation in the experiment has been consistent.1069 x 5.678 263 = 0.6068 (h ft2 °F)/Btu Verification: 1 m2K/W = 5. .Heat Transfer File Page 11 Result: The mean value of dirt factor RD calculated when water was flowing co-current in the double pipe heat exchanger is found to be: RD = 0.6068 (h ft2 °F)/Btu].1069 m2K/W RD = 0.6070 (h ft2 °F)/Btu which is very close to the value of RD calculated [0.

µ= 1 2.027 )( Re ) 0. De = DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 105 D2 equation 6. AI = 1 4 π D32 − D22 14.435 ) +   (8078 . v HOT = HOT AI 1 3 19.Heat Transfer File Page 12 Experiment Number 2 Object: To determine the dirt factor of double-pipe heat exchanger when cooling water is flowing counter-current Formulae: 1.027 )( Re )  P  = ( 0.8 h = ( 0. HOT I  9. AO = DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 105 4 15. Range 2 COLD CO CI ′  m = P × A 8. Approach 2 2 HO CI T + TCO 3. mCOLD = VCOLD × ρ  HOT CW ∆THOT 10. 1 k k 0. ∆THBM = 2 ∆T2 − ∆T1 5.8  C µ  3 0 .3 ( ) VCOLD AO V 17. ∆THOT = THI −THO Range 1 ∆ T = T − T 7. ∆TLMTD = ln ∆T2 − ln ∆T1 6.8  C P µ   µ D  k   µW     0.14 Sieder–Tate equation for turbulent flow DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 103 equation 6.1482 (θ − 281 . ∆T1 = THI −TCO Approach 1 ∆ T = T − T 2.435 ) )  −120 2 (µ in Poise) . vCOLD = 18.027 )( Re ) ( Pr ) 3 D D  k   CP µ    k  Prandl Number Pr =  21. Q HOT = m   COLD CW ∆TCOLD 11. ∆TCBM = CI 2 THI + THO 4. AIS = π × D1 × L (Area of cylinder formula) 2 2 D3 − D2 16. h = k ( 0.2 & Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering volume 1 page 369 1 20.4 + (θ − 281 . QCOLD = m   12. Q LOSS = Q HOT − Q COLD πD 2 13.

THO. page 683 Coulson and Richardson Chemical Engineering. AO = Area of cross section of inner pipe and outer pipe/annulus respectively AIS = Internal Surface area of the pipe ρ = Density of water taken as 1g/cc =1000kg/m3= 62. “o” for outer and “io” for inner biased on outer diameter) G = Mass flow rate per unit area (proportional to P’) UC = Clean Overall heat transfer coefficient UD = Dirty Overall heat transfer coefficient RD = Dirt Factor or resistance to heat flow in heat exchangers due to scaling D in Re and h is called characteristic diameter which is De for outer and D1 for inner pipe .285 ) +   (8078 . Fifth Edition 22.13 Legend: ∆ T1 and ∆ T2 are called Approach. U D = DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 107 equation 6. CP = heat capacity of water = 4. QCOLD  = mass flow rate with subscripts for hot and cold water m P ′ = pressure reading on the meter for the hot fluid in psi (lb/in2) or kg/cm2 AI.184 J/kg = 1 Btu/lb    Q = heat flow rates for heat loss. U C = DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 106 equation 6. hio = hi × DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 105 OD D2 equation 6. cold inflow and outflow respectively.382 lb/ft3 D1 and D2 are the inner and outer diameter of inner pipe respectively D3 and D4 are the inner and outer diameter of outer pipe respectively De is the equivalent diameter used for calculating Reynolds Number and heat transfer coefficient for hot fluid flow in the annulus v = Fluid velocity k = Thermal conductivity Re = Reynolds Number h = Heat transfer coefficient or film coefficient (subscript “i" for inner coefficient.285 ) )  −1200 2 (Rearranged formula for µ in Ns/m2 for T in Celsius) ρvD GD 23.Heat Transfer File Page 13 Correlation for viscosity of water in Poise (P) for θ in Kelvin table 6.5 hio × ho 25. THI. R D = DQ Kern Process Heat Transfer page 108 U C ×U D equation 6.7 hio + ho Q LOSS 26. Q HOT . hot and cold water respectively LOSS . ∆ TCBM and ∆ THBM are the bulk mean temperature of cold and hot streams ∆ THOT = Temperature decrease of hot fluid ∆ TCOLD = Temperature increase of cold fluid ∆ TLMTD = Log mean temperature difference CW. TCI and TCO are the temperature at the hot inflow and outflow.4 + (T −8. Re = µ = µ where G = m / A D ID = hi × 1 24. Volume 1.11 AIS × ∆TLMTD U C −U D 27. µ= 1 21 .482 (T − 8.

133 789x10–4 Ns/m2 1 lbm / (ft s) = 1.85x10–4 AO 9.0484 diameter Inner D3 4. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S Peters (4th edition) table 13 page 888.01054 9.135 0.0209 Inner diameter Pipe Inner D1 1.616 0.3048 m/s Fluid velocity: 1 ml/s = 0.488 164 Ns/m2 10 Poise P = 1 Pa. The outer diameter of pipes was noted and standard thickness of schedule 40 pipes was subtracted to get inner diameter of the pipes.1 Ns/m2 or Pa s 1 lbm/ (ft h) = 4.15 (18) Table 1–4.159 0.823 0.127133 ft3/h = 3. Process Heat Transfer by Donald Q Kern table 11 page 844.958 0.854 0. AIS.373 5. Outer pipe .0410 diameter Outer D2 2.84 1.54 0.0929 m2 3 3 Volume: 1 ft = 28 316.069 0.794 1.451 6 cm2 1 ft2= 0.287 0.472 18. The inner pipe is called a ½ inch pipe and outer pipe is 1½ inch designation.196 0. 16 respectively.966 2.730 735 W/ (m K) Heat transfer Coefficient: 1 Btu/ (h ft2 °F) = 5.0154 diameter Equivalent diameter De 5.9237 g Viscosity dynamic: 1 dyn s/cm2 (poise P) = 0.050 0.060 Length L 560 220. 15.5315 x10–3 ft3/s Thermal Conductivity: 1 Btu/ (h ft °F) = 1.213 Psi Density: 1 g/cm3 = 62. Unit Operations for Chemical Engineers by McCabe Smith sixth edition appendix 3 page 1068. s = 1 Ns/m2 1 cP (centi poise) = 1 mNs/m2 Velocity: 1 ft/s = 0.3048 m Area: 1 in2= 6.07035831 kg/cm2 1 kg/cm2 = 14. The data for pipes can be obtained from Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook (7th edition) table 10–18 page 10–72.382 lb/ft3 Temperature: o 9  F =  o C ×  + 32 5  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) K = °C + 273.368 AI.678 263 W/ (m2 K) Pressure: 1 Psi (lb/in2) = 0.00200 1. 14.349 0. AO.10 1. De were calculated by formulae 13.85 dm Mass: 1 lb = 453.518 0. page 1–4 to 1–10 Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook Observations: Pipe Symbol cm in ft m Outer D4 4.906 0.605 0.09 0.54 cm 1 ft = 0.Heat Transfer File Page 14 Conversion factors between MKS and FPS Length: 1 in = 2.60 2 2 2 cm in ft m2 Parameter AI 1.79 x10–4 AIS 3677 570 3.

5 34.50 40.22 111.0 2.3 ∆ T1 ∆ T2 ∆ TLMTD 1.11122 0.10 89.80 89.3 33.00 39.10 14.5 35 35 34 34 34 34.00 42.11122 0.22 ∆ THOT ∆ T1 ∆ T2 ∆ TLMTD 3.06 0.6 0 107.06 0.00 9.8 33.7 95.50 41.03 27.6 0 107.00 41.0 33.50 9.50 14.3 40.9 0 104.8 40.90 12.10 14.3 1.6 2.3 33.3 1.00 7.9 4. ∆ THOT.6 94.95 104.00 32 31.75 7. Temperature converted to Fahrenheit by conversion relation number 17.0 1.74 104.93 27.245 0.2 105.14 14.03 12.00 41.11122 0.14 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 MKS  Time V (ml/s) s 35.0 91.80 88.14 14.8 6.0 106.3 1.8 9.7 91.0279 0.5 3.5 Temperature for water streams (Fahrenheit): Hot Cold ∆ THB ∆ TCB ∆ TCOL Outle Outle Inlet Inlet M M D t t 107.5 41.7 95. 6 & 7 respectively.4 91.81 35.55 3.90 89.8 10. Flow Observation: Hot P kg/cm2 MKS m kg/s 0.00 41. ∆ T COLD calculated by formulae 1.80 13.80 13.5 32 32 32 32 32 32 35.00 7.85 104. 5.19 8.5 ∆ TCOL D 33.5 31.10 102.6 93.6 95.1551 0.22 0.9 6.50 8.1 103.0 1.0 1.50 39.0 1.7 0 104.19 8.8 12.13 m kg/s 0.5 2.22 111.245 14.14 14.6 2.6 0 106.8 12.00 8.7 14.6 94.11122 0.9 6.4 3.00 89.60 17.5 2.0831 0.6 94.13 83.80 88.50 8.4 91.5 41.50 39.50 40.50 6.50 40.93 27.Heat Transfer File Page 15 Temperature for water streams (Celsius): Hot Cold ∆ THB ∆ TCB Outle Outle Inlet Inlet M M t t 42.55 10.5 1.50 7.4 3.25 7.72 6.1551 0. ∆ T2. 2.3 91.0 6.6 93.74 105.30 14.0 0 ∆ THOT 105.1 104.8 40.9 106.5 3.11122 Cold FPS  V  V (ml/s) m lb/s ft3/h V ml 111.00 6.20 89.0831 FPS  m V ft3/h lb/s 0.1 91.06 0.7 13.3 33.00 5.40 13.22 111.0279 0.00 40.5 1. Note that the formula of ∆ T1 & ∆ T2 are different in co-current and counter current flow.0 40.75 6.2 105.00 7.5 2.57 10.00 40.1551 0.9 0 104.83 105.0 1.00 42.00 42.81 12.5 41.245 0.06 0.8 11.00 89.50 12.9 4.0 33.60 17.72 6.6 0 107.50 7.93 83.81 35.1 104. ∆ TCBM.57 .6 2.0 106.55 3.0279 0.10 89.00 41.5 1.6 93.0 33.50 14.06 0.20 13.7 0 106.68 8.0 2.5 41.3 33.8 10. 3.40 15.2 106.50 12.20 ∆ T1.10 103.5 1.245 0.5 34.0 39. 4.5 1.50 9.1288 0.1288 3.22 111.40 13. ∆ TLMTD.7 91.14 14.50 7.60 11.50 7.0 91.5 1.9 4.00 8.0 2.7 92.7 13.245 0. ∆ THBM.70 16.00 7.50 40.4 3.95 103.

89 4.0997 0.00 26.00 26.46 0.0385 0.57 4.46 38.11122 111.11122 0.245 0. m COLD calculated by formulae 8 & 9 respectively.1288 0.245 0.245 0.00 83. 10.22 111.14 14.22 0.11122 0.06 0.245 14.14 14.Heat Transfer File Page 16 0.22 111.0385 0.0831 0.89 .03 26.06 0.0997 The values of m HOT.06 0.22 111.11122 0.89 4.0997 0.13 38.0385 0.06 0.14 14. MKS values are converted to FPS by conversion relations 4 & 11.14 1000 1000 1000 1000 12.46 38.

85 0.27 8.245 0.47 192.245 0.74 18.245 0.0615 0.26 1395.15 4.02 698.0615 0.31 2373.441 0.34 465.6593 0.02 698.15 0.64 192.64 1372.59 695.80 0.0847 0.58 2381.1831 0.11122 0.11122 465.0385 0.0615 0.958 ft2 MKS FPS UD UD W/m2 K Btu/(h ft2 °F) 19.47 192.3876 0.30 3.441 0.52 3.0385 ∆ Q LOSS 408.34 MKS ∆ Q COLD m COLD kJ/s kg/s 0.97 18.0279 0.441 1587.6593 0.41 2.72 1587.34 465.662 0.245 0.662 0.662 0.72 2381.59 402.26 2373.0831 0.0279 0.72 0.72 1587.6593 0.245 0.56 3.59 695.0831 0.1831 0.245 0.3813 0.14 0.34 698.04 63.3813 0.245 ∆ Q ∆ Q COLD LOSS Btu/s Btu/h m COLD lb/s Btu/s Btu/h Btu/h 0.0279 0.42 63.27 215.34 465.11122 0. .58 1587.41 56.11122 0.04 63.02 465.42 2.31 1372.08 215.72 1587.11122 0.47 8.49 4.74 0.441 0.04 FPS ∆ Q HOT m HOT lb/s 0.245 0. ∆ Q COLD & ∆ Q LOSS calculated by formula 10.3876 0.11122 0.31 2373.31 402.08 ∆ Q HOT.31 kJ/s 56.58 2381.42 2.34 465.3876 0.30 0.85 UD is calculated by formula 26.49 4.50 27.245 0.41 56.64 1372.441 0. 11 and 12 respectively.3813 1395.0385 0.94 408.11122 0.11122 0.11122 0.50 25.72 1587.1831 0.27 8.08 215.441 0.94 695.0847 0.31 402.0847 0.94 408.368 m2 = 3.85 25.26 1395.Heat Transfer File Page 17 Heat Loss Calculation: ∆ Q HOT m HOT kg/s kJ/s 0.0831 0. Overall Dirty Heat Transfer Coefficient: AIS = 0.

2785 0.6316 0.3651 0.085 0.6327 0.616 0.039 0. .6327 0.582 1.3588 0.969 1.3657 0.6305 0.3588 0.8 463.969 1.1288 0.6209 0.969 1.6327 0.0935 0.3645 0.000746 0.3588 0.969 1.560 1.6205 0.560 1.539 1. • The Viscosity can be correlated by formula 22 and can be converted to FPS using conversion relation 6.8 1002.805 1.6305 0.085 0.6 0.73 0.8 336.000750 0.000746 1.2785 0.805 1.63 ×10 TF + 0.3657 0.814 1.969 1.000750 0. Equations for linear interpolation are used and developed to give a routine and simple correlation rather than interpolating between different values from the references.7 7086.0935 0. Fifth Edition page 346.6316 0.000636 0.000636 0.000660 1.3640 0.000746 0.6205 0.3592 0.6209 0. Data for thermal conductivity can also be obtained from Process Heat transfer by D Q Kern Table 4 page 800 and in detail from Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S Peter and Timmerhaus (table 4 Page 876).7 v COLD ft/s ft/h 0.3657 0.000636 0.969 1.3645 0.6 0.3651 0.000654 0.1288 336.7 7086.814 1.029 0.6205 0.8 463.546 1.73 139.029 0.3163 86–140°F • This data was obtained from Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering.381 The equations for linear interpolation using the above data are: Equation Range −3 k = 1.7 7086.3586 0.0935 0.000645 0.000639 0.000654 0.029 0.539 1.000645 0.356 0.3586 0.6323 0.969 7086.7 7086.969 1.597 0.6209 0.039 0.5 1002.6 0. Be careful in the units of volume and area! The units must match.Heat Transfer File Page 18 Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity DATA: MKS FPS T Kelvin T Celsius k W/m K T Fahrenheit k Btu/(h ft °F) 303 333 30 60 0.6209 Fluid Velocity: MKS v HOT v COLD m/s 0.2785 0. Calculation: Thermal Conductivity Viscosity K k k k µ µ HOT COLD HOT COLD HOT COLD W/(m K) Btu/(h ft °F) Ns/m2 lbm/ft h Ns/m2 lbm/ft h 0.6 0.814 1.3586 0.039 0.582 1.000750 0.969 1. • The thermal conductivity and viscosity will be calculated at the bulk mean temperatures.6209 0.6 0. Volume 1.3588 0.6 0.000746 0.6298 0.659 85.6 0.6216 0.7 7086.7 7086.3655 0.787 1.7 7086.5 463.085 0.6 0.6 0.5 1002.805 FPS v HOT ft/s ft/h 1.5732 30–60°C −4 k = 4.000739 0.433 ×10 TC + 0.3588 0.539 1.805 1.805 1.8 Fluid Velocity is calculated by formula 17 and 18.1288 0.8 336.000746 0.7 7086.

057 5.60 0.060 0.273 4.805 1.382 62.60 0.000746 0.5 1002.039 0.000746 0.000746 0.382 62.341 4.060 0.196 0.7 7086.382 62.560 1.207 4.8 1002.560 1.60 0.039 0.000636 0.597 0.382 62.196 2301 2278 2278 6747 6747 6747 3138 3138 3138 Reynolds Number has been calculated by formula 23.382 62.7 7086.382 62.196 0.060 0.060 0.6305 0.050 0.060 0.814 1.000750 0.015 0.000636 0.196 0.787 1.546 1.050 14479 14479 14479 14413 14280 14280 14082 14082 13950 62.6316 0.7 7086.805 0.060 0.000750 0.386 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 0.7 7086.015 0.539 1.050 0.382 62.050 0.6205 0. Reynolds Number is greater than 2100 showing that the flow is turbulent in both inner and outer tubes so that equation C µ  Pr =  P  Prandl Number:  k  MKS HOT COLD Cp J/kg K µ Ns/m2 k W/m K Pr Cp J/kg K µ Ns/m2 k W/m K Pr 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 4184 0.5 463.6209 4.029 0.000654 0.6216 0.015 14490 14490 14490 14423 14290 14290 14092 14092 13960 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0.582 1.196 0.8 463.057 5.000639 0.382 62.000746 0.6327 0.6323 0.805 1.814 1.000660 0.6209 0.057 5.8 336.000645 0.000654 0.7 7086. The Reynolds number for MKS is very close to that of FPS this shows precision in calculation.028 5.050 0.5 1002.028 5.015 0.000636 0.539 1.972 5.382 62.000739 0.000746 0.000746 0.000639 0.000750 0.8 1.028 5.196 0.015 0.028 5.60 0.000750 0.207 4.7 7086.6327 0.196 0.382 62.000746 0.6305 0.060 0.050 0.382 62.000746 0.60 0.000746 0.000660 0.000636 0.60 0.382 62.196 0.000750 0.015 0.382 336.000636 0.000750 0.060 2303 2280 2280 6752 6752 6752 3140 3140 3140 FPS HOT COLD ρ lb/ft3 v ft/h µ lb/ft h D1 ft Re ρ lb/ft3 v ft/h µ lb/ft h De ft Re 62.015 0.60 0.050 0.000645 0.8 336.000645 0.015 0.7 1.000645 0.028 .382 62.6205 0.039 0.814 1.60 0.6209 0.6209 0.6209 0.6327 0.196 0.382 62.382 62.805 1.60 0. The precision is lost because of recursive conversions and propagation of error.229 4.7 7086.050 0.000654 0.029 0.000636 0.085 0.085 0.000746 0.6316 0.341 4.382 7086.6205 0.273 4.000654 0.7 7086.6298 4.060 0.382 62.000739 0.Heat Transfer File Page 19 Reynolds Number: MKS HOT COLD ρ kg/m3 v m/s µ Ns/m2 D1 m Re ρ kg/m3 v m/s µ Ns/m2 De m Re 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 0.085 0.015 0.8 463.539 1.207 4.805 1.582 1.029 0.050 0.

3645 0.351 4.3657 0.41 82.597 0.85 0.7 41.9 557.41 38.2020 0.0455 0.814 1.805 1.99 464.17 m K/W 19.735 Heat transfer coefficients MKS HOT COLD Overall Clean Overall Dirty hi hio ho UC Dirt Factor UD RD 2 2 W/(m K) 3827 3827 3827 3818 3798 3798 3769 3769 3750 2813 2813 2813 2806 2792 2792 2771 2771 2756 216.0 0.15 0.0 hio ho UC 41.9 485.451 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.4 99.805 0.3588 0.953 4.3651 0.9 302.53 48. The approximation of (µ /µ W) = 1.805 1.83 215.6607 6.50 25.9 656.7 38.2770 7.2506 1.3586 0.Heat Transfer File Page 20 FPS HOT COLD Cp Btu/lb µ lb/ft h k Btu/(h ft °F) Pr Cp Btu/lb µ lb/ft h k Btu/(h ft °F) Pr 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.31 272.49 4.30 0.9 660.7 99.936 4.953 4. .1746 0.0 233.2020 0. The value of hio and UC were calculated by formula 24 and 25 whereas values of UD were already calculated.5 663.3657 0.9 557.787 1.4 53.56 Heat transfer coefficients FPS COLD Overall Clean Overall Dirty HOT hi 235.9 656.85 0.3655 0.5 665.6607 0.964 4.3588 0.5 99.9 482.2 489.8 557.958 Heat transfer coefficient.15 4.7 53.35 48.2 487.805 1.546 1.58 38.64 82. is done because water is incompressible in the short temperature range.9 41.582 1.410 4.9 654.1853 The values of hi and ho were calculated by formula 20 in which the characteristic diameter D was D1 for inner pipe and De for outer pipe.0 302.3588 0.39 464.289 4.560 1.814 1.29 RD 2 Btu/(h ft °F) 489.3645 0.3586 0.311 4.8 482.2584 0.74 18.52 3. overall Heat transfer coefficients: ID/OD = D1/D2= 0.53 82.3640 4.969 4.8 485.351 4.9 480.936 4.3588 0.31 272.0487 0.49 4.582 1.14 0.7 53.0 665.85 25.8 660.0355 0.6 489.886 4.3588 4.1746 1.97 18.35 48.3592 0.560 1.539 1.805 1.99 272.3651 0.0326 (h ft °F)/Btu 3.7 Dirt Factor UD 2 666. made in equation 20.0487 1.8 233.0355 0.539 1.814 1.93 215.410 4.3657 0.289 4.284 4.2770 0.0 302.3586 0.50 27.74 0.539 1.83 465.80 0.0915 6.30 3.969 4.

678 263 (h ft2 °F)/Btu (from conversion factor 13) The value of RD FPS calculated by converting the value of RD MKS is found to be: RD CONVERTED = 0.4274 m2K/W RD = 2.4274 x 5.678 263 = 2.4239 (h ft2 °F)/Btu].4268 (h ft2 °F)/Btu which is very close to the value of RD calculated [2. This shows that the calculation in the experiment has been consistent.Heat Transfer File Page 21 Result: The mean value of dirt factor RD calculated when water was flowing counter-current in the double pipe heat exchanger is found to be: RD = 0.4239 (h ft2 °F)/Btu Verification: 1 m2K/W = 5. .

AI = 7.482 (T − 8. ∆T2 = THO −TR ∆T2 − ∆T1 5. RT is the thermal resistances in K/W . µ= 1 21 . Q P = 15.8 ( Pr ) 3 D  µ   k  D ln( r2 r1 ) 2πk P L ln( r3 r2 ) 12. RT (FILM) = 14.8 1 10.5732 30–60°C 1 3 0 . AIS = Internal surface area µ is the viscosity r1. r2. outlet and the room. r3’. ∆T1 = THI − TR 2. THO. ∆THBM = HI 2 V HOT AI 3. AIS = 2 ×π × r1 × L 8. v HOT = fluid velocity of hot water hi = internal film transfer coefficient k = thermal conductivity subscript “I" for insulation and “P” for pipe QP and QI are the heat losses through pipe and insulations. r3.4 + (T −8. RT ( INSULATION ) = 2πk I L 11. hi = k ( 0.023 ) ρvD   C P µ  = k ( 0. Q I = 1 hi AIS ∆TLMTD RT ( PIPE ) + RT ( FILM ) RT ( INSULATION ∆TLMTD ) + RT ( PIPE ) + RT ( FILM ) Legend: ∆ THBM = Bulk mean temperature of hot water. k = 1. are the inner.285 ) +   (8078 . and radius of glass wool and rock wool respectively. TR are the temperature of inlet. v HOT = 4. RT ( PIPE ) = 13.Heat Transfer File Page 22 Experiment Number 3 Object: To calculate and compare the heat losses of different insulations Formulae: T + THO 1.285 ) )  −1200 2 9. outer radius of pipe. ∆TLMTD = ln ∆T2 − ln ∆T1 πD12 4 6.023 )( Re ) 0. THI.433 ×10 −3 TC + 0.

93 430 16 26.50 32.64 0.50 59.00 58.50 49.00 60.00 49.00 Mean 61.33 58.67 0.50 62.83 32.50 34.50 41.042 Glass Wool 0.Heat Transfer File Page 23 Thermal Conductivity Data: Material k [Btu /(h ft °F)] k [W/(m K)] 26.50 54.47 0.27 0.00 60. table 9.85 265 14 18.024 0.50 58.50 46.00 58.00 45.00 58. page 346 and the thermal conductivity for Rock Wool was obtained from Example 2.50 52.0927 2.95 m Inner Pipe Inner 2.00 62.1.50 59.50 60.00 58.65 570 20 28.50 61.4 0.50 59.00 60.50 40.34 0. AIS calculated by formula 6 and 7.2447 AI.0334 D2 diameter 2.50 49.50 49. Room Temperature: TR = 30°C Pipe Glass Wool Rock Wool Bare Pipe  V V ml T sec 280 17 16.17 51.00 62.033 0.50 250 65 3.00 49.47 570 17 33.50 58.00 58.83 58.67 .00 57.88 235 38 6.50 58.000547 AIS 2446.00 55.50 61.50 60. The given pipes are of standard (schedule 40) 1-inch designation pipes.084 2.50 ml/sec State Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Temperatures °C 60.67 60.00 58.50 61.00 59.67 61.00 32.00 59.00 32.00 58.50 60.33 53.53 420 8 52.00 58.83 58.17 61.5 page 19 Process Heat Transfer by DQ Kern.50 61.00 Steel Pipe 0.00 50.00 61.50 58.50 61.00 54.18 300 17 17.0264 D1 diameter cm2 m2 Area Parameter AI 5.00 58. Units Basis: MKS system will be used Length Symbol cm m Pipe Rock wool 9.00 49.95 m D3” diameter Insulation Glass wool 8.83 61.50 48.00 61.00 62.74 m D3 diameter Outer 3.50 49.00 57.00 52.50 59.057 Rock Wool Data for thermal conductivity of Glass Wool and Steel Pipe was obtained from Coulson and Richardson Chemical Engineering Volume 1.50 60.

049 0.25 60.000466 0.67 59.54 149.0043 0.93 26.45% of 1714. The Film resistance was calculated by formula 13.0074 Viscosity.83 32.03 24.50 28. 10 & 11 respectively.6597 0.33 55.55% decrease in heat loss for glass wool and 98.05 942.33 28.011 0.50 51.88 6.0110 0.18 17.50 58.33 40. The film coefficient was calculated by formula 10 on the assumption that fluid flowing in all pipes at all temperature was turbulent.326 27.50 21.51 24.6550 0.49% decrease in heat loss for rock wool.6519 0.00 49.67 29.67 T Bulk Mean 59.83 58.22 30.67 53.83 31.50 Rock Wool Bare Pipe T Inlet (mean) 61.58 49.4 1540.000506 0.65 28.213 24. Thermal Conductivity and Film Coefficient: Viscosity K Velocity hi RT FILM Material THBM Ns/m2 W/(m K) m/s W/(m2K) K/W Glass Wool Rock Wool Bare Pipe 59.096 0.08 45.17 49.00 30.01 658.08 57.030 0.8 24.0274 0.50 60.259 The heat losses were calculated by formulae 14 and 15.50 30.000465 0.9643 Rock Wool 0.000553 0.50 31.25 60.061 0.6522 0.58 49.007 0.67 23.870 (1.17 27.6596 0.00 61.1979 Glass Wool 0.28 536. Velocity.67 29.50 54.052 370.50 3.69 26.50 61.33 58.08 57.08 45.83 2. .83 58.00 19.0076 0.04 357.53 52.000505 0.85 18.39 30.6520 0.304 25.Heat Transfer File Page 24 Material V ml/s Glass Wool 16.6 3221.33 10.95 10.000504 0.74 0.32 24. Velocity.000489 0.83 28.92 0.17 T Outlet (mean) 57.481 25.47 33. Be careful in calculating fluid velocity as the units of volume flow rate should be in m3/s and internal area AI in m2.17 19. Thermal Conductivity & Film Coefficient were calculated by formulae 9.000282 Bare Pipe Thermal resistances are calculated by formula 11 & 12 Viscosity.0114 0.00 55.035 0.00 60.0062 0.0103 0. 2.6385 0.51% of 1714.844 (1.000591 0. Heat Loss through Pipes: Material Q LOSS (W) Mean Q LOSS (W) Glass Wool Rock Wool Bare Pipe 24.77 Thermal resistances: Material RT K/W 1.6584 0.83 28.259) 25.42 60.92 T1 T2 LMTD 31.54 18.50 54.00 55.0367 0.724 380.92 551.000472 0.22 398.83 61.6441 0.33 55.66 111. Result: The results show 98.42 60.032 0.094 25.259) 1714.00 31.

920 7.736 74.349 19.840 109.730 38.830 17.960 54.055 55.06 220 0.920 16.353 74.350 25.022 0.554 21.464 8.546 33.021 1.516 38.630 26.250 7.396 71.088 75.Heat Transfer File Page 25 Experiment Number 4 Object: To determine the heat flow rate through different types of bricks Data: Thickness Area Length Width k Brick 2 2 cm cm W/(m K) cm m cm m 19 9 4 0.270 20.280 16.132 100 Detrolite 200 300 100 Alumina 200 300 100 Fire Brick 200 300 Result: 38 39 40 42 44 48 61 66 70 35 36 35 48 47 47 49 50 52 37 37 37 42 41 41 63 60 59 Mean Q (W) 35.264 105.751 18.05 210 0.7 Detrolite 22 10 6 0.2 Alumina 21 10 5 0.220 41.677 16.956 111.160 39.04 171 0.4 Fire Brick Formula: Q= kA( TH − TC ) x Legend: TH and TC are the temperature of hot face and cold face respectively x = Thickness of brick k = Thermal conductivity of brick A = Area exposed to heat Q = Heat flow across the brick Observation: Brick Furnace Temperature Temperature Temperature Hot face Cold Face Q (W) 106 105 102 114 156 178 255 253 252 110 108 107 196 200 204 234 283 295 102 107 104 164 167 169 243 247 248 20.0171 0.088 .903 58.

677 W 16.353 W 74.088 W .Heat Transfer File Page 26 The average heat flow across the bricks is as follows: Detrolite: Alumina: Fire-Brick: 35.

(lb water / lb air) WB DB Here TWB and TDB are the wet bulb temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit. 00023 × T − 0 .5 26.0 88.5 25 26 26 26 26 61 55 49 36 37 38 43.382 lb/ft3 Given: Internal ground area of cooling tower or area of flow = 715 in2 = 4.75 44 46 45.7 87.08 ×TWB − 42 .Heat Transfer File Page 27 Experiment Number 5 Object: To calculate the loading factor of cooling tower Formula: 1.5 29 30 30 30 28. . These correlations are developed using interpolation schemes from psychrometric charts.5 35 32. 03594 2. They have an expected error of less than 2% and can be verified by data from psychrometric chart.5 30.5 43.5 29 29 29 Correlations for humidity and enthalpy (75–90°F): H = 1.5 26.5 27.75 28 28 29 29 29 27 27 26 25. Q = W A 3. 00096 × T − 0 . ρ = density of water =1000kg/m3 =62.9 26.5 40.53 Process Heat Transfer By D Q Kern Legend: ∆ T = temperature difference of water inlet and outlet TWI & TWO are the water inlet and outlet temperature respectively Q = heat lost by hot water per unit area of flow of cooling tower A = Internal ground area of the tower LO = flow rate of makeup water needed per unit area of flow of cooling tower TO = Room Temperature CW = Heat capacity of water taken as 1 Btu/ (lb °F) H1 and H2 are the enthalpy of entering and exiting air X1 and X2 are the values of humidity of exiting and entering air m W = mass flow rate.5 29.   − CW TO X − X  2 1  Page 584 equation 17.52 1. ∆ T= TWI – TWO  × CW × ∆T m 2. (Btu/lb dry air) X = 0 .5 29 27 29 29 29 28. m W =V × ρ Q LO =  H 2 − H1  4.9653 ft2 Observations: Room temperature = 30°C = 86°F Air Inlet Air Outlet  temperature temperature Water Temperature V ml/sec Dry Wet Dry Wet Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Inlet Outlet 116.5 31.5 27 26. Range of application is 75–87°F for TDB.5 30 30 29.

00 86.70 84.5 44.1 Q Btu/(h ft2) H1 Btu/lb dry air H2 Btu/lb dry air X1 lb water/lb dry air X2 lb water/lb dry air Loading Factor LO lb/(h ft2) 2440.70 84.10 84.6 42.20 83.02446 0.02231 0.962 1.20 114.02511 0.01903 0.40 110.395 0.30 110.00 78.00 120.993 0.5 44.50 80.40 84.4 47.127133 ft3/h m lb/hr 448.6 42.6 43.9 1383.Heat Transfer File Page 28 Basis: FPS system is used as psychrometric chart has data in FPS notation FPS values:  V 3 ft /hr 7.80 131.80 78.70 79.6 2268.75 82.4 45.6 48.00 84.5 42.6 41.6 40.6 42.00 90.20 86.20 84.02034 0.043 lb water /h ft2 .20 96.6 0.532 1.02148 0.20 7.5 44.50 88.30 81.80 Water Temperature Inlet Outlet 141.20 84.02100 0.02121 0.80 78.02207 0.126 0.60 100.70 79.6 2192.057 1.6 43.69 Air Inlet temperature Dry Wet Bulb Bulb Air Outlet temperature Dry Wet Bulb Bulb 85.60 80.6 763.02034 0.3 43.8 2230.9 1545.02034 0.90 95.42 79.90 104.02166 0.10 86.50 6.00 86.4 44.9 467.02034 2.00 85.80 113.20 84.02079 0.9 702.20 1 ml/s = 0.02076 0.147 0.01958 0.20 84.6 42.00 86.90 77.3 1102.02166 0.80 78.90 86.20 84.20 84.60 80.628 The value of Q is calculated by formula 2 and that of Lo by formula 4.60 78. Result: The mean loading factor for the cooling tower is determined to be: 1.80 98.548 0.20 83.5 44.40 82.2 169.60 80.80 77.75 111.02207 0.20 80.

µW = 1 21 .482 (T − 8.023 )    D  µ   k  Dittus Boelter equation for cooling water equation 9.Heat Transfer File Page 29 Experiment Number 6 Object: To calculate the number of turns of coil in a helical coil agitator Formula: 1.433 ×10 −3 TC + 0.14 Chilton-Drew-Jebens correlation for outside film coefficient for agitated vessel in Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Volume 1 page 497 2 1 2 3 3 13.87 ) L Nρ  DV  µ 0.285 ) )  −1200 2 11.87 ) L Nρ   C P µ   µ DV  µ   k   µW     0. ∆TWBM = TWI + TWO 2 2. vW = 7. hi COIL = hi PIPE 1 + 3.3  ρvD   C P µ  k  14. ∆T2 = TOIL −TWO ∆T2 − ∆T1 5.8 0. AN = 4π 2 ( L ) × r2 = 2π 2 ( L ) × D2 10. ∆TLMTD = ln ∆T2 − ln ∆T1 6. ho = k ( 0.14 Chilton-Drew-Jebens correlation for outside film coefficient for agitated vessel in Process heat transfer by D Q Kern.54 page 367 Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Volume 1 fifth edition (other editions have different page number and equation number)  15. page 722 equation 20. hio = hi × D ID = hi × 1 OD D2 9. U D = U C + hD . ho = k ( 0.5  D1   L  Jeschke Correction Factor page 426 Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Volume 1 fifth edition & page 721 D Q Kern Process Heat Transfer hio × ho 16.62  30–60°C  CP µ     k  1 3  µ  µ  W     0. kW = 1. U C = hio + ho U C × hD 17.4 + (T −8.5732  2  12.4 0. AI = VW AI πD12 4 8.285 ) +   (8078 . ∆T = TWO −TWI 3. ∆T1 = TOIL −TWI 4. hi PIPE = ( 0.

00 36. D1 = Inner diameter of helical tube DV = Inner diameter of tank.29337 m Outer diameter of tank = DE = 1.00 38.0222 0. 4.0222 0.62 1425.19 Mass is calculated by multiplying the volume by density.60 34.7 J/ (kg K) For apparatus: Inner diameter of coil = D1 = 0.2 14. n = A AN Legend: AN = Surface area per turn of a helix by considering one turn of helix as a torus.00550 m Outer diameter of coil = D2 = 0.00 24.00 24.50 31.2 14.024476 ft = 0.6 kg/m3 k = 0. For calculating the coefficients. ∆ T.0006012 Ns/m2 ρ = 53.00 25.10 29.0222 0.08763 m Inner diameter of tank DV = 0.39 1207.91 1069.0284 0.Heat Transfer File Page 30  W CW ∆T 18.0142 1069.018046 ft =0.82 25.000 ft = 0.9625 ft = 0. A = U D × ∆TLMTD 20. 3.43 891. The formula is for area of a torus with radius D2/2 rotated at a distance L from a fixed line or the axis of rotation.00 21.00 35. Calculated Physical properties of water: Velocity Viscosity k hi pipe m/s Ns/m2 W/(m K) W/(m2 K) hi coil W/(m2 K) hio W/(m2 K) . QLOSS is calculated by formula 17.00 23. ∆ TWBM.4 28.509 Btu/ (lb °F) = 2129.2376 cm2 (by formula 7) AN = 0.00 33.00 50.3048 m Number of Rotations = N = 720 rpm =12 rps AI = 0.43 950.4 28.60 594. Look for formula at page 3-11 Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook.00 28.2 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 35 34 31 40 39 38 50 44 41 66 59 54 76 68 62 74 68 62 30. 7th Edition.2 14. Data given for 28° API oil at 80°C: µ = 4.83 9 8 5 14 13 12 24 18 15 0.13 1300.42 42.00746 m Length of Paddle = L = 0.31 28.08 Btu/ (h ft °F) = 0.00 42.00 36.50 33.2 22.00 48.00 32. Q LOSS = m Q LOSS 19.00 40.00 42.50 32.00 36. ∆ T1.00 24.16 27.1385 W/ (m K) CP = 0. ∆ TLMTD are calculated by formula 1.50 30. the value of characteristic diameter will be D1 for inner coefficient and DV for external coefficients.4 22.62 32.00 35.00 29. ∆ T2. 2.2875 ft = 0.2 22.00 28.0284 0.7373 (for use in formula 8) Observations: Temperature Celsius  V Mass QLOSS Water Oil ∆ ml/sec Kg/s (W) T WBM T1 T2 TLMTD In Out T 28.50 1114.00 33.0284 0.04x10-4 lb/(ft/s) =0.0142 0. TWI and TWO are water inlet and outlet temperatures. µ W = Viscosity of water kW = thermal conductivity of water L = Paddle length. 5 respectively.62 35.0142 0.0129 m2 /turn (by formula 9) ID /OD = D1/D2 = 0.19 lb/ft3 = 852.

6205 0.9343 0.2 10.117 0.0550 m.127 0.3 12.914 1003.0129 0.630 259.620 252.9343 0.023 251.134 0.541 257.112 1004. The value of area required for cooling is calculated by formula 19 and the number of turns by formula 20.6277 0.0 9.9 Mean 9.690 259.5976 0.000720 0.0129 0.0129 0.6234 0.0129 2 n= A AN 9. The values are calculated by using formulae 6.000824 0.310 1006. 15 & 16 respectively. The value of viscosity and thermal conductivity are calculated at bulk mean temperature. The value of ho by using the values provided in formula number 12 is found to be: ho = 1281 W/(m2 K) UC W/(m2 K) UD W/(m2 K) A m2 AN m /turn 1040.118 0.706 934.163 0.5976 0.0129 0.132 0.1952 0.9 The value of overall clean heat transfer and dirty heat transfer coefficient is calculated by formula 16 and 17.6198 0.827 1039. density = 1000 kg/m3.383 252.711 0.6212 6177 6142 67036 5216 5187 5159 3850 3729 3669 7534 7491 7363 6362 6327 6292 4696 4548 4475 5555 5523 5428 4691 4665 4639 3462 3353 3299 The Jeschke correction factor has a value of 1.463 257.1952 1.090 0.6191 0.6 10.000790 0.5976 0.834 922.477 257.127 0.000798 0.000766 0.759 259. The value of CP taken is 4184 J/kg K. 10.000758 0.0129 0.0 9.6140 0.22.951 926.000679 0.000750 0. 14.2 9.714 1036.6162 0.0129 0.Heat Transfer File Page 31 1.146 0.9343 0.8 7. Result: The number of turns of cooling coils comes out to be 10. . characteristic diameter = D1 = 0.6169 0.0129 0.4 11.000742 0. 11.0129 0.1952 1.