,
:/
Chapter 7
Calculation of Submarine Derivatives
1. Introduction
It has been seen that a great deal of information about submarine performance, and stability and control, can be obtained
from a study of the simplified linear equations ot motion despite the many assumptions that have to be made. In order to use these equations we must have available realistic numerical valuea for the coefficients of the equations, that iSt the derivatives. It would obviously be desirable to be able to determine these derivatives in the early stages of the design so that the necessary predictions could be made to check that the design meets the various requirements laid
. down. At this €arly'stage changes eould easily be made to improve
the design if it were found that the requirements were not being met.
\ A method is described below for calculating the derivatives
of singlescrew submarines. The method is not claimed to be very accurate (within 10% is considered. good) but· is suitable for preliminary design calculations and also for estimating the effects of small changes
" tea.. de s i gn . The derivatives so found apply only where the incidence )\' , of the submarine or the curvature of its path are small. They are 'thus
sui table for che eking the s tabili ty of the submarine but not, for instance, for describing turning in the horizontal plane when the curvature becomes large.
It is assumed that the derivatives for the complete submarine can be found by adding the contributions of each of the components (hull, propel1er~ appendages) and including any interference effects betveen components.
2. Accuracy
Particularly when estimating the effects on derivatives of small changes to the design it is important that great care is taken in reading values from the various figures and in using identical methods each time. The changes in derivatives may otherwise reflect the different methods rather than the changes to the design.
3. Hull
Many classical textbooks of hydrodynamics derive the forces acting on a neutrally buoyant ellipsoid moving through an ideal, inviscid fluid. If the ellipsoid baa an angle of attack to the floY & destabilising moment acts on the bodyt but no lifting force. Lamb, in Reference 2 derived the values ot tha destabilising moment for an ellipsoid of revolution in terms ot k and k t the coetficient.
x z
o~ added mass of the body in the x and z directions. In the oondimensional derivative not~tion he shove
z' = Z' : M' = 0 v q q
M' • (It  k )JIlI
." X· Z
...
.. '
Thi s v ork ..... as applied to airship hulls t notably by ~k. Reference 9 \.... ho obtained an expression fo~ the destabilising moment on any
closed body of revolution in potential flov, the "Munk moment". Experiments .... ith airship hulls shoved, hovevert that the assumption of potential flo .... led to serious discrepancies. At an angle ot attack, a body of revolution does generate lift and the Munk moment is an overestimate of the moment in a real fluid.
In attempting to derive an improved theory von Karman, Reference,·tO, proposed the existence of a vortex trail and this has since been fOW1d experimentally by Harrington, Reference. _1.1. The body ot revolution generates lift in a manner similar to that of a lov aspect ratio aerafoil, vorticity being sbed from the after part ot the body .... here the boundary layer is thickening rapidly.
This trailing vorticity associated with lift vill cause d
• • an , for submarines with stabilisins
tail surfaces, body lift will interfere with the lift on the tail. The tail is normally a very efficient lifting surface compared to the hull, 80 a method for accurately estimating the torcel on a bar. hull should be combined with a method tor calculating the effect OD the tail forces.
A method similar to that used by the early airship designers has been found to give acceptable results:
z~ • (Z~)TAlL
M' 25. ('Z') + m'(k  k )
w •  1 y TAIL Z x
z~ •  I {Z~.)TAIL
2
M~ • ( ~) {Z~)TAlL
x • distance ot ta~": forward of CG
•
These equations treat the body,as~if in potential flov and ignore the effects of dovnvash. The pred1ctlon of these derivatives vill ~e discussed under the headings of hull and tail fins but,it is emphasised that the hull derivatives sO found are not 1ntended to
f O~ the hull: the hull and tail derivatives must represent the orces u
always be considered together.
The discussion above dO~S not mention the effect of thepropUloor, which in~a single screv submarine, changos'thetloY a_'bout theater_n. .___, <~endi~g;fobring it closer to· the potential.tloY about the hull.
It is therefore possible that the method will york equally ve1l for
.:: single and t ..... in screw submarines.
i
'"
Tbe ideal fluid forces and moments will be used for the effect of the hull as explained above. Extending the equation to include the horizontal plane derivatives we have
Z' • Z' • M' • 0
w q q
Y' = Y' a N' = 0
v r r
M' = (k  k )m'
w z x
N' =  (k  k )m'
V k ,k and k are the added mass coefficients for motion in the x,
x y z
y and z directions, and may be obtained with sufficient accuracy by considering in place of the hull an "equivalent ellipsoid". This is an ellipsoid having the same volume and length as the hull, and therefore the same value of m'. The ratio of the two smaller axes is made the same as the ratio of the projected areas of the hull in profile and in plan. The moments of inertia in pitch and yaw, It and
. Y
taken to be those of the equivalent ellipsoid about its mid
I I may be z
length.
Acceleration derivatives (added masses and inertias) are also obtained from the added mass coefficients of the equivalent ellipsoid
__.
X! = _ k m'
u x
y! = _" k m'
v y
Z! = _ k mt
w z
M! = _ k' I I
q Y Y
N! =  k' I'
".___ r z z Different expressions for the various coefficients are found if the shortest axis of the eqqivalent ellipsoid is vertical or horizontal. Equations will be presented here for the case where the smallest axis is horizontal but the expressions used in each case are collected in parts 1 and 2 of the Appendix.
If the lengths of the semi axes of the equivalent ellipsoid are a, b and c where
& > b ) c 1 then a • 2
46
,
'I
I,
bc 3m'
:7=
a 1T
b .... p_r=o_f_il_e_a_r_e_;,a""":"""o::f_h~ul='"""l and  = 
c plan area of hull
The added mass coefficients of an ellipsoid of revolution (b = c)
are given by Lamb, Reference 2, and for the general case, (a ~ b # c), by Kochin, Kibel and Roze in Reference 3. Recent vork by the author has shown that, over the range of shapes found in submarines, the coefficients may be derived from Lamb's coefficients, k,f k2 and kl, as calculated for an ellipsoid with
length a diameter = b
ky = k2(' + 1.027 (~  1)) kz = k2(1 + 0.964 (~ 1»1
k' = k' (, + (1. 02 + 0.95 E.) (E.  1))1
Y a c
k ' .. k I( 1 + (0.97 + 1.(4){.£  1»
z (~ _ 2) c
b
'I'hese empirical equations have a maximum error of 2 per cent in the
.
range
a
15 > b > 6
b
 < 2 c
and are sufficiently accurate fOr the purpose ot these4estimates. k l' k2 and k ' can be found from Figure A.l in the A.ppendix •.
The moments of inertia of the ellipsoid are found to be
ml c2
II ..  (1 + )
y 20 az
II .. ~ (1 + b2)
z 20 az
4. Propeller
~ Apart from the effect on the flow over the body the propeller
as a fineffect of its own. For a propeller in open water there re a number of published papers giving methods of calculating the ~ide force in nonaxial flow.
One of the simplest is by Harris (Ref. 4) and gives:
z.,'
=
y , v
= 4.24 D2 (K~ ~ dKQ)
J 12 "'\o!  2 dJ
where D is diameter of propeller.
This assumes that the tangential force is distributed uniformly along the length of the blades but little error occurs if this is not so. If the tangential force distribution is of the form r3(1 r)2 (where r = radius/max radius) then the error is only 5%.
Evaluation of this term involves a knowledge of wake and propeller characteristics. If this is not available the wake from a similar ship can be used and propeller data obtained from data sheets, Ref. 5.
The propeller on the submarine is not in open water and its
real incidence to the flow may be different to that of the hull. In particular the incidence of the propeller will be affected by the dovnvash behind the rudders and stern hydroplanes. However it is suggested
that no correction be made to the open water derivative, which is usually small compared with hull and fin derivatives.
5. Fins
There is a vast amount of data available concerning the lift characteristics of the aero foiltype appendages which are common to aircraft, submarines, etc. Most of this data comes from the aircraft field. Reference 6 can be used to calculate the lift slope (6CL)/(oa) of isolated low aspect ratio aerofoils and shows clearly the effects of the major design parameters. The data from Ref. 6 can also be used to calculate the interference effects for fins mounted at the tail of a body (such as stern hydroplanes and rudders). Ref. 7 can be used to calculate the interference effects for fins mounted where the hull is cylindrical (such as the bridge fin). Ref. 7 can also be used to calculate vortex interference effects.
6. Isolated Wings
(~ 6~~L) to be
Figure 2 (from Ref. 6) allows the lift slope al OY]
estimated taking account of the effects of:
48
I
d
aspect ratio A b2
==
s
taper ratio 1 root chord
 = tip
A chord
(A is also sometimes referred to as taper ratio) trailing edge angle
size and position of control gap.
The method of using this figure is described on the page following Figure 2. Figure 3 gives the effect of end plates on the effective
The effect of control surfaces (flaps) can be estimated using figures 4, 5 and 6. The lift slope due to the control surface a2 (== (dCL)/(3&)) is given by
a1 x (::t x n x f
(a2] control chord AFT OF HINGE LINE)
a1 sis the effect of control chord ratio (
total chord
=
and is found from figure 4.
n 1S the effect of hydroplane shape and control gap and 1S found from fig. 5.
f is the ~orrection for controls which do not extend over the whole span and is found from fig. 6. The method of estimating a2/a1 from these figures is given in the Appendix.
7. Bridge Fin
Reference 7 gives correction factors to lift for pairs of fins mounted on a cylindrical body. The correction factors are applied to the lift slope of a wing consisting of the two opposite fins removed from the body and joined together at the root. a2, the lift slope of
this wing, can be obtained from fig. 2 as described above. The correction factors for the interference effects between fin and body are given
in fig. 7.
The factors required for the stability derivative are Kw( ) and These apply to the case when incidence is on both fin anH body.
 S Derivative of isolated wing = :l0al
.t
where S is fin area.
Derivative of fin and body combination
Z'w = (KB(w) + Kw(B)):2 al
Values of (KB( ) + K'w'(Bl for""fins mounted symmetrically on an elliptical body are giv~n in Fig. 8.
8. Bo'w' Planes
The same methods can be used for the stability derivative of the bow planes if they are mounted at middepth of hull. The correction factors required for the control derivatives are kW(B) and kB( ) for the case 'w'here there is incidence on the fin only
wand the fin is angled 'w'ith respect to the body. These are also given in Fig. 7 for circular hulls, and an estimate for elliptic hulls in Fig. 9.
Control derlvatlve of lsolated 'w'lng =
Control derivative of fin and body combination
zt =
s
, Often the bow planes are situated high up on the hull. Fig. 10 gives\ correction factors for stability and control forces for planes not mounted at middepth of hull. Also the bow planes are often fitted \ c·onshafts protruding from the hull so that there is a large gap between plane and hull. Sometimes the shaft is faired to form a fixed 'wing'.
In such cases it is suggested that the lift be taken as that of isolated 'wings' of some area and aspect ratio of the planes only, for both stability and control. From model experiment data it appears that
this underestimates control forces and experiment values are about
1.5 times larger for lift and about 2 times. larger for moment than values calculated as above, ignoring vortex effects.
Sail Planes (Bridge Fin Planes)
If the chord is much less than the chord of the sail (bridge fin) it is likely that the effect of the planes on the sail lift is small and can be ignored. The lift of the planes can be obtained from that of an isolated aerofoil consisting of tvo planes joined together at their roots.
9. Stern Hydroplanes, and Rudders
Reference 6 gives the correction factor (KW(B) + KB(v))*for pai rs of fins mounted near the tail of a body.
This is reproduced in Fig. 11; the curve for bodies with faired ends should normally be used. Note that this correction factor must be applied to the lift slope of the "gross" wing  formed from the two exposed fins plus the imaginary fin between them. No values of the correction factors for the control term are available for fins mounted at the tail of a body. It is assumed that the ratio of control and stability correction factors will be the same as for fins on a cylindrical body.
50
kV(B) + kB( )
Figure 9 g i ves values of v extracted from
K .... (B) + KB(v)
Fig. 7 which can be used vith (Ky{B) + KB(v))* to get the correction
factor for the control derivatives.
Additional corrections IDaj' be required due to the effect of
trailing vortices from the bay planes and the bridge fin. These effects are considered belay.
The upper and lower rudders are otten very different because of the restrictions on the draught of the lower rudder. In this case the rudders should be treated separatelY, the equivalent ying being taken to be the rudder plus its image in the plane of the bydroplanes.
10. Effect of Trailing Vortices
Trailing vortices from the tips ot the bridge fin and boy planes, when lift is developed, ¥ill attect the lift produced trom the upper rudder and stern planee. The vortices streaming past the hull may a.1so induce lift on the hull. From data given in Reterence "~"the effect of these vortices on the lift ot the stern surfaces can be very large, particularly on the upper rudder.
When incidence is present the vortex vill Dot follow an axial direction and its effect on tbe stern control surtaces vill diminisp with lateral separation. But DO vortex vill occur unless there i. incidence to create lift. Thue a Donlioear ettect vould be expected. For the linear derivative the vortex i. considered to tollov a streamline for the condition ot no incidence. The starting position ot
the vortex depends on the geometry ot the "ving" " but tor moat practical cases it may" be taken at 80 per cent span (measured trom"' hull to tip
of ring).
The streamline can be traced using slender body principles and i8 at radius t trom axis ot hull vbere
f2 • r2 + t 2  r 2 v y
r • radius ot hull
tv' rv define starting position (see Appendix part 6).
The circulation of each tip vortex for fina fixed to the hull i. given in Reference 7~as ~
51
It is seen that the circulation ~8 proportional to the angle ot attack ~ and the velocity:
r
.
aV
where LW(B) • lift on fins only when attached to body.
Kw(B) ~ correction factor for lift on fiDS in presence or body.
S = exposed area at both fins •
._,
(Reference '7' deals with ey:mmetriceJ. pairs ot tins)
'(a) • lift curve slope ot equivalent isolated ving. , v
K..,(B) an d (a,)._, must be calculated using the methods of Reference )2, ie using part 4b of the appendix and Figure AT. For the control derivative when incidence is on the tin only we find
(a). Lift on Stern. Planes Due to Vortices from Bow Planes .'
Figure A12 of the appendix gives the interference factor' i.which is used as follows. The suffix v (Ying) reters t'o the boy planes and the suffix T (tail) to the stern planes. The lift coefficient ot the stern planes due to the vortices ia given by
Q
2 Sy
(~v)
Tbe reference area for the lift coefficient i8 By' the area ot the ving, 80 the derivative becomes
Z' "" S.., (CL)T =_ t.. (L)
w 17 a i aV
bT
where 2 .: exposed span ot one plane
~ "" effective aspect ratio ot tail
The values of (a,)T and ~ must again be calculated using the method or Reference T~ which applies only to fins mounted on cylindrical bulls. To do this the tail surfaces are considered to be attached to a cylindrical hull vhere rT = radius ot hull at mid chord ot tail. This is'
52
illustrated in part 6b of the appendix. Note·that i, is alvays negative so that this component of Z' is positive  this vortex effect ."
is destabilising. For the control derivative the value of' r is changed as shown previously and
The method given above applies it_ t.p_e._'bQY" planes .are. mount ed near the axis of the hull __ If the boy planes are mounted high up on the hull the vortices'vill stream avay from the stern planes vith boyup
. incidence and closer to the stern planes with bovdovn incidence. This may account for the difference in the values of stability derivatives
for bow up and bovdoYn incidence obtained in model experiments. Experiment results also show that, for the control derivatives of the bov planes, the centre of pressure Ot the planes is forward of the plane position. This is consistent vith a negative lift on the stern planes caused by vortex interference. Thus it appears that this effect cannot. be ignored. For the present, it is suggested that the vertical . separation of the stern plane and the trailing vortex from the bow plane be considered as ~all and the interference factor given in Figure A12 of the appendix be used.
..;
~}. Lift On the. Upper Rudder Due to' Vortex from Bridge Fin
The same method as· (a) rr/a.y be used 'but the fcrmUla for the deri vati ve must be changed as there is only one firi.It is assUmed that the total torce ishalved.
.:
53
(c) Lift on hull due to trailing vortices
The image vortex in the hull is at radius r2/f, so that the separation of the vortex and its image is
(see Part 6 of the Appendix)
By consideration of the impulse of the vortex ring formed by the bound vortex, the starting vortex and the trailing vortex and its image (Ref. 8), the lift is given by
d r2
dt (o rH) p rv ( r  f)
H = area enclosed by vortex ring
Lift of plane or fin = prV(fw  rw2/fw) which has already been taken into account
r2 r 2
Additional lift on hull = prV(f    f + __ o_
f W fw
where the circulation r
= VaKw(B)a1(w)Sw 4(fw  rw)
To find the centre of pressure of this lift it is necessary
to plot the differential of the separation of the vortex and its image.
It is probable that this effect is small~ and it may be negligible.
For example, if f = 2r ,
\of W
Lift on fin = 1·5prVr Lift on hull
due to vortex = Q'232prVr ,1.e. 15'5 per cent lift on fin. w
11. Moment derivatives of propeller, planes etc.
The lift derivative is multiplied by ~, where x 1S the distance forward of the centre of gravity. For stabiIity terms the a chord position should be used. For control terms use ~ chord position on allmoving surfaces~ otherwise take mid chord, or shaft position.
12. Curvature derivatives of propeller, planes etc.
Control derivatives are not affected by curvature. For stability terms, the incidence due to motion of the CG ~n a curved path is:
horizontal plane
x
 r' 9..
vertical plane
x
  q' t
54
1\ !
Hence for fins etco ylr x
= y'v 
°t
N'r .. Y' v{~) 2
Z' = z' .!
q w 1
M' = Z;(i] 2
q The effect of curvature on the vortex derivatives is as
follo ...... a:
Y' r(vortex)
=
Xv Y'
.t v( vortex)
Nt r(vortex)
=
Xv Nt
t V(vortex}
where x ...... refers to the ...... ing.
13. Summary
The derivatives for the complete submarine are the sums of the contributions from the relevant components. As an aid to computation the signs and orders of magnitude of the various • derivatives for a typical submarine are given in Appendix 3.
REFERENCES
1. Aerodynamic Theory by W.F. Durand. Vol. VI, Division Q.
Aerodynamics of Airships  Max. M. Munk.
2. Hydrodynamics by Lamb.
3. Theoretical Hydromechanics, by N.E. Kochin, I.A. Kibel & N.V. Roze. 1964 Interscience Publishers.
4.
ARC R & M 427 (1918) R.G. Harris
Forces on a propeller due to sideslip.
5.
RINA Spril 1953.
Effect of pitch and blade ~idth on propeller
performance, by R.W.L. Gawn.
6. ARC R & M 2308 (1950) An analysis of lift slope of aerofoils of small aspect ratio, including fins, with design charts.
D.J .. Lyons and P.L. Bisgood.
7. NACA Report 1307. Lift and centre of pressure of wingbodytail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.
W.C. Pitts, J.N. Nielson, G.E. Kaattari.
8. Theoretical Aerodynamics by 1M. Milne Thompson.
Von Karman T. Airship Hulls.
The Calculation of Pressure Distributions on NACA Technical Memorandum No 2.
10. Harrington. An Attack on the Origin of Lift of an Elongated Body. Daniel Guggenheim Airships Institute Publication NJ 2.
'.'
+
Appendix
COLLECTED DATA FOR CALCULATION OF DERIVATIVES
Part 1.
Hull Derivatives When Shortest Axis is Horizontal
a.
EQuivalent Ellipsoid
m'
=
a
::
1 2
be 3m'
az = Tr
b Profile Area of Hull
::
e Plan Area of Hull
=
m' b2
(1+)
20 8,2
• m'
I~ = 20 (,
b. Added Mass Coefficients
: is found from above equations and then k" k2 and k' are obtained from Figure All
Then k = k, ( 1 + 0.772 (!!.  1»)1
x c
( 1 b 1»)
k = k2 + 1. 027 ( 
y c
k . k2 ( 1 + 0.964 (E. _ 1) )1
z c
( 1 b b 1»1
k' = k' + (1.02 + 0.95) ( 
y a c
( 1 + (0.97 + 1.04 ) b 1)
k' = k' ( 
z (!.  2) c
b
e. Derivatives
Z' = Z, = M' = 0 X! =  k m'
'" q q u x
I' = Y' = Nt = 0 y! =  k m'
v r r v y
M' = (k  k ) m' Z! =  k m'
w z x w Z
N' =  (k  k ) m' . M! :.  k' It
V Y X q Y Y
N! II  k' I I
r z z .. ~
,\.C
Figure A 1
ADDED MASS COEFFICIENTS FOR PROLATE ELLIPSOID (FROM LAMB'S HYDRODYNAMICS)
k1 Longitudinal
k2 Lateral
k I Rotational
0.05
1.0
0.04
, .
. I •.•.
1+~~~~~.._+;..~.r~~.lO.95
~ 'r. L 1 ._ •
. . . . I·· .  .
_ ... ! .  _.
~+~~+i~~t._ .. 'l···t·.·~ .. ~i·.~O.90
L_ + ~_. ~ 1 __ __ _ I
. .... l , r
.. ~. ~  _ ..
0.03
0.02
 ""! .  ..  "" .  "I . " .
• _. ,_ I   ....
k ,. k' 2
0.01
• •• L _ ~ ,_+,,._._
 ._ .. ~,.._
, .
 .....  i ._ • . • + _  _ +
, _ .. :  _.
. I .: ~ '.: ': .: : .~
~~r _r __ ,. __ ••
, .
• _T .• __ , "_'L .+ .. t. _~ .
o
___ • _L •• ~ ,_.~ •• _ __ ... _.
._. __ .. ,    j  ..
+ . ......:. ..  '·1' 0.75
4
5
6 7
8
9
10
11 12
13
14
15 16
Part 2. Hull Derivatives When Shortest Axis is Vertical
a. Equivalent Ellipsoid
m' = m
1Pl!
1 bc 3m'
a = :"I =
2 a 'II'
b Plan Area of Hull
=
c Profile Area of Hull II 'I
=
m'
20 (1
b. Added Mass Coefficients
~ is found from the equations above and k" k2 and k tare obtained from Figure A1.
then
k = k (1 + 0.772 (~ 1»1
x . 1 c
k :; k (1 + 0.964 (b  1)1
Y 2 c
( 1 b
k = k2 + 1.027 (  1»)
z e
( 1 + (0.97 + 1.04 b
k' :; k' a ( 1»
y (  2) c
b
k' = k' (1 + (1.02 + 0.95 :2.) (E. _ 1)1
z a c c. Derivatives
Z' = Z' :; M' = 0
v q q
Y' = X' :; N' = 0
v r r
M' 1:1 (k  k ) m'
y z x
N' .  (k  k ) m'
v y x X! :;  k m'
u x
y! :;  k m'
v y
Z! •  k mt
w z
M! iii  k' I'
q Y 1
N! •  k' If
r z z
Part 3.
Lift on an Isolated Wing
Spanviu Extent of Flap
Flap Chord Cf
Control Gap
Root
_'\ I,
•• c,
Span b
a. Method of Estimating a, for an Isolated Wing
Necessa,ry Data
Trailing Edge Angle of Wing Section.
treat as sealed treat &9 unsealed
Control Gap Size  if < 0.0025 x MEAN CHORD
if > 0.0025 x MEAN CHORD
Control Gap position  measured from trailing edge and expressed as a percentage of the wing mean chord.
b2
Effective Aspect Ratio ~ = A = s (but see b below)
. Root chord
Taper Ratlo = Tip chord
(The flaps are treated as full span flaps at this stage.)
II
1
Figure A2.
LIFf ON ISOLATED WING
In
toi
'Z
Q j
~ ti
Cl
§
~~f
'ob
•
I!j
0 \oJ
oct ~
....
IL
J
If)
.. @
«
I
t
O ."
In W Example of Method
To estimate the lift curve slope for an isolated ving as follows:
Trailing edge angle
= 14 degrees
Unsealed full span control gap at 40 per cent of the mean chord ahead of the trailing edge.
Effective aspect ratio
= 4
Taper Ratio
= 1.5
Use Figure A2: the trace ABC D indicates the method adopted.
1. A vertical line AB is drawn through 14 degrees on the TE angle scale to meet the appropriate gap correction curve (ie gap at 40 per cent mean chord ahead of the TE) at B.
2. From B a horizontal line is drawn to meet the aspect ratio correction curve (A = 4) at c.
3. From C 8 vertical line is drawn to meet the taper ratio correction curve (1fA = 1.5) at tl.
4. The required value of 8, is read off the circular scale ie a, = 3.45.
I
b. Method of Estimating.Effective Aspect Ratio of Isolated Wing With End Plates
If the wing is fitted with end plates the effective aspect ratio ~ is greater than the geometric aspect ratio A
( __ b2 )
as shovn in Figure A3. S
Figure A3
INCREASE IN THE EFF'EcrIVE ASPECT RATIO OF A WING DUE TO END PLATES
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
~ 1.6
A
1. 5 .
1.4
1.3
1.2
1 • 1
1.0
0 0.1 .
0.2 hI 0.3 .
.b
0.5
h
b
• I
c. Method of Estimating·a2 for an Isolated Wing
Necessary Data
Trailing edge angle of wing section.
Control chord ratio
Control chord AFT OF HINGE LINE = ~=T~o~t~al~a~e~r~o~f~o~i~l~c~h~or~d~~~~~
C f
=
C
Percentage balance, nose shape and gap, for setback hinge, spanwise limits of control expressed as a percentage of the seml. span.
(Note: if the inboard end of the control lies on or near the side of the hull it should be treated as though extend
ing to the Cl..)
Taper ratio.
Example of Method
Consider an isolated wing having the following data.
TE angle Cf
C
= , 5 degrees
= 34 per cent
30 per cent blunt nose balance, gap unsealed.
b b
Spanwise limits of control 0.1 2 to 0.92
Taper ratio = 2.0
From Figure A4 (:~)s = 0.62
From Figure A5 n := 1.07
From Figure A6 f = 0.95  .13 = .82 Hence :~ • (:~). x " x f • 0.62 x , .07 x 0.82 • 0.5.
Note: Allmoving control surfaces have &2 • &,
Figure A4
1.0
LIFT DUE TO CONTROL FLAPS
0.8
0.6
a
( 2/a,)
s
0.4
A9
, I
o
~..
Tra.ilihg I Edge . Angl~ = 5° ~;..j__: ... = 10°
I . 0
= '6
=~. ___.!I~
=250
. !
. I .
I·
· 'I"
i
• • t
· .. r
, .
: : i ~ : . : i
: : : ! _. .: , 1
.• • r
" .. j, .. 'I
". j .. 
Figure A5
0.2
LIn DUE TO CONTROL FLAPS
1.3
1.2
1 • 1
;.. , ... i· .. "
••••• I ••••
1.0
 .. , .
. ,1 +
" " 1,
0"" . 1:0
. . . ~ .. I
o,q
0.&
o
· .
· .... I . ...
• •••• 1 ••••
. : : : ) : ~: ..... i : : .:
... '"1''' t
o or T • I .. •.  ••.... I __ • L •
~~ ... . ...~ .
. . : : l .. . . ... : l ~ :~: ,
I . ! .  ...
. i ...
,_ I
0.4 0.6
Crl
c
Variation Of(a2/a1)s with control chord and trailing edge angle for fullspan controls.
0.2
, 0.8
1.0
•
• •.• t· _.: ,.
. __ ...
. ~ .. ~
10
40
50
60
20
30
Correction factor applied to 82/&1 for fullspan balance and gap.
A10
Figure A6
LIFT DUE TO CONTROL FLAPS
, .0
.. , ...
0.8
· . . . i.. . .
! . ~ .
j 1
. i I
 ..  _. ''1' .. _ ... _ ...  .
~ ..: TAPfR ~ATlO I
.4.0 .
Part span control factor f.
. ... i ._
. .
!
0.6
2/a1 for partspan control
=
&
2/&, for fUllspan control
0.4 · ... I .
.. . I .
· .. '1' ..
> ••••••
~.
. . . I
... I' . j .•.•
...... I···· . ! . . .. ., ..... t  .•• . . ! ....
,
._ '~I:' :"+::.:', <;_ _
•.•• t : •.•
0.2
o
o
1 Centreline
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0 1 Tip
Spanvise extent of control Correction for partspan control
Ail
Part 4.
Derivatives of Wing~~y Combinations
a.
Derivative Equations
For hydroplanes or horizontal fins
z· = \I
Z' =
IS
(The formulae for moment and curvature derivatives are given in Part 7 of the Appendix.)
For rudders or the bridge fin
Y' v
yt IS
a" a2 and S refer to the equivalent isolated ving.
b.
Fins on Cylindrical Hulls of Circular Cross Section
s
Equivalent Isolated Wing (fins joined at root)
a, and a2 are calculated using the method of Part 3.
Kv(B)' KB(w)' kw(B) and ~(v) for this arrangement are given in Figure A7.
Note: If only one fin i8 present (bridge fin) the constanta are evaluated as if there were a pair of fins, but S is the area of one tin only, thus halving the deriv&tiv~.
Figure A7
CORRECTION FACTORS FOR LIFT OF FINS ON CYLINDRICAL BODIES
OF CI RCULAR CROSS SECTION I~""~:''
I' . I .
2.0 ... I . . . .. ! .• >
~~:~~~ _: _: _;~~~l~~ 
1.6
! . L ••
i . : ::
.. i ... __
1.8
.  . I ' .     ! .
; ..
.. ;
 I , ,
!
 !
 I 
 I _
1.4
. . . ,
K .... (B) KB('W) k .... (B) kB( .... )
1.2
1.0
.8
.6
· ...... _. i ._ .......... 
· .. .'. ~ ... . .
 • j •
 ._ 1   • . ....... _ ..• !  .~  
.4
• •••• 1 
. : .. : j : :. ~ ,:
, ••  1 •• ._. _ ... ! .. _._
~.: :~ J ~~~ ~
• ,._  1' _ •• ••• • I ._ ••
• _ ••• 'I .o.
• _ 1 .. ·
...  1
  !  '
.2
 " _. I ... , · ' •• ' j _  .
· ., . I·
·  . . ~  ..
•. _, .•. j . .•.
1.0
!. S
A 13
Figure A8
CORRECTION FACTORS FOR STABILITY TERMS FOR FINS ON CIRCULAR AND ELLIPTIC HULLS
9
8
I
'_ I.
J
I
, , I
, . ,
.1 __ ..
, . I
: I
· ........ __ ·_·· ............ 1
· ·.........._1····
7
. :
'1
..... ,
6
. t :.: _: : : : : I .: .:':
. , .. I .
.... i .
 . ~'i'  •..•.
•• ~_"_'_4 __ 4. __ •. ~_: _.; .•• _._,
· . ... . ..... . . _..... ...; ...
· ........ _ r'____ .,._ r' __ .... ~.
· . '''l''
.. ..:  : ..  ..
    ....... _
__ ".0'4 •••••
. " I , ,
· ._ . I .
.. , "I'"
· .....
___ .L_~ __ •• ~ ...
• . 1
" !
, .
3
,
, ,
., ! . i · ., I
'''r'' _. __ <0 ;
i
I .. ;
I' ! . I
: . [.2 i_~_' _' ~
• T. • • ~ • •
'j'  . , ... r : ....
2
, , 1
: . i: . .
,,_,. ....  ! .... _ '..
, "' . '1 f ••
. _ .. ~. '"'1""
..... _ •. 1 ._;_, ..
: .:': r:::~: : .: .. : 1.:.:::::
._. __ . I " •
. . " . I··· .. ·
.. ! ' ....
! .
i : :~::
.. _ ... I
.  ... _ ......
,
_. 1 •• . •• ,
o
o
I,b
2.2
2.4
Z.b
1.8
ZO
0.2.
0.+ o.s 0.&
r.+
! 'D
Figure A9
CORRECTION FACTORS FOR CONTROL TERMS FOR FINS ON CIRCULAR AND ELLIPTIC HULLS
1.0
I ~ :~~~:.: r:. ~: ~ ~'':'I':~':'::~l ~ . .: . ~ . : .: :. .. ': I
\ ..... j' .... "1' ,0
I ...•..... I . .' 1 .. • •. ! ... '1
<, i .: .. :'::.: .. i:::. : :.:: I:: ~.:~
\ ',;_ .: ~ .;.  . :~ . , .. '. B
'''.  •• ' • . I .
~ ", ;.......... . . • .. : ., ..• 1... D
kv(B) + kB(v) Kv(B) + ~(v)
0.4
0.3
0.8
0.1
0.6
0.5
I\~, \:: '"  ~ __ :.  [: .: .
. ' l'\:\ \ ;". ... I • ~ .~. <;: .  .!... . :::. i : : : :
· .. \!..... I· . r !   ..
·   ~ 1\ '" .. . ~ . . . . . __ . '  .. '
~~::~~ \:\~":~, ~~:::: ~~::: .: ~ t::
.:~ I :~tt~'~"f~. ~~. : ::; ;. ~;; ~.;.;~:;.:::~;;~ :.::~ ;.:.~.\~\ .:~:. ;: :':" ~~~~ ~:::'; ~; ..
· . ··1 ' . t\\ ." . .......;_ .. . .. J. , ... . ".";.;..;;.:' .
•.• j ._ . \ ", . r..._ ... : ............. .1 .... ' _ ... !._
· ......... '\''\ . I .... , .. ; . ., "' .. "r'  _ .. ! .•.
: :~~ i .: ': .::\ \ , "K" :~,:.:. :':'~1'::. ::::: .:":
· .. I .  .. \\ I, .. '.' .. I'" .. __ , .
· .• ! .... "':..'i. .. 'I, ' , .. ~ .... ,  .. b.,;..,: 1 ..••
· .: :;:.~ :·:·::·:::_l\~" :~".N· '.. I: ,::~ .:: ~ ~ ~ ~I""""
... _ .. , "''1"\'" ,; .., , .
· ..  I... . .. i .. " i"" ;'" .. ..; ~....... . _ :  ..
· . 1· '" : :·~_:i::::::~.~~.\,: : . :"I'~ : .: ::", ~.:.: : ~
: .:.:.: 1: : :',' ." '_," ..... \; _"" . _.,,~:!~ : <,
: ~::: : ~:~~ ~ ~ .:~';=~~: .:.S~'<: I: :"~;:.. • >K" :: ~ . ·1 :: ::.;:::: ·.:::~f~:~.~: :>~,~,'~>K~:': :~~, ::.: ::. :~:!
.  ! ~L •• C ...3......30' X ......
. 1'"
.... . ...... ,. . .... _ .. , " .. I' ~
::::::: :.~'~~~;~::' ::~~:::i
, ., . _.  :: .:.:1 = ::~ .... ~ ... _ .. .:.~:l ::: . ;
o
0.4
0.8
0.6
0.2
B B + b
FULL LINE. fROM F"GURE A7.
C/io\I~ DOTTED UN~ EXi'RAR:)\..ATEC.
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
, .0
1.2
, .6
2.0
1.0
Ai5
Fins on Cylindical Hulls of Elliptic Cross Section
e
equivalent isolated wing (fins joined at root)
a, and a2 are evaluated for the equivalent isolated wing using the method of Part 3. (Kv(B) + ~(w_). for this arrangement is given in Figure AS.
(kW(B) + kB(v) may then be found using Figure A9.
d. Fins Mounted Away from the Axis of Cylindrical Hulls
··8])
equivalent isolated wing (fins joined at root)
81 and 82 are evaluated for the equivalent isolated wing using the method of Part 3.
and
are given
in Figure A 10 but apply only to fins of very small span compared to the dimensions of the hull, ie
b +0 B
A16
Figure A10
CORRECTION FACTORS FOR LIFr OF HYDROPLANES NOT MOUNTED ON AXIS
1.0
I,
, "'I' .
.. . .  .
.. . .  .
. ...  .. , ..
0.8
. ". , I ... , .
: : .: ~ i : ' .. : l( e : .: .. .: ':~ ;. .
~~"BLISJN~": . .. ~:.:;: , :
.•  .. j .. ,..  '1 . . ... ,...
... _.I . ... .. H •••••
. . j •• ,.. .~. • ,_ ...
0.6
and
0.4
0.2
0
0 200 400 600 800 900 9
Ke = Kv!B~ + KB~V) k = kv(B) + kB~w2
(1 By e .!
+ 1 D
D A17
I
e. Fins Mounted at the "Tail of Hulls of Circular Croes Section
l_+
Equivalent isolated wing (includes pal t 'uet~een roots)
81 and 82 are evaluated for the equivalent isolated wing using the method of Part 3. It should be noted that in this case the equivalent wing includes the part "buried" in the hull between the fin roots. (Ky(B) + KB(w»* for this arrangement is given in
Figure All. (kw (B) + ~(w)) may then be found using figure A9.
Figure All
CORRECTION FACTORS FOR THE STABILISING FORCE
DUE TO FINS AT THE TAlL OF HULLS OF CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION
0.6
0.4
0.2
1.0
0.8
o 0
. _. " ..  .. . . . . I ...•
. . .. ! .
. •• t .
... i ..
... J .
.oj ..
"1" ..
0.4
1.0
0.6
0.8
0.2
r
S
Propulsor Derivatives
Propeller Derivatives
= y' = _ 4.24 n2 (K
v J 12 Q
where n :: diameter of propeller.
b. Pumpjet Derivatives
z~ = y~ ::  1/ V2
where
~ :: internal area between duct and hub
V2 = velocity through duct (at ~)
v :: ship's speed
V2 is given approximately by
where
WT • Taylor wake
T
pV 2 D2 ;I( Thrust. 1t_ __J_
~ J2
for propeller of equivalent thrust.
othervise ta.ke V 2 • V.
6. Vortex Interference 'Derivatives
a. Trailing Vortex from Fin or Hydroplane
.~j_
~~
50Fflx W· WING
Origin of the vortex
f  r = 0.8 
v v 2
Using the slender body assumptions the vortex path is given by
The circulation, r, of the vortex is proportional to the speed and the angle of attack, a of the tin. For a tin fix~d to the hull (stability derivatives).
 =
r
aV
for control derivatives.
 z
r
aV
vhere {a1 )v' (a2)y Kv(B)' kY(B)
The lift slope of the equivalent isolated wing and the wing body interference factor are found as described in part 4b of the appendix, using Figure A7.
s w
Exposed area of two fins, ie combined!l.rea of both bow hydroplanes or tvice area of bridge fin.
f w
Distance of trailing vortex tram bull at fin.
r v
Radius of hull at fin.
FORCE ON TAIL FIN
,\20
. i
',Figure A12
.]: .. I, . . \:
• ~.~~_:_. ~ .: : _:_. .. ~ l.~~
. . I
,
I
. i""
_ ••• I •••
_._.~_L :_:_.:_:. _
. .
· : ~ . . . .
· . I ... . ..
. . ~ .
I l
!
! . '2.' 1 I" ..
. ~.. I""
.~_ .. _,,: _11: .• :0':: I: :.:~ s
.... I ..
.... "I  .  ,
• ~ r _.,. __
" .. I ...
I . I
: 1
i
I I
· i .
· i .
· I ..
• _ 1
.. ··1·
! i·
.. .. l: ..
· . !. 
· "'1 .
· .. 
..•• 1. __ ..
! .
2.0
. .. _
· I ....
· .. I .
· . i .  
" ,. I ...... ,._.. i .... __ .
: . '_: ! :':~~:I d~"~~~
: : :.: j: : : :
. .•• I ...
·
: ..
·
· 
.  . + t L'_ •••
1' •. !  .•.
I'
:: ::j
•... I
~ .~ ...... ~, ...
''"1'! ._ .
, . ;~ .......... i .....
• d ,,__ _ I • ~ _
. I .....
... , b' .
. _. _.
..• "t ' •..
 ..  ._ ....
,
. ._.,_. 
. .~ . ._. _.,~
c _ ....... ~_ ... 0 0.
 + ++1
••.• I _' •...
_ .. __ 1: .
o
1.0
t.o
___________ ...r ....
f
A21
b. Lift on Stern Hydroplanes Due to Vortices from Bow Hydroplanes
A!SUM£O' RAM: OF TAIL.
The strength of the trailing vortices lS found as described above and then
Z~(VORTEX) 2 r
=  I! (aV)'
and
Z6B(VORTEX) = 2 (..l)
12 aV (a 1 ) T • ( bT /2)i wA.r
(a, )To (bT/2li lfA.r
The lift elope and aspect ratio of the equivalent isolated wing for the tail must be calculated using th~ method of part 4b. To do this the hydroplanes must be assQmed to be mounted on a cylindrical hull as shown above.
Hull radius at mid chord ot tail.
i
The interference factor is found from Figure A12.
c. Lift on Upper Rudder. Due to Vortex From Bridge Fin
The method given in b above is used, but the derivative must be halved because there is only one fin
Y' =
v
d. Force and Moment on Hull Due to Trailing Vortices
The strength of the trailing vortices is found as described in &. above and for the vortices from the bow hydroplanes:
Z' 2 r
:Ie 12" (av) • r .j
w w.
Z' =  2 r
17 (aV) • r .j
oB w The geometric factor J may be found from Figure A14. Similarly for the vortex from the bridge fin:
The line of action of the force on the hull is found as shown in Figure A 13. If z is the distance between the vortex and its image in the hull, then
r2 z = f f
dz
A curve is plotted of dx along the hull and the force on the
hull acts at the centroid of the area under the curve •.
Alternatively a curve of
may be plotted where r2 • f2  r2 y v
A23
I
, I
. Figure A 1 3
DISTRIBUTION OF FORCE ON HULL DUE TO TRAILING VORTICES
~ s , 0 ~
0 cS 0 ci
,
,t
~ L
\., ,l
~ A24
'!
Figure A14
•
FORCE ON HULL DUE TO TRAILING VORTICES
0.20
j
0.15
0.10
0.05
1~'' ... I
; I • : _. ~ i ....
i r: : ,:.! :~.: :
,,'.
: .:': t: .:~: : :. ~~.: ! :
....... _. j..
0.30
0.25
'' •. 'I"
. . ...  .
:218: .: · ,:.~': :~ .. : i, :
. ,
0  • ••• • _ _.. • _. ~ •
, "'1" ,_ .... ,.; .
: .: : I : : .:
.. i ..
· .... l. p_ •• .... j •.. _.
,,_ • 1 •• 0 __
•. .. _. ! _,+
I.
· ···1·
• ..... I .
. , • I ..• ,. ".Jr' _ 1 .. ,. . __ , .. _... ..   .. 
.. ':,'.:. !.'.,':' .. ::. :. : 1' ._ ..  '::'::":" .;':.=' ~:::= .:==:.~ ..::.:=..
I I ,t~ .... :1 .. ~._ _ ..
!, ..... 
• ~ •.. J .•.• '1/':  .. j '_". .~ "._ .• _~_!_ :. : ... ..;... T~'
· 0. ~ II . _.. • .._.~,_."";,, __ ._.~. _,.. •• _ __..._ __ .,_ __ .. .._._ .............. _ •
~ ..  ..  ....  .... ~ ~i:"  ._ .. ....!_:...  .. ; .
, . : i :.: .: : :::~r:_;:.:.: .,._ ..   _  .. '~+' .........._.
· ~ ::t0t~ :'::.
~. .. .. ...  .....   _  .~.
':::1.:: ,'" _ ..
· ... ... . ... I  ..
•• • I
::=: ..  .. == _ ~
_..._.;.....__
 I .;.,
o
0.8
0.6
0.4
1.0
o
0.2
r w

t
w
j
~
i
7. Moment and Curvature.Derivatives
a. Moment Derivatives
The moment derivatives are obtained from the force derivatives as fall ovs :
M'=Z' • .!.
w 'tJ 1
NI = + yl. !.
v v 1
where x is the distance of the line of action of the force forward of the centre of gravity of the submarine. For the stability derivatives of fiDs the a chord point should be used.
For control derivatives the, chord point is used for a11 moving control surfaces, otherwise mid chord or shaft position is used. The method for finding x for the force on the hull due to trailing vortices is described in Part 5d of this appendix.
b. Curvature Derivatives
.
Except for vortex derivatives, the curvature derivatives are
obtained BS follows: I
Z'  Z'. x
=
q v 1
M' ,. Z I. (It
q v
Y' ,. I'. !.
r v 1
NI ,. I' . (it
r v The effect of curvature on the derivatives due to vortex interference is as follows:
x
w
z~. 1
Zl •  q
x
M' = Mt. ....!.
q y 1
X
yl = yf. _.!
r v 1 X N' = N' .J!. r v' 1
where Xv refers to the line of action of the force on the 'ving' ie the bridge fin or forward hydroplane.
" Notation
1. Derivative Notation and Hull
x, Y. z
Coordinates along body axes ~itb origin at eG.
x measured poeitive forward.
y measured positive to starboard. z measured positive downward.
x, Y, Z
Forces along x y z axes.
XI, yf, Z'
II X Nondimensional forces XI ~p12V2 etc
Moments about axes x y z in directions given by
right handed screw.
K', M', N'
u, v, w
u', Vi, w'
p, q, r
pi, q', r'
1
V (or U)
m Nondimensional moments K'
= Jp13V2 etc
K
Velocity of CG along X.if z axes.
Nondimensional velocities u' II ~ etc V
Angular velocities alons x y z axes.
Nondimensional angular velocities pi II ~ etc V
Length.
,
Velocity of CG (Vector sum of u, v, w).
Mass of volume of water enclosed by outer surface. Includes external tanks and appendages.
m'
Nondimensional mass m' II J:13
x , Y t Z"", U V ..
Force derivatives with respect to component velocities
X = ax etc u au
X' yl Z r U' v' V
Derivatives of nondimensional force with respect to nondimensional velocities.
X, .. Xu
u • h12V
Force derivatives with respect to angular velocities.
. .
"'<::/
Y' Z' r~ It
", Nondimensional deri vat i ves
Y'  Yr t r  Ip13V e c
M,N,M,N
w v q r
Moment derivatives.
M' N' M' N' w' v' q' r
Nondimensional moment derivatives.
M' ~ q 2Pl'tV
x. , Y., Z. , K. , N. , M.
u v w p r q
X!, y! , Z! , K!, N! , M!
u v w p r q Acceleratlon derivatives (equiv81ent to added mass and inertia).
Nondimensional derivatives.
X.
X! = ~l etc u :!P
K.
K! = ~l etc
P :!p
Angular denection of' control surface (nondimensional) •
OR
°B
Os
YoR' Z6S' NoR' M6S
Y6R' Z6S' N~R' MaS Rudder angle
Bow plane angle Stern plane angle
Derivatives of force and moment with respect to control surface deflection.
Nondimensional derivatives.
Lamb's inertia coefficients of an ellipsoid of revolution.
k , k , k
x Y z
k' k' r' z
Inertia coefficients of equivalent ellipsoid.
at b, e
Semi axes of' equivalent ellipsoid (a > b ~ c).
2.
Isolated Wings
b
v
s
Area.
A
Aspect rat io .
b2 Geometric aspect ratio = S
c
Chord, mean chord it not specified.
1 A
Taper ratio
Lift coefficient CL
Lift = Jps VZ
ex
Incidence angle.
Derivative of.lift coefficient with respect to incidence.
Flap chord. aft of hinge line.
Derivative of lift coefficient with respect ·to control denection.
(:~) .. n • f
Correction factors to derive 8.2 from 8.,
3.
a.
Fins mounted on a Cylindrical Body of Circular Crosssection
r • radius of body.
s • semi +span , distance from axis to tip.
Stabili ty Correction Fact'ors
~(w)
Control Correction Factors
k .... (B)
A29
Ratio of lift on 'wing' in presence of body to lift on isolated wing. Incidence on both wing and body which are considered not capable of indepen6ent movement.
Ratio of lift on body in presence of wing to lift on isolated wing. Wing and body both baving incidence.
Ratio of lift on wing in presence of
~(w)
boay to that of lsolated wlng. Wlng rotated to give incidence, body has no incidence.
Ratio of lift on body in presence of wing to that of isolated wing. Wing rotated to give incidence, body bas no incidence.
b.
Fins Mounted on a Cylindrical Body of Elliptical Crosssection
Q 2
, b I
{~~
I
7i
2
D Half breadth of body (normal to 2" == fins).
B == Half breadth of body (parallel 2" to fins).
b
2 • Exposea span or one plane.
e == Angle between tangent to hull at plane and normal to hydroplane.
B, D and b as above.
Ke = Factor giving lift on wing + body from lift on isolated ving. Wing and body both have' incidence.
ke • Factor giving lift on wing + body from lift on isolated ring. Wing only has incidence.
c. Fins Mounted on 8 Cone
4. Vortex Effects
r
Ratio of lift on wing + body to
lift on isolated wing. Wing and body both have incidence. Used for fins on tail where isolated wing includes part "bur i ed" bet .... een the fin roots.
Suffix T denotes tail. Suffix W denotes wing. Suffix B denotes body.
Circulation of tip vortex.
r
t
F
z
i
J
5.
Propellers and Pumpjets
Hull radius.
Area of wing.
Aspect ratio of tail.
Radial distance from body axis to trailing vortex.
Radial distance from body axis to tip vortex from wing at wing location.
Radial distance from trailing vortex to its image in the body.
Interference factor giving effect of trailing vortex from wing on tail lift.
Geometric factor giving effect of trailing vortex from wing on the hull lift.
D ~ Diameter of propeller.
n • Rotational ~peed (revolut~ons/unit time) •
V 1 • velocity of now at propeller location in absence of propeller.
= V (1  'IT)
wT • Taylor wake coefficient.
J • Advance ratio
v,
•  (rev1) nn
A31
" a
"KT = Thrust coefficient = pn~D~ (rev2)
KQ = Torque coefficient
Slope ot KQ  J curve at J value for self propulsion.
Internal duct area between duct and hub.
Velocity through duct measured at Au. "
· _,
A32
,I
,
SKETCH SHOWING POSITIVE DIRECTIONS OF AXES • ANGLES. ANGLES VELOCITIES. FORCES AND MOMENTS
' .
.. ' .