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Babbitt

Bearing
Alloys
I S 0 9 0 0 2 Q S 9 0 0 0 F o r d Q - 1

Contents
Considerations in Selecting a Bearing Alloy ......................................1
Melting of Bearing Alloys ...................................................................2
Handling Babbitt Bearing Alloys.........................................................3
Bonding the Bearing...........................................................................3
The Casting of Bearing Alloys............................................................5
Preparation Methods for Cast Lined Bearings ...................................6
Standard Alloy Selection Guide .........................................................9
Other Fry Babbitting Products..........................................................15
ASTM B-23 Specifications ...............................................................16
SAE Specifications...........................................................................17
QQ-T-390 Specifications..................................................................17
Physical and Mechanical Properties .........................................18 - 19

(Photo of Fry Technology’s Babbitt Casting Department. Fry Technology is the world’s largest tin/lead fabricator under one roof!)

For example. are easily temperature. They have hardness selection. which is are more difficult to bond. to moderate addition of tin to the lead and speeds and loads. moments of operation before full Properties of the lead-base alloys lubrication is established. though not necessarily the the procedure for fabricating the Bearing Alloy proportions. very good frictional properties. Naturally. them ideal for a wide range of Most important of all: In selecting a applications. and where line and tin. Under poor lubricating conditions. a thick characteristics. they fatigue resistance. however. of experience in the theory and application of bearing alloys. low wear. The tin-base alloys. in properly designed the equal of tin-base alloys but are and properly cast bearings they fully adequate for lower loads and perform as well as tin-base moderate temperatures. Bearing Operating Conditions: The method or efficiency of lubrication is one of the factors affecting the choice of an alloy. resist corrosion. good requires a babbitt of good ductility run-in properties and good at room temperature that will seat emergency behavior in the itself in the anchors under load. base babbitts commonly contain Temperature. which greatly increase the contact occurs in the early strength and hardness of lead. Conventional lead. an alloy of good conformity and . Through Fry their ability to retain hardness and Technology you can draw on our strength at elevated temperatures. Though babbitts and are much less alloys with lower tin content are expensive. absence of adequate lubrication. which have They “wet” easily and maintain an good plasticity at room oil film. temperatures. bearing alloy.Considerations in Properties of the Alloys: Tin. They show low lining. rotating speed. friction resistance. antimony improves mechanical Where thin linings and precision and casting properties. Their use is becomes excessively brittle. above which the alloy conformability. Selecting a copper and antimony following the pressure per unit area and even pattern. For bearings which are difficult to base babbitts contain antimony seal and align. group’s Central Research In this respect they are superior to Department and their many years conventional lead-base alloys. run-in behavior is required. The nominal 1% tin should be lead-antimony-tin alloys are not considered. they do not have the reasonably good corrosion ductility of lead-base antimony-tin resistance and low cost of the bearings but this is a minor factor lead-antimony-tin alloys makes with thin liners. certain lead- room-temperature strength and base alloys containing only a hardness reach a maximum. of Isaac Babbitt’s bearing have an influence on alloy original alloy. the design of the bearing up to 32BHN which gives them and its bonding are also excellent load-carrying significant. At 10% tin. The limited. mechanically anchored. The important to bearings of this type. castings are used. seek the advice of The lead-antimony-arsenic alloys your Fry Technology are the equal of tin-base alloys in representative. They have excellent easier to handle in the kettle. adjust well to these cast and bonded and retain good conditions under moderate to mechanical properties at elevated severe loads. the improve with the addition of conventional lead-base alloys antimony up to a maximum of have the required ductility and 18%.

Heat- resistant iron containing nickel. The melting pot must be clean. This obviously deprives the cast metal of some of its specified alloy content of copper.Melting of Because of the relatively low melting point of bearing metal alloys. Constant thermal control is required for efficient and uniform results. After complete melting. to insure uniformity of the melt but carefully to avoid producing too much dross. After melting. After stirring. and heating should be arranged so that a uniform temperature prevails throughout the melt. the metal should remain at rest for a few minutes. which is wasteful. then be skimmed. Clay graphite crucibles are sometimes used where contamination from iron is a serious problem. chromium or molybdenum is the preferred material for its long service life. Uneven heating may cause segregation or allow partial solidification. subsequent casting may show hard spots on the machined surface. A semi-spherical melting pot with a flange supported by a refractory shell is recommended. Stirring is from the bottom upward using a figure “8” motion. dross may be carried over into the casting and cause failure of the bearing. . it is easy to convert Bearing Alloys ingots to liquid alloy. Manual stirring is best done with a circular perforated plate on a long-handled steel rod. To make molten metal suitable for casting. Further. manually or mechanically. If not. High temperatures lead to excessive drossing. The melting pot can be of any size suitable for the amount of metal needed. requires careful control. the metal should be stirred. Also. the pot should be scraped to remove accumulations of metal and dross. however. The temperature of the melt should be controlled-or checked-by pyrometer. Segregation may occur in tin-base alloys of high copper content and may result in a deposit in the kettle after pouring which is much higher in copper than the desired alloy. fuel costs are higher and pot life shortened.

Safety Administration or the state . machining or Handling Babbitt otherwise working with these alloys. undercuts melting pot overnight. Unused metal at or holes to keep the bearing metal in day’s end should be poured into pigs.by use the next day. pouring. This can When melting. allowed to remain between the solidus and liquidus temperatures for any Bonding the Bearing length of time. This often happens when the casting set-up is not quite There are two basic methods . Of the former case. the preferred modern practice and is the lighter float. is brittle and must known constituents may be used in be as thin as is practicable to minimize the melt if magnetically screened to stress concentration in the area. tin-iron compounds are course. dovetails. Stirring after reheating used almost exclusively. On the other hand. tin- cannot be emphasized too strongly that copper. metal are secured to the shell with the help of should not be allowed to solidify in the grooves. shell or support. crystal aggregates are supporting shell. It formed at the bond and in the latter. it must be clean and dictates the preference for steel shells. alloy between the bearing metal and the Accumulations of dross.chemical ready or when metal is left overnight for or metallurgical. If used. The most suitable copies of Material Safety Data Sheets pyrometer is the shielded type which is for the major constituents of these submerged in the melt and records on a alloys. place. informed of any hazards that may exist and the necessary steps to be taken to No portion of the melt should ever be eliminate or minimize them. relation to one another. The heavier crystals sink. Fry solidification before bonding on the Technology will supply to customers shell takes place. anchors. and secures them firmly in should be sold to a smelter or collector. The bonding not used in the pot. and mechanical . though strong. The tin-copper compound is metal waste should be sold rather than weaker than the tin-iron compound and re-used. sorted with scrupulous care. Bronze shells invite the oxidation of the metals being added. sweepings. Clean borings of layer. Good though bronze shells are serviceable if housekeeping is imperative to the bonding is properly done. casting of dependable bearings. the bond alloys with skimmings and machine-shop borings both. however. alloys must not be mixed. a melt temperature equivalent relating to the concentrations which is too low can cause segregation of airborne metal fumes and dust and in the pot as well as premature work practices. Chemical bonding is precipitated. For such a way as to assure rapid arsenic-hardened alloys. remove ferrous chips and particles. Tin-base bearing alloys are commonly This will not remove brass and bronze bonded to steel and bronze shells. by careful control of shell and bearing metal temperature Bearing Alloys care should be taken to comply with and by rapid solidification of the bearing health standards promulgated by the metal into the copper constituent of the Federal Occupational Health and bronze. In chips which may also be harmful. Upon request. be avoided. Mechanical does now always dissolve all the bonding is sometimes used for bearings crystals and the result may be hard of an inch or more in thickness which spots in the bearings. Above all. the steel shell coalescence with the bath to prevent is preferred. and the pot thoroughly cleaned before The metallurgical bond is a thin layer of re-use. possibility of forming a weak and brittle copper-arsenic bonding layer. Employees should be fully wall-mounted instrument. Lead-base alloys give equally good Additions to the melt should be made in results with either type of shell. Under these which babbitt metals are bonded to the circumstances.

with blow torch. shell still shows signs of oil or Sprinkle Fry’s POWERBOND grease. the machined surface with waste. 13 or 15). The alloy may be When bonding must be done in prolong the life of the bearing and molten tin. Otherwise. The alloy should be satisfactory results if carefully Chemical Bonding: The primary maintained at a temperature about done as follows: requirement in bonding is a perfect 150°F above the liquidus (1) Remove old bearing metal jointure between shell and bearing temperature of the tinning alloy. Flux residues processes using molten caustic from Fry. NOTE: When mechanical bonding. If so. (c) Dip shell in a 50% solution of Wipe the surface with a clean rag hydrochloric (muriatic) acid followed by a hot water rinse to and water at 160 to 180°F and remove any residual flux. 8. solder of various the field. Avoid metal. machine cut without using a which will keep the tinning alloy Re-apply flux until surface is cutting compound. commercially available product to by the following procedures: the shell lining at room Mechanical Bonding: In (a) Suspend shell in solution of temperature.) 4100 SP. However. is now ready for casting and spots remain. Following is one reached the temperature of the bonding coat will not be procedure: metal bath. (Time for When pouring a lead based babbitt differential between mandrel and either of the steps above is (Grades 7. or tin-lead-antimony followed. tinning paste melts (600 . apply a stick of Avoid sand blasting.550°F. other procedures must be provide for more than normal load. Method 2: (tinning paste) Apply a sufficiently hot to keep the thin coat of Fry’s POWERBOND tinning alloy molten while Cleaning: Remove all oil or 4100 Tinning Paste or other pouring the bearing. control is required to maintain a molten caustic soda. Gas-forming dirt will point. Thorough cleaning is Keep shell submerged until it has excessive heat so that the imperative.Cast iron shells require special Fluxing: Dip shell in flux solution wipe with a stainless steel wire treatment due to the formation of a at temperature of 150°F or per brush to yield a smooth. tinning paste that contains pure tin cause bubbles. or 11). Tinning the surface for bonding. there are (Babbitting fluxes are available readily bonds. tinned surface to which babbitt acid cleaning. use a bonding. and one part ammonium chloride compounds are particularly useful in water is satisfactory). A clean bond will the shell. over-fine surface. including fingerprints. so-called because it looks surface is oxidized because the thoroughly. 2. On removal. apply flux and brush finish. well- graphite layer on the iron during manufacturer’s instructions. Do not wipe molten as the bearing alloy is seen to be ready for casting. The shell set up for casting. the complete cleaning 4200 Tinning Compound on cycle must be repeated). Make the last should be held at a temperature bonding metal to the hot shell. use a shell which will insure that usually 5 to 10 minutes tinning paste with 50% tin/50% solidification proceeds from the depending on results as lead such as POWERBOND shell outward to the mandrel and observed by inspection. grease. Heat the shell until the from bottom to top. a saturated should be removed with hot water salts which can be used to prepare solution of two parts zinc chloride immediately after tinning. should appear clean and silvery. the shell oxidized. If the surface is like the scoring seen on a bath temperature is too high. (If approximately 500° . They will produce alloys. Temperature or Suspend shell in a solution of such as POWERBOND 4100 LF. (2) When all old metal is Machine shell to a “phonograph” A yellow tone indicates that the removed. the shell must be Avoid unnecessary handling. grades. etch for 3 to 5 minutes or just Method 3: (tinning compound) long enough so that the Preheat bearing shell to etching effect can be seen. (3) Again.650°F). If uncoated smooth. the shell may be phonograph record. now clean. before bonding. on cast iron and other large Of major importance to successful bearings when tin dipping and bearings is thorough physical and Tinning: Method 1: (tin dipping) other tinning methods are not chemical cleaning of the shell Apply the tinning alloy by dipping practical. poured on the shell. cleanliness is commercial alkaline cleaner at pouring a tin based babbitt as important as in chemical a temperature near the boiling (Grades 1. bearing surface and vigorously . (b) Rinse in clean water. 3. Avoid a cool metal and re-flux.

Centrifugally Cast Bearings: For each job a temperature limit determined by experiment should be Centrifugal casting of bearings is done observed. or folds. With should be moved around the cavity and pure tin as the bonding agent. grain size) by blowing with compressed air or spraying the shell with water. Mark the shell and mandrel with a equipment. advantageous to puddle the alloy after The shell can be brought to the proper pouring to minimize both porosity and temperature by submersion in the pot of segregation. made for the purpose. This also prevents shrinkage cavities With large bearings.The Casting of Static-Cast Bearings: Static or still-cast accurately to prevent leakage of molten bearings can be poured either bearing alloy. Temperature directly in the space between mandrel control of both is important. Thus. Adherence of metal to the mandrel is prevented by brushing with dry or colloidal graphite or by depositing lampblack from a smoky flame. In any case. shell the metal poured against the mandrel. Bottom plate and other components should fit . surface to be bonded should be While stirring. provision must be between the lining metal and the shell. Pouring may be done mandrel with the shell. risers of 2 to 6 inches be held at no less than the melting point in height will serve. The mandrel is usually heated by an open-flame torch. Solidification alloy from running out. The molten of the metal at the shell can be hastened metal is poured into a funnel feeding (and rapid cooling is desirable for fine into a center-hole in one of the plates. It is sometimes of the tinning alloy. available. An accurately machined pencil of the desired melting point and plate at each end of the bearing remove the heat source the moment the maintains its position and prevents the pencil mark begins to melt. Care should be taken to insure that cooling is uniform. both shell and mandrel must For this purpose. shell to mandrel. but not Pouring from a single position less than. the ladle of the bonding or tinning metal. usually a cylinder. the shell has been removed from the Still casting involves the use of a tinning bath. 450°F. The shell and shell or by suitable gates and should be at or above the melting point runners. The mandrel should overheats the shell or mandrel and be about 100°F above shell temperature leads to stresses. In direct pouring. area of solidification shrinkage will be Multiple pouring for one bearing invites machined off in finishing the bearing. chemically compounded in a horizontal holding device pencils of definite melting point can be supported in a lathe or similar used. Vertical be ready for pouring so that the bearing pouring is preferred since it affords alloy can be poured in seconds after better control of pouring and cooling. additional alloy can be protected with a mixture of whitewash. The mandrel should be of steel or cast iron. made for shrinkage as the metal cools. temperature should be about. cold shuts and laminations. added to the riser as the level of the fireclay or one of the proprietary lacquers metal recedes. If a contact pyrometer is not by placing the shell. Use steel rods with an up- molten bonding metal. All except the down motion immediately after pouring. tearing or cavities so that solidification will proceed from detrimental or ruinous to the bearing. the hot metal will The ladle should be large enough so feed toward the shell in cooling and the that one pouring completes the bearing. Jigs will aid in placing shell and mandrel in their proper relative position. All accessories should Bearing Alloys horizontally or vertically. and accurately machined.

alloy is poured into the funnel. is important to determine the optimum speed of rotation for each size of bearing. Preparation of the used to cool tin-base alloys since shell includes caustic bath or other excessively fast chilling can result in a cleaning. a lead-rich phases toward the periphery and good metallurgical bond is obtained. Chilling speed of rotation. fluxing and defective bond. a water or air. control. antimony-rich phases toward the center. because it is almost impossible to prevent segregation in a really thick lining. is the need for a strong constituents in the semi-solid state. The backing is first tin compound tends toward the center.e. Speeds too low will fail to produce a good bond. lamination. Centrifugally cast linings usually do not exceed 0. speeds too high cause excessive segregation. Thickness of the bearing is a factor to be considered. and a uniform composition is achieved. including allowance for machining. will not be of that the optimum structure for bearing uniform composition or identical with the performance is obtained in the babbitt molten alloy. tinning as previously described.When the shell is securely clamped. etching. if conditions must be carefully controlled so segregation is not controlled. gunmetal or cast iron and small sizes. Centrifugal force itself causes segregation due to the difference A major consideration when lining in specific gravity of solid and liquid bearing shells. An air-water spray is chemically bonded. it is clear that the finished bearing. In tin. It are necessary before tinning. cold shuts and other faults. coated by immersion in molten tin so that Similarly. should start immediately after pouring. possible to fill the mold without causing water spray is used to cool the shell. off. Rate of rotation is an important element of i. thickness of lining. a lead-base alloy segregates when the babbitt is cast on the surface. segregation effects are minimized. Lead-base alloys should be quickly Centrifugally cast bearings are always chilled using water. for speed and a predetermined amount of lead-base alloys from 900 to 1050°F. In theory the operation is simple but there Excessively high temperatures cause are critical factors: preparation of shell. Since the process consists of melting Since some of the lining will be machined and re-solidification of the alloy. rinsing. slow cooling and segregation. During solidification. . It varies from about 60 rpm for Bearing shells are commonly made of very large bearings to about 1500 rpm for steel.125 inches in thickness. bond between the babbitt and the base alloys the heavier copper-tin backing material. solid constituents of Preparation Methods for varying specific gravities freeze out of the Cast Lined Bearings molten alloy. Bearings of 4 to 20 inches varying degrees of surface preparation diameter are rotated at 400 to 600 rpm. bronze. pouring temperature and rate of cooling. Temperature should be as low as Immediately after casting. the Pouring temperatures for tin-base alloys lathe is turned up to a predetermined usually range from 800 to 900°F.

however. aluminum) are more easily wetted by through this ebullient flux blanket. when tinning heavy shells. grinding. Also the control the process so that every part tinning steel are not satisfactory for temperature of the shell is then more of the surface to be bonded is cast iron because of the presence of suitable for immediate casting of the efficiently treated. iron castings may have a the tin coating to develop a yellow film gives a good level of adhesion and surface skin. This is composed of 8 parts zinc of gross amounts of mineral oil and chloride crystals. since it preparation. but be removed prior to tinning. it is essential to The methods commonly used for first tinning stage. clean. 200 um sodium silicate mixture or a dispersed flux cover should be provided on the tin aperture) angular chilled iron grit until a graphite coating. since it be used at room temperature. it produces a smut-free has little capacity to withstand it enters the molten tin. After metallic compounds. the steel shells research at the International Tin immediately before lining with babbitt. deformation under stress. preparation may be complicated and particularly the temperature of bearing shells (steel or cast iron) may by the need to remove refractory tinning should be kept to a minimum to be redipped in a second bath of molten surface layers resulting from rolling and achieve a completely tin-coated tin. In the case of which such an alloy layer forms more minutes) in order to counteract the bearing shells made from rolled steel quickly than on ferrous alloys. A fused with BS 410 70 mesh (approx. When the steel is to be correct temperature for casting and ready for tinning in a bath on which pickled. It is then pickling. This has the kg ammonium chloride. finally being babbitted. Ferrous strip. surface even on higher-carbon steels. The prefluxed treatment in hot alkaline solutions.20 as a pickling medium. the same temperatures as the tin. A protective greases and machining degreasing prior to aqueous fluxing and layer about 1 cm thick is spread on the compounds must be removed. sometimes leaves particles of the would result in a smear of graphite In some plants. Direct Chloride Process. whitemetal as there is less tendency for preferred by some operators. annealing operations. In this required to be tinned may be protected immersed slowly in a bath of molten tin process. vapor degreasing or combined Bronze Shells chloride and one part ammonium vapor and solvent degreasing is In the case of bronze shells.g. this is brittle and provides a final cleaning of the iron as rinsing in water. a small quantity of tinning (10%) nitric acid. amounts of cast iron bearing shell is passed the general run of engineering steels.g.or shot-blasting is employed Cast Iron Shells entrapped in surface pores from the as a pre-treatment. chloride which is available from Fry effective. may be required and 480°F for thin-walled bronze bearings. it is generally necessary to also of washing off any residual flux floats an ebullient molten flux mixture. oil sometimes being applied to the bath normally a light pickling treatment However. degrease the surface first. when certain machined surfaces only require Technology such as Rolsalt 995. high in silica. the time porosity of such castings. Pickling assemble the shell in its jig for casting. work and helps to release any flux When grit. but it is often more and the bearing shells should be kept matt uniform grey surface is obtained economical merely to brush and wipe immersed for sufficient time to attain without allowing contamination by off any tin adhering to these surfaces. Considerable immersion used to reheat the shells After surface treatment. 6 kg sodium chloride. complete tinning. Etching in dilute surface: for example a few seconds at 250-260°C). the iron is first shot-blasted by applying a magnesium oxide/ maintained at about 570°F. 1 litre HCI. grit blasting or by acid virtue of bringing the shell to the water to make 100 litres). For removal from the surface. hydrochloric acid (about 50% v/v) is a tin than are ferrous materials. This is particularly useful would follow such special surface that in the case of gun-metal castings.Steel Shells flux-free bath at 450°F . grease to occur. >1%. the bearings are cooled blasting medium embedded in the over the surface which would impair after the first tinning and the second surface. Wetting which is an essential feature of the satisfactory picking medium and may incurs the formation of a layer of inter.480°F before zinc chloride. some workers have indicated surface. held at a lower temperature (e. Alternatively the longer immersion times do not appear helps to maintain a rather thicker and mechanical preparation treatments will to have a deleterious effect. more continuous layer of tin on the usually prepare such surfaces. should be dipped in an aqueous zinc Institute resulted in the Direct Chloride Exterior surfaces which are not chloride-based flux solution and then Process for tinning of cast iron. For significant. 2 parts sodium grease. 3 These may be prepared by machining. since it Moreover. which must of oxide during the time required to avoids acid-handling problems. e. This technique is graphite in the structure of the metal. the shell is then briefly Preferably the tinned shells should then immersed in an aqueous flux solution be transferred to a second (typically 24 kg . this tinning since copper-base alloys (with molten tin surface and sprayed with must be supplemented or replaced by the exception of those containing water from a fine rose. so that in the Cast iron benefits from extended Hot sulfuric acid is less frequently used case of copper-base materials on immersion times during tinning (10 .

located in a suitable cage container. The cast iron part. and finally a hot water rinse. USA. Fry also manufactures babbitt to customer specifications. Quality is assured and 100% satisfaction is guaranteed. is first preheated to about 750°F and then dipped in a bath of molten sodium hydroxide. This is followed by successive dips in a hot water rinse. The castings should be tinned as soon as possible after plating. Extensive safety precautions are necessary when operating these processes. Electrolytic treatments in simple fused sodium hydroxide baths are also practiced and the effects are similar. cathodically. The workpiece and the interior of the tank are connected to a low- voltage DC supply and the polarity of the current can be reversed. This treatment removes graphite from the surface of the cast iron by oxidation and also eliminates casting skins and surface oxides. . In addition to standard and non-standard babbitt alloys.10 minutes to deoxidize the surface and to neutralize alkali. Pre- tinning can also be carried out by using one of the methods previously described. so that the cast iron may be treated anodically. for 10 . One of the most widely used is that developed by the Kolene Corporation of Detroit. The difficulty of tinning over a graphite contaminated surface can also be overcome by first electroplating the casting with a readily tinnable metal such as iron or copper.15 minutes at around 900°F. or by a combination of these. a 20% HCI solution for 5 . with controlled additions of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride. Very large bearing shells cannot usually be accommodated in a tinning bath and they are generally preheated and then tinned by a manual wiping procedure in which flux is applied and a stick of tin is melted on to the surface and wire-brushed all over to give a uniform tin coating.Other preparation processes involve electrolysis in fused salt baths.

Ship Car and Hoist.P. Pug. Repress Machines. gear or cam l l Cement Mills Dryers. Disintegrators. Lawns l l Conical Mill. l l Granulator.M. Lead- Type of Installation Tin-Base Antimony. Rock Graders. Standard Alloy Selection Guide Lead. Antimony- Alloy Tin Alloy Arsenic Alloy (Grades 1-11) (Grades 7-13) (Grade 15) Aircraft Engine l l Blowers Blowing Engines: Reciprocating and Turbo l l Centrifugal l l Fans. Winches Screens: Revolving l l Pulsating l l l Centrifugal Machinery (Extractors and Separators) Pedestal Bearings l l All Other Bearings l l Clay Working Auger Machines. Connecting Rods l l Camshafts. Kilns: l l Bearing rolls and reduction gear Mixers. l l Shafting: High speed and low speed. Blunger. Cutting Machines. rotary. All Other Bearings l .): Main Crankshaft. Ventilating: High Speed l l Low speed l l Rotary: Sliding vane. Slip Pumps l l l Compression Ignition Engines (Diesel) High Speed (Over 700 R.

All Other Bearings l l . Heavy) Main Crankshaft. Hoist Sheaves. Connecting Rod Big Ends l l Auxiliary Bearings. All Other Bearings l l Crushing Machinery Ball Mill. connecting rods. Compressors. Marine Main Propulsion: Main crankshaft. Winches l l Centrifugal Main Pumps. Breaker Roll Type. Roll Type. Tube Mill l l Jaw Type: Backing-up jaws and bearings l l Pan Type: Thrust Bearings l l Other Bearings l Roll Hammer Type l Stamp Mill: Camshaft l l Guides l l Dredgers Bilge Pumps. Revolving Screens. Gyratory Type. All Other Bearings l l Compressors (Large. crossheads l l Camshafts. Rod Mill Type. Lead. Conveyors and Stackers. Lead- Type of Installation Tin-Base Antimony-Tin Antimony- Alloy Alloy Arsenic Alloy (Grades 1-11) (Grades 7-13) (Grade 15) Compression Ignition Engines (Diesel) cont. Shafting. Sluice Pumps l l Tumblers: Upper l l l Lower l l Electric Motors and Generators Traction Motors (Subways and Street Railways) Main Rotors l l Armatures and axles.

Conveying and Excavating Belt Conveyors: Carrier bearings and gravity take-ups.) Stationary Motors and Generators (1. Connecting Rod and Main Bearings. Cableways: Sheaves. Screw Conveyors. l l Dynamos. and above) Main Rotors l l Armatures and axles. V Type Compressor Engines All Other Bearings l l Gasoline Engines Main Crankshaft. Water Pump. Lead.P. All Other Bearings . Subsidiary Drive (to Oil Pump.M. etc. l l Car Dumpers: Reduction gear and trunnions. Lead- Type of Installation Tin-Base Antimony. Trippers Drive Ends l l l Bucket Elevator and Conveyor: Drive end l l l Take-up guides. 2 Cycle. Alloy 11) 13) (Grade 15) Electric Motors and Generators (cont.M. l l Camshaft.500 R. Take-up End.B.M.P. drum shafts and reduction gears. G.500 R. Connecting Rod Big Ends l l Camshafts. (Grades 7. pit bearings l l Car Journals l Cranes: Reductions. All Other Bearings l l Stationary Motors and Generators (below 1. Water Pump. drum shafts l l Trolley journals l l Fans All Bearings l l l Gas Engines (Vertical and Horizontal) Main Crankshaft.): All Bearings l l Elevating.). Antimony- Alloy Tin Alloy Arsenic (Grades 1.

mortiser. Feeders. Saw Mills and Planing Mills Conveyors: Live rolls. Lead- Type of Installation Tin-Base Antimony. Connecting Rod Big Ends l l Camshafts. l l shaper. Stamps. Winders. Classifiers l l Concentrator Tables: Head motion l l Rockers l l Roasters: Pinion bearings l l Thrust bearings l l Screens l l l Oil Engines (not Compression Ignition) Main Crankshaft. Antimony- Alloy Tin Alloy Arsenic (Grades 1. sizer. (Grades 7. Pressers. shafting and l l winches Conveyors: Car journals l Conveyors: Hogs. Shaking Frame Gears. Splitters. kickers. saw grinders. l l Alls. Lead. Slithers. Reels. Thickeners. surfacer and tenoner Saws l l Machine Tools High Speed Grinding Machine. log carriage. Deckle Pulleys and Dandys. Burners and Calciners. Stackers. Pulp Mills Agitators. Stock Chests. Thickeners . Folders. Alloy 11) 13) (Grade 15) General Process and Production Machinery l l Lumber Mills. Shafting. Presses or Drop l l Hammers All Other Bearings l l High Precision Grinding Machine l Mining Agitators. l l Separation Machines. All Other Bearings l l Paper Mills. Save. Car Wheel Journals. Screens. Cylinders and Val Machines.

Washers l l Steam Engines (Reciprocating) Marine: Main propulsion. l l l Car Journals l* Rock and Gravel Plants Cars.) Barkers: Drum type l l Disc Type l l Beaters. Pulp Mills (cont. calendar l l Pumps Reciprocating: Crankshaft. etc. Bleaching Engines. Pulping Engines. Chippers. (Grades 7. Jordans. Dusters. Cross Head. Thrashers. Lay Boys. Cutters. Scrubbers. Alloy 11) 13) (Grade 15) Paper Mills. Lead- Type of Installation Tin-Base Antimony. Screens.crossheads and connecting rods l l All Other Bearings l l *ASTM B67-38. Saws. Crushers and Rechippers. Willows. table. AAR M-501-34 . Digestors. Main .crossheads and connecting rods l l All Other Bearings l l Ordinary Marine Auxiliary: Main . Grizzlies. l l Grinders. Trimmers Rolls: Breast. Drive Stands. Truck Trailer. couch l Press. Antimony- Alloy Tin Alloy Arsenic (Grades 1. Lead. main and big end l l All Other Bearings l l Centrifugal: main shaft l l All Other Bearings l l Railroad Bearings Engine.

Centrifugals. Lead- Type of Installation Tin-Base Antimony. Minglers. Grinding l l Rolls Suspension Bearings (Vehicular) All Types l l Transmission Bearings Reduction Gears: Turbine l l All Other Bearings l l Shafting Bearings: Marine stern tube bearings l Marine line shaft bearings l l Roller and Chain Conveyors l l Turbines . Antimony- Alloy Tin Alloy Arsenic (Grades 1. conveyors. Elevators. l l Malaxeurs. Mixers. Lime Mixers. Alloy 11) 13) (Grade 15) Steam Engines (Reciprocating) (cont.crossheads and connecting rods l l Stationary: All Other Bearings l l Steel Mill Bearings l l Sugar Mills Agitators. Lead.) Stationary: Main . Rakes.Steam (Main Ship Propulsion and Industrial) Main Bearings l l All Other Bearings l . (Grades 7. Crystallizers. Shafting Cane Knives. Gear Drives. Crushers.

3 to 10.08 0.005 0.10 0. 2.50 remainder 3 remainder 3 remainder 3 remainder 3 COPPER 4.10 0.005 0.0 3.05 TOTAL 99.5 5.10 ARSENIC 0.5 to 5.10 0.30 to 0.0 14.60 0.-0 9. similar to SAE Grade 11 was added in 1966. ASTM Specifications ASTM B-23 CHEMICAL TIN-BASE LEAD-BASE COMPOSI- TION 1 (%) ALLOY NUMBER 2 (GRADE) 1 2 3 11 7 8 13 15 TIN 90.8 to 1. 6.08 0.005 0.005 0.10 0.25 0.005 0. 0 to 5. All values not given as ranges are maximum unless shown otherwise.35 0.0 9.0 7.50 0.0 to 7. 5. Alloy Number 9 was discontinued in 1946 and numbers 4. 16 and 19 were discontinued in 1959.005 0.80 99.35 0.8 to 1.0 to 5.5 to 8.10 0. 11.08 0.0 83.0 88.05 0.005 ALUMINUM 0.6 IRON 0.08 0.30 to 0.5 14.08 0.08 0.0 7.0 to 90.005 0.0 86.80 NAMED ELEMENTS. 1.5 to 8.0 to 16.80 99.0 to 8.5 0. 10.5 6. .50 0.5 to 10. A new number 11. 0 to 6.5 14.10 0.0 7.80 99.005 0.005 0.005 0.60 0.05 0.005 0.08 0.005 CADMIUM 0.5 to 6.0 to 89.35 0.05 0.08 0.10 0.4 BISMUTH 0.10 ZINC 0.5 LEAD 0.0 to 16.005 0.05 0.05 0.0 to 4.10 0.0 to 92.005 0.50 0.5 to 17.5 5. 12.10 0.10 0. 3. To be determined by difference.005 0.0 to 85.7 4.05 0.5 0.05 0.2 ANTIMONY 4. Min.

50 0. Bis.0 0.08 0.5 12.10 0.05 0.005 0.02 0.10 0.0-26. All values not given as ranges are maximum except as shown otherwise.05 0.20 Bearing Bearing 12b 88.005 0. Cadmium Others.08 0. Antimony Lead Copper Iron Arsenic Bis.0-5.005 0. No.005 0.0-10. 1 1 90.0-16.0 7.0-79.60 0.10 1 4 80.35 3. 0.10 0. Zinc.5-5.35 7. Arsenic.0-90.10 0.50 0.35 4.5-8.0-14.0 0.min.0-7.50 5.10 0.0 6.10 1 3 83.6 0.10 0.005 -.10 0.7 3.0 0. max.10 0.5 74.20 0.8-1.3-10.0-6.0 2.08 0.08 0.40-0.005 -.5-17.0-5.0-11.40 a.9-1.0-92.20 Lead Tin Antimony Copper Arsenic Bis.005 0.0 0.50 0.0 9.50 2 1 10 0.10 0.005 0.20 Bearing 15 Remainder 0.08 0.0 83.08 0.10 1 2 88.10 5 61.0 11. b.15 0.5-13.0 0.08 0.5 0.75-1.0-4.10 0.0 0.08 0. 0.005 0.005 0.005 -.0-6.7 14.5 0.5-82.005 -.0-85. 0.20 Bearing 16 Remainder 3.0 8.0-63.25 0.0 7.005 -.20 Bearing Bearing 14 Remainder 9.005 0.5 14.00 per cent.0-4.0-8.0-6.0-8.005 -.5-10.0 7.5-4. QQ-T-390 Specifications Chemical Composition (%) Grade Tin Antimony Lead Copper Iron.0-4.50 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.50 11 90-11.005 0. Zinc Alumi.20 0.005 0.0-88.50 0. ments max.5 0.08 0.0 0.005 0. SAE J460e Specifications Chemical Compositiona (%) SAE Tin.10 0.005 0. Zinc Alumi.0 9.005 0.005 0.10 0.0-16.50 0.005 0.5-3. num muth ele- max.005 0.60 0.0-76.2-10.3 14.0-16.05 0.4 0.50 3.5 78.005 0.005 0.08 0.0 0. Formerly SAE 110.0 0.0 4.005 0.10 0.0-83.50 1 13 4.30 1 6 4.5-8.75 1 Maximum 2 A narrower range of antimony within the limits stated may be specified but the spread shall be not less than 1.25 14.08 0.0-81.5 24.8-1.005 0. Others.005 -.25 5. 0.005 0. muth num Total Lead-Base 13 Remainder 5.0 79.5 0.08 0. 0.005 0. . 0.10 0.005 0. 0.0 0.10 0. max.5 0.0-7.005 0.0 74. Alumi.50 1 7 9. max.0 0.0 0.7 14.20 0.60 0.0-15.0 0. muth num Total Tin-Base 11 86.0 0.0 0.005 0.10 0. Other max.

virtually weld-free wire with a non-flaking surface to prevent machine feeding problems 3) Available in diameters from . Fry Grade 2 Babbitt wire is of uniform diameter and the lamination-free surface provides trouble-free machine feeding. pliable wire for easier machine feeding 6) Homogenous structure and tight wire diameter provide even feeding and flame deposition. Process Fry Grade 2 Babbitt wire is a carefully homogenized alloy of relatively hard and soft microscopic particles.057 to . Technical Report Fry Grade 2 Babbitt Wire For Spray Metallization Description Fry Grade 2 Babbitt wire provides effective and uniform spray metallization. This process enables Fry to make the smallest diameter Babbitt wire available. Fry developed this modified alloy with tighter impurity levels specifically for spray metallization. Strict temperature control during alloying insures a product of correct metallurgical structure. Casting and extruding is done in a unique process that produces a consistent alloy for drawing into wire. It exceeds ASTM B23 Grade 2 specification and all federal and legal guidelines for lead-free alloys. . Because the ASTM specification was developed for pouring operations. Fry Grade 2 Babbitt Wire Benefits 1) No laminations that would cause deposition problems 2) Non-splitting. Fry is the first company to recognize the need for a specification for spray metallization. Fry Grade 2 Babbitt wire is a superior trouble- free product.187" 4) Lead-free composition for environmental safety 5) Fry specification produces a soft.

(2) Exceeds all known state and federal legislative requirements. User shall determine the suitability of the product for his intended use. and 100 or 300 pound pay-off-packs in diameters from .267 lbs/in 3 Melting range 466-669 F Brinell hardness @ 77 F 24 @ 212 F 12 @ 320 F 6 Tensile Strength @ 77 F 11200 (psi) @ 212 F 6500 @ 302 F 3000 Packaging Fry Grade 2 Babbitt wire is available on 25 pound reels.0-90.10(2) .02 .02 0.0-4.0-8.10 Bismuth . 25 & 50 pound coils.02 not specified (1) Limits are % maximum unless shown as a range.005 0.02 0.05 Silver . In lieu of all warranties expressed or implied.02 not specified Nickel . but the accuracy or completeness thereof is not guaranteed. and user assumes all risk and liability whatsoever in connection therewith.0 Antimony 7.0 Lead .0-90.0-4. Important Notice to Purchaser All statements. seller’s and manufacturer’s only obligation shall be to replace such quantity of the products proved to be defective.Physical Data Chemical Composition(1) Fry Gr.08 Zinc 0.0 7.0 3.0-8.057 to . technical information and recommendations contained herein are believed to be reliable.001 0.0 Iron .005 Cadmium .187.0 88. .005 0. arising out of the use or the inability to use the product. direct or consequential.005 Aluminum 0.035 Copper 3. 2 Babbitt Wire ASTM B23 Tin 88. loss or damage. Property Fry Gr. 2 Babbitt Wire Density . Neither seller nor manufacturer shall be liable for any injury. No statement or recommendation not contained herein shall have any force or effect unless by agreement in writing signed by officers of seller and manufacturer.08 Arsenic .

Sprinkle 4200 Tinning Compound on bearing surface and vigorously wipe with a stainless steel wire brush or steel wool to yield a smooth. Store in a cool. technical information and recommendations contained herein are believed to be reliable. its use in typical heating processes will generate a small amount of decomposition and reaction vapors. Particular attention should be given to cast iron bearings to remove silica surface skins. . STORAGE Keep container lid tightly closed when not in use. silvery gray powder Water Solubility Approximately 50% Odor None Density 4.0 g/cm³ 300 . well-tinned surface to which babbitt readily bonds. In lieu of all warranties expressed or implied.310 lb/ft³ % Volatile Zero pH (10% aqueous solution) 1. plastic jars (18 per case) and 6 lb. Shelf life of this product is 1½ years if container is unopened.9 . Flux residues are completely water-soluble and should be washed off promptly prior to babbitting. plastic tubs (4 per case). graphite and other residues that may impair adhesion. SAFETY While POWERBOND 4200 is not considered toxic. bronze and copper bearing shells when a tinning bath. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Appearance Light. steel. Neither seller nor manufacturer shall determine the suitability of the product for his intended use. but the accuracy or completeness thereof is not guaranteed. No statement or recommendation not contained herein shall have any force or effect unless by agreement in writing signed by officers of seller and manufacturer. seller’s and manufacturer’s only obligation shall be to replace such quantity of the products proved to be defective. and user assumes all risk and liability whatsoever in connection therewith. A one pound container of POWERBOND® 4200 contains about twice as much Tin and goes further than other tinning compounds currently on the market.5 AVAILABILITY POWERBOND® 4200 is available in 1 lb.POWERBOND® 4200 TINNING COMPOUND DESCRIPTION POWERBOND® 4200 Tinning Compound is a dry mixture of pure powdered tin and flux specifically designed for pre-tinning cast iron. Pre-heat bearing shell to approximately 500°-550°F (excessive heat may cause flux charring and premature tin oxidation). These vapors should be adequately exhausted during heating. Important Notice to Purchaser All statements. Consult MSDS for additional safety information. electrolysis or other tinning methods are not practical.5. dry place away from heat. APPLICATION Pre-clean and degrease bearing surface prior to tinning.