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Abstract

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Computing technology has progressed rapidly over the last several decades with implementations and applications that were unthinkable a decade ago now commonplace. The rate of progress, however, has brought its own cost. As large IT infrastructures grow more complex the cost of managing these systems has increased rapidly. As a result a greater percentage of the IT budget is going toward maintenance of the infrastructure rather than improving its benefit to the business. The complexity of such a computing infrastructure requires that the environment become more ³autonomic´ -- that is, self-managing. Developing self-managing computing resources is not a new problem for computer scientists. For decades system components and software have been evolving to deal with the increased complexity of system control, resource sharing, and operational management. The advent of the Internet and dramatically increased price performance of information technology in the last few years has led to a huge growth in the scale and complexity of computing systems. Autonomic computing is the next logical evolution of these past trends to address the increasingly complex and distributed computing environments of today.
Keywords

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Autonomic computing, self-managing systems, predictive control, processor power management

Abstract

Autonomic computing systems have the ability to manage themselves and dynamically adapt to change in accordance with business policies and objectives. Self -managing systems can perform management activities based on situations they observe or sense in the IT environment. Rather than IT professionals initiating management activities, the system observes something about itself and acts accordingly. This allows the IT Professional to focus on high -value tasks while the technology manages the more mundane operations.

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This drives up the overall IT costs² even though technology component costs continue to decline. Autonomic computingSelf managing computing helps in addressing these complexity issues by using technology to manage technology.Chapter 1 Introduction Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. 12 pt. And today. Such scenarios in turn require further human intervention to enhance the performance and capacity of IT components. Font color: Dark Blue Software developers have fully exploited a four to six order-of-magnitude increase in computational power producing ever more sophisticated software applications and environments. Networks have interconnected our distributed. complex systems require more and more skilled IT professionals to install. Ironically. 12 pt. not to mention human error. As networks and distributed systems grow and change. Not Bold. Not Bold. 12 pt. Bold. 12 pt. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue The high-tech industry has spent decades creating computer systems with ever mounting degrees of complexity to solve a wide variety of business problems. complexity itself has become part of the problem. operate. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. hardware and software issues. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Our information society creates unpredictable and highly variable workloads on those networked systems. they can become increasingly hampered by system deployment failures. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. many IT professionals seek ways to improve their return on investment in their IT infrastructure. heterogeneous systems. The value of database technology and the Internet has fueled significant growth in storage subsystems. which are now capable of holding petabytes of structured and unstructured information. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. by reducing the total cost of ownership of their environments while improving the quality of service for users. Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. As a result. There has been exponential growth in the number and variety of systems and components.25" -3- . Self managing computing is also known as autonomic computing. those increasingly valuable. The idea is not new many of the major players in the industry have developed and delivered products based on this concept. configure. tune and maintain.

However. without any conscious effort on your part. This allows the IT professional to focus on high-value tasks while the technology manages the more mundane operations. there is an important distinction between autonomic activity in the human body and autonomic responses in computer systems. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0.25" -4- . adaptable policy rather than rigid hard coding determines the types of decisions and actions autonomic elements make in computer systems. academia. It's a radical change in the way businesses. Autonomic computingSelf managing computing calls for a whole new area of study and a whole new way of conducting business. Font color: Dark Blue Autonomic computingSelf managing computing is the self-management of e-business infrastructure. 12 pt. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue However. Not Bold. balancing what is managed by the IT professional and what is managed by the system.6°F. Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. The autonomic nervous system monitors your heartbeat. when the disparate technologies that manage the environment work together to deliver performance results system wide. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.The term autonomic is derived from human biology. Autonomic computingSelf managing computing systems have the ability to manage themselves and dynamically adapt to change in accordance with business policies and objectives. manage and maintain computer systems. complete autonomic systems do not yet exist. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Not Bold. Rather than IT professionals initiating management activities. whereas autonomic elements in computer systems make decisions based on tasks you choose to delegate to the technology. In other words. Many of the decisions made by autonomic elements in the body are involuntary. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. develop. autonomic computingself managing computing components anticipate computer system needs and resolve problems with minimal human intervention. and even the government design. the system observes something about itself and acts accordingly. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt. Autonomic computingSelf managing computing can result in a significant improvement in system management efficiency. It is the evolution of e-business. In much the same way. checks your blood sugar level and keeps your body temperature close to 98. 12 pt. This is not a proprietary solution. Self managing systems can perform management activities based on situations they observe or sense in the IT environment.

Font color: Dark Blue Autonomic computingSelf managing computing is about freeing IT professionals to focus on highvalue tasks by making technology work smarter. Font color: Dark Blue Systems adapt automatically to dynamically changing environments. These features will allow functions to be added dynamically to the enterprise infrastructure with minimum human intervention. the system observes something about itself and acts accordingly. Rather than IT professionals initiating management activities. 12 pt. Line spacing: 1. When hardware and software systems have the ability to define themselves ³on-the fly. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Systems with self-managing components reduce the cost of owning and operating computer systems. heal and optimize itself according to those policies while protecting itself from malicious activities. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. and servers can be dynamically added to the enterprise infrastructure with no disruption of services. 12 pt. The goal of autonomic computingself managing Formatted: Right: 0. Autonomic computingSelf managing computing systems have the ability to manage themselves and dynamically adapt to change in accordance with business policies and objectives.´ they are self-configuring. self-optimizing and self-protecting. Not Bold. it is writing business policies and goals and letting the infrastructure configure. Systems must be designed to provide this aspect at a feature level with capabilities such as plug and play devices. self-healing. Not Bold. configuration setup wizards.Chapter 2 2. Selfmanaging systems can perform management activities based on situations they observe or sense in the IT environment. Font color: Dark Blue Self-configuring Formatted: Normal. 12 pt.1 What is autonomic computingself managing computing? Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.5 lines Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. This means letting computing systems and infrastructure take care of managing themselves. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Justified. and wireless server management. Self-configuring not only includes the ability for each individual system to configure itself on the fly. 12 pt. Ultimately. This aspect of selfmanaging means that new features. This allows the IT professional to focus on high-value tasks while the technology manages the more mundane operations. but also for systems within the enterprise to configure themselves into the e-business infrastructure of the enterprise. software. Justified Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. In an autonomic environment the IT infrastructure and its components are Self-managing. IT infrastructure components take on the following characteristics: self-configuring.25" -5- .

taking it off line. Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dark Blue Self-optimizing. networks. IBM systems already include industry leading technologies such as logical partitioning. Adjust space between Asian text and numbers Self. Formatted: Right: 0. software. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. fixing or isolating the failed component. Systems monitor and tune resources automatically. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. The self-healing objective must be to minimize all outages in order to keep enterprise applications up and available at all times. and storage devices. and other resources must be continually tuned to enable efficient operations even in unpredictable environments. Font color: Dark Blue Self-protecting. 12 pt. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. dynamic workload management. it must be able to recover from a failed component by first detecting and isolating the failed component. databases. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Line spacing: single.healing Systems discover. Features must be introduced to allow the enterprise to optimize resource usage across the collection of systems within their infrastructure. 12 pt. Resource allocation and workload management must allow dynamic redistribution of workloads to systems that have the necessary resources to meet workload requirements. while also maintaining their flexibility to meet the ever-changing needs of the enterprise. and reintroducing the fixed or replacement component into service without any apparent application disruption. Not Bold. not just individual servers. These kinds of capabilities should be extended across multiple heterogeneous systems to provide a single collection of computing resources that could be managed by a ³logical´ workload manager across the enterprise.25" -6- . Developers of system components need to focus on maximizing the reliability and availability design of each hardware and software product toward continuous availability. Not Bold. Adjust space between Latin and Asian text. 12 pt. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. and react to disruptions. Self-optimization requires hardware and software systems to efficiently maximize resource utilization to meet end-user needs without human intervention. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. storage.computing is to provide self-configuration capabilities for the entire IT infrastructure. diagnose. and dynamic server clustering. 12 pt. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Similarly. For a system to be self-healing. Systems will need to predict problems and take actions to prevent the failure from having an impact on applications. Not Bold.

Systems will need to build on top of a number of core security technologies already available today. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.25" -7- . 12 pt. Not Bold. and protect themselves from attacks from anywhere. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. removing the burden from administrators. Self-protecting systems must have the ability to define and manage user access to all computing resources within the enterprise. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt.Systems anticipateanticipate. identify. Capabilities must be provided to more easily understand and handle user identities in various contexts. to protect against unauthorized resource access. and to provide backup and recovery capabilities that are as secure as the original resource management systems. to detect intrusions and report and prevent these activities as they occur. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Not Bold. detect.

Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dark Blue system identity. and acts accordingly.25" -8- . Not Bold. y AnA autonomic computingself managing computing system knows its environment and the context surrounding its activity. y Perhaps most critical for the user. an autonomic computingself managing computing system will anticipate the optimized resources needed to meet a user¶s information needs while keeping its complexity hidden. y An autonomic system must perform something akin to healing²it must be able to recover from routine and extraordinary events that might cause some parts to malfunction. Left Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt. a system needs to ³know itself´² and consist of components that also possess a Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue y An autonomic system never settles for the status quo²it always looks for ways to optimize its workings. so an autonomic computingself managing computing system must be an expert in self-protection. Formatted: Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Indent: Left: 0". 12 pt.2. Hanging: 0. Not Bold.25".13". Left Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. 12 pt. Not Bold.2 Characteristics ± The Eight Elements Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Tab stops: 0. y ( An autonomic system must configure and reconfigure itself under varying and unpredictable conditions. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue y To be autonomic. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Tab stops: 0. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt.25". 12 pt. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering y A virtual world is no less dangerous than the physical one. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0. No bullets or numbering. Font color: Dark Blue y An autonomic system cannot exist in a hermetic environment (and must adhere to open standards). 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt.

1. Formatted: Right: 0. Predictive level Formatted: Bullets and Numbering ²Nnew technologies are introduced to provide correlation among several infrastructure elements. 12 pt.  3. Font color: Dar Blue 1. Each infrastructure element is managed independently by IT  technology. predict the optimal configuration and provide advice on what course of action the administrator should take.Chapte 3  ¥ ¤ ath to Autonomic Computing elf managing computing and supporting processes The path to autonomic computingself managing computing can be thought of in five levels These levels. 12 pt. Font color: Dar Blue . predictive. Basic levell²a Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Bullets and Numbering professionals who set it up. start at basic and continue through managed. Italic. Bold. 2.   Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. These elements can begin to recogni e patterns. but it is ultimately implemented by each enterprise through the adoption of these technologies  ©   §   © ¨§ Deli eri ¦ s stem wi e aut mi envir nments is an evolutionar process enabled by Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Not Bold. Not Bold. 12 pt. 3. Not Bold. Not Bold. Managed level² Ssystems management technologies can be used to collect information from disparate systems onto fewer consoles. monitor it and eventually replace it. Font color: Dar Blue  £ Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. reducing the time it takes for the administrator to collect and synthesi e information as the IT environment becomes more complex. defined below. adaptive and finally autonomic. 2. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt. -9-   ¢¡    A starting point of IT environment. 12 pt. Not Bold. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.

10 - . Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dark Blue  level Formatted: Bullets and Numbering  Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Right: 0. 12 pt. or both. 5.4. Users interact with the autonomic technology to monitor the business processes. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Adapti ²Aas these technologies improve and as people become more comfortable with the advice and predictive power of these systems. Not Bold. alter the objectives. 4. Auto omi level ²Tthe IT infrastructure operation is governed by business policies and objectives. where the systems themselves can automatically take the right actions based on the information that is available to them and the knowledge of what is happening in the system. we can progress to the adaptive level. 5.25" .

How will we build consistent interfaces and points of control while allowing for a heterogeneous environment? y Translating business policy into I/T policy: o Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Font: 12 pt.25" Creating autonomic components is not enough. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dark Blue Research into creating autonomic systems won't be easy. How will we create human interfaces that remove complexity and allow users to interact naturally with I/T systems? y Systemic approach: o Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Not Bold. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue To create autonomic systems researchers must address key challenges with varying levels of complexity. Not Bold. How can we unite a constellation of autonomic components into a ffederated system? . 12 pt. How will we design our systems to define and redefine themselves in dynamic environments? y Interface design: o Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Here is a partial list of the challenges we face. 12 pt.11 - . Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.Grand Challenge Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted Formatted: Bullets and Numbering With a multitude of platforms running. 12 pt. system administrators face a briar patch of knobs. Font color: Dark Blue Before a system can transact with other systems it must know the extent of its own boundaries. Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt. but future computer systems will have to incorporate increased levels of automation if we expect them to manage the ballooning amount of data. Not Bold. 12 pt. Not Bold. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Right: 0. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue y System identity: o Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. the ever-expanding network and the increasing might of processing power. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Bullets and Numbering The end result needs to be transparent to the user.

12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Justified New methods will be needed to equip our systems to deal with changing environments and transactions.y Standards: o Formatted: Font: 12 pt. detect potential threats and achieve a level of decision-making that allows for the redirection of key activities or data. How can we that will work? design and support open standards Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Justified Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Justified y Improving network-monitoring functions to protect security. Font color: Dark Blue The age of proprietary solutions is over. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted Formatted: Bullets and Numbering y Adaptive algorithms: o Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Font: 12 pt.25" . 12 pt. How will we create adaptive algorithms to take previous system experience and use that information to improve the rules? Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Justified y y Smarter microprocessors that can detect errors and anticipate failures. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Justified Formatted: Bullets and Numbering Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Not Bold.12 - .

Not Bold. optimi e. Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Not Bold.Chapte 4 Autonomic Computing elf managing computing Architecture Concepts " Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.25" . storage devices. Bold. storage management software. database manager or Web application server. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. including client. # Formatted: Right: 0. For example. the Web server and other system elements to achieve a selfmanaging IT environment. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. or managers. 12 pt. heal and protect themselves. by enhancing individual components to configure. Not Bold. 12 pt. 12 pt. Font color: Dar Blue . Font color: Dar Blue control loop (shown in the diagram below) that acts as a manager of the resource through monitoring. This is represented by a $ $ A standard set of functions and interactions govern the management of the IT system and its $ $ $ $ ! Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Not Bold. server. The pyramid shown below represents the hierarchy in which autonomic computingself managing computing technologies will operate. Not Bold. Not Bold. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. can communicate with each other in a peer-to-peer context and with higher-level managers. 12 pt. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.13 - $ $ $ $ $ resources. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Centered Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. 12 pt. These control loops. Autonomic computingSelf managing computing begins in the resource element layer. applications. 12 pt. servers. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Centered Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. a database system needs to work with the server. analysis and taking action based on a set of policies. 12 pt. storage subsystem. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. Font color: Dar Blue The bottom layer of the pyramid consists of the resource elements of an enterprise networks. middleware and personal computers.

25" . components work together. In an autonomic environment. communicating with each other and with high-level management tools. sometimes.14 - . They regulate themselves and. They can proactively manage the system. This can be represented by a pool of servers that work together to dynamically adjust workload and configuration to meet certain performance and availability thresholds. Web servers and storage subsystems) that work together to achieve performance and availability targets. At the highest layer of the pyramid composite resources are tied to business solutions. It can also be represented by a combination of heterogeneous devices (databases. True autonomic activity occurs at this level. resource elements are grouped into composite resources. Formatted: Right: 0.Moving up the pyramid. schedules. The solution layer requires autonomic solutions to comprehend the optimal state of business processes based on policies. and service levels and so on and drive the consequences of process optimization back down to the composite resources and even to individual elements. while hiding the inherent complexity of these activities from end users and IT professionals. such as a customer care system or an electronic auction system. which begin to communicate with each other to create self-managing systems. each other.

Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. database server or router) or a collection of resources (a pool of servers. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.25" . the effectors are a collection of ³set commands or application programming interfaces (A Is) that change the configuration of the managed resource in some important way. asynchronous messages or notifications) that flow when the state of the element changes in a significant way. Font color: Dar Blue Managed elements The managed element is a controlled system component. y The effectors are mechanisms that change the state (configuration) of an element. 12 pt. Not Bold. For example. ( ' & Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. This portion of the architecture details the functions that can be provided for the control loops. As shown in the figure above. Not Bold. 12 pt. The managed element is controlled through its sensors and effectors: y The sensors provide mechanisms to collect information about the state and state transition of an element. In other words. To implement the sensors. or a set of management events (unsolicited. a configuration change that occurs through effectors should be reflected as a configuration change notification through the sensor interface. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Right: 0. cluster or business application).15 - ) ) ) ) . Not Bold. Font color: Dar Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. The architecture organi es the control loops into two major elements²a managed element and an autonomic manager. by the black lines connecting the elements on the sensors and effectors sides of the diagram. An autonomic manager is a ) % component that implements a particular control loop. you can either use a set of ³get operations to retrieve information about the current state. The combination of sensors and effectors form the manageability interface that is available to an autonomic manager. A managed element is what the autonomic manager is controlling. 12 pt. There can be a single resource (a server.Another aspect of the autonomic computingself managing computing architecture is shown in the diagram below. Not Bold. the architecture encourages the idea that sensors and effectors are linked together.

The shared knowledge includes things like topology information. Autonomic manager knowledge Data used by the autonomic manager¶s four components are stored as shared knowledge.16 - . The architecture dissects the loop into four parts that share knowledge: y The monitor part provides the mechanisms that collect. filter. situations. The four parts collaborate using asynchronous communication techniques. y The plan part provides the mechanisms to structure the action needed to achieve goals and objectives. system logs. there can be situations where the plan part may ask the monitor part to collect more or less information. performance metrics and policies. y The analyze part provides the mechanisms to correlate and model complex situations . In addition. In other words. The sensors and effectors provided by the autonomic manager facilitate collaborative interaction with other autonomic managers. These mechanisms allow the autonomic manager to learn about the IT environment and help predict future situations. y The execute part provides the mechanisms that control the execution of a plan with considerations for on-the-fly updates. The bold line that connects the four parts should be thought of as a common messaging bus rather than a strict control flow. There could also be situations where the monitor part may trigger the plan part to create a new plan. The four parts work together to provide the control loop functionality.Autonomic manager The autonomic manager is a component that implements the control loop. aggregate. like a messaging bus.25" . manage and report details (metrics and topologies) collected from an element. The planning mechanism uses policy information to guide its work. Formatted: Right: 0. autonomic managers can communicate with each other in both peer-to-peer and hierarchical arrangements. The numerous autonomic managers in a complex IT system must work together to deliver autonomic computingself managing computing to achieve common goals. The diagram shows a structural arrangement of the parts²not a control flow.

the plan part of an autonomic manager is responsible for interpreting and translating policy details. or passed into the autonomic manager through its effectors. Specifically. now and in the future. An example of the former occurs when the monitor part creates knowledge based on recent activities by logging the notification it receives from a managed element into a system log.The knowledge used by a particular autonomic manager could be created by the monitor part. 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0. Formatted: Font: 12 pt.25" . A policy consists of a set of behavioral constraints or preferences that influence the decisions made by an autonomic manager. The analysis part is responsible for determining if the autonomic manager can abide by the policy.17 - . based on the information collected through sensors. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. An example of the latter is policy.

18 - . but future computer systems will have to incorporate increased levels of automation if we expect them to manage the ballooning amount of data. How will we design our systems to define and redefine themselves in dynamic environments? yInterface design: With a multitude of platforms running.25" . the ever-expanding network and the increasing might of processing power. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. How will we build consistent interfaces and points of control while allowing for a heterogeneous environment? yTranslating business policy into I/T policy: The end result needs to be transparent to the user. 12 pt. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering ySystem identity: Before a system can transact with other systems it must know the exte nt of its own boundaries. How will we create adaptive algorithms to take previous system experience and use that information to improve the rules? Formatted: Justified Formatted: Font: Bold. system administrators face a briar patch of knobs. Not Bold. How can we unite a constellation of autonomic components into a federated system? yStandards: The age of proprietary solutions is over. To create autonomic systems researchers must address key challenges with varying levels of complexity. Font color: Dark Blue Chapter 6 Implementing autonomic computingself managing computing Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman.Chapter 5 Grand Challenge Research into creating autonomic systems won't be easy. How can we design and support open standards that will work? Adaptive algorithms: New methods will be needed to equip our systems to deal with changing environments and transactions. How will we create human interfaces that remove complexity and allow users to interact naturally with I/T systems? ySystemic approach: Creating autonomic components is not enough. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0. Here is a partial list of the challenges we face.

25" . IT organizations are measured on comprehensive business system response times Formatted: Right: 0. manage and analyze transaction performance. In the managed level IT organizations are measured on the availability of their managed resources. they are typically evaluated on the time required to finish major tasks and fix major problems. IT organizations document their processes and continually improve them through manual feedback loops and adoption of best practices. To improve on these measurements. Not Bold. the processes. Font color: Dark Blue As companies progress through the five levels of autonomic computingself managing computing. Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. and processes need to change to create new benchmarks of success. In the adaptive level IT resources are automatically provisioned and tuned to optimize transaction performance. IT organizations gain efficiency through consolidation of management tools to a set of strategic platforms and through a hierarchical problem management triage organization.19 - . Business policies. tools and benchmarks become increasingly sophisticated. business priorities and service-level agreements guide the autonomic infrastructure behavior. If IT organizations are formally measured. their time to close trouble tickets in their problem management system and their time to complete formally tracked work requests. Skills within the organization need to adapt. The IT organization is viewed as a cost center. 12 pt.Shifting the burden of managing systems to self-managing technologies does not happen overnight and cannot be solely accomplished by acquiring new products. and many tools make recommendations to improve future performance. Predictive tools are used to project future IT performance. The basic level represents the starting point for many IT organizations. and the skills requirement becomes more closely aligned with the business. To improve. In the predictive level IT organizations are measured on the availability and performance of their business systems and their return on investment. with variable labor costs preferred over an investment in centrally coordinated systems management tools and processes. The critical nature of the IT organization¶s role in business success is understood. IT organizations measure.

Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font color: Dark Blue Conclusion In today¶s world. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Formatted: Font: 12 pt.25" . To improve business measurements they understand the financial metrics associated with ebusiness activities and supporting IT activities. Advanced modeling techniques are used to optimize ebusiness performance and quickly deploy newly optimized e-business solutions. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt.its components must also system identity. just as our dependence on technology has. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. The IBM vision of autonomic computing has 8 defining characteristics which are as follows:y An autonomic computing system needs to "know itself" .(transaction performance). Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0. y An autonomic computing system must know its environment and the context surrounding its activity. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: Not Bold. It's a problem that's not going away. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. but will grow exponentially. Font color: Dark Blue y An autonomic computing system must configure and reconfigure itself under varying (and in the future. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Font: 12 pt. we have millions of businesses. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: Not Bold. Not Bold. or creating a new capacity where important computing operations can run without the need for human intervention and that regulate themselves much in the same way our autonomic nervous system which regulates and protects our bodies. Not Bold. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. y A virtual world is no less dangerous than the physical one.All these require the services of the I/T industry to keep them running. Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: Not Bold. billions of humans that compose them. Immediate benefits will include reduced dependence on human intervention to maintain complex systems accompanied by a substantial decrease in costs and a simplified user experience through a more responsive. Font color: Dark Blue possess a Formatted: Font: 12 pt. the degree of efficiency of the IT infrastructure and their ability to adapt to shifting workloads. so an autonomic computing system must be an expert in self-protection. It's the complexity of these systems and the way they work together that is creating a shortage of skilled I/T workers to manage all of the systems. And it's not just a matter of numbers. Not Bold. In the autonomic level IT organizations are measured on their ability to make the business successful. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt.it always looks for ways to optimize its workings.20 - . Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. y An autonomic computing system never settles for the status quo . Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. y An autonomic computing system must perform something akin to healing . and act accordingly. Not Bold. real-time system.The solution to this may lie in automation. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Font: 12 pt. even unpredictable) conditions.it must be able to recover from routine and extraordinary events that might cause some of its parts to malfunction. and trillions of devices that they will depend upon . Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt.

Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Font: 12 pt.5" + Indent at: 0. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. be a proprietary solution.org 2. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1.25" Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman. References Formatted: Font: 12 pt.5" Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Right: 0. by definition.25" + Tab after: 0.y While independent in its ability to manage itself. However. And hence much work has to be done to make this dream a reality.google. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt.com Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Indent: Left: 0. 3. Font color: Dark Blue Some components of this technology are already up and running.25" . Not Bold. No underline. y An autonomic computing system will anticipate the optimized resources needed while keeping its complexity hidden. Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Not Bold.21 - . an autonomic computing system cannot. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. complete systems do not yet exist. it must function in a heterogeneous world and implement open standards -. www. No underline.in other words. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue 1. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Not Bold. + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0. 2. Not Bold.wikipedia. www. Not Bold. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. Font color: Dark Blue Formatted: Font: 12 pt. 12 pt.