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Acupuncture is a technique of inserting and manipulating fine filiform needles into specific points on the body to relieve pain and for therapeutic purposes. There are many variations of acupuncture, involving different kinds of needles, different insertion points, different techniques, and the use of various accompaniments such as electricity or moxibustion.
meridians. yin and yang (20th century)
.Willem ten Rhijne -Dutch physician who visited Nagasaki in Japan in the early part of the 17th century
(Latin) acus = "needle´ pungere = "to prick"
George Soulié de Morant The French who first used acupuncture connected with Qi.
Health = balanced state Disorder/Disease = imbalance leading ti blockade of Qi
. the body is seen as a delicate balance of two inseparable. opposing yet complementary forces.In Traditional Chinese Medicine.
In short. migraines. asthma. nausea. dizziness. arthritis.
. headaches. paralysis. flu. stress. high blood pressure. just about anything else that might ail a human being. depression. diarrhea. smoking. fatigue.
People go to acupuncturists for treatment of pain. epilepsy.Acupuncture may. allergies. vision problems. bedwetting. drug addiction. bladder and kidney problems. sinus problems. sexual dysfunction. constipation. correct imbalances of flow at identifiable points close to the skin. stroke. it has been theorized.
archaeologists. Historians.HISTORY Acupuncture's origins are uncertain and controversial. scientists and practitioners argue as to where and when acupuncture started.
Component of the health care system of China that can be traced back at least
.500 years ago but some authorities
claim that it has been practiced in China for some 4. it was accidentally discovered by warring soldiers. According to one legend.
have been archeologists in Inner Mongolia. found by
Stone acupuncture needles dating back to 3000 B.
200 years ago.. .The Lancet
. This raises the possibility of acupuncture having originated in the Eurasian continent at least 2000 years earlier than previously recognised. A treatment modality similar to acupuncture thus appears to have been in use long before its previously known period of use in the medical tradition of ancient China.
We hypothesised that there might have been a medical system similar to acupuncture (Chinese Zhenjiu: needling and burning) that was practiced in Central Europe 5.Europe Some scientists believe that acupuncture was practiced elsewhere in Eurasia during the early Bronze Age..
. Brought attention in the West by James
Reston. Japan and Vietnam and elsewhere in East Asia.Contemporary
Acupuncture spread from China to Korea. a New York Times journalist. Portuguese missionaries in the 16th century were among the first to bring reports of acupuncture to the West.
Shen and the Jing The Five Elements Earth Fire Wind Water Metal
.THE EIGHT PRINCIPLES OF ACUPUNCTURE
The Three Treasures Qi.
Jing cannot be replaced by any other thing in our life. development and also reproduction.
. Jing Responsible for our physical growth.Shen Gives our life brightness and is believed to be responsible for all the mental abilities that we are able to do and our consciousness.
Well nourished = healthy being b.
It is the fundamental substance that permeates the universe. Acquired Qi This is obtained after birth. Classification of Qi According to Source a.Congenital Qi or Yuan Qi or Primary Qi It is inherited from the parents.
It circulates in the vessels. moistening the skin and hair and warming the Zang-Fu organs. Ta Qi Qi inhaled by the lungs. b3.
. b3. Therefore. it is capable of defending against exogenous pathogenic factors by strengthening the pores and body.b1. We Qi (Defensive Qi) From Food Essence and circulates around the blood vessel and protects the muscles and skin surface layer. b2. Zong Qi (Pectoral Qi) Combination of Qin Qi (taken from inhalation) and Food Essence (Qi that is produced by the spleen and stomach). Ying Qi (Nutrient Qi) From Food Essence.
intermediate and deep.
. Warming Function -maintenance and adjustments of body temperature c. e. circulation of the Blood and body fluid. Defensive Function Wei Qi Function d. b. Nourishing Function The Acquired Qi supports the daily functional activities as well as the three level of Qi circulation²superficial. the channels. Checking Function -Controls and regulates body substances and metabolic products by circulating in the vessels and helping to check sweating and urination.Functions of the Qi
a. Promoting Function -growth and development of the body and it controls the Zang-Fu organs.
They though this system created a simple method to remove chaos from the system by ordering all the things that could be memorized.Wu Xing .The Five Elements
Basically the main purpose why these elements were discovered was to define nature.
. passed and created in the future. illnesses and symptoms in this simplified manner to experiment them and also find their treatments later on based on this system. They categorized all the things.
this element includes the lungs (yin). Sadness. while the spleen transforms and transports the energy from food and drink throughout the body. The stomach begins the process of digestive breakdown. or grieving is the emotion which creates imbalance within this element. which move vital energy throughout the body.
As a conductor. light and energy as embodied in the TCM functions of the heart (yin) and small intestine (yang). Productive. and the large intestine (yang). growth. as well as the circulation of fluids in these areas (yang). Pensiveness is the emotion which creates imbalance within this element. and middle parts of the body. which is responsible for receiving and discharging waste. ascending. Joy (overindulgence) is the emotion which creates imbalance within this element. fertile.Hot. which is representative of the upper. The earth element relates to the stomach (yang) and the spleen (yin). lower.
. The fire element also affects the complementary organ processes of the pericardium (yin) and the triple warmer.
and the gall bladder (yang). Water metabolism dissipates fluids throughout the body. and excretes urine. descending.
Strong. The liver stores blood. stores. flowing. and serve as the root of yin and yang for the entire body.
. The water element represents the urinary bladder (yang). The bladder receives. Anger is the emotion that creates imbalance within the liver. rooted. then accumulating in the kidneys. The wood element represents the liver (yin). moistening it. The kidneys also store the essence. The gallbladder is responsible for storing and excreting bile. Fear and paranoia are the emotions which create imbalance within this element. and regulates the smooth flow of Qi. while indecisiveness is relative to the gallbladder.Water Wet. and the kidney (yin).
It is a concept within Traditional Chinese Medicine that describes the functions of the organs of the body and the interactions that occur between them. lung. Zang refers to the yin organs ² heart. pericardium. large intestine. and each pair are assigned to one of the Wu Xing
. On the other hand. except the pericardium and san jiao which both describe functions that are not related to an organ. gall bladder. liver. kidney. spleen. Fu refers to the yang organs ² small intestine. Each of the twelve Zang-Fu organs listed have a corresponding organ. stomach and san jiao (triple burners/warmers). Each Zang is paired with a Fu. urinary bladder.
There are 12 main meridians.
. there are three yin and three yang channels on each arm.CHANNELS OR MERIDIANS
Chinese use the term "jing luo" These are the invisible channels through which Qi circulate throughout the body. and three yin and three yang on each leg. ***The acupuncture points (or holes as the Chinese term Xue is more aptly translated means) are the locations where the Qi of the channels rises close to the surface of the body.
The meridian¶s main functions are: a) connecting the interior with the exterior of the body b) moving Qi and blood and regulating yin and yang c) preventing pathogenic factors and reflecting the nature of disease d) accepting stimulation and adjusting deficiency and excess.
stagnated or weakened = result in physical.
To restore the balance« the acupuncturist stimulates the acupuncture points that will counteract that imbalance.Qi flows freely = body is balanced and healthy Qi is blocked. mental or emotional ill health.
Yangwei. excess Qi and blood flow into the eight extra channels to be stored for later use.
. Du. Yinwie. Dai.EIGHT EXTRA CHANNELS Ren. Yinqiao. Chong. and Yangqiao Their main function is to regulate the circulation of Qi and blood in the twelve regular channels. When these regular channels are overfull.
color and coating. thirst and taste. and menses and leukorrhea.TRADITIONAL DIAGNOSIS
Inspection focuses on the face and particularly on the tongue. middle and ring fingers). Inquiring focuses on the "seven inquiries". pain. tension.
. and one and two fingers' breadth proximally. defecation and urination. usually palpated with the index. Auscultation and olfaction refer. and the absence or presence of teeth marks around the edge. sleep. which are: chills and fever. shape. to listening for particular sounds (such as wheezing) and attending to body odor. respectively. including analysis of the tongue size. appetite. Palpation includes feeling the body for ³ashi´ (tender) points. and palpation of the left and right radial pulses at two levels of pressure (superficial and deep) and three positions Cun. perspiration. Chi (immediately proximal to the wrist crease. Guan.
the three edged needle for puncturing a vein. the sword-like needle for draining abscesses. the blunt needle for knocking or pressing.ACUPUNCTURE NEEDLES
The 'nine needles' comprised the arrowhead needle for superficial pricking. or gold and silver. the long needle for thick muscles and the large needle for puncturing painful joints.
. and seem to have been first used about 2.
The 'nine needles' were initially made of either bronze. the filiform needle.000 years ago. the round needle for massaging. the sharp round needle for rapid pricking.
. The "gating of pain" is controlled by the inhibitory action on the pain pathways.EFFECTS OF ACUPUNCTURE THE THEORIES
The Gate Control Theory of Pain
Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall in 1962 and in 1965. the perception of pain can be altered (gated on or off) by a number of means physiologically. Pain blockade at the brain via the release of endogenous opioid (natural pain killers in the brain) neurohormones. psychologically and pharmacologically.
and stimulating these points alters chemical neurotransmitters in the body. Acupuncture works by influencing the body's electromagnetic fields. Acupuncture points have certain electrical properties.Electrical Theory of Pain Studies have shown that there is a correlation between the electromagnetic fields in the body and the channels or meridians.