Name................................. Class and division................................. Date..........................

EXPERIMENT 1 AIM APPARATUS PRINCIPLE Volume of the cylinder L To find the volume of given cylinder using screw gauge Screw gauge, cylinder

L is the length of the cylinder in meter and r is the radius of the cylinder in meter =diameter of the wire /2 Diameter of the cylinder = PSR + (CORRECTED HSR X LEAST COUNT) PSR, pitch scale reading and HSR, head scale reading Least count = 
         

PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Zero correction= ...........divisions Value of 1 main scale division = ........cm/mm Number of divisions on vernier/head scale = Least count =..........mm Serial number Pitch scale reading(x) Head scale reading Corrected HSR(y) 1 2 3 4 5 Mean diameter of the cylinder = mm Radius of the cylinder, r = ............x10 Length of the cylinder, L =...............cm Volume of the cylinder = L
3

D = (yxLC )+ x

m =..............x10 = 3.14 x (..............
2

m m3

)2x

RESULT Volume of the given cylinder using screw gauge = .........................m 3

Name................................. Class and division................................. EXPERIMENT 2 AIM APPARATUS PRINCIPLE Volume of the wire = L

Date..........................

To find the volume of given wire using screw gauge Screw gauge, wire

L is the length of the wire in meter and r is the radius of the wire in meter =diameter of the wire /2 Diameter of the wire = PSR + (CORRECTED HSR X LEAST COUNT) PSR, pitch scale reading and HSR, head scale reading Least count = 
         

PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Zero correction= ...........divisions Value of 1 main scale division = ........cm/mm Number of divisions on vernier/head scale = Least count =..........mm Serial number Pitch scale reading(x) Head scale reading Corrected HSR(y) 1 2 3 4 5 Mean diameter of the wire = mm Radius of the wire, r = ............x10 Length of the wire, L =...............cm Volume of the wire = RESULT Volume of the given wire using screw gauge = .........................m 3 L
3

D = (yxLC )+ x

m =..............x10 = 3.14 x (..............
2

m m3

)2x

Name................................. Class and division =................................. Date........................ .. EXPERIMENT 2 AIM APPARATUS PRINCIPLE Volume of the sphere r is the radius of the sphere in meter = diameter of the wire /2 Diameter of the sphere = PSR + CORRECTED HSR X LEAST COUNT PSR, pitch scale reading and HSR, head scale reading Least count = 
         

To find the volume of given sphere using screw gauge Screw gauge, wire

PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Zero correction= ...........divisions Value of 1 main scale division = ........cm/mm Number of divisions on vernier/head scale = Least count =..........mm Serial number Pitch scale reading(x) Head scale reading Corrected HSR(y) 1 2 3 4 5 Mean diameter of the sphere = mm Radius of the sphere, r = ............x10 Volume of the sphere = = x 3.14 x (.............. Result Volume of the given sphere using screw gauge = .........................m 3 )3 x m3
3

D = (yxLC )+ x

m

....cm/mm Number of divisions on vernier/head scale = Least count =.............divisions Value of 1 main scale division = ................ graph sheet..cm 2 = ....................m 3 4 m2 ......Name........................ head scale reading Least count =            Area of glass plate is calculated using graph paper PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Zero correction= .... Class and division =....... t= . screw gauge APPARATUS PRINCIPLE Volume of the glass plate = area of glass plate (A) X thickness of glass plate (t) Thickness of the glass plate = PSR + CORRECTED HSR X LEAST COUNT PSR..................... Date................... ..m 3 RESULT Volume of the glass plate = ..mm Serial number Pitch scale reading(x) Head scale reading Corrected HSR(y) 1 2 3 4 5 Mean thickness................................x 10 Volume of the glass plate = t X A = ..............mm = .. EXPERIMENT 3 AIM To find the volume of given glass plate using screw gauge glass plate.. pitch scale reading and HSR........x 10 3 t = (yxLC )+ x m Area of glass plate from graph sheet..... A = ....................

............... vernier scale reading Least count =            To find the volume of given lead shot/sphere using vernier caliper sphere/lead shot.. r = .x10 Volume of the sphere/lead shot = = x 3.......14 x (..................... main scale reading and VSR. Date....m 3 ............ ... vernier caliper PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Value of 1 main scale division = ......................Name..... )3 x m3 2 D = (yxLC )+ x m Result Volume of the given sphere/lead shot = ...cm Serial number main scale reading(x) Vernier scale reading 1 2 3 4 5 Mean diameter of the sphere/lead shot = cm Radius of the sphere/lead shot.cm/mm Number of divisions on vernier/head scale = Least count =................................................................ Class and division =.. EXPERIMENT 4 AIM APPARATUS PRINCIPLE Volume of the sphere/ lead shot = r is the radius of the sphere/lead shot in meter =(diameter of the sphere/lead shot) /2 Diameter of the sphere/lead shot = MSR + VSR X LEAST COUNT MSR....

..cm/mm Number of divisions on vernier/head scale = Least count =..... EXPERIMENT 5 AIM APPARATUS PRINCIPLE Volume of the rectangular block = l x b x h l is the length of the wire....... vernier scale reading To find the volume of given rectangular block using vernier caliper rectangular block... Class and division =......... main scale reading and VSR.............. X10 2m To find breadth of the rectangular block Serial number Main scale reading(x) Vernier scale reading b= (yxLC )+ x 1 2 3 4 5 Mean breadth of the rectangular block b= cm =................... b is the breadth and h is the height Dimension measured = MSR + VSR X LEAST COUNT MSR.. vernier caliper Least count =            PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Value of 1 main scale division = ..... Date..................x 10 2 m ..................................................cm To find length of the rectangular block Serial number Main scale reading(x) Vernier scale reading l= (yxLC )+ x 1 2 3 4 5 Mean length of the rectangular block l= cm =.. .......Name...

.......... x10 2m l=.............................................. b=................m Volume of the rectangular block V = l x b x h =................... h=...........m..To find height of the rectangular block Serial number Main scale reading(x) Vernier scale reading hl= (yxLC )+ x 1 2 3 4 5 Mean height of the rectangular block h= cm =...........m 3 RESULT Volume of the given rectangular block = ........m...m 3 ...............

......... wire L is the length of the cylinder in meter and r is the radius of the cylinder in meter =diameter of the cylinder /2 Diameter of the cylinder = MSR + VSR X LEAST COUNT MSR..........cm/mm Number of divisions on vernier/head scale = Least count =............cm Volume of the cylinder = L 3 D = (yxLC )+ x m =.....m 3 ............. EXPERIMENT 6 AIM APPARATUS PRINCIPLE Volume of the cylinder L To find the volume of given cylinder using vernier caliper vernier calliper....x10 Length of the cylinder.... vernier scale reading Least count =            PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Value of 1 main scale division = . main scale reading and VSR.. Date........... Class and division =.........14 x (..........Name....................... 2 m m3 )2 x RESULT Volume of the given cylinder = .............x10 = 3. L =......... ..... r = ................................................mm Serial number Main scale reading(x) Vernier scale reading 1 2 3 4 5 Mean diameter of the cylinder = mm Radius of the cylinder........

............................. g RESULT Mass of the given body = kg ... EXPERIMENT 7 AIM APPARATUS PRINCIPLE According to principle of moments................... weight hanger........... slotted weights.......... Date...............Name..... Class and division =. (draw diagram) M1 X d1 = M2 X d2 M2 = M1 x d1/d2 M1 =known mass M2 =unknown mass d1 = distance from known mass to centre of gravity d2 = distance from unknown mass to centre of gravity PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Serial number Known mass M1 1 2 3 4 5 Mean value of unknown mass = d1 d2 Unknown mass M2= M1 x d1/d2 To find the unknown mass using principle of moments metre scale.. unknown mass etc..... ..

Q.. .Name. if two vectors are represented in magnitude and direction as the sides of a parallelogram drawn from a single point..... PRINCIPLE According to parallelogram law....... EXPERIMENT 8 AIM To find the unknown mass using Graveson s apparatus (parallelogram law) APPARATUS Graveson s apparatus .......... Date............... and R keep a point in equilibrium..... diagonal drawn from the same point represent the resultant vector in magnitude and direction If three coplanar concurrent forces P............. the resultant of P and Q will be equal and opposite to R (draw diagram) PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Serial number (g) P (g) Q OA OB OD Mass (cm) (cm) (cm) (g) 1 2 3 4 5 Mean value of unknown mass = g RESULT Mass of the given body = kg ... slotted weights...... weight hanger....................... unknown mass etc........ Class and division =.......

.... weight hanger........... BC =..cm.................... slotted weights........cm Load in kg Reading of the pointer Extension In (cm) Extension In metre Loading (cm) Unloading (cm) Mean( cm) From graph AB = ...................... mean = .................cm ii) unloading=...... ....... EXPERIMENT 9 AIM To find the spring constant of given spring by load extension graph APPARATUS PRINCIPLE helical spring.........Kg.......... Class and division =..m K=   N/m RESULT Spring constant by load extension graph = .........Name. pointer PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Reading of the pointer during i) loading=.......... Date............N/m ...............

............. N/m RESULT Spring constant of the spring by calculation = ....................Name..... Date......... weight hanger......... slotted weights.......8/extension K = M x 9.........8/e In cm Extension(e) (N/m) In metre APPARATUS PRINCIPLE Loading (cm) Unloading (cm) Mean( cm) Mean k=.........N/m .........cm ii) unloading=.. k = mass x 9..8/e PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Reading of the pointer during i) Loading=...... EXPERIMENT 10 AIM to find spring constant of given spring by calculation spring........ mean = ......cm................... pointer spring constant...........cm Mass(M) in kg Reading of the pointer Extension K=Mx9......... Class and division =..............

....Name. Class and division =................................................ stop watch spring constant......... k =4 2M/T2 APPARATUS PRINCIPLE M is the mass attached to the spring and T is the time period of oscillatons PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Mass(M) in kg 1 Time for 20 oscillations Time period T = t/20 T2 M/T2 2 Mean( t) Mean M/T2 =.................N/m 2 (M/T2) ..... ...... N/m Spring constant... Date. EXPERIMENT 11 AIM to find spring constant of given spring by vertical oscillation (calculation) spring..... weight hanger.... k =4 RESULT Spring constant of the spring by vertical oscillation (calculation) = .. slotted weights............................ pointer....

................Name.. g = 4 2L/T2 m/s2 T is the time period.................m/s 2 ......................... vernier caliper PRINCIPLE for a simple pendulum............. stops watch................. PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION length(L) of the pendulum 1 50x 10 2 m 60x 10 2 m 70x 10 2 m 80x 10 2 m 90x 10 2 m 100x 10 2 m Mean L/T2 = Time for 20 oscillations Time period T = t/20 (s) 2) Mean( t) T2 (S2) L/T2 m/s2 m/s 2 g = 4 2L/T2 m/s2 g = 4x3..... .................. EXPERIMENT 12 AIM to find acceleration due to gravity at the place by calculation APPARATUS simple pendulum...... thread..m/s 2 RESULT Acceleration due to gravity at the place by calculation = .142x.. Date. Class and division =... L is the length of the pendulum (from the point of suspension to centre of gravity of the bob) and g is the acceleration due to gravity. metre scale...

. L/T2 = Time for 20 oscillations Time period T = t/20 (s) 2 Mean( t) T2 (S2) m/s 2 g = 4 2L/T2 m/s2 g = 4x3..... radius of the bob =.........................m/s 2 ........... stops watch.. EXPERIMENT 13 Date..... graph paper m/s2 PRINCIPLE for a simple pendulum............ metre scale... PROCEDURE (Write in own words) OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION Diameter of the bob =........cm....m/s 2 RESULT Acceleration due to gravity at the place = ... g = 4 2L/T2 From graph...Name............142x......... g = 4 2L/T2 = G=4 2 T is the time period....... AIM to find acceleration due to gravity at the place by drawing L T2 graph APPARATUS simple pendulum.. thread......... L is the length of the pendulum (from the point of suspension to centre of gravity of the bob) and g is the acceleration due to gravity....... Class and division =............................. vernier caliper...cm length(L) of the pendulum 1 50x 10 2 m 60x 10 2 m 70x 10 2 m 80x 10 2 m 90x 10 2 m 100x 10 2 m From graph.

.......... connecting wires PRINCIPLE According to ohms law.. Date... provided temperature and other physical conditions of the conductor remain unchanged Resistance of the wire. I GRAPH where V = potential difference and I = intensity of current Resistance from the graph. ... ammeter........ R = V..Name...................... rheostat........ voltmeter. R = V/ I CIRCUIT DIAGRAM ....................... EXPERIMENT 14 AIM to verify ohms law by drawing V I graph and to find resistance from the graph APPARATUS Resistance wire.... the current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied....... Class and division =.......

.. 2.. 1..... I graph is a straight line ohm s law is verified Resistance of the wire from the graph = .. 4.. Write result with S I unit..5V and note the corresponding ammeter reading in each case and find resistance by calculation 5...... Resistance from the graph = slope of the graph = V/ I RESULT Since.PROCEDURE (write) 1....5V...... 3. Draw V ....... I graph with suitable scale and find resistance from the graph 6..... and note the corresponding ammeter reading Repeat the experiment for 1V ..... OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS To find Resistance Serial number Voltmeter reading (V) Ammeter reading (I) Resistance of the wire R = V/I 1 2 3 4 5 Mean value of resistance =. ... V..2V and 2..........5V in voltmeter ...... Resistance of the given wire by calculation =. Do the connections according to the circuit diagram Check the least count of voltmeter and ammeter Adjust the rheostat to get 0.

Date..... Daniel cell........... ....... Do the connections according to the circuit diagram 2.....Name... Class and division =....... Introduce E1 in to the circuit and check for opposite deflections by pressing the jockey at A and B.... potential difference is directly proportional to the length V L If L1 and L2 are the balancing length for two cells of emf E1 and E2 =  CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE 1... EXPERIMENT 15 AIM To compare the emf of two primary cells using potentiometer APPARATUS potentiometer........... Leclanche cell........ repeat for E2 also.... high resistance. Find the balancing length for E1 and E2 4.......... galvanometer.... Write the result with S I unit 5..... 3.. By adjusting the position of rheostat find balancing length for E1 and E2 for 5 different positions of rheostat 6.... connecting wires and jockey PRINCIPLE If a steady current flows through a wire of uniform area of cross section... Find the ratio of   in each case and find mean value...........

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Serial number Balancing length of first cell (L1) 1 2 3 4 5  Balancing length of second cell (L2) Ratio of emf =  Mean RESULT = Ratio of emf of given cells = .

.... resistance box.... resistance wire... 3 ..... 4 and 5 in the right gap 5.... P/Q = R/S X = RL/ (100 L) R... connecting wires......... EXPERIMENT16 AIM To find resistance of a given wire using meter bridge and hence to find the specific resistance of its material APPARATUS Metre Bridge...... Calculate the specific resistance of the wire 8....... Introduce 1 in the right gap and find balancing length from the end A 4...... Date. Find the mean resistance and measure the length of the wire 6.. Find zero correction and least count of screw gauge then find diameter of the wire using screw gauge 7. Class and division =....... Write the result with unit ......... Do the connections according to circuit diagram 2. Close the key and introduce a resistance in right gap and check for opposite deflections by pressing the jockey at A and B 3. Find the balancing length by introducing resistance of 2 ........... . unknown resistance in left gap L........ precautions and sources of error . galvanometer. resistance in the right gap X... = X A/l =X r2/l CIRCUIT DIAGRAM m PROCEDURE 1. balancing length measured from the unknown resistance side Specific resistance.. jockey PRINCIPLE When galvanometer shows null deflection...Name...... screw gauge.....

.....................01mm Zero correction = Serial number 1 2 3 4 5 Pitch scale reading(x) Head scale reading Corrected head scale reading(y) Diameter Mean diameter of the wire = Radius of the wire = Specific resistance of the wire = RESULT 1. m .......... 2...OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS To find resistance of the wire Serial number Resistance in the right gap(R) Balancing length(L) (100 L) X = RL/ (100 L) 1 2 3 4 5 Mean resistance = .. Specific resistance of the material of the wire =... Resistance of the given wire =........... To find radius of the wire Least count of screw gauge = 0...........................

.......... P/Q = R/S X = RL/ (100 L) R....... Close the key and introduce a resistance in right gap and check for opposite deflections by pressing the jockey at A and B 3......... unknown resistance in left gap L. resistance box.... Find the mean resistance 6.... with X1 in the left gap 2.Name.... Do the connections according to circuit diagram........ Compare the values of X1 + X2 and their series combination value 9. Find the balancing length by introducing two more resistances( 2 and 3 ) in the right gap 5... Date..... Class and division =. Find mean resistance by connecting X1 and X2 in series in the left gap 8. jockey PRINCIPLE When galvanometer shows null deflection......... Write the result with unit precautions and sources of error ...... resistance wires.... galvanometer.... balancing length measured from the unknown resistance side Resistance in series CIRCUIT DIAGRAM X = X1 + X2 PROCEDURE 1..... Find the mean resistance by introducing X2 in the left gap 7.. connecting wires................. . resistance in the right gap X . Introduce suitable resistance (1 ) in the right gap and find balancing length from the end A (care should be taken to get balancing length between 30 cm and 70 cm) 4. EXPERIMENT17 AIM To verify the law of combination of resistances in series using meter bridge APPARATUS Metre Bridge...

.... Within the experimental error law of series combination of resistances verified ...................... RESULT R1=..................... Theoretical value of resistance in series =.. Experimental value of resistance in series = ................... To find series combination of X1 and X2 Serial number Resistance in the right gap(R) Balancing length(L) (100 L) X = RL/ (100 L) 1 2 3 Mean resistance in series combination = ...OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS To find X1 Serial number Resistance in the right gap(R) Balancing length(L) (100 L) X 1= RL/ (100 L) 1 2 3 Mean resistance X1 = ..................................................... To find X2 Serial number Resistance in the right gap(R) Balancing length(L) (100 L) X 2= RL/ (100 L) 1 2 3 Mean resistance X2 = ...... R 2 =.. .........

.. balancing length measured from the unknown resistance side Resistance in parallel CIRCUIT DIAGRAM = +  PROCEDURE 1. .... unknown resistance in left gap L. resistance box... Find the mean resistance 6. with X1 in the left gap 2.... P/Q = R/S X = RL/ (100 L) R.... resistance in the right gap X ........ Introduce suitable resistance in the right gap and find balancing length from the end A(care should be taken to get balancing length between 30 cm and 70 cm) 4..... Do the connections according to circuit diagram.. jockey PRINCIPLE When galvanometer shows null deflection.. galvanometer..... resistance wires................... connecting wires.. Date.... Close the key and introduce a resistance in right gap and check for opposite deflections by pressing the jockey at A and B 3.......... Class and division =..........Name.......... Find mean resistance by connecting X1 and X2 in parallel in the left gap ... EXPERIMENT18 METER BRIDGE AIM To verify the law of combination of resistances in parallel using meter bridge APPARATUS Bridge.... Find the balancing length by introducing two more resistances in the right gap 5. Find the mean resistance by introducing X2 in the left gap 7.....

............ ........................... Within the experimental error law of parallel combination of resistances verified . Write the result with S I unit OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS To find X1 Serial number Resistance in the right gap(R) Balancing length(L) (100 L) X 1= RL/ (100 L) 1 2 3 Mean resistance X1 = ....................................8. RESULT R1=......... To find X2 Serial number Resistance in the right gap(R) Balancing length(L) (100 L) X 2= RL/ (100 L) 1 2 3 Mean resistance X2 = ............ Compare the values of  and their parallel combination value 10................ R2 =........ To find parallel combination of X1 and X2 Serial number Resistance in the right gap(R) Balancing length(L) (100 L) X = RL/ (100 L) 1 2 3 Mean resistance in parallel combination = ... Theoretical value of resistance in parallel =................ Experimental value of resistance in parallel=..

...... balancing length of the cell in closed circuit CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE 1.. then Check for opposite deflections by pressing the jockey at A and B 3............... Close the primary circuit and keep secondary circuit open............ EXPERIMENT19 POTENTIOMETER AIM To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer APPARATUS (write here) PRINCIPLE If a steady current flows through a wire of uniform area of cross section........ potential difference is directly proportional to the length V L L2)/L2 Internal resistance r = R (L1 R.... Calculate the value of internal resistance in each case and ......Name. Date........ Class and division =. Introduce a resistance (1 ) in the resistance box and find balancing length with secondary circuit open(L1) and then closed(L2) 4. Do the connections according to circuit diagram 2...... balancing length of the cell in open circuit L2................. Repeat the experiment for different values of R 5.......... ... resistance connected in parallel to the cell L1...

Write the result with S I unit OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Serial number Resistance(R) ( L 1 ) ( L2 ) r = R (L1 1 2 3 4 5 L2)/L2 RESULT Internal resistance of a cell varies with current. . Internal at different values of external resistances are shown in the table.6.

.. Measure this distance as 2f and find f as half of it 8. Decide the values of u as three values before 2F and three values after 2F with 2cm gap 3... Keep the screen and light source at same distance from the mirror and get a clear image of light source on the screen by moving the mirror away 7.. Take three trials and find the mean value of f in distant object method also ... screen...........Name.. Find rough focal length of the concave mirror by focussing on distant object 2.......v method and normal incidence method APPARATUS concave mirror. + = (draw the graph only if asked in the question) RAY DIAGRAM (draw image formed by a concave mirror when object is placed beyond 2F and mark u.... Class and division =............. Date.......... EXPERIMENT20 CONCAVE MIRROR AIM To find image distance (v) for different values of object distance (u) of a concave mirror and to find its focal length by u.... Find the value of f in each case and find mean f 6. mirror stand.. scale and light source PRINCIPLE If u is the object distance...... applying sign conventions... Keep the object at first value of u and get clear image on the screen and measure the value of v 4....... Experiment is repeated for different values of u and get v in each case 5... v and f also draw ray diagram for object at 2F under the heading normal incidence method ) PROCEDURE 1............ v the image distance and f the focal length............

.................................... Draw u.........9.m Focal length of concave mirror by normal incidence method =..... Write the result with S I unit OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Serial number u v 1 2 3 4 5 Mean focal length f=... Calculate the value of f in each case from the graph 7..... v graph or 1/u ....m 1/u 1/v 1/f =1/u + 1/v Focal length f ........ 1lv graph as asked 10...m RESULT Focal length of the given concave mirror by u v method = ..

.. Find the value of f in each case and find mean f 16... scale and light source PRINCIPLE If u is the object distance. Class and division =. Keep the object at first value of u and get clear image on the screen and measure the value of v 14. v the image distance and f the focal length............. mirror stand... Find rough focal length of the concave mirror by focussing on distant object 12....... Calculate the value of f in each case from the graph 8.. Keep the screen and light source at same distance from the mirror and get a clear image of light source on the screen by moving the mirror away 17... v graph or 1/u ...... v and f) PROCEDURE 11.... Decide the values of u as three values before 2F and three values after 2F with 2cm gap 13...... applying sign conventions... Experiment is repeated for different values of u and get v in each case 15. Take three trials and find the mean value of f in distant object method also 19..Name............ Draw u.......... EXPERIMENT20 CONCAVE MIRROR AIM Date...v graph APPARATUS concave mirror........ Write the result with S I unit ....... screen... + = from u v graph f = (OA + OB)/4 RAY DIAGRAM (draw image formed by a concave mirror when object is placed beyond 2F and mark u. 1lv graph as asked 20..... Measure this distance as 2f and find f as half of it 18.... To find image distance (v) for different values of object distance (u) of a concave mirror and to find its focal length by u...

......................................... .... Class and division =... EXPERIMENT21 CONVEX LENS AIM To find image distance (v) for different values of object distance (u) of a convex lens and to find its focal length APPARATUS ....... Date............................OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Serial number u v 1 2 3 4 5 Mean focal length f=....................m Focal length of concave mirror by normal incidence method =..............................................m 1/u 1/v 1/f =1/u + 1/v Focal length f Name.....m RESULT Focal length of the given concave mirror by u v method = .........

.... scale and light source PRINCIPLE If u is the object distance........... lens stand....m 1/u 1/v 1/f =1/u + 1/v Focal length f . Find rough focal length of the convex lens by focussing on distant object 2... applying sign conventions... Decide the values of u as three values before 2F and three values after 2F with 2cm gap 3...... Draw u.... Write the result with S I unit OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Serial number u v 1 2 3 4 5 Mean focal length f=.. screen.. Find the value of f in each case 6.Convex lens.. + = (draw the graph only if asked in the question) RAY DIAGRAM (draw image formed by a convex lens when object is placed beyond 2F and mark u. v graph or 1/u . Keep the object at first value of u and get clear image on the screen and measure the value of v 4......... Calculate the value of f in each case from the graph 8.. v and f) PROCEDURE 1.. v the image distance and f the focal length. Experiment is repeated for different values of u and get v in each case 5... 1lv graph (as asked) 7...m RESULT Focal length of the given convex lens = .....

...... light source.. EXPERIMENT22 CONCAVE LENS AIM To find the focal length of a concave lens using a convex lens APPARATUS Convex lens.................Name. PRINCIPLE conventions.......... concave lens........................ applying sign  = .......... v the image distance and f the focal length. .... metre scale etc.............. Class and division =. Date........... RAY DIAGRAM If u is the object distance...... screen...

.. milli ammeter...m RESULT Focal length of the given concave lens = .. ......PROCEDURE 1... 4...................... 7....... Form a diminished image(I1) on the screen with the convex lens Introduce the concave lens(L) at a particular distance from this image Measure LI1 as u Move the screen away from the concave lens to get a clear image I2 Measure LI2 as v Find focal length Repeat the experiment for different values of u and find the mean value of f Write the result with S I unit OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Serial number 1 2 3 4 5 LI1 = u LI2 = v 1/u 1/v 1/f = 1/v 1/u Focal length f Mean focal length f=...... 8........m Name.. EXPERIMENT23 PN junction AIM To draw the V..................... battery eliminator ..... Date......... 6.......... 3............... voltmeter.. 5.....I characteristics of PN junction in forward bias APPARATUS Pn junction diode.... 2. Class and division =....................... rheostat..

In forward biasing current is negligible till the voltage across the diode crosses a certain value called threshold voltage or cut in voltage (0. the diode current increases exponentially even for small increase in voltage.1V in voltmeter and note the ammeter reading 3. 0.4V. 0.2V. Do the connections according to the circuit diagram 2. I characteristics of PN junction diode means the variation of current as a function of applied voltage. Repeat the experiment for 0. Adjust the rheostat to get 0. Beyond this characteristic voltage.7V for silicon diode). 0.6V and 0. 0.PRINCIPLE V.5V. Write the result with S I unit . I graph and find dynamic resistance from the graph 5.7V(care should be taken to avoid the ammeter reading going beyond the range of ammeter 500mA) 4.2V for germanium and 0. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE 1. Draw V.3V.

9....V I = ...... Static resistance (D C resistance) in forward bias =. 6. 2........ 12..... 3 A RESULT V I characteristics of PN junction diode is drawn in forward bias............... 11.. 7...mA = ......... What you mean by least count? Find the least count of scale... 4... and vernier calliper Which is more precise screw gauge or vernier why? Define spring constant If a spring is cut in to two identical pieces what change occur for the spring constant Define length of the pendulum What happens to g when pendulum is taken in to moon............. it does not obey ohm s law Dynamic resistance (AC resistance) in forward bias =...... 5... centre of the earth? Is the value of g is a constant? Explain Where is g more? at the poles or equator why? What do you mean by seconds pendulum? Define pitch What you mean by zero error in screw gauge? When is it +/- ..... screw gauge..... EXPECTED VIVA QUESTIONS 1. 8.. 3...... Since the curve is not a straight line.x 10 Dynamic resistance = V/ I Static resistance =V/I =..OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Serial number Voltmeter reading (V) Ammeter reading (I) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 From the graph V = ......... 10..

34. what is the minimum distance between object and image Define principal focus of concave mirror/convex lens Why small aperture lens/mirror is used? What change is observed when colour of incident light is changed from violet to red in the case of lens/ mirror How focal length of a Lens/mirror changes when immersed in water? Can a convex lens/concave lens act as diverging /converging lens Name the factors that decide focal length of a mirror/lens . 41. 15. 48. 45. 31. 46. 20. 29. 36. what is the angle between them Who invented simple pendulum? Why heavy bob is used in simple pendulum Can you do the experiment for large amplitude? Why? Name the factors which affect the period of simple pendulum State Hooke s law Define shm and give examples Which is more elastic steel or rubber Define resistance and resistivity. 18. 47. 37. 40. 22. 23. 43. State the principle of potentiometer and explain how can you increase the sensitivity of potentiometer What is the use of high resistance in potentiometer/meter bridge Why the copper strips are made thick in metre bridge Which is preferred potentiometer or voltmeter for measurement of emf? Why? Define potential gradient Name the factors which decide internal resistance of a cell Distinguish between real and virtual images Image distance and object distance are same for a mirror/lens. 52. 38. Why an experiment is repeated many times State principle of moments What is the difference between mass and weight Define centre of gravity State parallelogram /triangle law of vectors What do you mean by concurrent forces. equilibrium Magnitude of Resultant of two equal forces is same as one of the forces. 17. 33. 51. 19. 32. 16. 26. 42. 35.d.13. 28. 24. 14. name the factors which decide them Name the material used for making rheostat How temperature affect resistance of a conductor and semiconductor State ohm s law is it a universal law? If a wire is stretched to double its length how the resistance and resistivity get affected How resistance change with V and I How a an ammeter/voltmeter connected in a circuit and why? Name and state the principle of wheat stones bridge What are the precautions to be taken in potentiometer /metre bridge experiment What is end correction how is it minimised? Why the copper strips are made thick? Define emf and p. 39. 21. 30. 44. 50. 25. 49. 27.

Ans of qns no 52 Refractive index of the lens Radius of curvature Colour of incident light .

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