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Aspen Tasc Thermal

Reference Guide
Copyright
Version Number: 2004
Copyright  1981 - 2004 Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Related Documentation
In addition to online help systems available via the product applications, a
number of printable documents are provided to help users learn and use the
HTFS family of products:

Title Content
HTFS Installation Guide.pdf Describes the installation routine

HTFS User Guide.pdf Provides an overview of the HTFS


family of products

ACOL Reference Guide.pdf User instructions for the ACOL product


ACOL Getting Started Guide.pdf

APLE Reference Guide.pdf User instructions for the APLE product


APLE Getting Started Guide.pdf

MUSE Reference Guide.pdf User instructions for the MUSE


product
MUSE Getting Started Guide.pdf

FIHR Reference Guide.pdf User instructions for the FIHR product


FIHR Getting Started Guide.pdf

FRAN Reference Guide.pdf User instructions for the FRAN product


FRAN Getting Started Guide.pdf

PIPE Reference Guide.pdf User instructions for the PIPE product


PIPE Getting Started Guide.pdf

TASC Thermal Reference Guide.pdf User instructions for the TASC


Thermal product
TASC Thermal Getting Started Guide.pdf

TASC Mechanical Reference Guide.pdf User instructions for the TASC


Mechanical product
TASC Mechanical Getting Started Guide.pdf

Introduction
Table of Contents
1 Introduction................................................................ 1-1
1.1 Overview..............................................................................1-3
1.2 Exchanger Geometries........................................................1-4
1.3 Fluid Processes ...................................................................1-5
1.4 Property Data Sources ........................................................1-5
1.5 Thermosyphons...................................................................1-6
1.6 Output Options ....................................................................1-6
1.7 Documentation ....................................................................1-7

2 Using TASC................................................................. 2-1


2.1 Overview..............................................................................2-3
2.2 Starting TASC......................................................................2-4
2.3 The Start up View ................................................................2-6
2.4 Running TASC.....................................................................2-7
2.5 TASC Icons .........................................................................2-8

3 Data Input................................................................... 3-1


3.1 Overview..............................................................................3-3
3.2 Input Views ..........................................................................3-4
3.3 TEMA Input..........................................................................3-6
3.4 Process Data Input ..............................................................3-7
3.5 Geometry Data Input ...........................................................3-8
3.6 Other Data Input ..................................................................3-9
3.7 Input Units .........................................................................3-10
3.8 Using Help .........................................................................3-12
3.9 Finding Input Items ............................................................3-13
3.10 The Input File.....................................................................3-14
3.11 Default Input Data File.......................................................3-15
3.12 Input Errors and Warnings.................................................3-16
3.13 Tube Layout.......................................................................3-17

iii
4 Output......................................................................... 4-1
4.1 Overview..............................................................................4-3
4.2 Output Views .......................................................................4-3
4.3 Output Files .........................................................................4-6
4.4 Error / Warning Message Log..............................................4-8
4.5 Other Output........................................................................4-9

5 Physical Properties .................................................... 5-1


5.1 Overview..............................................................................5-3
5.2 Properties Input ...................................................................5-6
5.3 Properties Data Input (Old Style).......................................5-11
5.4 Mixture Calculations (Old Style) ........................................5-15
5.5 Property Databanks...........................................................5-18
5.6 Importing Properties and Process Data.............................5-20
5.7 Importing from HYSYS ......................................................5-23
5.8 Importing from Properties Package ...................................5-24
5.9 Properties Output ..............................................................5-25
5.10 Pressure Dependence.......................................................5-26

6 Other Facilities........................................................... 6-1


6.1 Overview..............................................................................6-3
6.2 The Setting Plan ..................................................................6-3
6.3 The Costing Package ..........................................................6-6
6.4 The Word Specification Sheet .............................................6-8
6.5 The Lowfin Tube Databank .................................................6-9
6.6 Project File Structure .........................................................6-10

7 Examples .................................................................... 7-1


7.1 Overview..............................................................................7-3
7.2 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater..............................7-4
7.3 Debutanizer Overhead Condenser....................................7-16
7.4 Kettle Reboiler ...................................................................7-23
7.5 Falling Film Evaporator......................................................7-31
7.6 Feed Effluent Train ............................................................7-37
7.7 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler .......................................7-45
7.8 Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler ...................................7-54

Index............................................................................I-1

iv
Introduction 1-1

1 Introduction

1.1 Overview...........................................................................................3

1.2 Exchanger Geometries....................................................................4

1.3 Fluid Processes ...............................................................................5

1.4 Property Data Sources ....................................................................5

1.5 Thermosyphons...............................................................................6

1.6 Output Options ................................................................................6

1.7 Documentation.................................................................................7

1-1
1-2 Introduction

1-2
Introduction 1-3

1.1 Overview
TASC gives you a single session solution for shell and tube heat
exchanger design, through its two modes of operation, TASC Thermal
and TASC Mechanical.

Modes
TASC Thermal Covers the thermal calculations and associated geometry, e.g.,
the design of the tube layout.
TASC Mechanical Covers the detailed mechanical design of each pressure part in
accordance with National Codes and Standards.

A separate Reference Guide is provided for each mode. This Reference


Guide covers TASC Thermal only.

TASC Thermal can perform a wide range of Shell and Tube heat
exchanger calculations. There are five basic calculation modes:

TASC Thermal Calculation Modes


Design For designing a heat exchanger to meet a heat load duty and
pressure drop limits, which you specify.
Checking (Rating) Determines whether a specified exchanger has adequate
surface area to meet a duty you specify. Also calculates the
stream pressure drops.
Simulation Determines the heat load, pressure changes and stream outlet
conditions that will occur with a specified exchanger, with given
stream inlet conditions.
Thermosyphon Determines the flowrate and duty of a specified exchanger,
operating as a thermosyphon. You specify the liquid height in
the column, and the pipework connecting the exchanger to the
column.
Geometry Allows you to define the exchanger geometry (Tube Layout,
Setting Plan, etc.) without going on to do heat transfer
calculations.

TASC’s User Interface presents a structured approach to data input. The


software can run at various levels of detail, and is extensively supported
by Help Text. A range of output is produced and is presented in both
tabular and graphical form. The output includes a Setting Plan, and a
TEMA-Style Sheet in the form of a Microsoft Word document which can
be customised to your own requirements.

1-3
1-4 Exchanger Geometries

1.2 Exchanger Geometries


TASC can handle the following exchanger geometries:

Exchanger Geometries
Shells/ TEMA Shell Types, E, F, G, H, J (and inverted J).
Channels Kettle reboilers.
X-shells .
Double-pipe exchangers .
Multi-tube hairpin exchangers.
TEMA front and rear head types A, B, C, L, M, N, P, S, T, U, V, W.
Falling film evaporators.
Reflux condensers.
Shells in parallel.
Shells in series (up to 12).
Nozzles Plain.
Axial.
Vapour belts.
Impingement plates or rods.
Domes
Baffles Single segmental.
Double segmental.
Unbaffled exchangers.
Rod baffles.
Intermediate support baffles.
Blanking baffles on U-tubes.
Tube Bundles Single pass.
Multi-pass (up to 16).
Full bundle (no tubes removed under nozzles).
Normal bundle.
No-tubes-in window designs.
Tubes Plain tubes.
Lowfin tubes (database included).
Longitudinal fins in double-pipe and unbaffled exchangers.
Twisted tape inserts.

TASC can produce an accurate Tube Layout diagram (which you can
edit) and a Setting Plan.

1-4
Introduction 1-5

1.3 Fluid Processes


TASC can perform heat transfer and pressure drop calculations on single
or two-phase streams, involving sensible heating or cooling, boiling or
condensation, or any combination of these. Allowance can be made for
subcooled boiling and wet-wall desuperheating. Streams can be either
pure components, or multi-component mixtures.

Facilities are provided whereby you can modify the heat transfer
coefficients and pressure gradients calculated by TASC, either by scaling
them, or replacing them by values you specify. You can also specify
whether allowance is made for certain physical processes during the
calculations, such as gravitational pressure changes, the effect of vapour
shear on condensing coefficients, subcooled boiling and wet-wall
desuperheating.

1.4 Property Data Sources


TASC offers a range of options for providing the physical property
information needed for heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. If
you have stream property information available, this can be input
directly, or imported provided it is in the correct format. If the stream is
a mixture of known composition, TASC can perform vapour liquid
equilibrium and mixture calculations to determine the stream
properties. This can be done using the COMThermo package which has
data for over 1000 components, or the smaller NEL40 package.

See Chapter 5 - Physical Properties for more information on the various


properties options and methods.

1-5
1-6 Thermosyphons

1.5 Thermosyphons
For thermosyphons, TASC has methods for calculating both frictional
and gravitational pressure changes in the inlet and outlet pipework,
connecting the exchanger to the column. This allows for straightforward
handling of considerably complex lines, including bends, diameter
changes, branches, and generalised flow restrictions.

TASC will determine the thermosyphon stream flow rate consistent with
the driving pressure head you specify, and tabulate the pressure changes
in all the components of the circuit. As well, full information about
exchanger performance is provided and a flow stability analysis is also
performed.

1.6 Output Options


TASC produces various types of output information. Some are in the
form of output views containing information that can be tabulated,
plotted, and printed. Other information is available as output files,
which you can examine via the User Interface. The Find facility helps to
locate text within these files. You can control the amount of information
they contain using flags in the program input.

TASC also includes an extensive set of error and warning messages to


provide clear information on what is required, if vital data is omitted or
if unusual or inconsistent data is input.

See Chapter 4 - Output for more detailed information on the program


output.

1-6
Introduction 1-7

1.7 Documentation
HTFS supplies the following manuals on the HTFS CD:
• HTFS User Guide
• HTFS Installation Guide
• TASC Getting Started
• TASC Reference Guide

For TASC there are separate Getting Started and Reference Guide for
TASC Thermal and TASC Mechanical.

This Reference Guide provides basic information on using the program,


its capabilities, the required input data (see Chapter 3 - Data Input), and
the results (see Chapter 4 - Output). Chapter 5 - Physical Properties
covers the range of options for providing the information needed to run
the program.

Also contained in this manual is a set of standard examples (see Chapter


7 - Examples) for you to work through. These examples illustrate a range
of shell and tube configurations that can be solved using TASC, and
show you the various methods of inputting the relevant data.

When appropriate, this manual includes the TASC input and output
views to help with explanations. Since TASC is being continuously
developed, there may be minor discrepancies between what you see on
your computer, and the views shown in this manual. The discrepancies
may relate to layout, or to numerical values, but should not be taken as
indicating any problem.

See the TASC Getting Started for information on the set of QA data that
is included with the program. The QA data are input data sets to help
ensure that TASC is functioning properly. These sets should be run in
TASC and then checked that the results are the same (within the limits of
computer accuracy) as the corresponding output files, which are also
provided.

1-7
1-8 Documentation

The Help Text is the most extensive documentation available for TASC.
It is available whenever you are running the program, or can be loaded
To load the Help Text when separately. There are direct links to appropriate Help topics for every
you are not running TASC,
double-click on TASC.HLP in input item, and from many other places in the program.
the main TASC directory.
The technical methods used in TASC are proprietary, and full details are
available only to companies who are full members of the HTFS Research
Network. These methods are described in HTFS Design Report DR12.

1-8
Using TASC 2-1

2 Using TASC

2.1 Overview...........................................................................................3

2.2 Starting TASC...................................................................................4

2.3 The Start up View.............................................................................6

2.4 Running TASC..................................................................................7

2.5 TASC Icons .......................................................................................8

2-1
2-2 Using TASC

2-2
Using TASC 2-3

2.1 Overview
The normal TASC Thermal run procedure involves setting up the input
data representing a particular case, running the case and then
examining the results. If you open a case you have previously run, you
can examine the results without needing to run the program again.
Changes can easily be made to a case and then re-run. You can examine
the results of a changed case before deciding to save those changes. A
case can be saved with incomplete data and then be re-opened for
completion.

Facilities are provided to provide a descriptive title for each run, to


specify a run number, and to add a number of lines of comments giving
further information.

See Chapter 3 - Data Input for a detailed description of the data input
and for output see Chapter 4 - Output. Extensive Help Text is available
when running the program. The Help Text covers not only the details of
input and output, but also the particulars of the User Interface and
about Shell and Tube Exchangers in general.

2-3
2-4 Starting TASC

2.2 Starting TASC


You can create a desktop Click the Start menu, then Programs, then HTFS, and then TASC.
short cut by dragging the
TASC.EXE onto the desktop.
Alternatively, use Windows Explorer or My Computer to select the
HTFS\TASC510 folder and double-click on TASC.EXE.

TASC 5.10 and subsequent releases will work with Windows 2000 and
XP.

Figure 2.1

You will then see the Welcome view, shown above, which contains a list
of recently used input files, and gives you the option of opening an
Existing file, or starting a New one. Click on the New button, and the
Start up view will open, where you can begin inputting data for a new
example.

You can save an example at any point during data input, or after a case
has been run. The next time you start TASC, the saved case will be listed
with the recently used files and you can double-click the listing to open
it. If you want to find a previous input file that does not appear in the
Recently Used Project File list, click on the Existing button. When an
input file is opened, TASC will also open all the associated output files.

When you have your TASC file loaded, you can start a (different) new
case, by selecting File-New from the menu bar. Creating a new case will
clear any existing data and set up default data. Return to a different
existing case by selecting File-Open from the menu bar.

2-4
Using TASC 2-5

You can also use the key Regardless of the method you choose to begin a new case, the first view
combination SHIFT F1 to return available is normally the Start up view, shown in Figure 2.3. You can
to the Start up view.
return to that view at any point by selecting Input-Start up from the
menu bar.

In TASC 5.10, there is an alternative view, the HTFS Data Browser.

Figure 2.2

This view contains a tree browser adjacent to the input pages/forms.


You can select whether or not you want to use the HTFS Data Browser by
selecting View-Browser command from the menu bar. You can also use
the option in the Preferences view to define whether or not the HTFS
Data Browser is your default view.

You may not see the Start up view if you have opened a case previously
saved under TASC Mechanical. In this case, select Input-Thermal Input
Mode from the menu bar, or use the Toggle Thermal and Mechanical
Toggle Thermal and
Mechanical icon icon.

When you start an existing case, you will not be taken to the Start up
view. Instead, the Process Diagram view will open, which is a simple
indication of inlet and outlet temperatures and flow rates, together with
the Run Title, to remind you of the case you have selected.

The Process Diagram can also be opened at any time from the View
menu or from the toolbar by clicking on the Process Diagram icon.
Process Diagram icon

2-5
2-6 The Start up View

2.3 The Start up View


The Start up view is important because it ensures that you are offered a
set of input options consistent with what you want to do. You must set
the items on the Start up view, or accept the defaults, and click on OK
before you can enter any other data.

Figure 2.3

The most important item on this view is the Calculation Mode drop-
down list. The default setting is Design, but you can reset it to Checking
(Rating), Simulation, Thermosyphon, or Geometry Only as required. As
with all input items, press F1 to see the Help Text, if you are not sure
what the options mean or what you should do.

In HTFS Data Browser view, By checking the Basic Input Mode checkbox, you can limit the number
the tree browser will show a
number of items with red of input items available in the following input views. If you are a new
crosses against them, to user, working in this mode may help you get an overview of the most
indicate there are omitted important TASC input items and options. If you checked it, you can
data items which will lead to
fatal errors. return to the Start up view at any time and uncheck it, to gain access to
the full range of input. If you save your data while using Basic Mode and
then re-open the case later, it will again be displayed in Basic Mode.

The Equipment Item Number and the Job Title are optional input, but it
is recommended that you provide them for future reference. Click on OK
to advance to the input views for your new case.

2-6
Using TASC 2-7

2.4 Running TASC


When you have prepared your data input, see Chapter 3 - Data Input for
further information, you must Run TASC to generate results. You can do
this either by:
• Clicking on the Run icon.
• Selecting Run-Calculate All from the menu bar.
Run icon • Pressing F4 on the keyboard.

The details of the progress made as TASC is run, appears in the display
field located at the bottom of the TASC desktop. Sometimes this text will
be too rapid to follow in detail, but it can be useful for TASC cases that
take more than a few seconds to run.

Figure 2.4

A message appears when the calculation is complete, and the Results


Summary view and/or the Error/Warning log appears. See Chapter 4 -
Output, for more details. The Run Progress view records the file that is
being run. If the extension is *.TAI, you are running the case you just
opened, without having made any changes to it. If the file extension is
*.TAA, you are running the edited copy of your original input file, having
made changes to it.

2-7
2-8 TASC Icons

2.5 TASC Icons


TASC Thermal has a toolbar containing a number of icons, which can be
clicked on as short cuts to the frequently performed program
operations.

Figure 2.5

The meaning of each icon appears as a ToolTip after the cursor has been
left positioned on it for a second or two. When toolbar icons are
referenced in this manual, an image of the icon will appear in the
margin adjacent to the relevant paragraph. The following table gives a
brief description of each of the available icons.

Name Icon Function


Toggle Thermal and Toggle between TASC Thermal and TASC
Mechanical Mechanical.

New Create a new file.

Open Locate and open an existing file.

Save Save the active file.

Print Print the file.

Preview Input File Open the View Execution file view.

Find Input Item Open the Find Item view.

Exchanger Open the Exchanger Geometry view.


Geometry

Tubes and Baffles Open the Tubes and Baffles view.

Bundle Layout Open the Bundle Layout view.

Nozzles Open the Nozzles view.

2-8
Using TASC 2-9

Name Icon Function


Process Open the Process view.

Options Open the Options view.

Enhanced Surfaces Open the Enhanced Surfaces view.

Thermosyphon Open the Thermosyphon Details view.


Details

Physical Properties Open the Properties view.

Run Run the TASC calculations.

Process Diagram Open the Process Diagram.

Help Open the TASC Help Text.

Exit Exit TASC.

2-9
2-10 TASC Icons

2-10
Data Input 3-1

3 Data Input

3.1 Overview...........................................................................................3

3.2 Input Views.......................................................................................4

3.3 TEMA Input.......................................................................................6

3.4 Process Data Input ..........................................................................7

3.5 Geometry Data Input .......................................................................8

3.6 Other Data Input...............................................................................9

3.7 Input Units ......................................................................................10

3.8 Using Help ......................................................................................12

3.9 Finding Input Items........................................................................13

3.10 The Input File ...............................................................................14

3.11 Default Input Data File.................................................................15

3.12 Input Errors and Warnings..........................................................16

3.13 Tube Layout..................................................................................17

3-1
3-2 Data Input

3-2
Data Input 3-3

3.1 Overview
TASC has a number of data input views, each comprising several tabs.
You can access these views via the Input menu. The contents of each
page may vary slightly according to the Calculation Type (Design,
Checking, Simulation, Thermosyphon, or Geometry Only) you have
specified.

Data is input by either typing in values, or selecting an option from a


drop-down list. You do not need to fill in all the data input items, only
those that sufficiently describe the case under consideration.

A blue background to any input item indicates that it is necessary to


supply this item. A yellow background indicates that the item may need
attention for correct operation. A red background indicates an error with
the input.
Each of these colours can be configured using preferences.

Many TASC input items have defaults. Most of these defaults are
indicated in red on their input form. In many cases they will depend on
context and other input values, and are shown as they will be when you
Run TASC.

If you are unsure what a data item means, position the cursor on that
item and press F1. You will be shown the Help Text on that item, which
can show diagrams, define defaults, and let you explore other relevant
information. It can point you to more information on why particular
design features of shell and tube exchangers are used, or on what use is
made of an input item during TASC calculations.

For a full description of each item and a listing of all possible items, use
the Help Text. For more information on Physical Properties, both input
and output, see Chapter 5 - Physical Properties.

Every time you enter or change an input item, all values are
automatically re-checked, and defaults re-set. A record of the items
affected is given in the Status Window, at the bottom left of the desktop.
For a full check on input, Run TASC. You will immediately see a list of
any errors and warnings produced.

3-3
3-4 Input Views

3.2 Input Views


Under the Input menu you will see a list of input views, each of which
consists of a set of tabs. The views and their associated tabs are as
follows.

Views Tabbed Pages


Exchanger Geometry Exchanger General.
Exchanger Details.
Design Details.
Material Properties.
Kettle Details.
Tubes and Baffles Tube Details.
Transverse Baffles.
Special Baffles/Supports
Bundle Layout Bundle Layout.
Tube Layout Diagram (editable).
Bundle Details.
Bundle Size.
Nozzles Shellside.
Tubeside.
Impingement Protection.
Process Process.
Process Constraints.
Process Methods.
Options Comments to go on Output.
Output Options.
Calculation Options.
Enhanced Surfaces Lowfin Tubes.
Longitudinal Fins.
Tube Inserts.
General Enhancement.
Performance Data.
Thermosyphon Details T/S Specification.
Inlet Circuit.
Outlet Circuit.
Physical Properties and These views have a slightly different layout from the other
Physical Properties (Old views, and are described in Chapter 5 - Physical
Style) Properties.

3-4
Data Input 3-5

The figure below displays a typical example of an Input view.

Figure 3.1

Some views are only used for certain calculation modes. They
sometimes have a different set of items on them, depending on the
Calculation Mode. In the Basic Input option, a reduced set of views,
with a reduced set of input items on them appears. This may make it
easier for you to find your way around the input, if you are unfamiliar
with the program.

3-5
3-6 TEMA Input

3.3 TEMA Input


The TEMA Input Form can The TEMA Input Form is a alternative input form, which has the
be accessed from the Input
menu.
standard layout established by TEMA, the Tubular Exchangers
Manufacturers Association. If you are familiar with this sheet, you may
find it a simpler method of providing the main input than the main
TASC views. You will still need to provide some information on the main
TASC input views, particularly properties information. You should also
specify, on the Exchanger General property view, whether the Shellside
or Tubeside is to be the Hot stream, before selecting the TEMA sheet.

Any input supplied to the TEMA Form is transferred directly to the main
TASC input views, and vice versa.

The TEMA Form can also be selected from the Output menu, after you
have run the TASC calculations, and it will display calculated values, as
well as your input.

3-6
Data Input 3-7

3.4 Process Data Input


Information on the Process tab of the Process view must always be
specified, but some of the items on the form may be alternatives. TASC
needs sufficient information to be able to work out inlet and outlet
conditions, required or estimated, for each stream.

Figure 3.2

An example of alternative inputs might be the Exit conditions for a


multi-component stream. These can be defined either by the Outlet
Temperature, or by the Outlet Quality (vapour mass fraction). Similarly,
heat loads can either be supplied explicitly, or derived from the Mass
Flowrate and Inlet and Outlet conditions. If possible, TASC will work out
omitted items from the Properties information. If you provide more
data than necessary, TASC will undertake consistency checks, and warn
you of any discrepancies

Discrepancies tend to arise when the sources of your Process and


Property data are different. For example, if you get your Properties data
from NEL40, then there may be minor discrepancies from values for the
same substance from other sources. This applies particularly to T-h-x
(Temperature-enthalpy-quality) Properties Data. Though the
discrepancies are often equivalent to less than a degree in temperature,
they sometimes represent a substantial fraction of heat load. They may
be circumvented by appropriate input. For example, for a stream which

3-7
3-8 Geometry Data Input

must condense completely, it may be best to specify the Outlet Quality


(=0.0) rather than the Outlet Temperature, which may not correspond
exactly to the Bubble Point Temperature from internal VLE and NEL40
calculations.

Process Data can also be imported, along with Properties Data, from a
PSF file. See Chapter 5 - Physical Properties. In such cases data
consistency should not be a problem.

The Process Constraints and Process Methods views require input only
if you want to make special modifications to the calculations performed.

3.5 Geometry Data Input


A large number of input views relate to the geometric configuration of
the exchanger and related equipment. Several are only required in
special circumstances. The Thermosyphon property view is only
required for Themosyphon calculations. The Enhanced Surfaces
property view is not needed for exchangers with plain tubes.

The main difference in geometry input is between Design mode


calculation and the other calculation modes. In the other modes, you
should generally specify as much information as is available to describe
the exchanger, in terms of both its size and layout. A number of items
have defaults, for example from TEMA recommendations, or can be
estimated. Even for such items, it is best to input all the information you
have available. If you are unsure whether an item is important or has a
default, press F1 to see its Help Text.

For Design calculations, less input is needed. You need to select the
basic Exchanger Configuration, such as Shell and Header types, and the
Tube Size and Layout. You also need to specify any enhanced surface to
be used, and any special baffle type. TASC then determines all the other
geometric features, such as shell size and tube length, number of tubes
and tubeside passes, the number of exchangers in series and parallel,
the size of nozzles, baffles, clearances and so on.

If you are unsure about any of the key items you need to select for a
design, the Help Text provides information on when and why various
design features are used.

3-8
Data Input 3-9

When you look at the input views in Design mode, you will see that there
is the possibility of specifying more data than the basic minimum. Some
of this relates to the range of tube lengths, shell diameters etc. that
should be explored. Other input items let you preset various features,
such as nozzle sizes or baffle cut, to help you constrain the design to
meet your particular requirements.

When you run Checking, Simulation, Thermosyphon, or Geometry


Only modes, TASC will perform a rigorous Tube Layout Design. A
drawing of the Tube Layout will be displayed and you will have the
option to edit the Tube Layout. See Section 3.13 - Tube Layout.

Once you have created a Tube Bundle Layout Diagram, you have
options which include making it part of the Input, or creating it anew
when you next run. If you elect to make it part of the input, you gain
access to powerful editing facilities, which allow you to very closely
match the layout in the exchanger you are modelling. Any changes you
make are then taken (as far as possible) into account during TASC's
thermal calculations.

3.6 Other Data Input


Properties information must always be provided. This is described in
Chapter 5 - Physical Properties.

Options input can normally be set to default values, unless you want to
modify the basis of the calculations, or suppress or switch on certain
outputs.

3-9
3-10 Input Units

3.7 Input Units


There are three pre-defined unit sets available in TASC:
• SI (mm, °C, kJ/kg etc.)
• British/US customary (inches, °F, BTU/lb etc.)
• Metric (mm, °C, kCal/kg etc.)

The Geometry and Process Data can be defined using different unit sets
within a single case. Properties Data can be defined with different unit
sets for every individual stream.

To access the Preferences When a new file is created, it uses a single unit set for all data, which you
view, select File-Preferences
can preset (the default setting is SI units). You can change the units via
from the menu bar.
the Preferences option in the Preferences view. Alternatively you can
click on the Units field at the bottom of any input property view, to get to
the Units tab of the Preferences view, as shown in the figure below.

Figure 3.3

If you click on the checkbox at the bottom of the view, then a single
change sets the units of all components of the input to a consistent unit
set. There is also an option to define the Default Units for any New file
you subsequently initiate.

3-10
Data Input 3-11

You cannot modify the individual units setting for the Stream or
Component input via the Preferences view. This must be done directly
on the Physical Property Data view. However, if the checkbox at the
bottom of the view is checked, than changing any of the other unit sets
will automatically change the unit sets for these items, as well.

When you change the units, you can decide whether or not any values
you have already input should have their units converted to the new
system.

Some of the preset defaults in the Geometry input have units, so you
should select the Convert option even if you have not yet supplied any
data.

The program output units will be deduced from the input units, though
you can explicitly specify one of the three sets on the Output tab of the
Output view.

3-11
3-12 Using Help

3.8 Using Help


The Help Text in TASC is the definitive source of information on the
program. It is kept fully up to date with every release.

TASC Help can be opened at any point using the Help menu, or during
input, you can press F1 to go directly to help on the item where the
cursor currently points.

The Help Text provides information on data input, how to use the User
Interface, the Program Output, and on Errors and Warnings. There is
also general information on shell and tube heat exchangers, and the
reasons for choosing particular design features. See figure below.

Figure 3.4

You will also find information on TASC capabilities, new features in the
latest version, and contact points for user support.

3-12
Data Input 3-13

3.9 Finding Input Items


If you need to specify information on some aspect of a TASC case, and
do not know where to find the relevant input page, then look up the item
in the Help Text Index using the Search facility. Try alternative
descriptions if you cannot at first find what you expect.

When you have found the Help Text relevant to the particular input
item, you will see that there is an Input Item Identifier at the bottom of
the Help view. This takes the form of a Line Number and Item Number
in the input file. For example Front End Head Type is 102.2, meaning
item 2 on line 102 (there can be up to 6 items on a line).

Figure 3.5

To find a particular item, select View-Find Item from the menu bar to
access the Find Item view. When you type in a Line Number, you will be
shown the list of items on that line. If you click on a particular item, you
will be taken to the input view where it occurs. See the above figure. For
Physical Properties input, you will just be taken to the Main Properties
view, and may need to investigate subsidiary pages yourself.

Some Error and Warning messages give Line and Item numbers. You
can use the Find Item facility to identify the item more fully, and go to
the input page where you can amend it.

3-13
3-14 The Input File

3.10 The Input File


When you provide TASC input, it is used to generate an input file, which
has an essentially simple layout and contains all the information you
have provided. The core of the file consists of a set of lines, each
identified by a number occupying the first three characters, and
followed by up to six items of data. This core information is actually
wrapped in XML, containing information relating to the Tube Layout
and COMThermo. When only some of the items on a line of core
information are present, asterisks (*) are used to indicate omitted items.

The data lines are gathered together into 'blocks', with a related set of
line numbers. The following table lists the data type and their respective
number ranges.

Data Type Range


Geometry 101-199
Process 201-299
Stream Properties 301-399
Component Properties 401-499
Program Options 001-099

The first line in each block identifies the block, and the units of the input
data. Some data blocks are repeated, for example there is a Process
block, and at least one Properties block, for each stream.

A full listing of all possible input data items is given in the Help Text. The
Help Text on individual items indicates the line number (and position
on the line).

You can preview the Input data file, before it is run, under the View
menu.

The User Interface normally holds an internal version of the input file,
which is modified in response to changes you make in the input, and
which is used when the TASC calculations are Run. You have the option
of saving this internal version of the input file, at any stage. You will be
explicitly offered the option of saving it each time you Run calculations,
or, if you have changed any input items, on Exit from the program. If you
do not save it, any initial version of your input file will be left unaltered.

3-14
Data Input 3-15

The Component Properties Input (400 series lines) relates to the now
deprecated input option, which is only available under OldStyle Physical
Properties. COMThermo related information on properties is stored in
XML information within the Input File.

3.11 Default Input Data File


TASC allows you to set up a Default Input Data File, which is called up
whenever you begin a New input data file. It can contain any amount of
preset input data. You can set up several default input files, and have the
option of selecting from among them when you run TASC.

To set up such a default file:


1. Create a partial input data file in the usual way, and save it with an
appropriate name.
2. Select File-Preferences from the menu bar to access the Preferences
view.
3. In the Preferences view, go to the Files tab.
4. Set your default file under the Default Input File option.

When you use a Default Input File, you should ensure that you use the
Save As command (under the File menu) to save new cases. Save your
file with a name different than that of your default input file, otherwise
this modified file will be saved as the default.

To change the Default Input Data File, go to the Files tab of the
Preferences view, and make your selection. Click OK and TASC will use
the new file as the default input file for all subsequent cases.

3-15
3-16 Input Errors and Warnings

3.12 Input Errors and Warnings


If some mal-operation occurs when you are using the TASC User
Interface, or if you have provided data which the Interface cannot
interpret, then an Information Message view will appear. You should
click on this, and take appropriate action before continuing.

In some circumstances, some of these input warnings will appear


repeated, as you make use of various different parts of the User
Interface. In order to prevent the display of messages you judge not to
be relevant, or to something you plan to correct shortly, use the Warning
Messages setting in Preferences to suppress the warning messages.

Figure 3.6

The Warning Messages group is found on the General tab of the


Preference view. Check the checkbox of the message type that you want
suppressed.

It should be emphasised that the Warning Messages setting does not


affect the checks performed when you Run the TASC calculations. Error
and Warning messages on running cannot be suppressed, and are
always sent to a special message log, as well as being incorporated in
the main Lineprinter output.

3-16
Data Input 3-17

3.13 Tube Layout


The Tube Layout diagram is relevant to all modes of TASC, except
Design. The diagram is generated the first time you run a Checking or
Simulation case. Once you have a diagram, you can chose either to
regenerate it every time you run, or to keep it and use it as a source of
input information.

When you use the diagram for Input, it is used to supply values for
parameters defaulted in the main Input. You can also edit this diagram
to refine or modify it before you Run TASC to perform the required
Checking or Simulation calculation of the exchanger. In Geometry Only
mode, the appearance of this diagram is effectively the end of the
calculation.

You can edit the Tube Layout diagram to Add or Delete various features,
or you can move them using a ‘nudge’ facility or by revising the values
for their location in an accompanying spreadsheet.

Messages are produced whenever there are inconsistencies between the


Tube Layout diagram and other input values you have specified. When
you save a TASC case, the Tube Layout diagram is also saved, so it is
available when you re-open the case.

3-17
3-18 Tube Layout

An example of the Tube Layout diagram is shown in the figure below.

Figure 3.7

Inconsistencies between the Main Input and the Tube Layout Diagram
normally constitute fatal errors. You also have the option of only treating
inconsistencies as warnings. Ensuring that the diagram and input are
consistent is of course the best policy.

There is an important input flag in the Bundle Layout view, which lets
you select whether the Tube Layout is created anew from the main Input
every run, or whether the current layout is used as a source of input
information, alongside the main Input. Take care with these settings, if
you have (or are about to) make major edits on the Tube Layout
diagram. If you are set to create a new layout based on the main Input,
the Layout diagram edits made previously will be lost.

It is best to use the option of regenerating the Layout Diagram from


input to let you get the Tube Layout as close as possible to your
requirements before you embark on editing the diagram itself.

A further option, Ignoring the Current Layout diagram, and using Main
Input only, lets you run TASC making a temporary change that is
inconsistent with the diagram without losing Tube Layout data. For
example, you could explore the effect of changing the number of passes

3-18
Data Input 3-19

or the tube pattern. When you revert to your original geometry your
diagram will still be available.

There is an option on the Bundle Layout input to view the diagram


during a run. You can also view the Tube Layout as part of the Output. In
either of these cases, you cannot edit the diagram.

3-19
3-20 Tube Layout

3-20
Output 4-1

4 Output

4.1 Overview...........................................................................................3

4.2 Output Views....................................................................................3

4.3 Output Files......................................................................................6

4.4 Error / Warning Message Log .........................................................8

4.5 Other Output ....................................................................................9

4-1
4-2 Output

4-2
Output 4-3

4.1 Overview
Running the core TASC program produces a number of different types of
output. These can be viewed using the Output menu. When you save an
example, all the key output files remain in place, so that you can view
the output again once you open a case you have previously worked on.

This chapter gives an overview of the various outputs you can inspect to
help you find particular details that may be of interest to you. A more
detailed description of all the Outputs is available in the Help Text. See
Output in the Help Text contents page.

4.2 Output Views


You can select from a set of output property views, which contain the
main results. These include:
• Thermal Results Summary
• Full Results
• Nozzles
• Integration Along Shell
• Alternative designs (available in Design mode only)
To access the Preferences Either the Results Summary view or the Full Results view (you can select
view, select File-Preferences
command from the menu bar.
which under the General tab on the Preferences view) will automatically
appear at the end of a run, providing TASC has run successfully. An
exception is Geometry mode where the Tube Layout diagram (see
Section 4.4 - Error / Warning Message Log) appears at the end of a run.

The Results Summary contains Geometric, Process, and Performance


Data. In Design mode, the most important results will be the Geometric
information.

4-3
4-4 Output Views

See the figure below for a sample Results Summary property.

Figure 4.1

In Simulation and Thermosyphon modes, the main interest lies in the


Process Data results, particularly the calculated outlet conditions. For
Thermosyphons, the flow rates are of interest.

For Checking (Rating) calculations, the key result is the Surface Area
Ratio (Actual/Required), together with the information on Stream
Pressure Drops.

All Heat Transfer Coefficients and Resistances shown in the output are
referred to the area of the Outside Surface of the tube. For Low-finned
tubes this is taken as the Outside Surface area of a plain tube of Outside
Diameter equal to the Fin Tip Diameter.

Using the controls at the bottom of the view, you can automatically
change the units in which the results are presented, print the contents of
the view or copy the contents to the Clipboard.

To change the display units, simply select the appropriate unit set from
the three available on the drop-down list on the right side of the view.
The output will automatically change to display in the unit set selected.

4-4
Output 4-5

Select Print from the toolbar or menu to print the results. Use the Edit |
Copy command from the menu bar to copy the contents of the view to
the Clipboard.

The Full Results view is an HTML based, with Topic Headings to give
you easy access to various parts of the results. The information shown is
that in the Lineprinter output file, the most comprehensive output.

Figure 4.2

4-5
4-6 Output Files

4.3 Output Files


Some of the TASC output is directed to files. The User Interface has a
File View facility when you select these outputs under the Output menu.
This applies to the following files:
• Brief Output
• Lineprinter Output
• 80-column Output
• Physical Properties Output

The Lineprinter output is the most comprehensive set of results from


TASC. It is up to 132 characters wide. When you run the TASC
calculations from the User Interface, by default all the possible
components of the Lineprinter output are produced. See the figure
below for an example of this output.

Figure 4.3

4-6
Output 4-7

If you would like to limit the information sent to the output files, open the
Options view from the Input menu. On the Output Options tab, select No
Output from the drop-down lists of any of the data output you do not
want. Re-run the program to generate the reduced file.

The 80-column output is a more restricted version of the Lineprinter


output. The Brief output contains similar information to the Results
Summary view.

For each of the output file views, four buttons are available at the top of
the view. These buttons and their functionality are listed in the following
table:

Button Function
Font Opens a view and allows you to change the file font.
The Find operation is not Find Activates the Find operation that will locate a word or phrase you
case sensitive. specify, within the file view. Use this operation to quickly locate
information on a certain aspect of an exchanger. Simply use a word
relevant to the information desired and then the Find operation will
locate that text, if it exists, within the file.
Find Next After locating the first occurrence of a text string within the file view
using the Find button, use the Find Next button to locate all
subsequent occurrences of this text string.
Help Opens a a Viewer Help view.

4-7
4-8 Error / Warning Message Log

4.4 Error / Warning Message Log


When you run TASC calculations, an extensive set of checks is
performed on the data you have provided, and then further checks are
made as the program continues its operation. These checks may result
in Error and Warning messages, which are collected together in a file
and which also appear in the main record of the run, the Lineprinter
output. The Messages file will be the first thing you see when you have
run TASC, if a fatal error has occurred.

Errors are normally fatal, in that TASC has identified some fundamental
inconsistency in your data, or a lack of vital data, which means that it
cannot continue further with its calculations. If you have used the HTFS
Data Browser, and eliminated all the red markings, you would not
normally expect to see any such fatal errors. Nevertheless, it is still
possible for fatal errors to occur, as TASC proceeds to deeper levels of
data checking.

Warnings occur if a value you have supplied is outside an expected


range, for example an Inlet Temperature of -100 oC, which is not
impossible, but unlikely. Warnings occur if there is an inconsistency in
your data, for example if you specify an Inlet Quality which is different
from that deduced from your Inlet Temperature. They also occur if your
exchanger has some unexpected feature, such as an end-space length
less than the Baffle Spacing.

With any such warnings you should check the input data, to confirm
that it is as you intended, and amend it if necessary.

Some warnings inform you about phenomena in your exchanger


(Dryout, Thermosyphon Stability etc.), or inform you that the
conditions in your exchanger are beyond the range of available
correlations. In such cases you may need to make an engineering
judgement about whether your design, or design margin, is appropriate.

4-8
Output 4-9

4.5 Other Output


When TASC is run it produces a file called the Intout file, extension
*.TAF, which contains all the data needed by the Output views. From the
Interface, you cannot either view this file, or suppress its output.

There are five other special outputs, which can be brought up under the
TASC Output menu:
• Report Generator
• TEMA Specification Sheet
• Word Specification Sheet
• Setting Plan
• Tube Layout Drawing
• Costing Package

The Report Generator lets you produce output with an improved layout,
suitable for printing or exporting to other software packages. In this
form, it gives access to key parts of the TASC results, in both tabular and
graphical format. Information from this form is also available in other
parts of the output views.

The TEMA Specification Sheet is the same as can be used for input, as
described in Chapter 3 - Data Input, but will display calculated results
as well as your input.

The Word Specification Sheet has a similar layout to the TEMA sheet,
but is a Word document and can be customised to your company’s
requirements. The Word Specification Sheet, the Setting Plan, the Tube
Layout Drawing and the Costing Package are all described in Chapter 6
- Other Facilities.

4-9
4-10 Other Output

4-10
Physical Properties 5-1

5 Physical Properties

5.1 Overview...........................................................................................3
5.1.1 Properties Data Input ...............................................................4
5.1.2 Properties Used .......................................................................5

5.2 Properties Input ...............................................................................6


5.2.1 Setting a Data Source ..............................................................8
5.2.2 Get Properties ..........................................................................9
5.2.3 Rules for Direct Property Input ...............................................10

5.3 Properties Data Input (Old Style) .................................................11


5.3.1 Input Directly ..........................................................................12
5.3.2 User Databank .......................................................................13
5.3.3 Single Component Stream from NEL40 .................................14
5.3.4 Components: Calculation of the Properties of a Mixture........14

5.4 Mixture Calculations (Old Style)...................................................15

5.5 Property Databanks.......................................................................18

5.6 Importing Properties and Process Data ......................................20


5.6.1 Importing PSF Files................................................................20

5.7 Importing from HYSYS ..................................................................23

5.8 Importing from Properties Package .............................................24

5.9 Properties Output ..........................................................................25

5.10 Pressure Dependence .................................................................26

5-1
5-2 Physical

5-2
Physical Properties 5-3

5.1 Overview
A wide range of options are available for providing the physical property
data needed by this program. The user interface contains the
COMThermo package, which contains data for over 1000 substances
and a range of methods for determining vapour liquid equilibrium and
mixture properties, and can be used to set up tables of property data for
each stream.

The calculation engine contains the HTFS Physical Properties Package


(PPP), which contains facilities for checking and interpolating the tables
of property data. PPP also contains a small properties databank
(NEL40), and methods for setting up property data tables as the
calculation is run. This facility is useful for pure components, but for
mixtures, use of the COMThermo package is more flexible.

Physical Properties Options are common to most HTFS programs.


Examples in this section are based on a two stream heat exchanger, but
the description applies also to HTFS programs where the number of
streams is one (e.g., PIPE) or more than two (e.g., MUSE, FIHR).

5-3
5-4 Overview

5.1.1 Properties Data Input


There are two separate properties options under the Input menu:
Physical Properties and Physical Properties (Old Style).

Physical Properties
This lets you define a stream data source (components and methods) for
the COMThermo databank, and then calculate a table of stream
properties, which can be used as program input. It also lets you directly
input property data tables, or modify those just calculated. Refer to
Section 5.2 - Properties Input for more details.

Physical Properties (Old Style)


This gives you access to all the facilities which were in HTFS programs
before the COMThermo databank was included. These include a second
facility to directly input data tables, an option to import pre-set data
from a databank at run time, and options to specify streams as single or
multiple components from the NEL40 databank, or elsewhere. Refer to
Section 5.3 - Properties Data Input (Old Style) for more details.

To access the Physical Properties (Old Style) view, you must switch off
the HTFS Data Browser option in the Preferences view, and select
Properties (old style) under the Input menu.

Use of the newer style input, with the COMThermo package gives you
more control. This lets you set up, check and if necessary revise
properties data before running the program. Except for the special case
when you provide direct input, the old style input only sets up the
properties data tables data when the program is run.

5-4
Physical Properties 5-5

5.1.2 Properties Used


A set of Property Data comprises liquid properties, vapour properties and T-h-x
data as appropriate. The data required are as follows:

Property Data
Liquid Temperature for liquid properties.
Liquid Density.
Liquid Specific Heat.
Liquid Viscosity.
Liquid Thermal Conductivity.
Surface Tension (for two-phase streams, optional).
Vapour Temperature for vapour properties.
Vapour Density.
Vapour Specific Heat.
Vapour Viscosity.
Vapour Thermal Conductivity.
T-h-x Data Temperature for T-h-x.
Specific Enthalpy [h].
Quality (vapour mass fraction) [x].

Sets of 1-24 liquid data points, 1-24 vapour data points and 2-26 T-h-x
points are used. Although separate sets of temperatures can in principle
be used for each of the three subsets, when COMThermo is used the
liquid and vapour temperatures are identical with the relevant ones for
T-h-x.

The properties need not relate explicitly to the process conditions in the
equipment through which the system flows in any way. Data can be
extrapolated as well as interpolated if necessary. It is, however, clearly
sensible that the properties cover a broadly similar temperature range to
that in the equipment, as major extrapolations are likely to be less
accurate than interpolations.

5-5
5-6 Properties Input

5.2 Properties Input


Properties input using COMThermo normally involves:
• Setting up one or more data Sources.
• Selecting a data source for each stream, then defining the
composition, temperatures and pressures for the properties data
tables.
• Generating the property data tables, using Get Properties
button.

There are, however, four special data sources also provided:


• Direct Input. You type the numbers in yourself, copy them from a
spreadsheet, or modify values already calculated by
COMThermo. See Section 5.2.1 - Setting a Data Source.
• Not set here. One of the options under Physical Properties (old
style) is used. See Section 5.3 - Properties Data Input (Old
Style).
• Air or Water from NEL40. A special setting under which air or
water data are obtained from the NEL40 package at run time. No
further settings for the stream are necessary.

5-6
Physical Properties 5-7

The data source options, and calculated property tables are shown in
the main Physical properties view.

Figure 5.1

5-7
5-8 Properties Input

5.2.1 Setting a Data Source


A Data Source defines the components in a stream, and the VLE and
properties methods to be used. For a new case you will normally first
click on Add to set up a new Data Source. You can then select a set of
components from the master list, and add them to the list for the Data
Source. A Search facility lets you find components in the list more easily,
searching on either name or formula. Many components can be
identified under a variety of synonyms. The form ‘*abc’ can be searched
on, to find the string ‘abc’ preceded by other characters.

Figure 5.2

To define a data source, it is necessary to select property calculation


methods, (on the Property Package tab) as well as a set of components.

If you selected a Stream Type on the main properties input form, then a
default Property Package will be selected. You can, however, change the
package used, from a selection including Peng Robinson, SRK, NRTL,
and variants on these. A brief description of each is given on the view.

A Property Package effectively defines both a VLE (vapour liquid


equilibrium) method for each phase, and a set of methods for
subsequently determining the individual properties of each phase. By
clicking on the Advanced Views button, you will gain access to facilities

5-8
Physical Properties 5-9

which let you select the property method individually for each property
for each phase, and gives you further advanced options, such as
selecting from a much wider range of VLE methods for each phase,
giving control over the convergence criteria for the VLE, and the ability
to view and modify the VLE interaction parameters.

When both components and Property Package are set, the status bar at
the bottom right turns green and reads Ready. You can then close this
view, and on the main Properties input view, the new Data Source is
available to be selected for any stream.

5.2.2 Get Properties


Get Properties calculates properties at one or more pressure levels,
using a set of temperature points. Using the Options facility lets you
either define a temperature range and a number of points (from which
the temperature points are determined automatically) or you can
choose to specify the temperatures to be used explicitly. A temperature
range and set of pressures are initialised from any process information
you provide where possible.

Get Properties causes the spreadsheet of property data to be filled in


automatically. If a stream is two phase within or near the range of
defined temperatures, property data at the bubble and dew point are
added in.

After properties have been calculated you can delete individual data
points (data columns). You can explore the effect of changing the
Property Package, used using Edit to revise the Data Source.

Once data has been generated, you can change the Data Source to
Direct Input and edit individual property values, though this is not
recommended.

5-9
5-10 Properties Input

5.2.3 Rules for Direct Property Input


Data for Two Phase streams must always contain the dew and bubble
points, if these points are within the range of data you supply. If they are
outside the range of data provided, they will be estimated by
extrapolation of T-h-x data. When data are provided, the highest
Enthalpy point with Quality 0 is assumed to be the bubble point, and
the lowest Enthalpy point with Quality 1 is assumed to be the dew point.
Points need not be provided in any particular order, but are sorted into
order of increasing enthalpy by the PPP when the calculation is Run.

The facility to supply the specific enthalpy and molecular weight of


individual phases is available via the Show Phase Enthalpies and
Molecular Weights checkbox, on the Options view. These are always
optional inputs.

For Single Phase streams data need only be input for one phase. Specific
enthalpy data are optional, as they can be found by integrating specific
heats.

Refer to Section 5.10 - A set of Stream Properties data you specify should all relate to the same
Pressure Dependence for
more information regarding pressure, typically some mean pressure within the exchanger. You can
pressure dependence. supply a second set of stream data at a different pressure, permitting the
program to allow for the pressure dependence of properties. Such
dependence is sometimes significant, particularly for thermosyphons,
or if there is a very close temperature approach between streams. For
the PIPE program, pressure dependence is mandatory.

5-10
Physical Properties 5-11

5.3 Properties Data Input (Old Style)


The Old Style physical properties input gives access to all the facilities
that were present before HTFS programs included the COMThermo.
Many of these facilities are associated with the fact that, unlike
COMThermo options, with many old-style options you cannot see the
properties until you have run the Calculation Engine.

Figure 5.3

The master view for old style input is shown in the above figure. Using
this view, Physical Property information can be supplied in a number of
ways.

You can:
• Input Stream Properties directly. You can either type them, or
import them from a PSF file. See Section 5.6 - Importing
Properties and Process Data.
• Identify data from a User Databank. The calculation engine will
read data from this databank when it runs.
• For a single component stream, get the data directly from the
NEL40 Databank supplied with the program.
• Tell the program the stream components and composition, and
get it to calculate the properties.

5-11
5-12 Properties Data Input (Old Style)

The Data Source item on the main Physical Properties input view
allows you to select the various options. You should also set the Phase
before supplying further data. A two-phase stream means that it can be
either single phase or two phase, depending on the temperature.

If you have previously set up properties data using COMThermo, or the


corresponding direct input (see Section 5.2 - Properties Input), you will
see the Data Source set to Approximately. You can change the Data
Source to Direct Input, and view and edit the properties data, but you
will not be able to access it again using the main Properties Input.

5.3.1 Input Directly


If you set the Data Source to Input Directly, you can then click on the
Property Table button to open a view, shown in the figure below, where
you can enter the properties.

Figure 5.4

If you have previously imported data from a PSF file, you will be able to
see what you have imported.

5-12
Physical Properties 5-13

You need to specify the properties indicated above for one or both
phases. For Two-phase streams you also supply T-h-x data. Although
you can supply data at up to 24 temperature points, this is potentially
tedious if you are typing the data in, and you are most likely to use this
method when you have only one or two data points available, for
example at an exchanger inlet and outlet.

You can use different sets of temperatures for the Liquid, Two-phase
(Enthalpy + Quality) and Vapour Properties. You should normally fill in
the data tables from the left, without leaving gaps, though this is not
strictly necessary.

For Single Phase streams, T-h-x data are not usually input, as they can
be found by integrating specific heats. If, however, you do want to input
Enthalpies for a Single Phase stream, click on Show T-h-x, and that T-h-
x part of the input table will become available.

Heat Load data, rather than Specific Enthalpies, can be specified. If you
supply a heat load, you must also specify the flow rate to which it relates.

You can supply Compressibilities instead of Vapour densities. Select the


appropriate radio button to specify this option.

The rules for direct property input are as defined in Section 5.2.3 - Rules
for Direct Property Input. The additional facilities available under Old
Style input are as follows.

5.3.2 User Databank


If you have previously set up data in a user databank, then when you set
Data Source to User Databank, you will see a list of the datasets in this
bank under the Code drop-down list. All you need to do is select which
of them you want. This is a deprecated feature, which may not be
available in future versions of HTFS programs. See Section 5.5 -
Property Databanks for more information.

5-13
5-14 Properties Data Input (Old Style)

5.3.3 Single Component Stream from NEL40


HTFS programs come with a 40-component databank called NEL40. If
your stream is a single component in this bank, all you have to do is
identify the component in the Code drop-down list. For more
information on NEL40, see Section 5.5 - Property Databanks.

5.3.4 Components: Calculation of the Properties


of a Mixture
You must specify the Mixture Composition (mass or molar) and identify
the Components. The program will calculate a full set of Stream
Properties. The methods used are not as advanced as in Process
Simulators or specialist properties software packages. See Section 5.4 -
Mixture Calculations (Old Style) for more information.

In summary, when using Old Style input:


• If the stream is a pure Component: use the NEL40 databank if
possible.
• If someone has prepared the properties in electronic form (PSF
File or User Databank), use that.
• If the properties have been calculated, input the data.
• Failing any of these, if you know the Composition, get the
program to calculate the Properties of the mixture.

5-14
Physical Properties 5-15

5.4 Mixture Calculations (Old Style)


Mixture calculations determine the properties of a stream given its
components and composition. If the stream is two phase, then VLE
(vapour liquid equilibrium) calculations must be performed to
determine the bubble and dew point temperatures and the
compositions of the individual phases at intermediate temperatures.
Given the phase compositions, mixing rules can be applied to
determine each stream property from the corresponding component
properties.

With the Old Style input, mixture calculations are performed when the
calculation engines run.

From the main Properties input view, set the Data Source for the stream
concerned to Components, and then click on the Specify Mixture
button.

The Specify Mixture view, see the figure below, lets you define the
temperature range over which mixture properties should be calculated,
or amend the calculation methods or results.

Figure 5.5

5-15
5-16 Mixture Calculations (Old Style)

For a Two Phase stream, you can select the method to be used for VLE
calculations, SRK or Ideal. There is also a facility called T-h-x Override,
whereby you can control the results of the VLE calculations. At the basic
level, you can simply specify all the temperatures at which you want the
calculations performed. You can also request that any calculated bubble
and dew points (temperatures and optionally enthalpies), be modified
to conform to pre-set values. More information on all these options is
given in the Help Text, accessible by using the Help button at the bottom
of the view.

All the inputs on the Specify Mixture view are optional, but you must
use it to access the Define Components and Define Compositions
views, via the appropriate buttons.

From the Define Components view, see figure below, you can identify
each component, and where data for it is to be obtained.

Figure 5.6

Click on Add Component until the correct number are identified. The
number should be the total number of components in all such mixtures.
If the same component occurs in more than one stream, it need only be
counted once. There is no need to include those components which
only occur in pure component streams.

If your components are in NEL40, select this as the component Data


Source, and identify the component in the Code drop-down list. If you
have the DIPPR databank, you can select from this similarly.

5-16
Physical Properties 5-17

You can also select from a User Databank of component data (if you
have set one up previously), or you can choose to Input Directly.
Selecting Input Directly as the Data Source enables the Property Table
button. If clicked the view for direct input of component properties is
opened. The properties needed for each component are similar to those
required for a stream, but the Liquid Properties are saturation line
values, and the Vapour Properties are ideal gas values, that is values in
the low pressure limit.

Each component can be identified as Liquid only, Vapour only, or Two


Phase. It is normally safe to leave the components set to Two Phase, but
if a stream is Single Phase, you can obviate the need for VLE calculations
by specifying all the components to be Single Phase as well. For a Two
Phase stream you can specify some of the components (incondensibles)
as Vapour-only, but not as Liquid-only. With the SRK method, (see later)
it is best to leave all components set as Two Phase.

When you have defined components, click on the Specify Composition


button on the Define Components view or back on the Specify Mixture
view. On the Compositions view, see figure below, enter the
compositions, as fractions, flows or percentages. Identify whether you
are supplying Mass or Molar values.

Figure 5.7

5-17
5-18 Property Databanks

5.5 Property Databanks


The program contains two databanks for physical properties
COMThermo and NEL40.

The COMThermo databank contains data for over 1000 substances, and
is accessible via the User Interface to set up tables of Physical Properties
data as part of the program input. To see the list of substances in
COMThermo, go to the Physical Properties input view, and click on Add
in the Data Source group.

The NEL40 databank contains data for 40 commonly used compounds,


and is part of the calculation engine. The input file used by the
calculation engine is given the stream components and composition,
but properties are not generated until the calculation engine is run. To
see the list of substances in NEL40, go to the Physical Properties (old
style) input view, set the Data Source to single component from NEL40
and look in the Code drop-down list.

The COMThermo databank includes software for performing vapour


liquid equilibrium (VLE) and mixture calculations, using a variety of
methods. This includes interaction parameters appropriate to each of
the methods offered. In principle the COMThermo package can be
linked to a variety of Properties databanks, but as supplied with HTFS
programs, only the Hyprotech databank is available.

The NEL40 databank does not in itself contain any methods for VLE
calculations, though it does do mixture calculations when phase
compositions are known. A VLE facility for use with NEL40 is provided
within the HTFS Physical Properties Package (PPP), but it is not as
extensive as the facilities offered with COMThermo.

Properties from COMThermo will depend on the equation of state used


in the properties method selected, even for pure components.
Differences in properties of a few percent may be found between
COMThermo and NEL40 in comparisons for compounds which are in
both. This may reflect uncertainties in known values of properties, or
differences in the equations of state used.

5-18
Physical Properties 5-19

For viscosities and thermal conductivities NEL40 can be more accurate


for pure components. For two phase mixtures this advantage may be
offset with the superior phase composition accuracy achievable with
COMThermo.

One case where NEL40 may be more reliable than COMThermo is for
water, since NEL40 always uses an accurate water/steam package.
Differences are only likely to be significant at high pressures. The HTFS
interface to COMThermo therefore contains a facility for Water from
NEL40, which may be used instead of setting a Data Source for water
from COMThermo itself.

There is a similar facility for air, which appears in NEL40, though it is


now also available in COMThermo.

The DIPPR databank (which you may have purchased separately)


contains the properties of over 1000 substances. It does not contain
mixing rules. It can be used for components, which are liquids or
vapours. It contains data on some solids as well, but the available HTFS
mixing rules cannot predict the properties of solutions of these solids.

You can set up a User Databank with the properties of any components,
which you may frequently need to access, but which are not in NEL40.
The structure of the databank is very similar to that of the Component
blocks of an Input file. The Help Text gives full details. In general it is
preferable to use COMThermo, rather than setting up such a User
Databank.

You can also set up a User Databank containing the properties of


streams. The User Interface lets you add the properties of any stream to
such a databank. Use the Output to Databank checkbox on the
Properties Output Options view (via the main Properties input view).
You are advised to run the program first without this checkbox set, to
ensure that the stream properties produced are acceptable. Then re-run
the program with the checkbox set. Make sure that the stream has a
meaningful name you will recognise in future. When you have put one
or more sets of stream data in the userbank, on subsequent runs you can
select User Databank as the Data Source on the main Properties input
view using the Code drop-down list, select from among the previously
established data.

5-19
5-20 Importing Properties and Process Data

The User Databanks of stream and component data are files. Specify
their location by selecting File-Preferences from the menu bar and
specifying the information on the Files tab in the Preferences view.
Although still available, User Databanks of both stream and component
data are now deprecated features, which will not necessarily be
supported in future HTFS releases.

5.6 Importing Properties and


Process Data
There are three ways you can import properties and process data into
the case you are running:
• Import a PSF file (set up by a Process Simulator).
• Import from HYSYS (if this is available).
• Generate and Import a PSF setup using your company’s own
physical properties software while you are using this HTFS
program (if an interface has been written).

5.6.1 Importing PSF Files


PSF files are files containing process and/or property information for
one or more streams. They can be generated by Process Simulators, and
have the file extension *.PSF. It is normally best to import PSF data
before entering any other process or properties data.

The data from a PSF file go directly into your input file. The import
facility can be opened via either the Input or the File menus. The first
step is to identify the particular PSF file from which you want to import
data. You will then be taken to the Import PSF Data view.

5-20
Physical Properties 5-21

Figure 5.8

If the PSF file has been prepared specifically for the exchanger you are
interested in, you may simply be able to click on OK. You can, however,
use the Import PSF Data view to direct only part of the information
from a PSF file into the input file.

You can:
• View the stream Names, Number and Inlet/Outlet
Temperatures in the file.
• Import data for some streams but not others.
• Import Process data, or only Property data, or both.
• Import data at any selection of pressure levels (PSF files often
contain properties data at the Inlet, Outlet and Mean Pressures in
the exchanger).
• Change the stream Number when you import data.

The Import facility shows you the stream names and inlet/outlet
temperatures in the PSF file. The temperature units of the display can be
reset by selecting a different unit from the drop-down list located at the
top right corner of the view.

The PSF file itself is largely in basic SI units, and when imported to the
input file the data can be viewed in whatever units have been set for
process and property data.

The Import To column shows the Stream Number to which data will be
imported. This is initially set to the Stream Number from the PSF file,
but you can reset it to a different number if you want, or if it is necessary
for the program. You can set it to ignore, enabling you to import data for

5-21
5-22 Importing Properties and Process Data

only one stream (or fewer than all the streams for multi-stream
exchangers). You cannot set two stream numbers to be the same.

The Use Properties column lets you select which pressure levels in a PSF
file to use for Properties data. If there are data for three pressure levels,
you can select two (upper and lower), one (middle level), or you can opt
for a special selection.

If you want to import the properties data but not the process data, click
on Separate Process and Properties, and you will see that the Import To
column is divided in two. The left part relates to Process data, the right
part to Properties. You can set either one to Ignore, so that only the
other is imported.

Normally, when you import Process and/or Properties data for a stream,
any data you have already entered for that stream is overwritten. You
can however, cause the Properties data to be added to any data
currently present, provided that it relates to a different pressure. Use the
PSF file layout and contents Merge with Existing Data checkbox.
are defined in the Help Text.

Click on OK to transfer the Process/Properties data selected from the


PSF file to the input file. Select Input-Process or Properties (old style)
from the menu bar to see what has been imported.

5-22
Physical Properties 5-23

5.7 Importing from HYSYS


If you can run the HYSYS Process simulator on your computer, you can
select an exchanger in a HYSYS case, and import the data directly into
your HTFS program. The exchanger can also be a HYSYS LNG block,
when appropriate.

The Import from HYSYS facility is in TASC, ACOL, MUSE and APLE. It is
not in FIHR, PIPE or FRAN. It is clearly only directly useful when the
HTFS program is for equipment corresponding to a HYSYS exchanger.

Select Input-Import from HYSYS or File-Import from HYSYS from the


menu bar and you will be presented with a view to select an existing
HYSYS case.

HYSYS will start, load the chosen case, and the import interface will
generate a list of all heat exchangers within that case.

You can select an exchanger, and for each stream in that exchanger, the
temperatures and pressures will be shown.

Figure 5.9

You can revise the temperatures and pressures. If you then select OK,
HYSYS will perform the flashes needed to generate the data for a PSF
file. You can then review and select from the data as for a normal PSF
import.

5-23
5-24 Importing from Properties Package

5.8 Importing from


Properties Package
There is an option for importing properties and process data by
accessing your company’s own physical properties software while you
are running an HTFS program. If this facility has been made available,
the Import from Other Package command under the File menu will be
active.

When you select this option, you are asked to provide input on stream
inlet/outlet conditions, stream compositions and components, and
possibly also on the methods to be used, and the temperature/pressure
range of data to be set up. When you have supplied the necessary
information, a PSF file will be generated, and you will be taken to the
PSF import facility, where you can opt to import the data you have
created into the input file of your HTFS program.

To set up a facility to import data from your company’s own physical


properties software you must write an interface to this property package
and register it so that your HTFS program will recognise it. You must
create an executable with project name Properties Package and a class
name PSFFileGen.

The Help Text provides detailed information on the structure of the


interface, and on the contents of the PSF file it must generate.

5-24
Physical Properties 5-25

5.9 Properties Output


The Physical Properties Package can be used to generate two types of
output. The first is in file format, the second in Windows format. All the
output relates to tables of property values which are set up at the
beginning of the program, and subsequently interpolated during heat
transfer and pressure drop calculations. In addition to these two types of
output, all the properties method information relating to how you set up
any COMThermo properties is recorded when you save the program
input file.

The first type of output can be either held in a separate file, or directed
to the main Lineprinter file. The separate file is the default. If you want it
in the main Lineprinter output, or turned off, select this on the Output
Options view, this view can be opened by selecting Input-Options from
the menu bar.

Putting the Physical Properties output in the Lineprinter file means


that you will be able to see it in the Full Results output, in programs with
this facility.

The contents of the file format Physical Properties output can be set via
the Properties Output Options view. The Properties Output Options
view is accessible from the main Physical Properties (old style) input
view. The output is in four parts:
• Input data for each stream/pressure level.
• Table of properties for each stream/pressure level.
• Stream/phase compositions for each stream/pressure level.
• Table of properties for each component.

The third and fourth items are only relevant where mixture calculations
have been performed. Only the second item is produced by default. See
the Help Text for more information on the contents of the various parts
of the output. A further option, accessible via Output, lets you output
stream data to a stream properties databank (see Section 5.5 - Property
Databanks).

The second type of Physical Properties Package output, in Windows


format, is not yet available in all HTFS programs. When it is available,
you will see Stream Properties and T-h-x as Output menu commands.

5-25
5-26 Pressure Dependence

Stream Properties gives the properties of each phase in both tabular


and graphical forms. The graphical form has a range of options. The
default is to plot all properties relative to their maximum value, so you
can immediately see if any property does not have a smooth variation.
This can be very useful for identifying typographical errors if you have
input the properties data yourself.

T-h-x gives tabular or graphical presentations of the temperature,


specific enthalpy and quality (vapour mass fraction) for each stream.
The graphical version also shows a set of interpolated points, so that you
can see the way properties data (input or calculated) is interpreted when
it is interpolated during heat transfer calculations.

5.10 Pressure Dependence


The effect of pressure on properties is most likely to be significant in the
changes it produces in vapour density, and in dew and bubble points,
which may be important when there is a close temperature approach
between streams. Allowing for pressure dependence is optional in most
HTFS programs

The normal way of ensuring pressure dependence is allowed for is to


provide properties data at two pressure levels.

If you are using the program to calculate stream properties for a mixture
of known composition, then it is very simple to define two pressure
levels in the properties input. This normally happens by default when
you are using COMThermo. If you are using Physical Properties (old
style) input you will need to use the Add Pressure key. You must then
specify the pressure for each level (if you only have one level, you can
use a default pressure). You should select the pressures to span the range
expected in the exchanger.

You can specify data at more than two pressure levels for a stream. This
is unlikely to be necessary if the stream pressure change is less than 30%
of the (absolute) inlet pressure.

When data are available at only one pressure, the PPP can, if specified,
estimate an allowance for pressure dependence, using the Clausius
Clapeyron equation. This will be less accurate for wide boiling range

5-26
Physical Properties 5-27

mixtures. To allow for pressure dependence in such cases, use the


checkbox on the main Physical Properties (old style) input view.

If you are supplying pre-calculated properties data at two pressures, you


should use specific enthalpies, not heat loads, and ensure that the
enthalpies have a consistent zero.

If the properties data you have available are not isobaric data, but
contain some inherent pressure dependence, for example from inlet to
outlet, then in many cases you can use this data with relatively minor
inaccuracies. You should not select Pressure Dependence in such cases.
Data with an inherent pressure dependence are, however, not
acceptable for two-phase streams that are pure substances, or
azeotropes, or for which the change in saturation temperature due to
pressure changes is comparable with, or larger than, the isobaric boiling
range.

5-27
5-28 Pressure Dependence

5-28
Other Facilities 6-1

6 Other Facilities

6.1 Overview...........................................................................................3

6.2 The Setting Plan...............................................................................3


6.2.1 The Tube Layout Drawing.........................................................5

6.3 The Costing Package.......................................................................6

6.4 The Word Specification Sheet ........................................................8

6.5 The Lowfin Tube Databank .............................................................9

6.6 Project File Structure ....................................................................10

6-1
6-2 Other Facilities

6-2
Other Facilities 6-3

6.1 Overview
This chapter introduces you to some of the other features that are
available with TASC Thermal.

6.2 The Setting Plan


The Setting Plan is accessible from the Output menu. It is a scale
drawing of the exchanger, with some basic dimensions showing overall
exchanger size and the location of nozzles and shell supports. See the
figure below.

Figure 6.1

If you have TASC Mechanical and call up its Setting Plan, the
dimensions shown are based on the full mechanical design of the
exchanger. If you open the TASC Thermal Setting Plan, the diagram
dimensions originate from two sources. Some will come from TASC

6-3
6-4 The Setting Plan

Thermal: the supplied values, TASC defaults, or from the results of a


Thermal Design Calculation. Other dimensions will be based on
estimates generated by the Setting Plan package. Features such as
channel size, flange thicknesses and shell supports, which are not
needed in thermal calculations, are generated by this package.

Figure 6.2

Revisions made using the Setting Plan only affect the Setting Plan
display, and do not affect your TASC input. You must go back to the
TASC Input, make the corresponding revisions and re-run TASC
calculations if you want to see the consequences on exchanger
performance of modifying dimensions in the exchanger.

The Setting Plan can be exported as a DXF file. For instructions on how
to do this, and further details about the package, consult the Help Text
of the Setting Plan.

A miniaturised version of the exchanger diagram from the Setting Plan


will appear on the TEMA Output Sheet.

6-4
Other Facilities 6-5

6.2.1 The Tube Layout Drawing


The Tube Layout Drawing is accessible from the Output menu. It is a
scaled drawing of the Tube Layout that was created when TASC Thermal
was run.

Figure 6.3

As this is an Output view you cannot make any changes to the drawing.
If you want to make changes you will have to do so by going to the
Bundle Layout input form, and select the Use Layout for Input option,
before you have edit access to the Tube Layout diagram. Any changes
made can then be taken into account in the thermal calculations, when
TASC is Run.

The Tube Layout drawing can be printed, copied to the Clipboard, or


saved as a DXF file.

6-5
6-6 The Costing Package

6.3 The Costing Package


The Costing Package view The HTFS Costing Package view helps you obtain a budget cost for a
contains a variety of input
views that let you customise
shell and tube exchanger early in the design process. The values in the
the cost algorithms. Costing Package view are based on the results calculated by TASC, so
this view is normally used after you have run TASC calculations.

The Costing Package view is To access the Costing Package view, select Output-Costing Package
equipped with its own Help
from the menu bar. The figure below shows the view.
Text and should be consulted
for more detailed information.
Figure 6.4

The calculations results appear on the Cost Summary tab of the Costing
Package, along with data imported from TASC. You can modify the
imported data, or re-customise the cost factors to explore the effect of
design on costs.

Costs are determined by separating the exchanger into a set of


components (or component groups), and summing the Materials Costs
and Labour Costs. The cost of each component group is based on the
size of the exchanger, which is imported from the host program (e.g.,
TASC), the Design Pressure, the component material and any cladding,
if applicable.

6-6
Other Facilities 6-7

The package contains tables of cost data for various components, based
on Carbon Steel, and then cost factors are applied to allow for other
materials. You can change these cost factors to allow for current market
conditions. Add other Adjustment Factors for each component group to
customise the costs for your company, and to allow for inflation. These
customisation factors may be saved to a file for future use, and should
be periodically adjusted to reflect changing costs.

Exchanger costs are, of course, sensitive to Materials Costs and market


conditions, and will differ between regions and countries. Using the
package in its basic form will only give a very approximate budget cost.
If you customise the package you can improve its relevance to your
company. Even if you do not customise it, the Costing Package can be
useful in showing the relative costs of two possible designs.

Methods in the Costing Package are different from the much simpler
relative cost algorithms used to compare designs in the core TASC
program, and are not intended to replace them.

6-7
6-8 The Word Specification Sheet

6.4 The Word Specification Sheet


The Word Specification Sheet can be used if you have Microsoft® Word
for Windows (Word 6 or higher). The Word Template
(TEMAWW60.DOT) supplied has a standard TEMA type layout,
equivalent to what you see in the TASC internal TEMA Input/Output
sheet.

To access the Preferences Before using the Word Specification Sheet you must specify the location
view, select File-Preferences
from the menu bar.
of the relevant WINWORD.EXE file in your TASC Preferences. In the
Preferences view, go to the tab marked Word and specify the path of the
WINWORD.EXE file of the version of Word you are using in the Word
Processor group. You can also select the Template file (extension *.DOT)
to be used by specifying the path in the Tema Sheet Template group.

After running TASC calculations, open the Word Specification Sheet by


selecting Output-Word Spec Sheet from the menu bar. The Word
template is opened, which you can edit and/or save as a *.DOC,
specifying the file name and location.

You can edit the template to contain information relevant to your


company. It can be translated into a different language, if required. If
you do so, it is a good idea to save the new template with a different
name, keeping the original template on file. You can create multiple
templates, and select from among them when you run TASC. Use the
To access the Preferences Word tab in the Preferences view to set the template to be used.
view, select File-Preferences
from the menu bar.
The templates contain Bookmarks. TASC uses OLE automation transfer
data calculated and/or held within the TASC User Interface to the Word
file. The Bookmarks can be re-arranged or deleted. You cannot modify
them or add new ones. See your Word manual for more information.

6-8
Other Facilities 6-9

6.5 The Lowfin Tube Databank


To specify a Lowfin Tube in the input data:
1. Open the Bundle Geometry property view.
2. On the Tube Details tab, set the Tube Type to Lowfin Tubes and
specify the tube outside diameter and (minimum) wall thickness.
3. Open the Enhanced Surfaces property view by selecting Input-
Enhanced Surfaces from the menu bar.
4. Click on the Lowfin Tube (as input or from bank) drop-down list.

You will see a list of the fins in the Lowfin databank. This is in the
form of a code, identifying the fins per inch, fin thickness and fin
height. See the Help Text for more information.

The Lowfin data bank is a text file, LOWFIN.TXT, which is supplied with
TASC. You can make additions to the bank, using the same format as the
included items. The first item in the bank as supplied has explanatory
text at the side. Each fin requires a unique identification number, in the
range 2001 to 2999. Identify the fins per inch, together with the fin pitch,
height and thickness. You should then identify the tube diameters for
which the fin is available and the range of wall thicknesses for each tube,
if possible. Any such data should come from a tube manufacturer.

6-9
6-10 Project File Structure

6.6 Project File Structure


A TASC Project is initially set up as an input file. The various files are
outlined in the following table.

File Name Description


name.TAI Where name is the name of the Project. After you have run the
project, some or all the following files will also have been set up.
name.TAF The so-called Intout file, containing all the main input and results.
The format of this file is described in Intout.doc in the
\TOOLS\TASC\INTOUT Directory on the HTFS Software CD. All the
TASC Results views, which you can view under Output, take data
from this file. You can use this file as a source of information for in-
house software.
name.TAL The Lineprinter output file.
name.TAT The 80-column output file.
name.TAE The Error/Warning Messages file.
name.TAV The Brief Summary output file.
name.TAP The Physical Properties output file.

When you Run calculations from the User Interface, most of the project
output files are set up by default. You are able to switch off some of the
files by using the features available in the Options view.
1. Access the Options view by selecting Input-Options from the menu
bar.
2. On the Options view, go to the Output Options tab.
3. The Output Options tab contains drop-down lists controlling these
outputs.

You cannot switch off the *.TAF file, which is needed for the main Output
views, or the Error/Warning log.

The file extension *.TAA is used for an edited copy of the input data. This
is the version stored internally by the User Interface, which you can run
without saving. If you save the file, the main input, name.TAI is updated.
The *.TAA file is not saved when TASC is shut down.

6-10
Examples 7-1

7 Examples

7.1 Overview...........................................................................................3

7.2 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater ........................................4


7.2.1 Start Up View ...........................................................................5
7.2.2 Entering the Data .....................................................................6
7.2.3 Running the TASC Calculations .............................................11
7.2.4 Examining the Results............................................................12
7.2.5 What next? .............................................................................15

7.3 Debutanizer Overhead Condenser...............................................16


7.3.1 Enter the Data ........................................................................17
7.3.2 Run TASC Thermal ................................................................21
7.3.3 Examining the Results............................................................22

7.4 Kettle Reboiler ...............................................................................23


7.4.1 Enter the Data ........................................................................25
7.4.2 Examining the Results............................................................29

7.5 Falling Film Evaporator .................................................................31


7.5.1 Enter the data.........................................................................33
7.5.2 Examining the Results............................................................35

7.6 Feed Effluent Train ........................................................................37


7.6.1 Examining the Results............................................................42

7.7 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler .................................................45


7.7.1 Enter the Data ........................................................................48
7.7.2 Examining the Results............................................................53

7.8 Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler.............................................54

7-1
7-2 Examples

7-2
Examples 7-3

7.1 Overview
The following examples will guide you through a number of cases in
order to illustrate some of the typical problems, which TASC can help
you solve:
1. High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater (Example BG1), BES unit,
single phase on both sides, Design case, SI units. Use of the TEMA
Input Sheet.
2. Debutanizer Overhead Condenser (Example BG2), BEM unit,
condensing with inerts on shellside, Rating (Checking) case,
British/American Customary units.
3. Kettle Reboiler (Example BG3), CKU, evaporating Hexane,
Simulation case.
4. Falling Film Evaporator (Example BG4), AEL, single component
evaporation, Rating (Checking) case.
5. Feed Effluent Train (Example BG5), boiling and condensing multi-
components with inerts, multiple shells in series, multipass, Design
case.
6. Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler (in-tube) specification of
exchanger, pipework and heights.
7. Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler (G-shell).

In a number of these examples you will be shown views of input and


results views. Since TASC is continually being updated, when you run
your version of TASC, you may find that certain details of the screen
layout you see, or of the numerical values on your screen, differ from
those shown in this manual. If you want to check detailed numerical
values, use the QA files supplied with the program. See Chapter 2 - QA
Examples from the Getting Started.

The table below summarises the main features of each example.

Example # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Design x x
Checking (Rating) x x
Simulation x
Thermosyphon x x
Shell Type E E K E E E G
No. of Shells in Series 1 1 1 1 7 1 1

7-3
7-4 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater

Example # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Vertical/Horizontal Units H H H V H V H
Single Phase Unit x
Condenser x x x
Reboiler/Evaporator x x x x x
Single Component x x x
Multi-Component x x x x

7.2 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater


Heater
This example utilises SI units. An exchanger is required for pre-heating water, using the heat in a hot
light oil. The design is to be based on a 304 Stainless Steel TEMA class
"R" BES unit with plain tubes, 19.05 mm outside diameter, 2.11 mm wall
thickness, 25.4 mm pitch on a 30 degree layout. Single segmental baffles
with up and over flow. The process data is given in the following table:

Light Oil Boiler Feed Water


Process Data Shellside Tubeside
Hot Stream Cold Stream
Total Mass Flow [kg/h] 284000 59100
Inlet Temperature [C] 213 50
Outlet Temperature [C] 167 167
Inlet Pressure [bar] 12 50
Allowable Pressure Drop [bar] 1.5 1
Fouling Resistance [m2K/W] 0.000528 0.000088

The physical property data for the Light Oil (hot stream) is given in the
following table:

Physical Property Point 1 Point 2


Temperature [C] 213 167
Density [kg/m3] 880 910
Specific Heat [kJ/kgK] 2.34 2.18
Viscosity [cP] 1.94 3.37
Thermal Conductivity [W/mK] 0.100 0.107

7-4
Examples 7-5

This example uses Design mode to illustrate the use of the interactive
TEMA sheet and introduce some of the output features. As this is the
first example it will lead you through the data input in some detail.

As well as the Interactive TEMA Sheet (used for input and output), there
is also a second TEMA Sheet available via the Output menu which uses
Microsoft Word to allow you to view the data and gives you the full
functionality of Microsoft Word to customise the layout of the results.

7.2.1 Start Up View


1. Start up TASC (see Section 3.2 - Input Views).
2. Click the New button on the Welcome view and the Start up view
will appear, as shown in the figure below.

Figure 7.1

The first item on this view is Calculation Mode. As the default setting is
Design, it need not be changed for this example.
3. The Basic Input Mode checkbox should be checked for this
example. When checked, the number of available input options is
reduced, which will simplify things if you are a new user.

Some of the other examples Basic Mode does not affect the calculations performed when you run
include options, which cannot
be seen in Basic Mode. TASC.

7-5
7-6 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater

When you have seen the input views in Basic Mode, you can close these
views, return to the Start up property view and de-activate the Basic
Input Mode checkbox. On returning to the other input views, you will
see the other optional inputs.
4. Next, you should enter an equipment item number and job title:

Field Input
Equipment Item Number BG1
Job Title HP Boiler Feedwater Heater

5. Click on OK to proceed and the first page of the Exchanger


Geometry Data property view will appear.

7.2.2 Entering the Data


Some important defaults have already been set, or will be assumed
when you run TASC unless specified otherwise:
• A single horizontal carbon steel shell
• Plain, carbon steel
• 19.05mm (3/4 inch) od tubes
• 2.11 mm thick
• 30 degree layout
• 25.4mm (1inch) pitch
• Normal layout (e.g., with entrance and exit areas near the
nozzles)
• Designs will be explored for a single shell with up to 16 passes,
and with a tube length up to 6069 mm (20 ft)
• Single segmental baffles, with a horizontal cut

The Design calculation will determine the shell length and diameter, the
nozzle sizes, the number of tubes and passes, the number of baffles and
baffle cut. Other details such as shell and head type, baffle type, tube
type and layout will remain as initially set. If you have any special
requirements, you will need to review these items.

7-6
Examples 7-7

Some items still need to be set. You will see that Side for the Hot Stream
is Not Yet Set so you must specify the hot side.
1. Define the fields in the Exchanger Geometry view as detailed in the
following table:

Field Input
Front End Head Type TEMA B
Rear End Head Type TEMA S
Side for Hot Stream Shell-side Hot

If you have a case where the All other information can be left at their default settings.
stream allocation is not clear,
TASC makes it easy to try 2. Click on OK to save the data and close the form.
both in Design mode. You
simply change the Side for As an alternative to using the standard input views, there is an
Hot Stream setting and re-
run. interactive TEMA input sheet that for simple cases will allow you to
enter the data and see the results.
3. Select Input-TEMA Input from the menu bar. See Figure 7.2 for a
view of the TEMA sheet.

Units are always the same For this example, the input units should be set to SI. If you want to
across a case(i.e., length is
always mm or inches whether change from Metric or British/American Customary then select Units
for tube diameter or tube from the menu options at the top of the TEMA Specification Sheet and
length). click on the unit set with which you want to work.

The SI, British/American and Metric units of input and output used by
HTFS are not the pure units but a more convenient set (e.g., SI flowrate
in kg/h not kg/s, SI/Metric length in mm not m, viscosity in cP for all sets
of units).

In order to make the sheet easier to read you can use the functions in the
View menu to enlarge or zoom into areas of the sheet.

Help may be obtained at any Data can be entered on the TEMA Sheet in any of the areas marked light
time by placing the cursor on
an item and pressing F1.
blue (this is the default colour - if you have changed your Windows
colour scheme it may be different). The data in this sheet are linked to
the normal data input property views in TASC, and vice versa, so either
method of input can be used at any time (the next example illustrates
the use of the main input property views). As you move the cursor
around the sheet you will find in some cases drop-down lists become
available. You may also enter data in grey fields but these data are not
necessary for a run of TASC - they are treated simply as comments.

7-7
7-8 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater

You now need to enter the remaining data for this case.
4. Look at the TEMA Type on line 6. If you have not already set B E S,
you can click on these items (there are three separate drop-down
lists) to set them.
5. For the shellside (hot oil) enter the following information.

Field Input
Fluid Name Hot Oil
Fluid Quantity [kg/h] 284000
Temperature In [C] 213
Temperature Out [C] 167
Inlet Pressure [bar abs] 12
The Allowable Pressure Allowable Pressure Drop [bar] 1.5
Drop for both the shellside
Fouling Resistance [m2K/W] 0.000528
and tubeside streams will
change to the calculated
pressure drop once TASC has 6. For the tubeside (water) enter the following information.
performed its calculations.

Field Input
Fluid Name Boiler Water Feed
Fluid Quantity - Total [kg/h] 59100
Temperature In [C] 50
Temperature Out [C] 167
Inlet Pressure [bar abs] 50
Allowable Pressure Drop [bar] 1.0
The Fouling Resistance of Fouling Resistance [m2K/W] 0.000088
the tubeside stream will
change when TASC has
calculated the results, since
all output coefficients relate to
the tube outside diameter.

7-8
Examples 7-9

The figure below shows the portion of the TEMA sheet with the specified
data:

Figure 7.2

You have now completed entering the data via the TEMA Sheet, so it can
be closed.

You still have some additional information to specify to complete the


case. This can be done by using the standard input property views.

There are two possible ways to view the input items. The default method
is by the HTFS Data Browser view, which is a new feature in TASC v5.10.
The alternative method uses tabbed forms which are referred to
throughout this guide. You access these tabbed forms directly as shown
in the guide, by toggling the Browser command off under the View
menu. However you may find it more convenient to leave the Browser
on. The tabbed forms can then be reached in the HTFS Data Browser
view by selecting the appropriate tree path in the tree browser.

7-9
7-10 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater

With the HTFS Data Browser, the Apply and OK buttons are no longer
necessary. These both occur automatically when you move from one
page/input form to another, or in general when you leave a page/input
form.

When not in Basic Input 7. From the main menu bar select Input-Exchanger Geometry. This
Mode, the Exchanger provides a property view with two tabs.
Geometry property view
consists of four tabs.
On each property view, input data is accepted by moving to another tab,
by clicking on Apply or on OK (which also closes the form), or by closing
the form. If you click Cancel, it will lose any newly entered data on the
currently visible tab, and close that property view.

8. Specify as a material 304 Stainless Steel (the default would be


Carbon Steel). Click on the Material Properties tab and select 304
Stainless from the Tube Material drop-down list.
9. Click OK to save the data and close the form

You must now specify the physical properties of the fluids.


The hot key SHIFT F12 will also 10. Select Input-Physical Properties from the main menu bar. You will
open the Physical Property
see a form with two tabs, one for the Hot Stream and the other for
Data view.
the Cold Stream.

Physical properties can also be entered via the Physical Properties (Old
Style) input views.

11. Select Direct Input as the stream data source.


12. On the Hot Stream tab enter the property data as shown in the table
below.

Physical Property Point 1 Point 2


Temperature [C] 213 167
Density [kg/m3] 880 910
Specific Heat [kJ/kgK] 2.34 2.18
Viscosity [cP] 1.94 3.37
Thermal Conductivity [W/mK] 0.100 0.107

These values are associated with pressure level 1. As there is no data


for pressure level 2 delete the pressure from the pressure level table.

7-10
Examples 7-11

13. Select the Cold Stream tab.


14. Select Water (NEL40) as the stream data source.
15. Close the form.

You have now entered all the data and should save this in case you want
to use it again in the future.
16. From the main menu bar, select File-Save (or Save As). This will
then present a standard Windows File form.
You only need to input BG1 17. Change the directory if you want and then change the default name
when saving your case. The
extension.TAI is always used
to BG1.TAI and click OK.
for TASC input files, and is
added automatically.

7.2.3 Running the TASC Calculations


Pressing F4 will also initiate 1. From the main menu bar select Run-Calculate All.
the TASC calculations.
TASC will check the data supplied for consistency, correct any minor
errors where possible and start the Design calculation. It will show
where it has reached at any time within the run view that appears.
2. On completion, the Summary view will automatically open. If there
have been any problems an Error/Message Log view will also
appear.

The TASC Design logic will attempt to optimise the heat transfer against
the allowable pressure drop on both the shell and tube sides. It also has
built in heuristic rules that will stop it searching once it realises that
further calculations are pointless. As a general rule TASC will attempt to
design small diameter single pass exchangers before increasing the tube
length, shell diameter, number of passes and number of shells.

7-11
7-12 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater

7.2.4 Examining the Results


Output from the program can be obtained from the Output menu or
from the interactive TEMA Sheet.
1. Select Output-TEMA Spec Sheet from the menu bar. The sheet will
now show input data and results. The figure below shows the top
half of the sheet.

Figure 7.3

The scroll bars can be used to move down the sheet. The units used can
be changed by selecting the required units from the Units menu item.
The sheet can also be printed via the File menu.

7-12
Examples 7-13

2. Double-click on the Setting Plan picture on the specification sheet,


to enlarge the picture, as shown in the figure below. This allows it to
be printed, saved to the clipboard or output to a DXF file for use
with AUTOCAD.

Figure 7.4

The main Output menu offers a range of options:

Output Menu Options Description


Thermal Results Gives details of heat transfer coefficients, pressure drops
Summary etc. and the over/under surface ratio. This is the
calculated actual area compared with the required area.
In Design mode this will be equal to or just greater than
1.0. It also provides details of the exchanger geometry
and lists flowrates and temperatures etc.
Full Results Displays all the input, output of results and messages
from the program and includes an index to jump to each
section.
Nozzles Gives details of the shellside and tubeside nozzles.
Integration Along the Shows tables or graphs of the way various parameters
Shell vary along the shell.

7-13
7-14 High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater

Output Menu Options Description


TASC uses a very simple Alternative Designs Only available in Design mode and provides a list of all
costing algorithm in Design the designs found that achieve the duty. You will see that
in order to undertake cost one column gives the cost ratio of the various designs to
comparisons - it is not the the lowest cost design which TASC has selected, and
same method as used for which was shown in the summary table.
budget costing which can be Word Spec Sheet Automatically starts Microsoft Word for Windows, with a
selected via the Output document based on a template of a TEMA Specification
menu. Sheet. It automatically loads the data (input and results)
You should look at the other from the current run of TASC. The advantage that this has
designs, and if there are over the interactive TEMA Sheet is that this sheet, or its
some that have a cost ratio template, can be customised to your own preferences.
only a small amount above You can also paste into it from the clipboard the setting
unity, consider whether they plan, graphs, tube layout etc. and then save it as a
have other features, which document for the exchanger you are considering. If you
make them more attractive do customise the template of the sheet to add extra
than the chosen design. pages, logos etc. then you should save it under a new
name in the same directory as TASC. You can then select
to use this new customised template via File-
Preferences from the main menu bar.
TEMA Spec Sheet Views the interactive TEMA Sheet. This is the sheet used
earlier to provide some of the input data, but it now has all
the calculated results filled in.
Setting Plan Provides a scale drawing of the exchanger which is
intended to give an indication of the position of nozzles
and supports and the approximate weight of the
exchanger. See Figure 7.4. TASC performs a simplified
mechanical calculation in order to obtain the sizes. Where
possible this calculation uses properties of the exchanger
material you have specified, but for simplicity, certain
aspects are based on typical values for a carbon steel
exchanger. Care is thus needed if other materials are
used. TASC Mechanical can perform a full mechanical
design calculation and so will supply accurate dimensions
when it is used in conjunction with the Setting Plan.
Costing Package Allows you to undertake a budget costing of the
exchanger. The prices of materials and labour etc. can be
customised and saved for re-use.
Report Generator Provides printing and export of selected output tables and
graphs, and the Setting Plan.
Tube Layout Not available in Design Mode.
Brief Output Single page summary file of all the main results.
Bill of Materials Refer to TASC Mechanical.
Print Calculations Refer to TASC Mechanical.
Sketch Refer to TASC Mechanical.
Stream Properties Shows tables or graphs of property as input.
T-h-x Shows tables or graphs of the variation of enthalpy and
quality with temperature.
Lineprinter Contains all the input, output of results and messages
from the program.

7-14
Examples 7-15

Output Menu Options Description


80 Column Old file format that fits in 80 columns and contains both
input and results but it is not so comprehensive as the line
printer file.
Physical Property A detailed output of the physical properties used within
the program. If required, you can specify via the Input
Options that you want this to be incorporated into the
main lineprinter output rather than produced as a
separate file.
Error Log Lists warnings and fatal errors found by the program. This
information can also be found in the lineprinter output.

7.2.5 What next?


The Design mode of TASC will provide a number of designs that will
achieve the required duty. However, you will probably want to fine tune
and fully optimise the design. This is best achieved via Rating
(Checking) mode.
1. Select File-Create Checking Case from the main menu bar. This will
then prompt you for the name of a data file, which will be used to
save the Checking data - enter BG1C.TAI. You will then be shown a
table of possible designs presented in a spreadsheet type form. A
row headed Cost Item/Chosen, shows ratios of the costs of
alternative designs to the cheapest design. The design with the ratio
of 1 is the design for which TASC has shown full details.
2. To select the design you want to look at in more detail, click on the
Design Number located at the top of the table. The table of
alternative designs will now close, the Process Diagram will be
displayed and it will show Checking Case.

You can now "fine tune" the design by considering whether the baffle
pitch, end lengths or any other features may need adjusting. This can be
done via the Interactive TEMA Sheet or via individual property views
from the Input menu.

7-15
7-16 Debutanizer Overhead Condenser

7.3 Debutanizer Overhead


Condenser
This example utilises British/ This example will illustrate how to use the main input to Check a
American units.
Debutanizer Overhead Condenser. This example has a multi-
component stream of known composition which condenses completely
on the shell-side. The stream properties are not known, so TASC must
evaluate them. The input will be in British/American Customary units.
Details of the exchanger are given in the following table. It is a single
carbon steel exchanger.

Geometry Details Value


TEMA Type BEM
Shell Inside Diameter [in] 31.5
Tube Length [in] 216.0
Exchanger Orientation Horizontal
Number of Tube Passes 2
Tube Outer Diameter [in] 0.75
Tube Wall Thickness [in] 0.083
Tube Pitch [in] 0.937
Tube Pattern [degrees] 60
Baffle pitch [in] 12
Number of Baffles 15
Baffle Cut % 35
Impingement Protection none
Clearances TEMA

Debutanizer O-heads Cooling Water


Process Details Shellside Tubeside
Hot Stream Cold Stream
Total Mass Flow [lb/h] 99285 835000
Inlet Temperature [F] 114.4 68
Outlet Temperature [F] (estimated) 86
Inlet Pressure [psia] 71 72.5
Est. Pressure Drop [psi] 3 10
Fouling Resistance [h ft2F/Btu] 0.0005 0.001
Mass Fraction [Butane] 0.6076

7-16
Examples 7-17

Debutanizer O-heads Cooling Water


Process Details Shellside Tubeside
Hot Stream Cold Stream
Mass Fraction [1:3 Butadiene] 0.346
Mass Fraction [Propene] 0.0209
Mass Fraction [Propane] 0.0255

7.3.1 Enter the Data


1. Start a new case. Select File-New from the menu bar.
1. The Start up view appears.
2. Select Checking from the options at Calculation Mode. This will set
up the correct property views for entering data for the rating
calculation.
3. Leave Basic Input Mode set to off, as there are some special inputs
in this example which will not be available in Basic Mode.
4. In the Equipment Item Number put BG2 and in the Job Title put
Debutanizing Overhead Condenser. Now click OK.

You will now see the Exchanger Geometry property view. TASC allows a
significant number of items to be specified but in most cases default
values can be used, as you will see when going through the geometric
data entry.
5. Look at the Units field in the bottom left corner of the form. If it does
not indicate US/British, click on it. A new property view will appear,
and you should select US/British from the drop-down list for all the
input blocks. Answer Yes to the Units Conversion dialogue for each
change.
6. On the Exchanger General tab of the Exchanger Geometry property
view, specify the following information. Fields not specified can be
left at their default values.

Field Input
Front End Head Type TEMA B
Shell Type TEMA E
Rear End Head Type TEMA M
Shell Inside Diameter [in] 31.5
Side for Hot Stream Shell-side Hot

7-17
7-18 Debutanizer Overhead Condenser

7. You can use the defaults in all the remaining tabs, so click Next to
store the data and continue.
8. You will now see a property view named Tubes and Baffles. Specify
the following:

Tab Field Input


Tube Details Tube Outside Diameter [in] 0.75
Tube Wall Thickness [in] 0.083
Tube Pitch [in] 0.937
Tube Pattern [degrees] 60
Tube Length [in] 216
Transverse Baffle Type Single Segmental
Baffles Baffle Pitch [in] 12
Baffle Cut [%] 35
Number of Baffles 15

9. Click Apply then Next to store the data and continue.


10. You will now see as a property view named Bundle Layout. Specify
the following:

Tab Field Input


Bundle Layout Number of Tubeside Passes 2

You now need to specify Nozzle information:


11. Input the specifications as follows:

Tab Field Nozzle 1 Nozzle 2


Shellside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet
Number of Nozzles in Parallel 1 1
Nozzle Internal Diameter [in] 12 10
Tubeside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet
Nozzle Internal Diameter [in] 10 10

12. The Impingement Protection tab allows you to specify details of a


Vapour Belt if one is present. In this case, no vapour belt is present
so click Apply then Next to store the data and continue.

7-18
Examples 7-19

13. You will now enter the Process data for the Hot and Cold streams.
You have already specified the Units as US/British.

Field Hot Cold


Total Mass Flow [lb/h] 99285 835000
Inlet Temperature [F] 114.4 68
Outlet Temperature [F] 86
Inlet Pressure [psia] 71 72.5
Estimated Pressure Drop [psi] 3 10
Inlet Mass Quality 1 0
Outlet Mass Quality 0 0
Fouling Resistance [h ft2F/Btu] 0.0005 0.001

14. The Process Constraints tab allows you to specify your own fixed
values of the heat transfer coefficients, but you should normally
leave these blank.
15. The Process Methods tab allows you to control some calculation
options, but again you can normally ignore this form and use the
defaults.
16. Click on Next. You will now see the Options property view. This will
allow you to put in comments and control the level of output from
TASC.
17. The first tab to be presented is the Comments to go on Output tab.
Add your own comments, then click on the Output Options tab. The
first field allows you to change the units of output. By default, this
will be the units of input but you can change the units. This is useful
if your client works in SI and you prefer American Customary as you
can re-run the program to obtain a set of results in the other units.
18. Click OK to close down the Options property view and retain the
changes.
19. The final data input required is the Physical Properties. In this case
the COMThermo database in TASC will be used to set up properties.
If you have access to specialist properties software, such as that in a
Process Simulator, it is preferable to use it to generate stream
properties. However, if you don't, you can use TASC for this job.
20. From the main menu bar, select Input-Physical Properties. The first
tab is for Stream 1the Hot Stream.
21. Enter the name of the stream, Debutanizer O-heads, and select
Hydrocarbon for stream type.

7-19
7-20 Debutanizer Overhead Condenser

22. It is now necessary to define a data source identifying the


components and properties methods. Click on Add, in the Stream
Data Source group. You will see the data source view with a list of
components. Select each of the four components required (see table
below), using the Match facility. To find 1:3 Butadiene look for 1,3
Butadiene or *Buta (* indicates an arbitrary sequence of characters,
and is useful in looking up a substance which could have several
variants on its name). Double-click on the component, or click on
Add to transfer to the stream component list.
23. You can optionally change the data source name, for example to C3-
C4 mixture.
24. Now click on the Property Package tab. Peng Robinson is normally
recommended for mixtures of hydrocarbons. This should have been
selected as a default when you specified the stream type as
hydrocarbons on the main properties view. When you have selected
the components and methods for a data source, the status bar at the
bottom right of the data source view should be green and show
Ready. You can now close this view.
25. On the Stream 1 tab of the main Properties view, click on the data
source you have just set up to select it. You will see the four
components in the mixture identified, with a default composition.
Set the drop-down list in the Stream Composition field to Mass
Fraction, then enter the four values in the table below.
The order of the components
shown on the view might differ Component Mass Fraction
from that in the table. n-Butane 0.6076
1:3 Butadiene 0.346
Propene 0.0209
Propane 0.0255

26. Click Options first to set the temperature range. Input an upper limit
temperature of 114.4 F and a lower limit temperature of 80 F. Now
click on the Get Properties button, and the table of properties will
be filled.

By default data are set up at two pressure levels, and you are looking
at data at the one selected. Select the other pressure level to view
data at that pressure.

7-20
Examples 7-21

If an inlet pressure and inlet & outlet temperatures have been input into
the process input view then these will be used as defaults within the
properties input. You can change the pressure levels by editing the
values shown. You can change the temperatures used by using the
Options button. You can either specify a range of temperatures, and
leave the remainder to be set by default, or you can select Define
Temperatures on Spreadsheet. This will colour the temperature line
yellow, and let you edit any existing temperatures, or add ones or your
own. The order in which you define them does not matter, as they are
sorted whenever new data are calculated. Dew and/or bubble points are
added if they are in or close to the selected temperature range.

27. Now select Stream 2, the cold stream. Rename the stream to Cooling
Water, and select data source Water from NEL40. Water data will be
set up and used when the program is run, so you can now close the
Properties view.

This now completes the data input for this case and the data should be
saved.
28. From the main menu bar, select File-Save As.
29. On the Save As view, enter BG2 and OK to close the form.

7.3.2 Run TASC Thermal


1. From the main menu bar select Run-Calculate All, or click on the
Run icon.
2. When the Tube Layout diagram appears, click on OK again.
Run icon

7-21
7-22 Debutanizer Overhead Condenser

7.3.3 Examining the Results


On completion of a run, TASC will automatically display the Summary
view to provide an overview of the results. In this case TASC estimates
that the unit is just oversized (i.e., the Actual/Required Area Ratio is
greater than one).

Most of the other output options referred to in Section 7.2 - High


Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater, can also be examined in the same
way as before. However, for Rating (Checking) and Simulation runs, the
list of alternative designs is replaced by output of detailed information
along the shell (Integration Along the Shell). The corresponding
information printed in the Lineprinter File is as follows:
• Heat transfer coefficients, zone heat loads and temperatures
tabulated against distance along shell (temperatures are usually
printed for each tube pass, up to 4 passes and averaged if over 4
passes).
• Temperature profiles (shellside bulk, shellside fouling layer
surface, shellside tube surface, tubeside tube surface, tubeside
fouling layer surface and tubeside bulk temperatures) from the
shellside to the tubeside tabulated against distance along shell.

This information is also available as an output view in the form of either


a graph or table. If you select Output, Integration Along Shell you will
then be asked which item(s) should be plotted on the Y-axis and which
on the X-axis. Simply click the checkbox to select an item. Obviously
more than one item can be selected for the Y-axis, but only one may be
selected for the X-axis. If you choose to represent the data as a table, all
values are tabulated against the axial distance.

7-22
Examples 7-23

7.4 Kettle Reboiler


This example utilises SI units. This example illustrates TASC in Simulation mode using a kettle
reboiler. In simulation mode, you should know the geometry of the
exchanger and the inlet conditions. You also must have an estimate of
the outlet conditions. TASC will calculate the true outlet conditions i.e.,
what duty can this unit achieve, what are the outlet temperatures.
Simulation mode is useful when upgrading an existing process and you
need to know what the existing exchanger can be expected to achieve.

The shellside component of this example is comprised solely of Hexane.


All data has been provided in SI units. The geometric details of the single
carbon steel exchanger are given in the following table.

Geometric Data Value


TEMA Designation CKU
Shell Inside Diameter [mm] 940
Nozzle Diameter - Shell Inlet [mm] 203
Nozzle Diameter - Shell Vapour Outlet [mm] 406
Nozzle Diameter - Shell Liquid Outlet [mm] 203
Nozzle Diameter - Tube Inlet [mm] 154
Nozzle Diameter - Tube Outlet [mm] 154
Tube Length [mm] 3352
Tube Outside Diameter [mm] 25.4
Tube Pitch [mm] 31.75
Tube wall thickness [mm] 2.108
Tube Pattern [degrees] 90
Tubeside Passes 2

7-23
7-24 Kettle Reboiler

Figure 7.5

Water (hot Hexane (cold


Process Data - SI Units
stream) stream)
Total Mass Flow [kg/h] 99792 83989
Inlet Temperature [C] 96 67.9
Estimated Outlet Temperature [C] 77
Inlet Pressure [bar] 2.6 1.09
Estimated Pressure Drop [bar] 0.207 0.207
Inlet Mass Quality 0 0
Outlet Mass Quality 0
2K/W]
Fouling Resistance [m 0.0001 0.0001

When using Simulation mode it is important to ensure that your


estimate of the outlet conditions corresponds to a heat load greater than
you expect. This means that the actual outlet temperatures are between
the inlet and estimated outlet values. When TASC improves on your
estimate of outlet conditions, it will be interpolating data tables, which it
has initially set up, rather than extrapolating them. This method is likely
to be more accurate.

7-24
Examples 7-25

7.4.1 Enter the Data


If TASC is already running, 1. Start a New case and you will see the Start up view. This will clear
then select File-New from the any existing data and set up defaults, initially indicating a Design
menu bar.
run using SI units.
2. From the Start up view select Simulation as the Calculation Mode.
Check the Basic Input Mode checkbox. Enter BG3 as the Equipment
Item Number and Kettle Reboiler as a Job Title. Click on OK.
3. The Exchanger Geometry property view will then appear. Select it
from the Input menu if it does not. Specify the following:

Field Input
Front End Head Type TEMA C
Shell Type TEMA K
Rear End Head Type TEMA U
Shell Inside Diameter [mm] 940
Side for Hot Stream Tubeside Hot

4. Click OK.

For a kettle this is the diameter in the port region, which approximates to
that of the bundle (940 mm), not the larger diameter of the main region of
the shell, where there is a vapour space above the liquid.

5. Select Input-Tubes and Baffles and Input-Bundle Layout from the


menu bar. Specify the following:

Tab Field Input


Tubes and Tube Length [mm] 3352
Baffles
Tube Outside Diameter [mm] 25.4
Tube Wall Thickness [mm] 2.108
Tube Pitch [mm] 31.75
Tube Pattern [degrees] 90
Bundle Layout Number of Tubeside Passes 2

If a Tube Count was given, this would be entered on the Bundle Size tab.
TASC will calculate a value from the Bundle Size. For a K shell, there is
no need to provide any information on the Transverse Baffles form tab.
6. Click OK.

7-25
7-26 Kettle Reboiler

Nozzle Data
1. Select Input-Nozzles from the menu bar.
2. Remember that for a K shell, there are three shellside nozzles.
Specify the following:

Tab Field Nozzle 1 Nozzle 2 Nozzle 3


Shellside Nozzle Function Inlet Liquid Outlet Vapour Outlet
Nozzle Internal Diameter [mm] 203 203 406
Tubeside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet Unset
Nozzle Internal Diameter [mm] 154 154

Process Data
1. Open the Process view.
2. Enter the process data for the Water in the Hot stream column and
the Hexane data in the Cold stream column.

Field Water (hot stream) Hexane (cold stream)


Total Mass Flow [kg/h] 99792 83989
Inlet Temperature [C] 96 67.9
Outlet Temperature [C] 77
Inlet Pressure [bar] 2.6 1.09
Estimated Pressure Drop [bar] 0.207 0.207
Inlet Mass Quality [0 to 1] 0 0
Outlet Mass Quality [0 to 1] 0
Fouling Resistance [m2K/W] 0.0001 0.0001

Although TASC is going to calculate the outlet conditions in a


Simulation calculation, it is useful to specify some basis for an initial
estimate of the outlet conditions. In this case, it is provided by the Water
outlet temperature.

In a kettle reboiler, the flow within the bundle is probably much greater
than the cold stream feed to the bundle, due to recirculation within the
kettle. TASC will automatically make allowance for this, determining the
local flow from the head of liquid around the bundle. If the stream were
a multi-components mixture, TASC would also make allowance for
composition changes due to this recirculation.

7-26
Examples 7-27

3. Select Input-Physical Properties from the menu bar.


4. The first form is for the Hot stream. This is Water, so under Stream
Data Source click on Water (NEL40). This will cause data for water
to be obtained from the NEL40 databank when the program is run.
5. Click on the Cold Stream tab. Enter the Stream Name as Hexane
and set the Stream Type to Hydrocarbon. Under Stream Data
Source click on Add. You will see a component selection list.
Double-click on n-hexane and it will move to the Selected
Components list.
6. The status bar at the bottom right corner of the view should be green
and show Ready to indicate that the components and property
methods have been set. If you click on the Property Package tab you
will see that Peng Robinson for both phases has been selected, as a
consequence of defining the Stream Type as Hydrocarbon.
7. Close the Data Source view, and on the main Properties view, you
will see that your new data source, named Hyrocarbon 1, has been
selected for stream 2 (hexane). Since the stream is a pure
component, the composition default (1.0) is correct.
8. Click on Options. Check that a temperature range for properties is
set. If not set, enter the two values: 67-96 that will cover the range
possible in the exchanger. Close the Options view.
9. On the main Properties view click on Get Properties. You will see the
property values for hexane appear on the spreadsheet.
10. Close the Physical Properties view.
11. The file should now be saved. Select File-Save As from the menu bar
in the TASC desktop.
12. In the Save As view, specify BG3.TAI for the file name.
13. You have now entered all the data that is required and can run TASC
calculations by clicking on the Run icon, or by selecting Run-
Run icon Calculate All from the menu bar.

7-27
7-28 Kettle Reboiler

You will see the Tube Layout diagram appear.

Figure 7.6

14. Click on Items in the drop-down list and you will see spreadsheets
appear defining the various features in the diagram. You could in
principle use these to modify the Tube Layout at this point, but for
the present, assume it is acceptable, and click on OK to accept the
layout, and cause TASC to perform its simulation calculation.

7-28
Examples 7-29

7.4.2 Examining the Results


This is a Simulation case so TASC may take a few seconds to run
depending on the type of computer you have. TASC will use the outlet
conditions you have supplied as its starting point and will iterate on the
outlet temperatures until the area required to achieve the specified duty
is equal to the area available.

In this case, the unit achieves within a few percent the duty required.
The Shellside Pressure Drop is significantly less than the initial
estimate. This means that the initial estimate would have suggested a
Lower Mean Pressure, and hence Lower Temperature for the Hexane
than the exchanger actually achieved. This would have implied a larger
driving temperature difference, and hence a larger duty. This illustrates
the value of the option in TASC which allows for Pressure Dependence
rigorously in the course of calculations.

The output from TASC provides detailed information on the shellside


and tubeside conditions along the exchanger. This can be viewed from
the normal Lineprinter output.

For more information on the Pressure Dependence, select the Full


Results output, and then select Heat Release Curves. You will see that
TASC reports a table of properties based on an idealised pressure
variation. This is set up from your initial estimate of pressure drop,
before the main calculation begins. It then reports a similar table, but
with a calculated pressure variation, after its calculations are complete.

7-29
7-30 Kettle Reboiler

The cold stream temperatures Another useful output is to examine the Thermal Setting Plan produced
in the second table are
significantly less than those in
by TASC. See the figure below.
the initial estimate table.
Figure 7.7

The above view can be opened from the Output menu and will clearly
show the assumptions TASC has made about the distance from the weir
to the end of the shell and the height from the bundle to the top of the
shell.

It is worthwhile spending some time exploring all the items in the


Output menu so you can see the full range of output that is available. A
new feature in TASC v5.10 is the Report Generator.

7-30
Examples 7-31

7.5 Falling Film Evaporator


This example utilises British/ This example will be used to illustrate the use of TASC to Rate (Check) a
American units.
Falling Film Evaporator. Hence, for a checking case, the geometry of the
exchanger and the process conditions are known and you want TASC to
help determine if the exchanger can achieve the required duty.

This example uses condensing steam on the shellside to evaporate a


falling film of 5% Brine on the tubeside. The data have been provided in
British/American Customary units. Details of the exchanger are given
below. It is a single exchanger made of carbon steel.

Geometric Data Value


TEMA Designation AEL
Shell Diameter [in] 27.5
Shell Orientation Vertical
Shellside Nozzle Diameter Inlet [in] 6
Shellside Nozzle Diameter Outlet [in] 4
Tubeside Nozzle Diameter Inlet [in] 4
Tubeside Nozzle Diameter Outlet [in] 8
Tube Length [in] 180
Tube Outside Diameter [in] 2
Tube Wall Thickness [in] 0.083
Tube Pitch [in] 2.5
Tube Pattern [degrees] 60
Tubeside Passes 1
Baffle Pitch [in] 7.875
Baffle Thickness [in] 0.375
Baffle Cut [%] 40%
Number of Baffles 20

7-31
7-32 Falling Film Evaporator

Figure 7.8

Physical Properties of 5% Brine Value


Liquid Temperature [F] 176
Liquid Density [lb/ft3] 62.8
Liquid Specific Heat [Btu/lb F] 0.948
Liquid Viscosity [cP] 0.395
Liquid Thermal Connectivity [Btu/hr ft F] 0.383
Surface Tension [dyn/cm] 63.8
Temperatures for Enthalpies (Point 1) [F] 176
Specific Enthalpy (Point 1) [Btu/lb] 0
Quality (Point 1) 0
Vapour Temperature [F] 176
Vapour Density [lb/ft3] 0.018
Vapour Specific Heat [Btu/lb F] 0.4538
Vapour Viscosity [cP] 0.01163
Vapour Thermal Conductivity [Btu/hr ft F] 0.01332
Temperatures for Enthalpies (Point 2) [F] 176

7-32
Examples 7-33

Physical Properties of 5% Brine Value


Specific Enthalpy (Point 2) [Btu/lb] 198
Quality (Point 2) 0.2

7.5.1 Enter the data


1. Start a new case by doing one of the following:
• Select File-New from the menu bar.
• Click on the New icon on the toolbar.
2. From the Start Up view select Checking as the Calculation Mode.
New icon Since this is a special type of exchanger, do not select the Basic
Input Mode checkbox. Enter BG4 as the Equipment Item Number
and Falling Film Evaporator as the Job Title. Click on OK.
3. If a warning message appears giving you options in regards to
switching calculation modes. Click on the Yes button.
Even though the TEMA 4. On the Exchanger General property view, set the Shell Orientation
designation is the default
setting, is good practice to
to Vertical, and set the Shell Inside Diameter to 27.5 inches. The
explicitly set the head types, Front End and Rear End Head and Shell Type defaults, A, E and L,
which shows that you have are correct for this exchanger and can be left unchanged. Change
made a definite input, rather the drop-down list for Countercurrent in 1st Tube Pass to No. (Co-
than just forgetting to consider
whether they were correct. current).
5. Move to the Exchanger Details tab and select Falling Film
Evaporator from the drop-down list at Special Exchanger. Change
the drop-down list for Front Head End to Top.
6. Work through the Tubes and Baffles and Bundle Layout property
views, setting the geometry as specified. Click OK when finished.

Tab Field Input


Tube Details Tube Outside Diameter [in] 2
Tube Wall Thickness [in] 0.083
Tube Pitch [in] 2.5
Tube Pattern [degrees] 60
Tube Length [in] 180
Bundle Layout Number of Tubeside Passes 1
Transverse Baffles Baffle Pitch [in] 7.875
Baffle Thickness [in] 0.375
Baffle Cut [%] 40
Number of Baffles 20

7-33
7-34 Falling Film Evaporator

7. Specify the following in the Nozzles property view. Click on OK


when completed.

Tab Field Nozzle 1 Nozzle 2


Shellside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet
Nozzle Internal Diameter [in] 6 4
Tubeside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet
Nozzle Internal Diameter [in] 4 8

8. The Process data input is straightforward. Enter the Hot stream


(Water) details in the first column and the Brine details in the
second column. Click on OK when done.

Water (hot 5% Brine (cold


Process Data - British/American Units
stream) stream)
Total Mass Flow [lb/h] 2685 13227
Inlet Temperature [F] 203 176
Estimated Outlet Temperature [F] 176
Inlet Pressure [psia] 11.6 6.657
Estimated Pressure Drop [psi] 0.5 0.145
Inlet Mass Quality 1 0
Outlet Mass Quality 0 0.2
Fouling Resistance [ft2F/Btu] 0.000114 0.000114

9. Select Input-Physical Properties from the menu bar. For the Hot
stream Data Source select Water from <NEL40>.
10. Select the Cold stream tab. Click on Direct Input for the Data
Source. The spreadsheet of properties will become editable. Enter
the values in the table below, then close the Physical Properties
view.

Field Point 1 Point 2


Temperature [F] 176 176
3
Liquid Density [lb/ft ] 62.8
Liquid Specific Heat [Btu/lb F] 0.948
Liquid Viscosity [cP] 0.395
Liquid Thermal Conductivity [Btu/hr ft F] 0.383
Surface Tension [dyn/cm] 63.8
Specific Enthalpy [Btu/lb] 0 198
Quality 0 0.2
Vapour Density [lb/ft3] 0.18

7-34
Examples 7-35

Field Point 1 Point 2


Vapour Specific Heat [Btu/lb F] 0.4538
Vapour Viscosity [cP] 0.01163
Vapour Thermal Conductivity [Btu/hr ft F] 0.01332

These values are associated with Pressure Level 1. As there is no data


for Pressure Level 2 delete the pressure from the pressure level table.

11. The file should now be saved. Select File-Save As from the main
TASC menu bar. In the Save As view, specify BG4.TAI.
12. You have now entered all the data that are required and can run
TASC by clicking the Run icon.
Run icon 13. Click on OK when the Tube Layout appears.

7.5.2 Examining the Results


This is a Rating (Checking) case so the main result is to see if the
exchanger has sufficient area. This can easily be checked by selecting
Output-Summary from the menu bar.

In this case the unit has more surface area than required. Other
parameters such as allowable pressure drops are also acceptable.

TASC will, by default, do vibration checks. The vibration output can be


found at the end of the Full Results output. The main items to look out
for in the vibration output are numbers which have asterisks printed
before and after them, as this indicates a possible vibration problem.
TASC selects a number of tubes to consider and the main table of the
analysis outputs the results for these tubes at three positions - inlet, mid
space and outlet. For each of these span lengths, velocities and
frequency ratios are output.

The second table of the output considers Fluid Elastic Instability. This
table has a different structure from the table above. For each tube
considered in the analysis, TASC integrates along the tube to give a
single value of the predicted flowrate for the onset of fluid elastic
instability compared with the actual flowrate. This ratio is reported for 3
levels of damping for each tube 0.1, 0.03 and 0.01. These correspond to a
heavily damped tube, a tube with a typical level of damping and a lightly

7-35
7-36 Falling Film Evaporator

damped tube. An additional table provides an estimate of the actual


damping for each tube analysed, together with the corresponding
flowrate ratios. Any values of the flowrate ratio that are near or exceed
1.0 indicate a potential problem. There are extensive on-line Help pages
covering the TASC Vibration Analysis and providing suggestions for
avoiding problems.

The figure below shows the Setting Plan from TASC. It should be noted
that although the exchanger is vertical, the setting plan draws all
exchangers horizontally.

Figure 7.9

7-36
Examples 7-37

7.6 Feed Effluent Train


This example utilises Metric This example shows how TASC can be used to design a Feed Effluent
units.
Train. In the past, designing a multiple shells in series set of exchangers
required a large number of manual calculations and manual iterations
of a program. TASC removes all this and will design up to 12 shells in
series by rigorously iterating to get the intershell conditions.

This example has a boiling reactor feed on the shellside and condensing
effluent on the tubeside. Physical Property tables have been provided
for both streams together with some Geometric data. You should first
use TASC in Design mode to provide you with some design options and
then in Checking mode to fine tune a selected design.

Geometric Data Value


TEMA Designation BEM
Tube Material Carbon Steel
Maximum Shell Inside Diameter [mm] 1000
Maximum Number of Series Shells 10
Maximum Number of Parallel Shells 2
Maximum Tube Length [mm] 6000
Minimum Tube Length [mm] 4000
Incremental Tube Length [mm] 500
Tube Outside Diameter [mm] 19.05
Tube Wall Thickness [mm] 2.11
Tube Pitch [mm] 25.4
Tube Pattern [degrees] 90
Maximum Number of Tubeside Passes 4
Minimum Number of Tubeside Passes 1
Baffle Type Single Segmental, Vertical Cut Baffles

7-37
7-38 Feed Effluent Train

Tab Process Data - Metric Units Effluent (hot stream) Feed (cold stream)
Process Total Mass Flow [kg/h] 26000 26000
Inlet Temperature [C] 400 120
Estimated Outlet Temperature [C] 170 360
Inlet Pressure [kgf/cm2] 60 68
Allowable Pressure Drop [kgf/cm2] 2 3
Inlet Mass Quality 1 0.07
Outlet Mass Quality 0.1 1
Fouling Resistance [h m2/kcal] 0.0003 0.0004
Process Constraints Minimum Tubeside Velocity [m/s] 2

Physical Properties of Effluent (Hot Tubeside) Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4


Liquid Temperature [C] 290 170
Liquid Density [kg/m3] 535 647
Liquid Specific Heat [kcal/kg k] 0.815 0.653
Liquid Viscosity [cP] 0.155 0.272
Liquid Thermal Conductivity [kcal/h m C] 0.077 0.092
Surface Tension [dyne/cm] 4.4 11.5
Temperatures for Heat Load [C] 290 170 420 320
Heat Load [kcal/h] 4000000 0 8000000 5500000
Quality 0.5 0.1 1 1
Vapour Temperature [C] 290 170 420 320
Vapour Density [kg/m3] 30.31 8.01 43.43 49.49
Vapour Specific Heat [kcal/kg C] 0.853 1.547 0.868 0.797
Vapour Viscosity [cP] 0.017 0.015 0.017 0.016
Vapour Thermal Conductivity [kcal/h m C] 0.121 0.176 0.1036 0.089

Physical Properties of Reactor Feed (Cold Shellside) Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4
Liquid Temperature [C] 120 260
Liquid Density [kg/m3] 710 580
Liquid Specific Heat [kcal/kg K] 0.574 0.751
Liquid Viscosity [cP] 0.427 0.183
Liquid Thermal Conductivity [kcal/h m K] 0.098 0.08
Surface Tension [dyne/cm] 16.19 4.2
Temperatures for Heat Load [C] 120 260 340 380
Heat Load [kcal/h] 0 4000000 7000000 8000000
Quality 0.07 0.25 1 1
Vapour Temperature [C] 120 260 340 380
Vapour Density [kg/m3] 6.98 49.49 51.46 47.8

7-38
Examples 7-39

Physical Properties of Reactor Feed (Cold Shellside) Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4
Vapour Specific Heat [kcal/kg K] 2.061 1.023 0.795 0.823
Vapour Viscosity [cP] 0.012 0.017 0.016 0.016
Vapour Thermal Conductivity [kcal/h m K] 0.17 0.159 0.092 0.097

1. If TASC is already running, select File-New from the menu bar. This
will clear any existing data and set up default data for a Design run
using SI units.
2. You can use the defaults in the Start up view. Do not set Basic Input
Mode, as there is one special input item in this example, a Minimum
Tubeside Velocity, which cannot be entered in this mode. Enter BG5
as the Equipment Item Number and Feed-Effluent Case as the Job
Title, then click OK.
3. The Exchanger Geometry view should automatically appear. Enter
information from the table shown below. Defaults are acceptable for
other items. Click OK.

Field Input
Front End Type TEMA B
Shell Type TEMA E
Rear End Head Type TEMA M
Maximum Number of Series Shells 10
Maximum Number of Parallel Shells 2
Maximum Shell Inside Diameter [mm] 1000

4. Select Input-Tubes and Baffles and Input-Bundle Layout


commands from the menu bar, and working through the various
tabs, enter the remaining Geometry items from the Geometric Data
table. The defaults are again acceptable for many of the input items.
Click on OK when completed.

Tab Field Input


Tube Details Tube Outside Diameter [mm] 19.05
Tube Wall Thickness [mm] 2.11
Tube Pitch [mm] 25.4
Maximum Tube Length [mm] 6000
Minimum Tube Length [mm] 4000
Incremental Tube Length [mm] 500
Tube Pattern [degrees] 90
Bundle Layout Maximum Number Tubeside Passes 4
Minimum Number Tubeside Passes 1

7-39
7-40 Feed Effluent Train

Tab Field Input


Transverse Baffles Baffle Type Single
Segmental
Baffle Cut Orientation Vertical

Pressures are given in kgf/ 5. Select Process under Input to enter the Process data.
cm2 which are metric units. If
these are not set, click on the
When you input the data, it is important to remember that the Hot
Units field in the bottom
Process data. Stream is the Effluent Stream. The table can be found on page 38.
Click on OK when finished.

Not all the possible process input is required. For example, for multi-
component streams such as those in a Feed Effluent Train it is not
necessary to input Qualities, as they can be calculated from
Temperatures. If you know the Qualities, however, it is good practice to
put them in, as TASC can then do a consistency check, and warn you if
there is a problem, perhaps resulting from a typing mistake as you
provide input.

The units should be set to 6. Select Input-Physical Properties (Old Style) from the menu bar. A
Metric / deg C for each set of
data in this example.
view with tabs corresponding to each of the streams will appear.
Both streams are Two Phase, and properties will be provided by
Direct Input. Enter stream names 1-Hot Effluent and 2-Feed.
Remember stream 1 is the Hot stream. Change the data source to
Input Directly. Then click on Property Table button.
7. You will see at the bottom of the Property Table tab that there is the
option of inputting either Specific Enthalpies or Heat Loads in the
Input of Enthalpy group. Since Heat Load information has been
provided, select the Heat Load radio button, and notice the row title
in the input table changes.
8. Now specify the Flowrate to which the Heat Loads correspond
(26000 kg/h). This is the value given in the Process Data table.

This example shows how property data can be entered in the old style
input. This has the advantage of permitting Heat Loads to be entered. In
the Standard Physical Properties Input, you would need to divide the
heat loads by mass flow, to define specific enthalpies.

7-40
Examples 7-41

9. Enter all the Properties for the Effluent and click OK when
completed. The table of values can be found on page 38.

There are three sets of properties, Liquid, T-h-x and Vapour, each with
their own set of Temperatures. The properties may be entered in any
order, hot to cold or cold to hot, but remember to begin each set in the
leftmost column.

10. Move to the tab for Stream 2, click on the Properties Table button
and proceed to enter the feed stream properties, click on the Heat
Load radio button, and specify the Flowrate. Click OK when
completed. The table can be found on page 38.
11. You have now entered all the data that are required. Run TASC
Calculations by clicking on the Run icon, or select Run-Calculate
Run icon All from the menu bar.
12. When you click Run you are asked if you want to save the input file.
If you want a permanent record of the input at this stage click Yes,
otherwise click No. The program will still run the data you have just
input.

As this is a Design case no Tube Layout will appear. Since you have
asked the program to consider up to ten shells in series, the program
may take several minutes to run. This is because TASC performs a
rigorous iteration to establish the intershell conditions (it does not use a
simple stepping off method).

7-41
7-42 Feed Effluent Train

7.6.1 Examining the Results


When TASC has completed its calculations a Summary of the results
appears automatically. A list of any Error or Warning messages will also
be shown.

A warning has been issued as heat loads have been input as opposed to
the better option of the input of specific enthalpies. A warning has been
issued concerning the mean error in interpolating T-H data. This is due
to few data points being input.

TASC has issued a Warning with regards to Two Phase on the Tubeside.
In Design mode TASC simplifies the Tubeside Temperature Profile
calculation and so TASC recommends that you optimise the design

further using Rating (Checking) as this removes the simplifying


assumptions that are made with Two Phase on the Tubeside.

TASC will have considered a range of designs and by default, will have
reported on any valid designs within 25% of the relative lowest cost
design. The list of designs considered can be viewed by selecting
Output-Alternative Designs from the menu bar.

7-42
Examples 7-43

Figure 7.10

A full list is provided in the lineprinter output together with the reasons
why certain combinations were rejected.

As can be seen from the Setting Plan in the figure below the initial
design from TASC appears reasonable. You should now select a case to
consider in more detail. You might also want to consider a very Long
Single Pass unit (Texas Tower unit) or explore the Two Tube Pass case.

7-43
7-44 Feed Effluent Train

Figure 7.11

Select File-Create Checking Case from the menu bar. You will be
prompted for a file name and then presented with the list of Alternative
Designs. Click on the design you want to optimise. TASC will
automatically create the Rating (Checking) case. Typically you will now
set the Shell Diameter, Tube Length and Baffle Pitch, etc. to standard
lengths.

7-44
Examples 7-45

7.7 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler


This example utilises SI units. The TASC Thermosyphon mode can handle tubeside boiling in vertical
TEMA type E or X shells, shellside boiling in vertical E shells, and
shellside boiling in Horizontal E, F, G, H, J, I and X shells. It can also
handle tubeside or shellside boiling in vertical double-pipe exchangers
with a single leg.

The Thermosyphon option provides a Simulation of a specified


exchanger geometry, and the pipework connecting it to the distillation
column. The Flowrate of the Boiling Thermosyphon stream is
determined by the Driving Gravitational head and the Resistance to
flow in the exchanger and pipework.

The first stage in simulating any reboiler is to make a sketch including


the reboiler, the bottom of the distillation column and the connecting
pipework. Notice the various heights and lengths on this sketch together
with Pipe/Nozzle Diameters. For a complex inlet line of constant
diameter, you only need to know the Total Length of the line and the
Number of Bends. If the line branches to feed more than one exchanger,
or to connect to two nozzles on an H-shell, you need to observe the
Average Length of line and Number of Bends, in each of the parallel
paths.

The Outlet/Return line is usually relatively simple. You should observe


the length and diameter of each horizontal or vertical section of this
line, as well as the presence of any bends in the line.

Various important heights, which need to be input for determining


Gravitational Effects in a Reboiler, must be defined relative to a datum.
Any datum may be used, provided that the same one is used for all these
input items.

7-45
7-46 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler

In the figure below, the datum has been taken here as the bottom of the
lower tube sheet.

Figure 7.12

The TASC Thermosyphon option is a Simulation calculation, which


requires the full geometry of the Reboiler prior to the calculation. You
can use the TASC Design and/or Checking modes to arrive at a
preliminary size of the Reboiler. In this example, the Geometry Data
and Process Conditions are given in the following tables.

Geometry Data Value


TEMA Type VEM
Orientation Vertical
Tube Length [mm] 3500
Shell Diameter [mm] 524
Baffle Type Single Segmental
Baffle Cut [%] 45
Baffle Pitch [mm] 500
Number of Baffles 6
Tube Outside Diameter [mm] 25.5
Tube Wall Thickness [mm] 2.11

7-46
Examples 7-47

Geometry Data Value


Pitch Ratio 1.25
Tube Layout [degrees] 30

Process Conditions Shellside Hot Tubeside Cold


Stream Steam Debutanizer Bottoms
Inlet Temperatures [C]
Pressure in Column [bar] 5.2
Operating Pressure [bar] 3.5 5.2 (approx)
2K/W]
Fouling Resistance [m 0.000088 0.0001

The Cold stream composition is known so COMThermo can be used to


calculate its properties.

Component Mass Fraction


1,3 Butadiene 0.02
Pentane 0.71
Benzene 0.27

With the sketch in Figure 7.12 and the tables, we now have enough
information to start setting up an input file for TASC.

7-47
7-48 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler

7.7.1 Enter the Data


After starting up TASC and creating a new case, the first input view you
will see is the Start up property view.
1. On the Start up view, specify the following data.

Start up Field Input


Calculation Mode Thermosyphon
Basic Input Mode Not Activated
Equipment Item Number BG6
Job Title Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler

2. When completed, click the OK button.

The next step is to enter the Geometric data. The Exchanger Geometry
view should automatically appear. Examine the Exchanger General tab
entries. You will need to replace these entries as follows:
3. Specify an Axial Cone (V) Front Head.
4. Specify an M-type Rear Head.
5. Change the Shell Orientation to Vertical.
6. Enter the Shell Inside Diameter of 524 mm.
7. Specify Shell-side Hot as the Side for Hot Stream.
8. Specify Yes for Countercurrent in 1st Tube Pass.

Other items can be left at their default values. If you move to the
Material Properties tab, you will see that the default Tube Material is
Carbon Steel, which is appropriate for this example.
9. Click in OK to save to submit your changes.
You can let TASC calculate 10. Select Input-Tubes and Baffles and Input-Bundle Layout
the Tube Count.
commands from the menu bar. The items which you need to specify
are as follows.

Tab Field Input


Tube Details Tube Outside Diameter [mm] 25.4
Tube Wall Thickness [mm] 2.11
Tube Pitch [mm] 31.75
Tube Pattern [degrees] 30
Tube Length [mm] 3500

7-48
Examples 7-49

Tab Field Input


Bundle Layout Number of Tubeside Passes 1
Transverse BaffleType Single Segmental
Baffles Baffle Pitch [mm] 500
Baffle Cut [%] 45
Number of Baffles 6

11. The remaining items can be left at their default values. Click on OK
when complete.
12. Select Input-Nozzles from the menu bar. Enter the following data:

Tab Field Nozzle 1 Nozzle 2


Shellside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet
Nozzle Internal Diameter [mm] 150 50
Tubeside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet
Nozzle Orientation Axial Default
Nozzle Internal Diameter [mm] 250 mm 450 mm

13. Click on OK when complete.


14. Select Input-Thermosyphon Details from the menu bar.

On the Thermosyphon Details view, you will enter details of the heights,
the pressure in the column, and of the inlet and outlet piping in the
three tabs. It is best to refer to the diagram in Figure 7.12 at this point.
First select a datum to which you will refer the various heights. Here the
bottom tubesheet has been selected as the datum.
15. Enter the Height of Exchanger Inlet (which for a Vertical Tubeside
Thermosyphon is taken as the bottom tubesheet) as 0.0, since the
bottom tubesheet is the datum.
16. Enter the Pressure at Liquid Surface (i.e., the column pressure) of
5.2 bar (abs).
The liquid surface is typically 17. Enter 3500 mm as the Height of Liquid Surface in Column relative
about the level of the top tube
sheet.
to this datum.
18. Enter 3800 mm as the Height of Vapour Return to Column, above
the datum of the centre line of the vapour return pipe, at the point it
enters the column.

7-49
7-50 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler

19. Now move to the Inlet Circuit tab. Since there is no change in pipe
diameter, the pipe lengths can be treated as a single pipe element
Enter the following data:

Element Element 1 Element 2


Inlet Circuit Element Pipe Bend
Internal Diameter [mm] 250 250
Length [mm] 8000 n/a
A maximum of 10 elements Number of Elements in Series n/a 2
can be added using the
Number of Elements in
Series cell. 20. Proceed to the Outlet Circuit tab.

An important difference from the Inlet Circuit is that since there is Two
Phase flow in the Outlet pipework, the program has to calculate the
Gravity Head Loss. To do this, it requires information on the separate
lengths of vertical and horizontal pipes. However, for this case, since
there is a side exit from the outlet head, there is no length of vertical
pipe.
21. For Element 1 select Horizontal Pipe and enter the Internal
Diameter of 450 mm and Length of 1000 mm.

Now you will enter the Process Data. In the TASC Thermosyphon mode,
the program calculates the Cold stream Flowrate by balancing the
pressure changes around the Thermosyphon loop. However, you should
enter an estimate of both the Cold stream Flowrate and Outlet Vapour
Mass Fraction.

For the Hot stream, often the most convenient option is to specify the
Pressure and the Inlet and Outlet Temperatures (or Vapour Mass
Fractions). TASC will then converge the Hot stream Flowrate to match
the specified Inlet and Outlet Temperatures. Alternatively you can
specify the Hot stream Flowrate, but this is not recommended for
condensing streams.

7-50
Examples 7-51

If you choose to converge the hot stream flowrate, the main process
information which you will need to specify is as follows:
• If the Hot stream is condensing, specify the Inlet and Outlet
Vapour Mass Fraction.
• If the Hot stream is Single Phase, specify the Inlet and Outlet
Temperature.
• The Hot stream Inlet Pressure and Estimated Pressure Drop.
• An estimate of the Cold stream Inlet Pressure at the exchanger
Inlet.
• An estimate of the Cold stream Outlet Vapour Mass Fraction.
• An estimate of either the Cold stream Flowrate or Heat Load.
22. To begin entering the process data, select Input-Process from the
menu bar, or click on the Process icon. Enter the data in the
Process icon following table.

Stream 1 (hot Stream 2 (cold


Stream
stream) stream)
Total Mass Flow [kg/h] 300000
Inlet Temperature [C]
A reasonable value for the Inlet Pressure [bar] 3.6 5.4
Inlet Pressure of Stream 2
Estimated Pressure Drop [bar] 0.2
would be the pressure at the
liquid surface, plus an Inlet Mass Quality 1.0 0.0
approximation of gravity head Outlet Mass Quality 0.02 0.2
at the bottom of the tubes.
Fouling Resistance [m2K/W] 0.000088 0.0001

23. Click OK when finished.


24. Select Input-Physical Properties from the menu bar. You will now
proceed to enter property information as described previously (see
Section 7.2 - High Pressure Boiler Feedwater Heater).
25. For Stream 1 (the Hot stream), enter the following data:

Field Input
Name (Hot)Stream 1
Data Source Water from NEL40

Selecting water as the component will give you the properties of both
Steam and Liquid Water. For Stream 2 (the Cold stream), you should
always allow for Pressure Dependence. This will happen because two
pressure levels are defined. Revise the default settings to 5.2 and 5.4 bar.

7-51
7-52 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler

26. On the [Cold]Stream 2 tab, set the Stream Type to Hydrocarbon and
click the Add button, for a new Data Source.

You can select the Pressure levels. For example one might be the
pressure in the column, another might be say 0.2 or 0.5 bar higher (3 or 7
psi higher). As long as the two pressure levels are different, and to a
reasonable approximation cover the range of pressures likely to be
found in the system, the exact values are not important.

27. The components and compositions are shown below. To locate the
components either use the scroll bar or start typing the component’s
name into the match field. For 1:3 Butadiene input 1,3. When
selected click on the Add button.

Component Mass Fraction


1:3 Butadiene 0.02
Pentane 0.71
Benzene 0.27

28. Close the Data Source view.


29. Set Compositions in the top right of the main Properties view to
Mass Fraction. Enter the compositions in the table, overwriting the
default values.
30. For Stream 2 you should always allow for pressure dependence. This
will happen when two pressure levels are defined. Revise the
pressure level settings to 5.2 and 5.4 bar.
31. Click on Options, and check that a temperature range and number
of points is set. Set the temperature units to 100 and 120. This range
need only be approximate to what occurs in the exchanger.
32. Close Options. Click on Get Properties.
33. Close the Properties view.
34. Finally, you should request the detailed output of the Cold stream
(Tubeside) Pressure Distribution. Select Input-Options from the
menu bar.
35. Go to the Output Options tab and select Generate Output at the
field marked Pressure Drop Distribution. Click OK to save the
change.
36. You should now save the file and name it BG6.TAI (select File-Save
As from the main TASC menu bar).
Run icon 37. Run TASC by clicking on the Run icon, or selecting Run-Calculate
All from the main TASC menu bar.

7-52
Examples 7-53

38. Click on OK when the Tube Layout appears.

7.7.2 Examining the Results


Depending on the accuracy of your initial estimates, thermosyphon
cases may take a few seconds to run. Be prepared for some cases to take
longer.

The Results Summary will display the calculated Hot and Cold stream
Flowrates, and the calculated Heat Load.

The Lineprinter output (opened by selecting Output-Line Printer from


the menu bar) for the thermosyphon option will display some
information, which is additional to the other TASC modes:
• The Table showing the cold stream properties with Calculated
Pressure Variation will also show the conditions in the column.
Points 1 to 12 cover the heat exchanger only, from Inlet to Outlet
Nozzle.
• A Thermosyphon Circuit section shows a detailed printout of
the Pressure Drop calculations in the Inlet and Outlet pipework.
• Information messages will be printed to inform you of the results
of the Reboiler Stability Analysis.
• Just below the Nozzle output, you will find information on
parameters, which assess whether or not the Vapour Velocity at
Outlet is high enough to ensure steady circulation. Information on
the predicted Two Phase flow pattern in the Outlet pipework is
also printed.
• If you have requested the Tubeside Pressure Drop
Distribution, you will see that the Inlet and Outlet piping
distributions have been added to the Table marked Incremental
Page 2. You can check that the sum of the entries under Total
Pressure Drop is zero, indicating that the Thermosyphon
iterations have successfully converged.

7-53
7-54 Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler

7.8 Horizontal Thermosyphon


Reboiler
This example utilises SI units. This example builds on the TASC case built in Section 7.7 - Vertical
Thermosyphon Reboiler. This case re-runs the example as a Horizontal
Thermosyphon Reboiler. The circuit is shown in Figure 7.13, and the
connections in Figure 7.14. The following tables list the changes you will
have to make to the Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler case.

Property View Field Input


Exchanger TEMA Type A,G,U
Geometry
Shell Orientation Horizontal
Shell Inside Diameter [mm] 750
Side for Hot Stream Tubeside Hot
Bundle Geometry Tube Length [mm] 3000
Baffle Type Single Segmental
Baffle Cut [%] 45
Baffle Pitch [mm] 500
Number of Baffles 5
Number of Tubeside 2
Passes

Property View [Tab] Field Input


Thermosyphon Details Height of Liquid Surface in 4200
[T/S Specification] Column [mm]
Height of Return Vapour to 4550
Column [mm]
Tube Layout Data Revise from Input

Tab Field Nozzle 1 Nozzle 2


Shellside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet
Nozzle Internal Diameter [mm] 250 450
Tubeside Nozzle Function Inlet Outlet
Nozzle Orientation Default Default
Nozzle Internal Diameter [mm] 200 100

7-54
Examples 7-55

Tab Field Element 1 Element 2 Element 3


Inlet Circuit Inlet Circuit Element Pipe Bend Not Defined
Internal Diameter [mm] 250 250
Length [mm] 6000
Number of Elements in Series 2
Outlet Circuit Outlet Circuit Element [mm] Vertical Pipe Bend Horizontal Pipe
Internal Diameter [mm] 450 450 450
Length 3800 1500

Figure 7.13

7-55
7-56 Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler

Figure 7.14

450 φ 200 φ
1500

STRAIGHT LENGTH 3000 mm

50 φ
250 φ

200

You can edit the previous case, the Vertical Thermosyphon. Remember
to use the Save As command and save the case as BG7.TAI.

Use the tables presented at the beginning of this section to make the
necessary changes to convert the Vertical Thermosyphon to a
Horizontal Thermosyphon.

You can use the same Process and Physical Property Data as for the
previous example with a Vertical Thermosyphon.

Run the TASC calculations. Look at the Results Summary, and also at
the Special Thermosyphon part of the Lineprinter output. Compare the
Total Heat Load, the Thermosyphon Flowrate, and the Exit Quality with
those of the previous example, and observe the difference in pipework
pressure changes, now that the there is no gravitational component of
pressure change in the exchanger.

The Error/Message Log contains a number of warnings:


• The warning concerning the cross flow fraction in the shellside
flow being low can be ignored as the clean shellside coefficient is
high (6000) due to nucleate boiling.
• The instability warning gives suggestions about how this might be
avoided.

7-56
Index
A Baffles 1-4
Nozzles 1-4
Adjustment Factors (costs) 6-7
Shells/Channels 1-4
B Tube Bundles 1-4
Tubes 1-4
Baffles 1-4 Exchangers in Series 7-35
Basic Input 2-6, 3-5
Bubble Point Temperature 3-8 F
Bundles 1-4
Falling Film Evaporator 7-31
C Feed Effluent Train 7-37
Feedwater Heater 7-4
Calculation Mode 2-6, 3-5 File Extensions 6-10
Calculation Type 3-3 File Structure 6-10
Checking (rating) 3-3 File View 4-7
Design 3-3 Find 1-6, 4-7
Simulation 3-3 Find Item 3-13
Thermosyphon 3-3 Find Next 4-7
Checking (Rating) 1-3, 2-6 Fluid Processes 1-5
Components
Calculation of the Properties of a Mixture 5-14 G
Condenser 7-16
Geometry 1-4, 3-10
Convert Option 3-11
Geometry Data Input 3-8
Costing Package 6-6
Enhanced Surfaces 3-8
Adjustment Factors 6-7
Thermosyphon Views 3-8
Design Pressure 6-6
Labour Costs 6-6 H
Materials Costs 6-6
Header 3-8
D Heat Transfer Coefficients 4-4
Help Text 1-8, 2-3, 3-13
Data Input 3-1
Using 3-12
Databank 5-13
HYSYS 5-23
Databanks
Lowfin 6-9 I
Default Input Data File 3-15
Icons 2-8
Default Units 3-10
Importing from a Properties Package 5-24
Design 1-3, 2-6
Importing from HYSYS 5-23
Design Mode 3-8
Importing Properties and Process Data 5-20
Design Pressure 6-6
Importing PSF Files 5-20
Diagram (Process) 2-5
Information Message 3-16
DIPPR 5-19
Inlet Conditions 3-7
Documentation 1-7
Input Directly 5-12
E Input Errors and Warnings 3-16
Input File 3-14
Enhanced Surfaces 3-8
Process block 3-14
Equipment Item Number 2-6
Properties block 3-14
Error / Warning Message Log 4-8
Input Item Identifier 3-13
Examples 7-1
Input Items
Exchanger Configuration 3-8
Find Item 3-13
Exchanger Geometries

I-1
I-2 Index

Finding 3-13 Outlet Temperature 3-7–3-8


Main Properties 3-13 Output 1-6, 4-1
Physical Properties 3-13 Costing Package 4-9
Input Units 3-10 Report Generator 4-9
Input Views 3-4 Setting Plan 4-9
Bundle Layout 3-4 TEMA Specification Sheet 4-9
Enhanced Surfaces 3-4 Word Specification Sheet 4-9
Exchanger Geometry 3-4 Output Files 4-6
Nozzles 3-4 80-column Output 4-6
Options 3-4 Brief Output 4-6
Physical Properties Data 3-4 Lineprinter Output 4-6
Process 3-4 Physical Properties Output 4-6
Thermosyphon Details 3-4 Output Screens 4-3
Tubes and Baffles 3-4 Alternative Designs 4-3
Introduction 1-1 Integration along the Shell 4-3
Item Number 3-13 Nozzles 4-3
Results Summary 4-3
J
Stream Data 4-3
Job Title 2-6 Output Views 4-3
Full Results 4-3
K Outside Diameter 4-4
Kettle Reboiler 7-23 Outside Surface 4-4

L P

Labour Costs 6-6 Physical Properties 3-3, 5-1, 5-4


Layout 3-8 Physical Properties (Old Style) 5-4
Line Number 3-13 Preferences 3-10
Lineprinter Output 4-6 Pressure Dependence 5-26
Link units 3-10 Process Constraints View 3-8
Lowfin Tube Databank 6-9 Process Data 3-8, 3-10
Process Data Input 3-7
M Bubble Point Temperature 3-8
Mass Flowrate 3-7 Inlet Conditions 3-7
Materials Costs 6-6 Mass Flowrate 3-7
Mixture Calculations 5-15 Outlet Conditions 3-7
Mixture Calculations (Old Style) 5-15 Outlet Quality 3-7
Outlet Temperature 3-7–3-8
N T-h-x (Temperature-enthalpy-quality)
NEL40 3-7–3-8, 5-14 Properties Data 3-7
Nozzles 1-4 Process Diagram 2-5
Process Methods View 3-8
O Project File Structure 6-10
Output Options 6-10
Other Data Input 3-9
Properties Data 1-5, 3-7–3-8, 3-10
Other Facilities 6-1
Properties Data Input 5-4, 5-11
Other Output
Properties Data Input (Old Style) 5-11
Tube Layout Drawing 4-9
Properties Input 5-6
Outlet Conditions 3-7
Properties Output 5-25
Outlet Quality 3-7
Properties Package - Importing 5-24

I-2
Index I-3

Properties Used 5-5 Tube Size 3-8


Property Data Tubes 1-4
Liquid 5-5 Twisted Tape 1-4
T-h-x Data 5-5
U
Vapour 5-5
Property Data Sources 1-5 Units 3-10
Property Databanks 5-18 User Databank 5-13
DIPPR 5-19 Using Help 3-12
NEL40 5-19 Using TASC 2-1
PSF Files 5-20
V
R
Vapour Shear 1-5
Reboiler 7-23, 7-45, 7-54 View 2-5
Resistances 4-4
Results Summary 2-7, 4-7 W
Run Progress 2-7 Word Specification Sheet 6-8
Run Title 2-5
Running TASC 2-7
S
Setting Plan 1-3, 6-3
DXF file 6-4
TEMA Output Sheet 6-4
Shell 3-8
Shell Types 1-4
Simulation 1-3, 2-6, 4-4
Single Component Stream from NEL40 5-14
Start up 2-5–2-6
Equipment Item Number 2-6
Job Title 2-6
Starting TASC 2-4
Stream Pressure Drops 4-4
Surface Area Ratio 4-4
T
TASC Icons 2-8
TEMA 3-8
TEMA Input 3-6
Exchanger General Form 3-6
Shellside 3-6
TEMA sheet 3-6
Tubeside 3-6
TEMA Output Sheet 6-4
Thermal Design Calculation 6-4
Thermosyphon 1-3, 1-6, 2-6, 7-45, 7-54
Thermosyphon Mode 4-4
Thermosyphon Views 3-8
Tube Bundles 1-4
Tube Layout 3-17

I-3
I-4 Index

I-4