Malaysia, a former British colony became an independent state on August 31, 1957.

Malaysia is a nation that is made up of thirteen states, including the nine states of peninsular Malaysia and the two Borneo territories, Sabah and Sarawak. The nation is ruled by a Westminster-style parliamentary system. The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government that was modeled after the United Kingdom¶s political system. Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures.

Legal System/ Levels of Government
I. Paramount Ruler The paramount ruler is also known as the head of state meaning they have the highest position in the state that they rule. They are one of nine authorities and serve five-year rotating terms. The paramount ruler is required by the Constitution to run his ideas by the prime minister before making any final decisions. In order to become the paramount ruler, you must win the votes of the nine hereditary sultans, heads of authority, and the four nominated governors. This group is referred to as the conference of rulers and they meet three to four times a year. II. Parliament Parliament¶s role is to come up with laws that apply to Malaysia entirely. For example, they pass Federal laws, make correction to preexisting Federal laws, and approve the way that the Malaysian government chooses to spend it¶s money. Malaysia¶s Parliament is divided into three components: The Senate, the House of Representatives, and the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Their parliament is bicameral meaning that it consists of two separate divisions or chambers. It consists of a non-elected upper house and a lower house that is elected basted on popularity.
a. Senate- Also known as the Dewan Negara, and has seventy seats. 44 members are appointed by Yang Di-Pertuan Agong with the advice from the Prime Minister, while the other 26 members are elected by the State Legislative Assembly. b. House of Representatives- Referred to as the Dewan Raykat, and is made up of 193 seats. Its members are elected by popular vote and serve five-year terms. The Dewan Rakyat s members are also known as Members of the Parliament or MPs. Their meetings take place at the Kuala Lumpur, which is the largest city and the capital of Malaysia. c. Yang-di-Pertuan Agong- The Supreme Head of State, or king as stated in the Constitution. They perform their duties once receiving advice from the Prime Minister and his Cabinet.

Judicial System The Malaysian judiciary system is largely centralized. in addition to heading the Cabinet. the high court. IV. 1826. The hierarchies of the court are as follow starting at the bottom: the magisterial court. federal citizenship.4% of the population. and then the federal court. There are two types of trials. adjudicated under Islamic and traditional law). It is very important that the prime minister keeps everything in order because if the parliament is unhappy with their performance. the prime minister is forced to resign along with their cabinet. and 1855. transportation. in the country in matters of family law and religion issues. (1)Islamic law is applied to Muslims. commerce. defense. communications. The prime minister is in charge of governing Malaysia and making sure that everything runs smoothly.the superior courts and the subordinate courts. After legislative elections take place. initially.III. Citizens are entitled a trial by jury. the court of appeal. similar to the United State¶s head of government being it¶s president. (2) Lawyers in the government sector are administered by the Judicial and Legal service commission. The laws of Malaysia are based off of British common law and to a lesser extent Islamic law. you must be a member of the House of Representatives. (3) Lawyers in Malaysia can practice in the government or a private sector. which make up 60. finance. (3) The Federal Court of Malaysia is the highest judicial authority and the final court of appeal in Malaysia (3) Has a single-structured judicial system consisting of two parts . In order to become the prime minister. industry. and Judiciary. Head Of Government Malaysia¶s head of government is it¶s prime minister. Malaysia¶s legal system is based on English common law which were former colonies or territories of England. (2) They use the judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme court at request of Supreme head of the federation. the sessions court. justice (except civil law cases among Malays or other Muslims and other indigenous peoples. (1)The legal history of Malaysia begins with the acquisition of Penang of 1786 and with the introduction of the charter of justice in 1807. (2) Strengths y y y y y y The federal government has authority over external affairs.making authorities namely the legislative. (2) . Executive. and other matters. Most laws originate from any of the three principal sources of law. internal security. the leader of the party that wins the majority of seats in the house becomes the prime minister and then elects its own cabinet. (1) Malaysia also has a secondary legal system concurrently affecting certain sections of the law. such as Islamic law and customary law. criminal and civil.

The members of the cabinet are all chosen from among members of both houses of Parliament and are responsible to that body. The other four states. (2) Some degree of pluralism. and there is multi-party system. which have titular Governors. Legislative Branch . (2) Does not have a one-stop center of free access for law. Malaysian political system has a unique foundation on which the country's machinery functions. the king also is the leader of the Islamic faith in Malaysia. a federal constitutional elective monarchy. The Constitutional System--The Constitution of Malaysia was drafted based on the advice of the Reid Commission which conducted a study in 1956 . The Executive power is vested in the cabinet led by the prime minister. The Malaysian political system refers to all those regulations and practices and the structure of laws that show how the government is run. in that Muslim law governs the Muslim community in religion. Selected for a term of five-years from among the nine Sultans of the Malay states. Abdullah bin Ahmad Badawi has been the Prime Minister since 31 October 2003 chosen from the lower house of parliament. but laws freely available through various government websites. (3) Political System of Malaysia Malaysia is a federal parliamentary monarchy. on the internet. the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government. matrimonial and related matters and is administered by a separate system of courts known as the Syariah Courts.Weaknesses y y y y No division of legal profession in a private practice. a legacy of British colonial rule. is nominally headed by the Paramount Ruler or Yang di-Pertuan Agong . Hard to tell if these laws are still current. The Constitution came into force on August 27. 1957. do not participate in the selection. commonly referred to as the King of Malaysia. Executive Branch Malaysia. The political system of Malaysia is closely modeled on that of Westminster parliamentary system.

internal security. Judicial Branch The Malaysian legal system is based on English common law and most of the laws and the constitution are adapted from Indian law . is the Barisan Nasional (National Front) consisting of United Malays National Organization (UMNO) and 13 other parties. while the remaining four have appointed governors in counterpart positions. industry. There are the Federal Court. justice. 26 appointed by the state legislatures and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat with 219 seats. members of which are elected by popular vote to serve a term of five-years. transportation. commerce. most of which are ethnically based. Each of these states has an assembly and government headed by a chief minister. The judges of the Federal Court are appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister. .Malaysia has a bicameral Parliament consisting of the Senate or Dewan Negara with 70 seats. nominated by the state assemblies and advising their respective sultans or governors. Court of Appeals. which is also a coalition. State Governments The state governments are led by chief ministers . 44 appointed by the paramount ruler. defense. The Party in Power The ruling party. Labuan Island and the Putrajaya federal administrative territory. Parti Islam se Malaysia (PAS) and Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR). There are 13 states and three federal territories which are Kuala Lumpur. finance. federal citizenship. session's courts. Nine of these states have hereditary rulers. magistrate's courts. communications. Other parties include Democratic Action Party (DAP). all of which are represented in the federal parliament. The legislative power of the political system of Malaysia is divided between the federal and the state legislatures. generally titled 'sultans'. The federal government has authority over external affairs. high courts. and juvenile courts. In total there are more than 30 registered political parties. and other matters.

Mahathir stepped down as Prime Minister in October 2003 after 22 years in power. in particular the export sector. Abdullah called elections and won an overwhelming victory in March 2004. The government declared a state of emergency and suspended all parliamentary activities. Anwar Ibrahim. mainly between Malays and ethnic Chinese. the United Malays National Organization (UMNO). after which riots broke out in Kuala Lumpur and elsewhere. social harmony. The UMNO coalition's share of the vote declined in national elections held in May 1969. called the Pakatan Rakyat or People's Alliance. corruption. Mahathir dismissed Anwar and accused him of immoral and corrupt conduct. was sworn into office. Although Anwar was convicted on both charges in 1999 and 2000. contained a series of affirmative action policies designed to benefit Malays and certain indigenous groups (together known as Bumiputras or "sons of the soil"). led by Anwar Ibrahim. as well as large-scale infrastructure projects. promoted the concept of "Islam Hadhari" or "civilizational Islam. In the years that followed. and economic progress. leading UMNO and BN to successive election victories. In September 1998. The New Economic Policy (NEP). UMNO and its coalition allies in the BN won a simple majority of the seats in the national parliament. or "crony capitalism. an Islamic scholar. has held power in coalition with other parties continuously since independence in 1957. Mahathir sharply criticized the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The constitution was amended to limit dissent against the speciallyprotected and sensitive portions of the constitution pertaining to the social contract. which he believed were superior to those of the West. Malaysia held national elections in March 2008. Several hundred people were killed or injured." emphasizing the importance of education. Malaysia's Federal Court eventually freed Anwar after overturning his immoral conduct conviction in September 2004. The BN won large majorities in the 1974 federal and state elections. The government identified intercommunal harmony as one of its official goals. The previous alliance of communally based parties was replaced with a broader coalition--the Barisan Nasional (BN) or National Front. Deputy Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. won 82 of 222 seats in parliament and took . Mahathir Mohamad was Prime Minister between 1981 and 2003. launched in 1971. Abdullah. Mahathir attributed the success of the Asian tiger economies to the "Asian values" of its people. and his successor. the trials were viewed as seriously flawed. with Mahathir expressing regret at supporting Abdullah to be his successor. Mahathir emphasized economic development during his tenure. A loose coalition of opposition parties. international financiers. and Western governments during the economic and financial crisis that affected Asia in 1997-1998.POLITICAL CONDITIONS Malaysia's predominant political party. Malaysia undertook several initiatives that became integral parts of its socioeconomic model. His relationship with Mahathir eventually soured. and denied that the sharp downturn was due to economic or corporate mismanagement." The end of Mahathir's tenure was marred by a falling out with his deputy and presumed successor. but for the first time in history failed to gain the twothirds majority necessary to amend the constitution.

in February 2009 the opposition Alliance lost control of one of the states through defections of its assembly members--several members of the opposition and two from the BN became independent. the Asian financial crisis came. stepped down as Prime Minister in a carefully timed transfer of power to his deputy. based on purchasing power. the Economic Transformation Program to provide a framework to emphasize private investment and de-emphasize public investment. in April 2009. and the New Economic Model (NEM). and the courts trials held for his actions were said to be unjust by both internal and external observers. Prime Minister Abdullah. The nation of Malaysia is currently under a Federal parliamentary monarchy governing system. However. citizens would find appalling. beaten in prison. to reform the 1970s (and still current) economic policy known as the New Economic Policy. WeaknessesEdit y y Many accounts of corruption have been witnessed and recorded within the Malaysian government. taking responsibility for his party s poor showing in the March 2008 general election. Malaysia s strict approach toward unsuitable conduct may hesitate many possible business dealings because of their harsh penalties.control of the state-level assemblies in five of Malaysia's 13 states. The Najib administration's cornerstone policy is the "1Malaysia" initiative. many investors kept money invested within Malaysian markets because of their confidence within the stability of their political system. Malaysia¶s premiere political party. Nine of the states¶ rulers are hereditary and are given the title ³Sultan. The head of the Malaysian political system is referred to as the King of Malaysia and is also seen as the leader of the Islamic faith within the country. Malaysia is also known for having borrower-friendly credit laws. Malaysia is known for political stability. if something were to go wrong. The United Malays National Organization (UNMO). Other initiatives include the Government Transformation Program to improve government services delivery systems.´ StrengthsEdit y y y The Malaysian economic system was rated the world s 33rd largest economy in 2005. yet. The Malaysian legal system also permits and encourages cruel and unusual punishments that many U. has had their political candidate in office since the country gained its independence in 1957. Mohd Najib bin Abdul Razak. Practices like flogging (whipping prisoners) also may discourage business executives from dealings within Malaysia. . which emphasizes national unity amongst Malaysia's ethnically diverse population. As recently as 1998. bringing the opposition strength down to 79 members and the BN to 138 members. Malaysia is rated among the highest in the world for both ease of obtaining credit and protecting investors. each represented by a chief minister. while also keeping a relatively low inflation rate. The Malaysian government is separated into 13 states and 3 territories. Malaysia has been able to sustain about 7% GDP growth per year through the 1980 s and 90 s.S. In 1997. then Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim was accused of unlawful corruption he was removed from office. Other political powers seeking to affect Malaysia include the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and the Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC).

The cultural social and religious backgrounds of each group influence their consumption patterns. However with rare exceptions. Religious norms taking place within. Namely eg. Chinese.y Without the separation of church and state. buying habits and receptivity to new ideas. These cultural differences between the Malay. and Malaysia is considering changing the rules of ban on cable television spots to allow foreign commercials to air on newly legalized satellite signals. many business transactions may be threatened by the nature of the Islamic tendencies favored by the government. Chinese and Indians (not to mention the other ethnic groups) form quite distinct markets of their own. Even Bill Gates visited Malaysia to invest in Technology venture and have been to our Malayisa Silicon Valley ie Multimedia Super Corridor zone like Cyberjaya. Ingram Micro. The Malaysian market is also a very youthful one. Australia ended. ABN Ambro. StanChart. Recent amendments to this legislation included a requirement for pictorial health warnings and a ban on selling tobacco products with non-tobacco products. Many tensions have arisen from three Malaysian cultures all seeking political dominance in Malaysia. Alot of foreign investment in Malaysia and were given pioneer status with up to 10 years tax incentives Legal system and International Marketing impact * The tobacco control laws in Malaysia include a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertisements and promotion. Scottia Bank and many many more. International Banks are in Malaysia for decades like Duetche Bank. Shell. challenging. Intel. There all lots of international firms and organisation putting up businesses here and export them back to their original country. Citibank. Sony. Isetan and Starbucks. distinguishable and segmental on the basis of racial backgrounds income education and other demographic and psychographic characteristics. Then there is a very "western-oriented" segment consisting of consumers in the higher income and educational levels and which cuts across ethnic boundaries. Carrefour. Tesco. A youthful market is more receptive to new products and ideas and hence more willing to change and adopt new . and Indian peaked in 1969 with violence and riots in the Malaysian streets. HSBC. and ever changing one. it is a very complex. International marketing in Malaysia Malaysia has all the international business infrastructure. At the same time. all commercials on Malaysian television still must be made in Malaysia. * Some country laws against accessibility to broadcast media seem to be softening. For example. Bank of China. Such diversity poses great difficulties as well as challenges to marketing management in the segmentation of the market and the presentation and promotion of products to the Malaysian market. Chase Manhattan. The Malaysian market is made up of many distinct sub-markets. with more than half of the population below 30 years of age. ExxonMobil. Marketing opportunities and challenges The Malaysian market is a rich and growing one for marketing opportunities. Tokyo Bank. the Malays. BASF.

standards of living and life styles are other criteria that can be used to approach the Malaysian market. it is beneficial for the marketing concept to be adopted by these bodies too. Generally. toilet soap). In addition. A lot of lip service is paid to the marketing concept but in reality its practice does not seem wide spread. Research in these areas will provide comprehensive data base for marketing planning and implementing the marketing concept. The constant struggles and squabbles between marketing management and sales management in many companies attest to the lack of integrated marketing which is a pre-requisite for effective marketing.consumption patterns. Product Policies With regard to product policies. attitudes and expectations will pose opportunities and challenges for marketing management. This is another indication that consumer . Literacy levels. Is the Marketing Concept being adopted? A related problem/question is whether the marketing concept of customer orientation has been fully adopted by companies here. they tend to adopt the product policies of their parent companies overseas. What long term strategies should companies catering to the tin mines and logging market adopt knowing that these markets will be depleted in a decade or so? What should a car distributor who had relied mainly on British and European agencies do in a market which is increasingly being dominated by cars of Japanese make? How should a company gear itself to tap the growing bumiputra market? How should insurance companies react when certain religious quarters are pronouncing that insurance is not compatible with Islamic teachings? These are some of the issues and challenges of strategic marketing that have to be grappled with. The number of companies having research facilities in the area of product development is limited. For example full adoption of the marketing concept by a public body like Malayan Railway would lead to better services for customers and a more appropriate definition of its market role.g. There is a lack of indepth research on consumer behaviour and the impact of marketing efforts. Unfortunately. systematic strategic marketing planning does not seem to be widely practised in Malaysia. With the increasing role of public corporations and non-profit organizations in the Malaysian economy. Strategic Marketing The role of marketing management in a complex and changing multi-racial Malaysian market is to develop appropriate strategies to ensure long term viability and profitability. Since most of the larger manufacturing companies are subsidiaries or associates of international companies. The lack of consumer orientation is also reflected in the lack of market research activities undertaken to reveal the opportunities and intricacies of the market place. There is a direct transference of productsto Malaysia sometimes without any changes in product content and packages (e. Companies seemed reluctant to spend money on developing product and packaging concepts specifically for the Malaysian market. the bigger companies in Malaysia have broader product lines than the smaller companies. research on marketing as a discipline (in both the private sector and the universities) is lacking. and lack full understanding of their customer's needs and behaviour. the dynamics and changes in Malaysian society will add a further dimension to the challenges that marketing management faces. The use of marketing audit and strategic marketing planning have great potential in Malaysia. Current research activities centre on economic and media data. spatial distribution of population (particularly rural and urban). This strategy of product extension to the Malaysian market is commonly practised and may be attributed to the lack of Research and Development activities undertaken here and their ready access to productsand brands overseas. In particular socio-economic transformation and a fast growing affluent Malay market with its attendant adjustments of values. Long range planning in marketing as well as other areas tend to be confined to limited number of progressive companies only. Many companies have vague definition of their markets.

free samples. awards. but is increasingly used for its visual effects and to reach the well-to-do consumers. imitation is more blatant with fake products being marketed under well known brand names. most of the advertising strategies of large foreign companies were a direct transfer from their parent companies. Only the bigger and more progressive local companies use national advertising in their marketing programmes. Rediffusion. there is a shortage of regional media which can be used to reach selected local markets. Colgate and Lux). Except for Rediffusion. local producers have put out imitation brands (for example Calgate for Colgate) with nearly the same label and package. test marketing of new products to assess their viability before marketing on a national scale is not widely practised. the cinemas and a few newspapers. This may explain the failure of many new products introduced in the Malaysian market. Imported items and international brand names (particularly American and British) are preferred. Malay or Tamil. exhibitions are commonly used. and which are within the budgets of smaller localised companies. government officials seized a quarter million dollars worth of imitation cosmetics and toiletries. Consumers have more or less acquired a taste for imported products through usage and the effect of advertising. Local manufacturers and companies do not make use of advertising as much or as aggressively as foreign companies-this reflects the high cost of advertising as well as the lack of appreciation of the possible benefits of advertising. Radio. Radio is popular and widely used. Test marketing efforts are confined to several progressive companies. Malaysian consumer tend to prefer international brands and foreign products. Contests. it is expected that more companies will undertake advertising to boost their sales and image. cinemas and outdoor advertising. Various sales promotion services are being used with increasing frequency especially among marketing-oriented firms in the consumer product lines. Local producers also tend to use foreign brand names. The high illiteracy level means that audio and audio-visual media are more effective. Adaptations and innovations in advertising to suit the Malaysian market is very evident these days. for example the creation of cigarette advertisement which can only show the pack itself. TV is the most expensive. In addition to the lack of local product development efforts. which use Penang as a testing place because it is representative of a Malaysian market and the availability of local media. but was often inappropriate for the Malaysian market. Such restrictions demand greater creativity. premiums. With increasing competition and the awareness of the value of advertising. which the smaller companies cannot afford. As such most of the products manufactured and marketed locally (by the foreign firms) carry international brand names (for example Rothmans. particularly in the production and showing of commercials on TV and cinema screens. Its also raises questions of ethics and social responsibilities of businesses. Last week. the printed media.orientation has not been fully accepted by marketing management in Malaysia. There was the classic example of a cigarette manufacturer who imported the jingle "Change to Wonderful Life" (cigarette) which met with complete failure when translated into Chinese. This development is accelerated by government regulations and guidelines. Advertising agencies are adopting a more Malaysian approach. Such standardized advertising had its merit in their low cost and availability. To capitalise on international and well advertised brands names. In fact some of those tend . This development is of great concern as it creates doubts in the minds of consumers who cannot be sure that the product is a genuine one or not. This can be explained by the economy's dependence on imported products for so long a time. Advertising and Sales Promotion In the past. It is with increased use that sophistication in the use of advertising techniques will come about. Nowadays. radio. TV and most of the printed media are national media. A wide range of media is available to the advertiser and includes TV.

Channels of distribution are usually long as the goods pass through a series of wholesalers and retailers before reaching the eventual consumer. Advertising in a multi-racial market is a problem as well as a challenge. There is need too to pre-test and post the effectiveness of advertising programmes. relying on promotion to pull the product through the market and an emphasis on product quality. though their position has diminished since the colonial era. Companies are being . the use of premium in the marketing of detergents. They still play their traditional role as conduits for exports of Malaysian raw materials and imports of manufactured products.to be over-used. Inflation also causes consumer attitude to change rapidly and marketing management can not rely on data of a few years old. using some of the more modern merchandising and stock control techniques. Generally prices are not fixed so that bargaining is the accepted way of doing business at every level of distribution. Sales promotion techniques have proved effective and are being used with growing sophistication. During periods of high inflation. costing techniques may need to be changed from actual to a replacement basis. Adequate data on market characteristics. Pricing Pricing practices consist of a hybrid of traditional and Western practices. for example. social and cultural diversities in Malaysia pose headaches. such as mini-markets and grocery stores. These companies do not distribute through the traditional wholesale and retail outlets. and very often the marketing executive has to rely on his hunches and own judgement. particularly to avoid direct price competition. chain stores and suburban shopping centres. but through individuals who act as distributors as well as salesman. A high price strategy tends to be adopted by the larger companies. This difficulty is aggravated by the lack of market data. A significant development in recent years is the rise of distribution via direct selling which is exemplified by Amway. Never outlets are also now available to marketing managers. There is a multiplicity of intermediaries. These include minimarkets. Fortiss and Newton. a trend toward more direct price competition is discernible. The different linguistic. Consequently. Only in the large supermarkets and Western type departmental stores is the fixed one-price policy being followed. cultural and social nuances of the different races. The smaller companies tend to rely on direct price competition to gain a foothold and to maintain a lower price to retain their share. These are some of the issues facing marketing management in an era of high inflation. Product line analysis becomes more important as marginal profit products tie up inventory and should be pruned. The prevailing inflationary conditions also pose problems for the management of the marketing function. Another area of challenge is the government's desire to develop bumiputra distribution outlets. Prices are being more frequently advertised than before. These include the limited availability of regional and specialised media and the lack of high quality local production and processing facilities for advertising materials. Advertising management in Malaysia faces several problems. More frequent review of selling prices and margins are necessary. supermarkets-cum-shopping arcades. Distribution and Personal Selling The agency houses still dominate the import-export trade. In the present period of high inflation. Direct mailing techniques is also being increasingly utilised for promotion. particularly at the retail level. The advertisement of prices has even spread to industrial selling. This has developed to serve a dispersed market which usually buys in small volume. This trend has even spread to the smaller companies. it is virtually impossible to sell detergent without including some sort of premium. but have now diversified into manufacturing locally. departmental stores. the behaviour of consumers and media profiles are not available. There seems to be a trend toward larger scale and more professional retailing. Advertising must be tuned to the linguistic. Different appeals and themes may be required to appeal to the different races in different languages.

A critical environmental force is the increasing governmental involvement in and regulation of business. Government guidelines and regulations in advertising. This professionalism can be achieved more rapidly with greater dissemination of marketing knowledge and techniques. Such a body could also instil a greater sense of social responsibility into marketing management and guide marketing practices to provide consumer satisfaction. Accelerating the application of modern techniques will be a growing professionalism and standard of marketing management. Environmental groups and other public interest groups (e. . So far. However. adequate product labelling. OR and behavioural science) will lead to more effective planning and control of marketing efforts. some companies have to compete directly with government bodies or corporations which possess real or perceived advantages over private firms. There are no easy and simple answers to such issues and problems. Some form of training programme. packaging and distribution are challenging the creative and innovative abilities of marketing to respond positively and profitably. sponsored jointly by the government and private sector. More marketing research. A major problem facing them (as well as the Government) is the general lack of international marketing expertise. These outlets will become important to serve the growing bumiputra market. the smaller manufacturers and companies tend to use a push strategy utilising their sales force to push their products through the channels of distribution. Issues like truth-in-advertising. pricing. some attempts were made in this direction. particularly for manufactured products. Advancements in product and package development and testing will result in more product and package success. advance. Environmental Pressures and Problems Apart from market forces. A national Malaysian Institute of Marketing should be set up for this purpose and to spearhead.required to develop bumiputra distributors to achieve the objectives of the New Economic Policy. marketing management in Malaysia has to contend with increasing environmental pressures and problems which will narrow down the external parameters for marketing action. Malaysian manufacturers are beginning to embark upon international marketings programmes to market their products overseas (for example plastics. and guide the practice and professionalism of marketing management. Another force is the growing consumer movement. These programmes will prove very fruitful and enlarge marketing opportunities for Malaysia internationally.g. In addition. Consumerism is becoming a very potent issue and is being spearheaded by bodies such as CAP and FOMCA. The future points to a growing sophistication. In terms of marketing strategy. which is also supplemented by personal selling. wood and textiles). health. A similar call was made by the Author in 1976 and since then. none has materialised in the form of a national institute along the lines of the Malaysian Institute of Management. religious) are also forces that marketing management have to reckon with. particularly in consumer behaviour will be undertaken. This is in contrast to the larger companies reliance on a pull strategy. unit pricing for comparison purposes and sales promotional gimmicks will confront marketing management with increasing frequency in the future. Better knowledge and the application of modern marketing techniques (e. for Malaysia is heavily dependent on exports and foreign markets. should be instituted. Extensive market research into foreign markets should be undertaken. international Marketing An area of marketing opportunity that should be tapped is international marketing. Prospects The present status of marketing in Malaysia suggests great potential and prospect. companies are experiencing difficulties in finding suitable distributors due to the historical lack of a pool of bumiputra distributors.g. Businesses have to take cognizance of all these environmental pressures and problems and work towards their resolution in the long run rather than fight them.

SWOT of Malaysian Economy .The establishment of such a National Malaysian Institute of Marketing will augur well for the future of marketing in Malaysia.

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