CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Introduction Leader and Leadership Leadership Traits Leadership approaches “Outstanding examples of business leadership in Asia”.

Conclusion

1.0 Introduction This Leadership Assignment will give us clear picture about leadership and the importance of leadership in companies. We will discuss in detail about few outstanding business leaders in Asia and their leadership style. All the research material used in this assignment has been sourced from accredited authors and some researcher findings. The National Library (Singapore) and associated academic journal and some e-journal websites were referenced to make this assignment. Please see the reference at the end of this essay for further details. 2.0 Leader and Leadership Leader and Leadership have been part of our history and we have seen many examples and heard many stories about such leaders. Jesus Christ is the perfect example of a great leader in The BIBLE. When we were in school we read about Charismatic leaders like Alexander the Great; Augustus-the first Roman emperor; Charlemagne the Great; William the Conqueror, Genghis Kahn-Emperor of all Mongols, Napoleon Bonaparte, Knights and Kings who lead their armies to victories in battlefields. They were normal people who inspired others for a common cause and who are remembered even today for their courage to take decisions, for their ability to influence people. They are remembered for how they motivated everyone around them and how they created followers. In recent times we have read about leaders like Hitler, Mahatma Gandhi, Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Nelson Mandela, Mother Theresa, Dalai Lama etc. In sports we have great leaders of their game who influence other athletes around them and who play for their countries and who lead their teams to victory. Sports stars like Lance Armstrong, Ricky Ponting, Steve Waugh, Michael Schumacher, David Beckham, Tiger Woods etc. They create such fan following that big commercial giants hire them to market their products, and these players become an iconic figures. They are admired for their innate ability and knowledge that they posses about the game and for their leadership ability. Leadership and leaders are everywhere and in every field. Even in our houses. Our mother and father can be great leaders to each one of us. Let’s see leaders and leadership from the business perspective. Fortune magazine’s analysis of 10 most admired companies in the world was summed up by Thomas Stewart as ‘The truth is that no one factor makes a company admirable, but if you were forced to pick the one that makes the most difference, you’d pick leadership’.(Mar 1998,p.72) Leadership defined-

According to Brian O'Nail, "Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm. And doing it willingly.” Leadership is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals. There are three aspects of Leadership – people, influence and goals. Leadership occurs among people, it involves people being influenced and this influence is used to achieve the goals of the organizations. In general, Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more unified and coherent. Leadership involves creating a change and not maintaining a status quo. Leader VS Manager

Leader
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. SOUL Visionary Passionate Creative Flexible Inspiring Innovative Courageous Imaginative Experimental Initiates changes Personal power

Manager
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. MIND Rational Consulting Persistent Problem Solving Tough-minded Analytical Structured Deliberate Authoritative Stabilizing Position Power

(Source; Genevieve Capowski, “Anatomy of a Leader: Where are the Leaders of Tomorrow?” Management Review 1994,12.) 3.0 Leadership Traits – Leadership’s success is highly dependent on the personal traits of the leaders. Some traits are god gifted and leaders are born with it, while other traits can be learned over time. Like knowledge and communication can be learnt in schools/universities or by experience. Few traits of successful leaders are self-confidence, alertness, energy, decisiveness, knowledge, communication, personality, popularity, integrity, goal driven, ethical conduct, honesty, humble.

4.0 Leadership Approaches:Transactional Leaders – He/she is a leader who clarifies the roles and responsibilities of his subordinates, clarifies their task requirements, initiates structures for them, provides rewards to his subordinates, and displays/shows consideration for his subordinates. They believe in organization norms and values. Charismatic Leaders – He/she is a type of leader who has the ability to motivate their subordinates to do more than what is normally expected. They excite, stimulate and drive employees to work harder. Charismatic leaders include Hitler, Martin Luther king jr etc. Transformational Leaders- He/she is a type of leader who is a charismatic leader but has the special ability to bring about innovation and changes in the organization. They have the ability to change the organizations mission, structure, operation, rules etc. Interactive Leaders- He/she is a type of leader who is concerned about consensus building, and wants everyone to participate in the decision making, and is very caring for their subordinates. They like interacting with subordinates before decision making and they like free flow of ideas between the subordinates. Servant Leaders- He/she is a leader who works to fulfil the subordinate’s needs and requirements, who works to fulfil their subordinate’s goals and as well as achieve the organizational goals. They provide their subordinates with whatever they need to serve the customer. Autocratic Leaders- He/she is a type of leader who wants to centralize power and authority with themselves. They make the decisions for their subordinates and their followers have to follow it. They rely on carrot and stick approach to reward and punish their subordinates. They are the kind of leaders who do not delegate authority. Democratic Leaders- He/she is a type of leader who delegates authority to their subordinates; they encourage participation of employees in decision making process. They consult with others to solve problems and they empower their subordinates if necessary. 5.0 Outstanding Business leaders in Asia:Mr. Dhirubhai Ambani (1932-2002):Mr. Dhirubhai Ambani (1932- 2002) was an exceptional human being and an outstanding leader. He was man far ahead of his times; he had a great entrepreneurial spirit. He dared to dream on a scale unimaginable before, in Indian industry. His life and achievements prove that, backed by confidence, courage and conviction, man can achieve the impossible. His life journey is reminiscent of the rags to riches story. From a humble beginning, he went on to create an enviable business empire within a span of just 25 years. Reliance Group is a living testimony to his will power, single-minded dedication and an unrelenting commitment to his goals. Under Dhirubhai Ambani’s visionary leadership, the Reliance Group emerged as the largest business conglomerate in India, and carved out a distinct place for itself in the global corporate giants. The Group's track record of consistent growth is unparalleled in Indian industry and

He was born into a poor family and his father was a teacher in a school. This was reflected in his passion for mega-sized projects. pioneering and innovative genius.00. the most advanced technology and the highest level of productivity. he evolved a unique style. Think fast. India. Aim for the best". The primary business of Reliance Commercial Corporation was to import polyester yarn and export spices. He revolutionised capital markets in India."Think big. And to this. When he was 16 years old. Mr. Mr.perhaps internationally too.000. Leadership Lessons from Mr. attracting millions of retail investors in a market which were dominated by financial institutions in the 1980’s. He is said to have started his entrepreneurial career by selling "pakora (Indian fast food snack)" to pilgrims in Mount Girnar over the weekends. Dhirubhai Ambani returned to India in 1958 and started the Reliance Commercial Corporation with a capital of Rs. This company is now Reliance Industries Limited and is India's largest private sector company on fortune 500 list with a turnover of US $28 billion and profit of US $2. He developed his own style. Two years later A. Shri Dhirubhai Ambani was not just firmly rooted in traditional Indian values. became the distributors for Shell products and Dhirubhai was promoted to manage the company’s oil-filling station at the port of Aden. but was also a modern man. From nothing. Besse & Co. as well inter-personal exploration and development. He learnt leadership from practice and hands on experience. he moved to Aden. petrochemicals. with the Japanese focus on the latest technology. Besse & Co. he generated billions of rupees in wealth for those who invested in his companies. to garments (under the brand name of Vimal). nor did he learn any leadership skills. Mr. Dhirubhai Ambani a brief History: He was born on 28th December 1932 at Chorwad. He was not an MBA.” – Indian Heroes His corporate philosophy was short. He was acclaimed as the top businessman of the twentieth century and lauded for his dynamic. which combined the American style of entrepreneurship. Yemen. in Gujrat. Dhirubhai Ambani:Leadership as an Art Mr. With innovative instruments like the convertible debenture. simple . Reliance quickly became a favourite of the stock market in the 1980s. Reliance Industries Limited has a wide range of products from petroleum products.not only in India but in the world. 15. Prestigious awards and titles were awarded to him by national and international organisations.033 billion for the fiscal year ending in March 2006. Think ahead. Instead. Today. the Group's turnover represents nearly 3 percent of India's GDP. He inspired the Reliance team to do better than the best . Dhirubhai never took leadership lessons in school or college. he added the innate shrewdness of a Gujarati businessman. Dhirubhai Ambani never followed the textbook style of management. Think differently. “Dhirubhai Ambani is remembered for shaping India's equity culture. He was a Charismatic and Transformational Leader:- . He worked as a dispatch clerk with A.

His approach to business was very different. Most leaders in his place would have gone home in their expensive cars and would have delegated this task to their managers. Reliance Industries holds the distinction that. chaos and protests. Few lessons from his leadership style are:Roll up your sleeves and help (Team player):According to Ambani he and his team share the same DNA. and new ways to manage people and get things done. By letting them know that he was always aware of it and that he was on right side through it all. when on an almost daily basis business ethics were put on trial. Reliance. Managers went back fully armed to face whatever came their way. By doing this he converted all his liabilities. they never thought.--Source BBC News. His first instinct was always to join his men in putting out the fire and not crucifying them for it. he was the first person to sense that the circumstances would have been beyond his team's control. Not Dhirubhai Ambani.it is the only Public Limited Company whose several Annual General Meetings were held in stadiums. The managers. at Ashoka Hotel in New Delhi. and there were an equal number of impatient guests outside the hall. But one day. waiting to be seated. The share prices of his company went up and investors made money through him. caring. who followed business ethics. they had. ‘He is the person who influenced 1000’s of people to invest in the share market . Reliance is the company having the highest number of share holders in the world. Dhirubhai Ambani went to the door trying to pacify the guests. He trusted his team’s capabilities. he gently asked one of the managers if he needed any help in combating it. when to everyone’s amazement and relief. The management was trying hard to handle the confusion. during the time of Vimal's (Reliance Textile. Every seat in the hall was occupied. his seed has grown up to 3 million people. He was able to convince people of rural Gujarat that being shareholders of his company will only bring returns to their investment. this gave them courage. and not being a slip on their part.’ – Source BBC NEWS. but that did not stop him from rolling up his sleeves and diving in to rescue a situation that had gone out of control. Be a safety net for your team (He empowered his managers):There was a time when Reliance agency Mudra was the target of some vicious propaganda by few managers in the top management. He believed in new technology. innovative products. and that he was there for them and for the right cause. He came up with the innovative idea of converting the debentures of the company into equity shares. generous and kind):- . Be a silent benefactor (He was humble. His moves made people write new theory in the Indian stock exchange. Overwhelmed by his concern and compassion and the knowledge that he knew and cared for what they were going through. When things went wrong.was known as the brand Vimal) initial days had organized a fashion show at the Convention Hall. Dhirubhai at that time was already a name to reckon with and a VIP himself. never raised this subject during any of their meetings with Dhirubhai because they were hesitant to raise this issue. That was all the help that the manager needed in combating corruption. worked wonders for their confidence. That did it.

yet he never went around broadcasting it. and made sure it was eradicated. laws or policies govern his vision.000 tonnes. Whenever things seemed difficult. Yes. while the market in India for it was only about 6. His arm around the shoulder (His motivation technique):This is Dhirubhai Ambani’s very own signature style. he never uttered a word about it to anyone else. This is how. than nothing is impossible. There are many employees and managers who have come across his kindness and generosity. even though he dreamed. someone who was loved and important enough to be close to him. He will make them feel equal.000 tonnes of Polyester Fibre way back in 1980. he had the vision. he would instantly put his arm around the person’s shoulder and proceed to discuss the issues at hand as they walked. Whenever people working under him or with him tried to point out that a task seemed too big to be accomplished. Ambani was not an economist.This was one of his remarkable traits. At a time in 1970’s and 80’s other industrialist in India would invest in capacities only after a careful study of market. Sometimes. He was born poor. courage and risk to invest in gigantic plants and manufacturing units that would supply more than the required demand. He studied every thorn that came his way and between his visions. He never used charity as a platform to gain publicity. night and day familiarizing himself with every element that constituted his dreams. that he had trust in him. When Dhirubhai Ambani helped someone. He would put the person at ease instantaneously. as he puts it. He was always encouraging people to share their thoughts and ideas. he would donate money without even letting the recipient know who the donor was. Whenever he had time to speak to employee of the company in person. Such was the extent of his generosity. but he was able to distinguish between perception and reality and his favourite phrase "dream with your eyes open" proves that. Always stay ahead of times (Foresight):Mr. and highly motivated. He would never let preset norms. he would say: ‘No is no answer!’ He not only dreamt big. this was one of the things that was uniquely Dhirubhai — his warm arm around the shoulder of the employees did much more than words in letting every employee know that he belonged to the company. He worked hard. And he achieved one dream after another. he taught us to do so too. Dream with open eyes (His visions were real):He is a living proof that whoever dreams big and has the courage to fulfil it. And employees would walk away from that meeting feeling good about themselves and the work that they were doing. The result was that the market . But his ideas were modern. none of his dreams turned into nightmares. The initial capacity of Reliance textile plant was 10. he used to say "It's difficult but not impossible!" He dreamt big. was from a conservative society of India. he managed to achieve many things. With this simple gesture. or if it was a conversation for a short walk till up to his car. He had the ability and the foresight to judge the scenarios.

We have learned from Mr. His instruction and goal were simple. He did not breathe a word about profits.com Dhirubhai Ambani .blossomed to absorb supply. Normally. Believe in being the best. the free encyclopedia Great lessons from Dhirubhai Ambani [Archive] ManagementParadise. Dhirubhai never took leadership lessons in school or college. then nothing is impossible. success and money will follow (He believed in Quality):This was his belief and Dhirubhai lived by it. the consumer gained due to reduced prices and they demanded more. then money/profit will be the end result. as well interpersonal exploration and development. he had so much belief in his ability and decisions that he invested his entire earning to purchase huge stock of Polyester Yarn when he started his new business. He created his own style of leadership and management.com : Your Gateway to Online MBA Degree . Dhirubhai that if we have a goal and the will power to achieve it. in management we say ‘Never put all the eggs in one basket’. So work toward a goal and don’t worry about the by product or the end-result.Wikipedia. Great leaders take risk and they believe in their ability. He did not dream of making profits as the end result of advertising. Instead.S. He developed his own style. nor about cost of such advertising. he evolved a unique style. nor did he learn any leadership skills. Mr. Reference:Internet:Dhirubhai Ambani : Indian Legends @ muraleedharan. this clearly establishes the relationship between Leaders and followers. Everyone around him advised him that it was wrong decision to invest so much money in Polyester. Success in attaining that goal will eventually bring in cash. with the Japanese focus on the latest technology. He learnt leadership from practice and hands on experience. Soon Dhirubhai started exporting Polyester yarn to the U. People will pay our product or service if it is good. However. For instance. His leadership was an Art and he practiced this art with perfection. And to this. he added the innate shrewdness of a Gujarati businessman. This decision made him a billionaire today. Great advertising was his goal. however he was stubborn and knew what he was doing.0 Conclusion:Mr. He has provided many budding entrepreneurs hope and inspiration. courageous and non conformist):He was known for his risk taking ability. when he was setting up Reliance Textile he briefed the marketing head clearly: ‘Produce the best textile advertising in the country’. 6. Dhirubhai Ambani never followed the textbook style of management. which combined the American style of entrepreneurship. produce the best advertisement the country has ever seen. . People have written books on his management style and he is looked upon as a GURU of Management in India. He had an uncanny knack of knowing exactly how the market is going to behave and stayed ahead of times. Risk Taker (He was decisive. He was a transformational leader and influenced everyone who worked with him. If we work towards creating a name for our self and earning a good reputation. which other follow even today.

Dhirubhai Ambani – Real Story from Rags to Riches | Stock Market India | Stock Market News | Stock Recommendations .com Books:The Leadership Experience – Richard L. . MMS. BMM. it’s because they have been able to identify a goal that appears almost impossible.Management Students Forum for MBA. 09:47 PM #2 (permalink) praveen Status: Administrator Join Date: Feb 2008 Posts: 376 Quote: Leadership Research Essay Leadership as Art Science or Religion Introduction: If you go into history and see why leaders have succeeded. BBA. Everybody would accept this as a leadership definition. They have been able to get their followers to accept that the seemingly impossible goal is achievable. Daft Author: Sumit 06-07-2008. students and aspirants. That is the inspirational role of leadership Leaders have succeeded when they set themselves up as examples and get people to replicate what they have done as role models.BMS. they have been able to give them the confidence to achieve this goal.paisacontrol.

Or a Dhirubhai Ambani. who thought worldscale.Outstanding leaders are those who set audacious objectives and get people to own and achieve them. and the third is to be a living example of what can be done so that followers can refer to the leader’s life and his actions and see the way to behave in given circumstances. Take the example of Narayana Murthy:he has shown that you can be a global player. Scope of the Research: In this research essay. Three essentials emerge: setting a goal which seems impossible or needs a fundamental leap. because of qualities like confidents and knowledge and leads a group or a team wherein the team tends to accept him because of sense of bonding and trust. second is to communicate to people and inspire them that the task is not so daunting. I have tried to explain my . Personal definition of leadership: A Leader is some one who emerges out of a crowd.

A person who can act is an actor. Dhirubhai Ambani who was a very big industrialist and founder of one of India's biggest flagship business. Leadership as a Science To be a leader you . as well as intense personal exploration of effective human communication and development. he has developed this skill because of his traits or learning from the environment Leadership as Art because many leadership skills and qualities cannot be learned from a text book. Leadership takes practice and hands-on experience.perception of leadership by taking analyzing the life and leadership style and different phases of the career of Mr. I have made an analysis of his leadership style and accordingly I have taken my stand on leadership. Leadership as Art What is art? Art is a skill of performing the job easily or comfortable with a sense of perfection showing class.

it also includes procurers and system So leadership in certain filed or industries like research and development need science as form of leadership. Mr.need to know the in and out our subject the learning comes from knowledge and systematic approach.Dhirubhai Ambani. This is more oriented towards faith and belief I would like to explain the concept of leadership as art with an example of a leader Mr.Dhirubhai Ambani was born in 28 December 1932 in the state of Gujarat. Indian business tycoon and founder of Reliance Industries Limited. Leadership as a Religion Religion is created by the values followed by some people. example Buddha had his values which he spread his values which become the religion because people felt this is correct an followed. so it has such an impact that even with out knowing people follow. the interesting thing is every thing needs research and development so science is required. .

Yemen. Reliance Industries ltd.000.00.Dhirubhai Ambani returned to India and started the Reliance Commercial Corporation with a capital of Rs. became the distributors for Shell products and Dhirubhai was promoted to manage the company’s oil-filling station at the port of Aden. Besse & Co two years later A. The business was setup in partnership with Mr. Champaklal Damani.Dhirubhai Ambani: He worked as a dispatch clerk with A. The primary business of Reliance Commercial Corporation was to import polyester yarn and export spices.History of Mr. his second cousin. Besse & Co. with businesses in the . Mr. who used to be with him in Aden. Dhirubhai Ambani has built the biggest private sector enterprise in India the company’s turnover equals to 3% of India’s GDP. 15. India's largest private sector enterprise.

you can do it. His sayings “Only when you can dream it. he bet on his little money he had and on his confidence. (RIL) Mr. The flagship company.” Risk was the name of the game he played he put all his earnings in one single deal. is a Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest private sector company in India Source: Reliance Industries Limited.Dhirubhai Ambani leadership as Art Dhirubhai Ambani influenced is friends and relatives to join him in his future success. the artist's voice. Reliance Industries Limited. Group's annual revenues are in excess of USD 22 billion. So leaders must learn to trust their interior voices.energy and materials value chain. He did one thing that is dream big. “No leadership or management book says put all your eggs in one basket” he started his carrier in this was. . For purchase of polyester yarn this shows his skill which I call it as Art. especially the small quiet voice that visits in moments of silence and solitude.

The voice is not always logical. Source: AG Krishnamurthy. with the Japanese focus on the latest technology.000 investors from various parts of . Instead. Source: Dipayan Mazumdar and Associates. which combined the American style of entrepreneurship. His approach to business was very different his moves made people write new theory in the Indian stock exchange. Art teacher Robert Henri wrote: Dhirubhai never followed the textbook style of management. More than 58. Source BBC News Dhirubhai Ambani is credited with starting the equity cult in India. And to this. he evolved a unique style. he added the innate shrewdness of a Gujarati businessman. He went on the way he though is best for him He is the person who influences 1000’s of people to invest in the share market today his seed has grown up to 3 million people Reliance is the company having the highest number of share holders in the world.

Dhirubhai was able to convince people of rural Gujarat that being shareholders of his company will only bring returns to their investment. substantial returns on their investments.India subscribed to Reliance's IPO in 1977. In this shock he was paralyzed but recovered in 2 months . in exchange for their trust. Dhirubhai managed to convince a large number of first-time retail investors to participate in the unfolding Reliance story and put their hard-earned money in the Reliance Textile IPO.000 shareholders and the Reliance family. promising them. He not only faced problems in starting business he faced biggest threat of closures of the empire he built in one stage According to me no man would have survived the pressure this great legend survived and succeed . Mumbai and was attended by more than 35. Reliance Industries holds the distinction that it is the only Public Limited Company whose several Annual General Meetings were held in stadiums. The Annual General Meeting of Reliance Industries was held in Cross Maidan. In 1986.

"We cannot change our Rulers.Ambani applied The Contingency theory he did not know surely what contingency theory is because he was not a graduate.Dhirubhai Ambani. Ambani and the X & Y Theory He handed competition in best possible way He had faced the biggest challenge from the bigger business firms than him those days. the government employees he gave pride and power to who like power the politicians. I personally feel that Mr. but we can change the way they Rule us. The best example would be that he bribed who liked money i.e.During this process he did all that he could such as crisis management damage control reestablishing motivating people what ever is necessary THEORIES I have to tried to establish a connection between Ambani's leadership styles with some of the leadership theories." Mr. He learn't from the realities of life and grew step by step.. Communication skills: .

Dhirubhai Ambani approach he went to an extent of creating a system. Paper position In my example it clearly shows that their has been no process or system In Mr. clear sentences He was a good speaker he delivers things that he has in the mind in short but correctly Because of his communication skill he could communicate to the share holders their lied his success He always believed in motivation He has understood the motivation law by himself example: Reliance company shares were over subscribed to such an extent that it created history in those days His share bonus and dividend motivated more and more people invest and only this saved him during crisis He has used the contingency theory in every step of life.It is an effective echo of Dhirubhai famed ability to communicate his message in short. were these systems are highly .

successful. In my contest leaders create their own system. It was all a feudal style of management. my point is that for great leaders they do not have to go through system or process they create their own system which suits them best. If we had accepted that style. Of course. 'we don't want people carrying their wisdom in notebooks as if it is .Dhirubhai Ambani created new system in share market such as creation of convertible bonds which did not exit then today it is the most used strategies now. So we said. But we had a disruptive style of management.Mukesh Ambani first son of Mr. we would not have grown. which other follow so here clearly leaders and followers are relationship has been established Evidence for my context is Mr. the way they create system is called art. It was simply not a scalable model. Mr.Dhirubhai Ambani In an interview when he was questioned about his father’s success he said that even the managers. the easiest thing would have been to follow it.

know as Art” Every system is created by some one that some one is the leader. You might be exposed to every struggle in life but only when u feel or experience it u will know its importance. experience it for wining. Leadership books or written on experience of ." Conclusion: Art as a leadership is more relevant in this context of my example “The though in us to solve the problem or create a opportunity is. it better to learn from mistakes and implement. I feel instead of learning a lot of things and failing to implement. Reliance is now a concept in which the Ambanis have become irrelevant. And the type of the leadership this person possesses is Art. Experience in books and hearing can guide you but cannot make you win you need you do it.some kind of secretive operation.' "Dhirubhai will go one day. But Reliance's employees and shareholders will keep it afloat.

06-07-2008. But Reliance's employees and shareholders will keep it afloat. Leadership is nothing more than a romantic myth. Colocation | Broadband Wireless | Dedicated Servers | DocSTAR | DSL | Web Hosting | Web Design & Development Infinity Internet Welcome to rediff. Leadership involves .Dhirubhai Ambani. Art and religion by von ogen vot. Reliance is now a concept in which the Ambanis have become irrelevant. (RIL) Reliance ADA GROUP.com Dhirubhai Ambani in memoriam Reliance Industries Limited." Mr." DEFINATION OF LEADERSHIP: Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes and outcomes that reflect their shared purposes. "Dhirubhai will go one day. 09:48 PM #3 (permalink) praveen Status: Administrator Join Date: Feb 2008 Posts: 376 "Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth. "Growth has no limit at Reliance.others. I keep revising my vision. Source: Dipayan Mazumdar and Associates. perhaps based on the false hope that someone will come along and solve our problems by sheer force of will. Only when you dream it you can do it. but art is creating experience." References Source: AG Krishnamurthy.

Each person takes personal responsibility to achieve the desired future. researches looked to see if leaders had particular trait or characteristics. and responsibilities. or woodcarver may be a leader in her field of expertise. musician. there must be followers. or perhaps even trained. Leadership occurs among people. leadership was conceptualized as a single "GREAT MAN" who put everything together and influenced others to follow along based on the strength of inherited traits. Followers are an important part of the leadership process. There are opportunities for leadership all around us that involve influence and change toward a desired goal or outcome. Great Man Theories: This is the granddaddy of leadership concepts. religions. Researchers looked at how a leader behaved toward followers-such as whether they were autocratic or democratic in their approach and how this correlated with leadership effectiveness or ineffectiveness. Leadership is reciprocal. Leadership is influencing others to come together around a common vision. Many of these ideas are still applicable to leadership studies today. Leadership is an everyday way of acting and thinking that has little to do with title or formal position in an organization. Trait Theories: Studies of these "larger-than-life" leaders spurred research into the various traits that defined a leader. Beginning in the 1920s. not maintaining the status quo. An individual performer who achieves excellence as a scientist. The earliest studies of leadership adopted the belief that leaders (who were always thought of as male) were born with certain hero leadership traits and natural abilities of power and influence. Without leadership. Thus. Since leadership involves people. such as intelligence. would fall apart. those people intentionally desire significant changes. Leadership is shared among leaders and followers with everyone fully engaged and accepting higher levels of responsibility. Leadership involves creating change. social movements. Good leaders know how to follow. roles. which relates to the content of managerial activities. the interest in leadership characteristics has continued to present day. as well as our organizations. Influence means that the relationship among people is not passive. leadership involves the influence of people to bring about change toward a desirable future. Although research failed to produce a list of traits that would always guarantee leadership success. governments. and they set an example for others. height. and the military. our families and communities. and leaders are sometimes followers. rather than who he or she is. also inherent in this definition is the concept that influence is multidirectional and non-coercive. however. It was thought that if traits could be identified. One line of research focused on what leaders actually do on the job. or energy that distinguished them from non leaders and contributed to success. leaders could be predicted. athlete. EVOLVING THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP The various leadership theories can be categorized into six basis approaches. it is not something done to people. but is not a leader as it is by definition unless followers are involved. qualities. Behavior Theories: The failure to identify a universal set of leadership traits led researchers in the early 1950s to begin looking at what a leader does. Contingency Theory: Researchers next began to consider the .influence. The issue of intention or will means that people – leader and followers – are actively involved in the pursuit of change toward a desired future. These studies were soon expanded to try to determine how effective leaders differ in their behavior from ineffective ones. In organizations. and abilities. and the changes reflect purposes shared by leaders and followers. it occurs among people.

and embracing diversity. and the conditions that typically give rise to charismatic leadership. Leaders influence people to change by providing an inspiring vision of the future. Personal qualities that leaders need to build effective relationships. how they differ from other people. leadership communication. A related area of study is vision. Relational Theories: Since the late 1970s. a leader's mind. but many of the earlier theories paid little attention to change behavior. many ideas of leadership have focused on the relational aspect. Transformational leadership develops followers into leaders and brings about significant change by elevating leaders and followers to higher levels of motivation and morality. rather than directs or controls others. and the external environment. However. emphasize that leadership cannot be understood in a vacuum separate from various elements of the group or organizational situation. The servant leader puts others needs and interests above his or her own. characteristics of the work environment and follower tasks. Contingency theories. leaders strive to create learning organizations. leaders build relationships through motivation and empowerment. leaders build whole organizations as communities of shared purpose and direction. team leadership. such as emotional intelligence. With the unpredictable environment of the early 21 st century. attention has turned to how leaders create changes within followers and the organization that respond to and keep pace with change in the environment. One major relational theory is referred to as transformational leadership. integrity and high moral standards. The theory of servant leadership means that the leader is first and foremost a person who serves others. and personal courage. facilitating change is the key aspect of being a leader. Leading change has always been an essential part of leadership. Influence Theories: These theories examine influence processes between leaders and followers. Rather than relying on hierarchical control. sometimes called situational theories. To adapt to a chaotic world. Rather than being seen as something a leader does to follower. Theories of charismatic leadership attempt to identify how charismatic leaders behave. risky.contextual and situational variables that influence what leadership behaviors will be effective. Major situational variables are the characteristics of followers. leadership is viewed as a relational process that meaningfully engages all participants and enables each person to contribute to achieving the vision. One primary topic of study is charismatic leadership which refers to leadership influence based not on position or formal authority but. leaders work with others to create a shared vision and shape the cultural values needed to attain it. and always challenging" is being translated into new concepts of what it means to be a leader. in which each person is intimately involved in identifying and solving problems so the organization can grow and change to meet new challenges. In addition. that is. ever-changing. on the qualities and charismatic personality of the leader. with the transition to a new paradigm discussed earlier new ideas are emerging. . Interpersonal relationships are seen as the most important facet of leadership effectiveness. how leaders and followers interact and influence one another. Rather than directing and controlling others. In this view. Te understanding of the world as "turbulent. EMERGING LEADERSHIP THEORIES Elements of each of the approaches are still applicable to leadership today. The idea behind contingency theories is that leaders can analyze their situation and tailor their behavior to improve leadership effectiveness.

These values are essential to religion. there are wide variations in technique and interpretation. an art or a religion? Some says it is an art because many leadership skills and qualities cannot be learned from a text book. It is in the nature of all people to have these experiences. when we seem to see beyond the usual -. leaders swim in their own emotional and spiritual undercurrents. Leadership takes practice and hands-on experience. science or Religion.become clairvoyant. creating a vision expresses a desire to move "toward spirit. A leader's dream is most often called a vision. it is only a rare few who are able to continue in the experience and find expression for it. Leaders make their dreams. and the dreams of others. As aspiration. Art teacher Robert Henri wrote: "There are moments in our lives. As artists. a book. know what they care about. or a product. As inspiration. Second. This is the art of leadership. Leadership :Art." It would seem that humanity permanently values truth. In any great modern city the numbers of persons and the numbers of hours devoted to some of the artistic production are very far excesses of the numbers of persons or hours consciously devoted to religion. or manufacturing plant. there are moments in a day. Why it is a religion? Every civilized community is now vitally interested in the arts. but in our time and under the conditions of our lives. First. the artist's voice. is the leader's art form. the act is "in spirit. Creating a vision is an artist's act of deciding both what is to be created and why it is to be created. especially the small quiet voice that visits in moments of silence and solitude." The aspiration is the dream. and beauty. Everywhere we hear the cry for Good Leadership. Such are the moments of our greatest wisdom. come true. and how they work to interest in the same things. It is an act of both inspiration and aspiration. goodness.LEADERSHIP TODAY A SCIENCE. But there is a cleft between the popular religion of our day and all these three. process. Such are the moments of our greatest happiness. the attempt to create a superior reality to what currently exists. So leaders must learn to trust their interior voices. Today's reality is that the old ways no longer work. company. whether the thing is a pot. A different perspective There are only two things that can say with any degree of certainty about leaders. they are interested in having care about the same things. Some says it is a science because a growing body of knowledge and objective facts describes the leadership skills to attain organizational goals. Visions emanate from the undercurrents. Creating a vision is not a purely rational exercise." The inspiration of a visionary emanates from a mysterious source. a poem. as well as intense personal exploration and development. Exactly how they know what they care about. The main question for us is does a LEADERSHIP is a science. The voice is not always logical. There are . than flesh helps soul" Our view of human nature and of the bodily life is very different from that of the Reformation theology. We reach then into reality. but the new ways are just emerging. Like any art form. "Nor soul helps flesh more now. AN ART OR A RELIGION As the concept of leadership has evolved through many perspectives and continues to change.

In a general way. These and other interests are to be differently conceived than in the period under Reformation dominance. few seem to be aware of the cleft between religion and art. The new premises. Both will be agents in forming the new age after the desires of life itself. property. equally many concerned with a new ethical seriousness in religion. Nor can be the conditions favorable to that experience be ever freshly reproduced without the aid of all the arts. No other art can satisfy the demand of human nature for allinclusive experience. what it cannot do for human life as well as what it can do. They relate to changed conceptions of individualism and freedom.many persons engaged in healing the breach between religion and science. It carries forward from the more remote past much that is still more out of harmony with the new forms. Science has displayed. If architects are to build successful church buildings they must know more about the requirements of the worship to be conducted in those buildings. where are they? They are largely the effects of nineteenth century science and mechanics. the rapid improvement in the popular arts. authority. It is rather the efficient cause. A new age is never an entire break with the past. negatively. even for long periods. popular morality. the great lack of Protestantism is not intellectual nor moral but artistic. and standards. Approved scientific method will go forward to be one of the major instrumentalities of the new good. not ethical but cultural. For the most part those who have recognized the severance of art from religion are chiefly persons who have felt the ungodliness of art rather than the ugliness of religious forms. that their logic is fairly complete. nor shall we until they are half consciously established in practice. With the growth of cities and city planning. both negative and positive. that human experience of universal life which we call religion and which alone is the sufficient cause of human good. the formulae that breaking down. And it restores some things from the distant past more useful and valued in the new age than they were in the immediately previous one. education. But art will be another major instrumentality. preparing the way for the positive work of new forces in philosophy. its close marked by the upheaval of war. If the artist in worship is to be successful. including architecture and the advancing brilliance of civilized life the church must keep pace. But the new age will not be predominantly scientific. one of these forces is the force of artistry. Science is not alone the sufficient cause of these transformations. One of these feelings for beauty. and religion. The art of worship is the all comprehending art. sanctions. art. It does mean that Reformation assumptions have quite generally wrought themselves into all departments of human life. he must know . human nature. what are they? In the main they are the work of the Reformation age. and that it is now time to estimate their success and failure. which later come back freshly to benefit and balance human life. confirms the central Reformation Protest and then displace both protestant and catholic sanctions. Feelings and forces are swept out of notice. It carries forward from the immediate past much that does not logically belong with the new forms. In the pioneer and commercial stages of America life this lack has not been so noticeable or unfortunate. This does not mean that these principles have been accepted by all or that they are now to be entirely displaced. We have been living religiously and morally and politically by the premises and forms of thoughts established by the Reformation. We do not know exactly what they are. The Reformation age is being effectively closed by the work of nineteenth century science. art. The values that we are reappraising. liberty. the force that will break much remaining mediaevalism.

In the 1920s. Lets analyse their style of leadership one by one and conclude whether their leadership was science or art or religion.how to set forth his message architecturally as well as liturgically. inviolate procedures let everyone know that those at the top had power and those at the bottom had none. Lets us take some models and example of leadership in Indian and the whole world context. Self directed teams and others forms of horizontal collaboration are breaking down . Mahatma Gandhi . structured jobs and work processes. he fought for the Indians. Yet today's world is in constant motion. and was one of the founding figures of the non-alignment . the old assumptions about the distribution of power are no loner valid. and both demanded outright political independence of India. His leadership was based on Truth. even keel. many leaders assumed that if they could just keep things running on a steady. buildings and machines. Nelson Mandela and Hitler. Today. Rigid organizational hierarchies. the organization would be successful. a pivotal figure in the Indian Independence Movement and the First Prime Minister of Independent India. He was also key figure in International politics in the post-war period. From Competition to Collaboration : The moves to empowerment also ties directly into new ways of working that emphasize collaboration over competition and conflict. Today's leaders share power rather than hoard it and find ways to increase an organization's brain by getting everyone in the organization involved and committed. Nehru was elected president of the All India Trade Unions Congress. From Control to Empowerment : Leaders in powerful positions once thought workers should be told what to do. Nehru won the hearts of many young Indians. most of today's organizations are stressing teamwork and cooperation. and nothing seems certain anymore. Nehru was also a writer. Nelson Mandela LEADERSHIP AS THE NEW REALITY FOR TODAY'S ORGANIZATION OLD Paradigm NEW Paradigm Stability Change and crisis management Control Empowerment Competition Collaboration Uniformity Diversity Self-centered Higher purpose Hero Humble From stability to change and crisis management : In the past. I would choose Mahatma Gandhi. it is surely shattered now. when to do it. If leaders still had an illusion of stability at the dawn of the twenty-first century. how to do it. he saw the misery of people and turned towards the active politics. He had become the most prominent youth leaders. He was knowing the art of implementation of his leadership that he did through different theories.When he was in South Africa. Although some companies still encourage internal competition and aggressiveness. Non-violence. scholar and amateur historian. and detailed. People would believe him because they found him to be true. Popularly referred to as Panditji (Scholar). One reason for this is that the financial basis of today's economy is rapidly becoming information rather than the tangible assets of land. These are all unique.He was a simple person . and theory of Passive resistance. In 1927 he became a member of the League against Imperialism created in Brussels. Jawahar Lal Nehru – He was a political leader of the Indian National Congress. After returning to India. Jawahar Lal Nehru. and who to do it with. An emphasis on control and rigidity serves to squelch motivation and morale rather than produce desired results. They believed strict control was needed for the organization to function efficiently and effectively.

Certainly. CONCLUSION: I have come to the belief that leadership is an art. and understand one another. From Hero to Humble: A related shift is the move from the celebrity " leader-as-hero" to the hard-working behind-the scenes leader who quietly builds a strong enduring company by supporting and developing others rather than touting his own abilities and successes. but politics. Homogenous groups find it easy to get along. act alike. communicate. All these leaders have had different objectives and purposes. there are technical abilities a person must master in order to be an effective leader. some of their objectives may sometimes pose as a question mark in many of our minds. a person who knows all about brushes. they are still talked about and followed even today. paints and canv 06-07-2008. Public confidence in business leaders in particular is at an all-time low. and nonprofit organizations have also been affected. From Self-Centered To Higher Purpose: The Ethical turmoil of the early twenty-first century has prompted a determined and conscious shift in leader mind-set from a self-centered focus to emphasis on a higher purpose. leadership can not be understood by logical argument or technical instruction. SCIENCE OR RELIGION 1. INTRODUCTION The concept of 'Leadership' is very complex and deep as it is a process that involves the interaction and communication between individuals. As with any art. and specialization. separation. separate from other departments. the scope and tendency of leadership automatically arises. There is no definitive pattern or place for leadership to occur. which just shows us to what extent of leadership qualities they possessed. but mastery of public speaking or conducting a meeting does not make a person a leader. The uniform thinking that arises.boundaries between departments and helping to spread knowledge and information throughout the organization. not weakness. But what is common in all these leaders and what ultimately matters is that they were able to influence millions of people in their times and though they are history. however. What makes leadership complex is the simple fact that no two individuals are the same. For example. Hitler and even terrorists of today. Compromise and sharing are recognized as signs of strength. . When ever there is more than one individual. can be a disaster in a world becoming more multinational and diverse. such as accounting or manufacturing. and have similar job skills are grouped into a departments. People who think alike. Every great leader was once a helpless baby. If we look at history there have been different kinds of leaders like Jesus Christ and Gautama Buddha to Alexander. From Uniformity to Diversity Many of today's organizations were built on assumptions of uniformity. 09:48 PM #4 (permalink) praveen Status: Administrator Join Date: Feb 2008 Posts: 376 Quote: LEADERSHIP RESEARCH ESSAY LEADERSHIP AS ART. sports.

transform or relate ones feelings. Leaders are also very different from managers as leadership is always based on a long term perspective of trust of the followers. a common factor that can be seen in all leaders is that every leader has the capacity and ability to express thoughts and ideas into action unlike thinkers.2 My Definition of Leadership Leadership is the quality of being able to express. Leadership as an Art. thoughts or ideas to other individuals and simultaneously giving guidance.Daft.1 Leadership inside Oneself Every individual at some point of a time plays the role of the leader knowingly or unknowingly.A. 4. inspiration and motivation to reach a common platform of thought or idea and ultimately creating a sense of mutual trust. Leadership can either be forced on the followers or can wholeheartedly happen. I have tried to establish a connection of my research evidence and position with a few theories mentioned in our prescribed leadership text – The Leadership Experience by Richard. All of us have leadership qualities within us but only a few of us know how exactly to use them. In today’s world there is always a larger scope and longer sustainability for leadership that is followed wholeheartedly rather than being forced upon. I am writing this essay in order to show my position and perspective of whether leadership is an art.1 Leadership from an Art perspective The word art means a superior skill that you can learn by practice and observation. I have referred three different books. Every individual has .Cohen. The third book is “The Art of a Strategist” by William. be inspired and motivated by his or her own set of leaders.L. An important quality that is the possible explanation of the existence of any good leader is the ability to absorb. Leadership from the art perspective is the way of emphasising that leaders are not born but bred. There are others who lack that initial spark but after sometime will lead the whole team towards the attainment of the goal. One of the authors is a former supersonic test pilot – Danny Cox whose book's name is “Leadership when the heat’s on”. The second book is “Leadership Styles” by Tony Kippenberger which is a small compact book with a lot of relevant information on characteristics of leaders. Being a management student I have given evidences and characteristics of leadership based on a management perspective. inspire or motivate people to a common platform of thought or idea.No two leaders are the same. science or religion. This stimulates others to follow. each person will have various reasons to follow. I have taken into consideration most of the common leadership approaches and behaviours of leaders and based on those factors I have taken my position of leadership. Science or Religion It is indeed very difficult and challenging to classify leadership as an art. But. There are some of us who stimulate a sense of inspiration or motivation while doing something but that catalysing factor sometimes does’t remain for a long time. 1. 3. I chose this book in order to get a leadership view from a different perspective. As every individual is unique. SCOPE OF RESEARCH Leadership is such a vast subject that it is applicable in almost every field of thought. Some individuals remain moderate the whole time by not taking much initiative. science or religion. Whereas some have that constant leading or guiding quality. 1. Apart from these three books. 2. guide.

3 Path-Goal Theory I found this theory to be of great relevance because it gives a lot of importance for motivation which is the underlying factor for any leader to sustain his level of leadership or the people following. Leadership as a science is largely based on a systematic pattern of findings. True scientists don't consider something a fact unless it can be replicated forever without exception. 5. be it work or business.3 Leadership from a Religious perspective Examining leadership from a religious point of view takes us to a totally different level. Good motivation leads to higher satisfaction and performance. From the scientific perspective. there are many theories and models. If a leader is able to extract or obtain such kind of commitment from his followers. the greater command the leader will have over his followers. after reading most of them from our text. examining leadership from such a perspective sometimes does make sense. integrity. 4. THEORY AND MODEL REVIEWS Since Leadership is an evolving and relatively old subject.leadership qualities. it is something great and miracles can happen and certain leaders are capable of this. models and approaches. It is only through practice and mistakes that a person realizes ones mistakes and has an opportunity to correct them. to a great extent every person can analyse people based on their behaviour and practically apply various theories. inter-personal skills and other factors that a leader should possess. 5.2 Fiedler's Contingency Model The peculiarity of this model is that it gives importance for relationship building and achievement of tasks. I have taken into consideration three of them through which I eventually have tried to relate with the evidence and taken a stand. 4. I feel that this theory is very relevant in regard to my research as most of the leaders of today are leaders because of their consistent qualities or traits that most ordinary people don’t have. In this complex and fast developing world. Both relationship building and task achievement are important and the extent of importance to be given to each of these factors during a contingency can be determined by only an effective leader. knowledge.1 The Trait Approach There are certain personality traits like self-confidence. This means the level of commitment is as high or similar to that of a true follower of a religion. . analysis of behaviours and models. It is only through the exploring of one self that the extent of ones leadership quality be known. The essence of any great leader's quality is the ability to win trust from the followers. 5. The higher the trust. This theory or concept can be applied to almost anything. honesty. 5. However. Each situation is different from the other and each individual is different from the other and that is why we need leaders to guide us. Certain people are committed to business or work religiously. It is something that can be taught and basically has a systematic approach.2 Leadership from a Science perspective Science as subject requires a lot of hard evidence. The amount of commitment that a religious person has towards religion is usually enormous.

Edgar Schein.W. Ironically.Bush – The whole world definitely has an opinion of the 43rd and current President of the USA and his approach. Every person has his own perception and is only natural. Goals and Objectives By definition. These factors have helped me take my position. Osama might have his very own reasons for the things he does. Everyone has their own personal opinion of George Bush's stand on the recent war and countering terrorism. l Building is the process of the organization and each individual coming together to meet each others needs. but what I appreciate is his firm stand on his decision despite opposition from his own country. George. As successful . Whenever we speak of him the first thing that comes into our minds is his face and peculiar moustache. A compelling reason for Hitler’s tough style was because of the very hard and sad childhood. The German word 'hittler' means one who lives in a hut or a shepherd. while sounding resonant chords of nationalism and anti-communism. I feel he is someone who is definitely very committed and focussed in what he believes. In spite of the things he does. l Maintaining is often the most difficult phase. emeritus professor at the Sloan School of Management has divided the life cycle of every organization into four stages and the maturity of a leader's role and importance in each stage. Vienna (1907 – 1908) due to "unfitness for painting". Osama is also someone who created a revolution. A vision is a way of seeing something to be achieved in the future. 6.5. Making a vision a reality will require the successful attainment of many goals. The people who follow him are either those who are in his line of thought or some of them who are forced to and those who don’t follow him and are totally against his way of thought. The leadership process is about making mistakes and having the vision and confidence to learn from them. EVIDENCE – FUCTIONING AND CHARACTERISTICS OF MOST LEADERS From the books that I have read. He may be right or wrong. But there was an added level of expectation and performance from him because his father was a former president. But maintaining or keeping up the change is even more challenging. Bringing about a change in any environment is challenging. he appears to be a mild and soft spoken person in television. He proved himself by being re-elected. a goal is an objective. Osama Bin Laden – What might be wrong to some of us need not to be to the others. He had so many followers for his cause.4 A Brief Examination of a few Leaders Adolf Hitler is one of the leaders that is most talked about till today. l Creating is the initial stage of breathing life and energy into the new enterprise and the people working in it. because the means of how he accomplishes his objectives no longer matters to him. I have taken into consideration the common methods of functioning and characteristics of most leaders. He has had the advantage of getting into politics because of his father being a former president. His level of involvement is so high that bad things do not sound as something bad to him. values and assumptions are transferred to the people working in the organization. What makes him so amazing is the fact that he rose from a poor background and went on to create a big revolution in the history of the world. he was rejected twice by the Academy of Fine Arts. The entrepreneur’s beliefs. He appealed to the economic needs of the lower and middle classes.

Henry David Thoreau. the longer his followers will remember him. Good leaders use their instinct and intuition to know how and when to reveal a weakness or highlight a difference – weakness draws people closer and difference creates distance. It is part of his appeal.” . It involves listening. l Being empathetic but tough. Any good leader will definitely be a good listener. feeling and learning from experience. What was once the strength of an organization can later become a weakness. The leader need not be perfect but should be natural. And a good listener will always understand and acknowledge others. l Being Different. In any area of competition. the greater the likelihood that one or more will fail. Four Tricks of Trade Robert Goffee and Gareth Jones identified the 4 tricks of trade used by most leaders in an award winning article in the Harvard Business Review of 1990 called “Why should any one be led by you?” I honestly feel that these 4 factors have been part of most great leaders. upright and courageous character. we easily picture his image and character as if we personally know him. l Revealing Weakness (es).Napoleon Bonaparte. Full commitment with the right strategies will definitely be a success. including working as a lawyer. The more clear the objectives and plans are. The Fundamental Principle – Commitment “It is not enough to be busy.the question is: What are we busy about?” . Sensing is much more than simply double-guessing. For instance. independent businessman and government employee. Keeping Things Simple “The simplest moves are the best. The Problem with Problems . Most of us haven’t seen Bill Gates. l Using instincts and intuitions. So it is better not to pretend to be perfect or a leader. Before becoming the president of the USA.organizations grow they attract competition. Through this leaders can emphasize their approachability and humanity.. But what most of us do not know is that he had approached all those challenges in a half-hearted way. Commitment is the essence of every true leader. The only thing to be careful is that the weakness should not reveal a fatal flaw. most people know what it takes to be a leader and who a real leader is. the easier it is to implement and the less that can go wrong along the way. Yet when most of us speak of him.. people have to unlearn things and practices which is often not that easy. success goes to the leaders who find simple solutions to complex problems.. smart. l Evolving is where the leader acts as a change agent. The more elements that make up each action.. We all have strengths and weaknesses and exposing a weakness or two can play a big part in establishing a trust. Richard Branson of Virgin always looks slightly ill-at-ease and fumbles when interviewed in public. By being empathetic a leader can understand what exactly an employee wants and guide him accordingly. The greater the difference a leader shows in his approach of leadership style. In order for a change to be effective. Effective leaders walk in another's shoes to create genuine empathy: the ability to understand experience from the other person’s perspective. Yet he became the president because oh his honest.. The way a leader dresses and speaks makes a big difference. Although not every person is a leader. Abraham Lincoln had failed in almost everything he had tried.

The ineffective manager reacts to the problem whereas an effective leader responds creatively to problems and learns from them. However. Develop Others as Leaders One leader cannot lead alone. as the leader. Having the basic traits like self-confidence. Genuine regard for others will always be accepted. Similarly. George Bush has an artistic style of leadership and his followers also see him like that. he or she will respond with enthusiasm to the assignment of responsibility. spends 50 percent of his time hiring. I definitely feel that only leaders with artistic kind of leadership are capable of focussing on factors like motivation and relationship building. Jack Welch. There are so many leadership and motivational books. The difference lies in the way a person reacts or responds to the problem. In this research paper I have mentioned the leadership patterns of three leaders and now I would like to express my view of their leadership styles. 7. Leaders develop others on an individual basis. the responsibility should be assigned based on the individual's ability and competence. Leadership is Modelling The ultimate threat to our future is stagnation. Respect Starts with Leaders People actually don’t care much about how smart or talented a leader is. During my search for evidence there were times when I felt that leadership is a combination of Art. we become old by not growing. What they care most about is the leader’s attitude towards them. Both responsibility and opportunity gives scope for creativity and innovation. However. Regarding the three theories I have mentioned. We don’t grow old. The managerial moment of truth comes when a leader realizes that. Science and Religion. Almost every management student studies the subject of “Leadership” in the management curriculum. later on I was able to bring the thin line of difference. and developing others to be more effective leaders. Osama Bin Laden has a combination of artistic and religious leadership and his followers follow him religiously. Assigning Responsibility and Providing Opportunity Just as an individual will be motivated by the accomplishment or recognition of something. knowledge. interpersonal skills are necessary for initiating and sustaining leadership skills in the long run. coaching.There is a lot of difference between an effective leader and ineffective manager. We have to accept the fact that every individual has leadership potential. I personally feel that Hitler had an artistic style of leadership but his followers followed him religiously. he or she is the trigger for change in and for the organization. honesty. But how many of us .LEADERSHIP IS AN ART Good leaders often win over the hearts and minds of the team member almost unknowingly. GE's mentor and Fortune magazine's “Manager of the Decade” for the 1990s. integrity. opportunity always acts as a big factor of hope and inspiration. PAPER POSITION . Respect is a two-way feeling that cannot be got forcefully.

Kippenberger.Wikipedia. cc2005. Leadership Styles. Mason.Wikipedia. From Wikipedia.Wikipedia. Oxford: Capstone Publishing. I strongly feel that good and effective leaders are those leaders whose leadership qualities are truly a classic case of Art. Adolf Hitler. Because of the follower's high confidence in their leader. Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. the free encyclopedia Science . Tony. the free encyclopedia Art . Richard L. The Leadership Experience. the free encyclopedia . New York. Hoover. the free encyclopedia George W. the free encyclopedia Osama bin Laden . miracles can happen. New York: AMACOM. the follower might not necessarily think twice when asked to do something by a leader. References Cox. I strongly feel that only really great leaders are capable of achieving such kind of confidence from the followers which is rarely possible in today’s world that we live in. From Wikipedia. c2004. Bush . the free encyclopedia Religion . Leadership from a religion perspective is really admirable. If that kind of dedication is given by employees. the free encyclopedia George W. From Wikipedia. NY: McGraw-Hill. William A (1937) The Art of a Strategist. Danny (1934). Lane. Not all leaders are born with leadership qualities and not all leaders have studied leadership. John (1952) Leadership When the Heat's On.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Osama bin Laden. What I personally feel is that when we study leadership. Bush. The flipside of this kind of leadership is that there is a chance that followers will follow the leader blindly which may lead to a diversion. it is more of leadership as a science perspective but when we apply it in real life effectively and depending on the situation it becomes or transforms to a state of art. the free encyclopedia Religion. and comparisons of various leaders and leadership theories and models.really become leaders or at least apply these concepts in our day to day lives is really very few and that possibly explains why not everyone is a leader. Patricia G. Another important factor that I feel is that leadership as science can be applied only to a pure manager and not to a person who is a leader in every possible way. the free encyclopedia Adolf Hitler . Leaders like Hitler had an artistic approach of leadership but his followers followed him religiously. the free encyclopedia Science.Wikipedia.Wikipedia. c2002. the free encyclopedia Art. 8. Cohen. 2002. From Wikipedia. From Wikipedia. Daft. CONCLUSION Therefore. based on the evidences I have collected. From Wikipedia.

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