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International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 6 No 3

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Measuring Ventilation Rates in Dairy Buildings


Frederick K. Teye and Mikko Hautala

Department of Agrotechnology, Koetilantie 3, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland

Abstract

Knowledge of ventilation rates in dairy buildings is essential for determining indoor air quality and for
estimating green house gases and particle emissions. Two new methods for estimating ventilation rates are
introduced for situations where air velocities at ventilation inlets and outlets are tedious or impossible to
measure. The first method is applicable to buildings whose ventilation can be stopped or closed totally. The
second method is useful in naturally ventilated buildings with large openings and high ventilation rates
where spatial gas concentrations are heterogeneously distributed. In addition, traditional heat balance,
moisture balance, carbon dioxide balance and direct airflow measurements for ventilation estimation are
used. Confirmation experiments were performed to evaluate the different methods. Good agreement was
found between heat, moisture and carbon dioxide balances. Direct velocity measurement for ventilation rate
estimation was found to be impractical for naturally ventilated buildings. The two introduced methods were
found to be simple and adaptable for estimating ventilation rates in dairy buildings.

Key words: ventilation rate, natural ventilation, dairy buildings, heat balance, moisture balance, carbon
dioxide balance, airflow measurements.

1. Introduction therefore an approximate estimation for production


in dairy buildings.
Ventilation is needed in dairy buildings for
removing harmful gases in order to ensure an Dairy buildings may either be mechanically or
acceptable indoor microclimate. Microclimate naturally ventilated, or a combination of the two.
parameters such as the concentration of gases, There may also be the possibilities to regulate the
temperature, velocity, dust and humidity affect the rate of ventilation in the buildings by adjusting fan
welfare of animals, humans and the buildings flow rates (mechanically ventilated), closing
themselves. In practice, the ventilation rate need not windows or rolling up curtain walls (naturally-
be continuously measured for a good microclimate, ventilated curtain-wall barns). Air exchange in
but needs to be planned in advance so that it is high mechanically ventilated buildings is usually done by
enough under all environmental situations or can be fans and ventilation rates are estimates as:
regulated when required to ensure adequate indoor
air quality (Albright, 1990). Ventilation rates are qV = v ⋅ A (2)
required to estimate the amount of gases emitted
from dairy buildings. The rate of production (P in where A (m2) is the cross-sectional area of the fan
m3h-1) of a specific gas in a dairy building is and v (m/s) is the average air flow through the fan.
estimated as:
Unlike mechanically ventilated buildings, the
P = qV (C g − C out ) = qV ∆C (1) estimation of ventilation in naturally ventilated
buildings is more difficult (Albright, 1990; Zang et
al 2005). Airflow in naturally ventilated buildings is
where qV (m3h-1) is the ventilation rate, and Cg
irregular and multidirectional, and usually very
(m3/m3) and Cout (m3/m3) are the concentrations of
small to accurately measure. Ventilation is also
the gas inside and outside the dairy structure
driven by the difference between the temperature in
respectively. For the aforementioned gas production
the dairy structure and the outside environment
rate to be valid, the air in the dairy building must be
during colder seasons. The areas of ventilation
ideally mixed i.e. Cg must be the same all over the
openings are larger and usually run along the whole
building and must not change with time. This is
length of the building or eaves, and/or the roofs,
often not the case in real situations; Equation (1) is
making accurate estimation difficult.
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FK Teye and M Hautala
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Numerous methods have been used for estimating The gas involved (tracer gas) could be an artificially
ventilation rates in dairy buildings. Some include produced gas if the rate of production is known.
directly measuring airflow velocities from all fans Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in solid
and other openings, calculating the ventilation rates floor dairy buildings with regular manure removal
from the velocities and summing all up (Equation are considered to be produced mainly from the dairy
2). The velocities at the ventilation openings may be animals’ metabolism and therefore could be used as
indirectly estimated using Bernoulli’s equation by a tracer gas. If the production of CO2 and CH4 from
measuring pressure differences at the ventilation other sources in a dairy barn is negligible, then
openings (Demmers et al 2001; Albright, 1990). 330 g h-1 of CO2 per cow (CIGR, 1999), and 10 g h-1
Equation (1) is also used for estimating the of CH4 per cow is produced in a dairy building
ventilation rate if P is known (Seedorf et al 1998; (Amon et al., 2001; Hindrichsen et al., 2005;
Zang et al 2005). Tracer gases (Marik and Levin Johnson & Johnson 1995; Jungbluth et al., 2001).
1996), heat and water vapour balances (Pedersen et Methane and CO2 production vary by 15 %
al 1998) have also been successfully used. However, depending on dairy cow’s activity (CIGR, 1999;
inability to accurately estimate extra water Pedersen, 1995; Van Ouwerkerk and Pedersen,
evaporation/condensation from dairy building floors 1994). Pre-measurements during this research
and feeds, and heat loss through walls, floors and indicated that less than 10 % of the total emission of
roofs make heat and moisture balances laborious if CH4 and CO2 emerge from dairy building floors;
accuracies are to be improved. confirming the assumption of cows being the main
source of production to be fairly good.
In this paper two new methods of estimating
ventilation are introduced. The first new method is Estimated from Equation (3), the minimum
applicable to buildings whose ventilation can be ventilation rate per cow to keep CO2 concentrations
totally stopped or closed. The second new method is below recommended harmful limits (3000 ppm
useful in naturally ventilated buildings with large according to CIGR, 1984) is 100 m3h-1. For a typical
openings where heterogeneously distributed gas dairy building with 100 m3 space per cow, the
concentrations, as a result of wind flow through the minimum exchange rate of air is about once an hour
building, and ideal mixing cannot be assumed. to keep CO2 concentration below the recommended
harmful limit.
To evaluate their practical usefulness, the four
traditional methods of estimating ventilation in dairy 2.1.2 Water Balance
buildings are compared; heat balance, moisture
balance, carbon dioxide balance and direct airflow The amount of water or moisture produced per cow
measurements in a naturally ventilated dairy barn. is well documented (Albright, 1990). In dairy
Recommendations are also made on practical and buildings, the ventilation rate is calculated from
inexpensive ways to measure ventilation rates with moisture balance as:
sufficient accuracy in dairy buildings.
PH 2O PH 2O PH 2O (4)
qV = = =
(C g − C out ) ρ air (xin − x out ) ρ air ⋅ ∆x
2. Ventilation Rate from Mass and Heat
Balance where x is the water content (kg/kg), ρair is the air
density (kg m-3), PH 2 O is the total production of
2.1 Steady State and Ideal Mixing water vapour, i.e. from cows and from the building
floors.
2.1.1 Carbon Dioxide and Methane Balance
Similarly, as in the section discussing CO2 and CH4
Assuming ideal mixing, the ventilation rate, qV of a balances, the minimum ventilation using water
dairy building (as used in Equation 1) can be balance can be estimated based on Equation (4). The
estimated by measuring the rate of production, P of problems with moisture in dairy buildings occur
a tracer gas in the building and the differences in the during winter when relative humidity (RH) ranges
concentration of tracer gas in and outside the between 80 and 100 %. For a winter with inside and
building, ∆C as: outside air RH of 80 and 100 % respectively, if the
P inside and outside temperatures are 10 and 0 °C
qV = (3) respectively, ∆x will be 0.003. Furthermore, if the
∆C
inside and outside temperatures are 0 and -10 °C
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respectively, ∆x will be 0.002, and if the inside and dVg


(6)
=P
outside temperatures are 0 and -20 °C respectively, dt
∆x will be 0.003. Hence, if winter average water
production, PH 2O is 500 g/h per cow (CIGR, 1984 where Vg is the total volume of the studied gas in the
building and P is the production rate of the gas. The
and Albright, 1990), then the minimum ventilation gas concentration, Cg (=Vg/V) of the specific gas at
rates according to Equation (4) will be between 150 time, t is then:
and 250 m3h-1 per cow assuming the water emission
from other sources to be negligible i.e. moisture C g (t ) = C g (0) +
P
t (7)
from manure and feed (Pedersen 1998) to be equal V
to frost deposition (Pedro and Sherif 2005).
where V is the volume of the dairy building and
2.1.3 Heat Balance Cg(0) is the concentration of the gas at time 0.
Equation (7) is a linear equation where the
Ventilation according to heat balance is expressed concentration increases with time having a slope of
as: P/V.

Pheat − Ploss (5) In the case of ventilation (all vents open to a known
qV =
ρ c s (Tin − Tout ) position), the mass balance in the dairy building is:

where Pheat is the heat produced by the cows (W), dVg  Vg  (8)
= P+ qV (Cout − Cin ) = P+ qV  cout − = A − B V g

Ploss is the heat lost through floor, walls and ceilings dt  V 
(kW), Tout is the temperature of the outdoor air (°C),
cs is the specific heat of air (J kg−1 K−1) and ρ is the where A = P + qv C out and B = qv V
air density (kg m−3).
Solving Equation (8) gives:
The required ventilation rate for a fully insulated
building (no losses) estimated from Equation (5) is V g (t ) =
1
(A − ( A − V g (0)) B )e − Bt (9)
360 m3 h-1 per cow if the difference between inside B
and outside temperature is 10°C (Pedersen 1998),
and the heat production per cow is 1 kW (CIGR, and:
1984). However, the ventilation rate will be about 1A A  − Bt (10)
halved if heat losses are considered (Pedersen C g (t ) =  − ( − C g (0)) B  e
B V V 
1998).
From Equation (10), it can be seen that the time
Comparing the ventilation rates from Equations (3),
constant is 1/B. B is the rate of exchange of fresh air
(4) and (5), it can be deduced that, to ensure safe
in the dairy building and, as discussed earlier, should
and comfortable microclimates for human dairy
be at least once per hour to maintain good indoor air
workers (indoor temperature above zero and CO2
quality. This means that it takes less than an hour to
less than 3000 ppm) the minimum ventilation rate
measure the instant ventilation. In Equation (10) the
should be 100 m3 h-1 per cow, i.e. an exchange rate
ventilation rate is the only unknown fitting parameter
of about once an hour.
as Cg(0), Cout and V are known.
2.2 Dynamic Case with Ideal Mixing
2.3 Strong Wind without Ideal Mixing
The balances in Equations (3), (4) and (5) assume
For an open stall dairy building with constant and
steady state, i.e. ventilation is time independent. To
large airflow above the manure surface of length, L
simulate time-dependent ventilation conditions in
and width, W, with constant gas production rate, P´
the dairy barn, let us alter the ventilation openings in
per area of manure, air is most often not ideally
the dairy building by first closing all the openings
mixed. This is because fresh outside air
and then reopen them after a specific time (this
continuously comes into the dairy building to dilute
procedure we refer to in this paper as the “gas decay
concentrated air, but does so in a non uniform
trial”).
manner. Also patches of high concentrations can be
found near walls and at the corners of the building.
In the case of no ventilation (all vents shut) the mass
The mass balance within a short distance dx along
balance in the dairy building is:
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FK Teye and M Hautala
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the air flow at position x in the open stall dairy Carbon dioxide concentration in the dairy building
building is: was measured with two IR gas sensors (Gasmet™
model Dx-4000 portable Fourier Transform
C ( x ) q V + P ' Ldx = C ( x + dx ) q V (11) Infrared-FTIR Spectrometry multi gas analyzer and
SenseAir™ model K30 CO2 infrared module).
assuming the concentration of air C at a micro Ammonia concentration was measured with the
position, x is ideally mixed. Integrating Equation FTIR analyzer (Gasmet™ Dx-4000), and an
(11) we obtain: ammonia electrochemical sensor (Kimessa Model
GSE 517). Methane was measured with the
P' A = P = qV ∆C (12)
Gasmet™ Dx-4000.
Equation (12) is of the same form as Equation (1).
All the sensors were cross-checked and, if
A is the total area from which a specific gas is
necessary, recalibrated every 2 weeks.
produced. However, instead of the difference
between indoor and outdoor gas concentrations
Monitoring of external weather conditions
(Equation 1), we now have gas concentration
(temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, rain
change within the building.
intensity and wind speed and direction) was done
with a Vaisala model WXT510-Weather Station.
3. Measurements
3.2 Ventilation Tests
3.1 Equipment List
A 1-month ventilation experiment was performed in
2006 in a dairy building situated in Ähtäri (62° 35'
Relative humidity inside the dairy building was
N, 24° 11' E) located in western Finland (Figure 1).
measured using the Honeywell HIH-3610 series
There were 80 milking cows and 30 heifers;
sensor and Testo model 452. Heat flux to and from
however the dairy building had provision for a total
the dairy building floors was measured with
of 130 cows. Milking was done twice a day.
Hukseflux™ sensor model HFP01. Measurement of
Feeding troughs were located close to the outer
air velocity was done using Elektronik GmbH
walls of the dairy structure. The structure was
model EE66, Testo model 405-V1 and Envic model
wooden and the roof was the only insulated (15 cm
AFT-1D. Additional Young Model 8100 Ultrasonic
insulation) part of the building. The building had
3-dimensional anemometers were employed for
solid concrete floors and manure was removed by an
precise velocity profile and air direction
automated manure scraper. The dimensions of the
measurement.

Figure 1. Measurement set-up and barn dimensions (cm). A: measuring sensors, B: outdoor weather station,
C: Ventilation opening, D: stationary/wireless multiple-sensor measuring station, E: mobile multiple-sensor
measurement system, F: Milking station, G: Computer work-station and data logging system.

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building are as shown in Figure 1. The dairy barn structure and air temperature, air pressure, relative
had covered-ridge ventilation openings that open on humidity, wind direction and rain intensity outside
both sides, and adjustable side-wall curtain windows the dairy structure during the experimental period.
(Figure 1). The positions of the curtains and the
outlet roof vents were recorded by the farmer during Detailed ventilation tests were performed in the
the experimental period. dairy building to evaluate the accuracy of Equation
(10) - the gas decay trial. The two-hour gas decay
The location sensors in the dairy barn are as shown trial was performed at the end of the experimental
in Figure 1. A stationary measurement station was period by closing all ventilation inlets and outlets
made of a 1 m by 1 m by 2.5 m (height) wire mesh for 30 minutes. This was followed by the opening of
protected cage located at the centre of the building. the roof ventilation for 30 minutes. Next the left
A set of sensors (temperature, radiation, velocity, side of the curtain was also opened 40 cm for 30
relative humidity, CO2, CH4 and NH3) were placed minutes. And finally the right side additionally
in the cage at a height of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m, and the opened 40 cm for 30 minutes. All measurement
rest of the sensors (temperature, velocity, pressure, equipment was run in parallel during the gas decay
relative humidity, CO2, CH4 and NH3) were located trial period.
at the inlet and outlet vents, and outside the dairy
building (Figure 1). An additional measurement of Additional one-day ventilation measurements were
heat flow was made on the floor of the building. Air made in four dairy buildings in Finland and another
temperatures were also measured at 2.5 m and 7 m four in Estonia.
directly above the measuring cage. An external
weather station was installed 5 m above the roof as
shown in Figure 1. 4. Results

Two grid measurements of 10 by 10 by 10 metres 4.1 Gas Decay Trial


covering the whole cowshed were done at the
beginning and the end of the experimental period. In In order to investigate the accuracy of Equation (10)
the grid measurements the gas concentration a gas decay trial was performed by opening and
measurements of ammonia, carbon dioxide and closing the ventilation in the dairy barn.
hydrogen sulphide, methane, nitrous oxide, water Temperature, relative humidity and CH4
content, relative humidity, velocity and temperature concentration during the trial is shown in Figure 2.
were performed. The result of CO2 change during the trial is shown
in Figure 3. Figure 3 also shows the theoretical
Continuous measurement and logging at a frequency fitting according to Equation (10). The fitting
of 30 minutes recorded radiation, temperature, heat parameter for Cg(0) was 3000 ppm and air velocity
flow, water vapour, air velocity, ammonia, carbon at the ridge ventilation when it was initially opened
dioxide and hydrogen sulphide within the dairy was 0.22 m/s. Air velocity in the barn when the left

Figure 2. Indoor and outdoor conditions during decay trials.


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Figure 3. Theoretical fit for decay trials.

Figure 4. Ventilation rates estimated using direct velocity (VVEL), carbon dioxide balance (VCO2), relative humidity
balance (VRH), position of curtain windows (VPOST) and temperature balance (VTEMP) during the decay trial.

and right curtains were opened were 0.59 m/s and Furthermore, the ventilation rate from direct
0.81 m/s respectively. The measured velocities ventilation measurements (Equation 2) was rather
varied by, at most, 10%. imprecise due to the limited number of velocity
sensors used in the studies and the multidirectional
From the experimental data of the gas decay trial, a nature of the air velocities. However, it can be
ventilation rate in the dairy building was calculated. noticed that the CO2, H2O and heat balances yielded
The calculated ventilation rates according to heat similar ventilation rates. This indicates that the CO2,
balance, CO2 balance, H2O balance, straight velocity H2O and heat balances can be used for ventilation
measurements (Equations 2 to 5) and physical rate estimation when situations in the dairy barn are
position of the ventilation openings is presented in steady and the loss terms in the H2O and heat
Figure 4. It was evident that the situation in the balances have been carefully measured. A constant
dairy barn was not in a steady state, and the balances loss term was used for the gas decay trial because of
did not yield the correct ventilation rates according the shortness in the duration of the measurements.
to the position of the windows. When all the
ventilation openings were shut, the CO2, H2O and 4.2 Long Duration Measurements
heat balances still showed a ventilation rate of about
50 000 m3h-1. The role of the time constant, B in Long duration changes in external environmental
Equation (10) is eminent in this situation. conditions affected heat and moisture losses from
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Figure 5. Typical weather conditions at the dairy barn.

Figure 6. Ventilation in the dairy barn. Ventilation from direct velocity (VVEL), carbon dioxide balance (VCO2),
relative humidity balance (VRH) and temperature balance (VTEMP).

the dairy building (Figure 5). A two-week 4.3 Spatial Variability


continuous ventilation rate measurement did not,
however, yield similar agreement in CO2, H2O and High spatial microclimate variability was observed
heat balances as in the gas decay trials (Figure 6). In in the dairy building (Figure 7). Results from the
most cases as shown the figure, heat and H2O grid measurements showed that the gases in the
balances gave similar ventilation rates, but CO2 dairy building were not uniformly mixed as
balance occasionally gave much higher rates. This assumed in Equation (1). It is seen from Figure 7
was attributed to the variability in direction of flow that the most commonly used parameter for
of fresh incoming air from outside to the position of estimation ventilation rate (CO2) in dairy buildings
the CO2 sensor mostly caused by rapid changes in is not ideally mixed as is usually assumed. The
outside weather temperature. As can also be seen movement of cows around the dairy barn coupled
from Figure 6, ventilation calculated from velocities with the multidirectional nature of air velocities,
had greater uncertainties since air velocity was temperature stratification, gas buoyancy and the
measured at too few points. To improve the structural design of the dairy barn were the main
accuracies, tens of sensors will be needed in cause of variability in the building.
addition.

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Ventilation in the barns was calculated using


differences between average indoor and outdoor gas
concentrations (CH4in and CO2in ave), and the
difference between maximum and minimum indoor
gas concentrations (CH4in and CO2in mx-mn). From
Table 1, it can be seen that, during windy
conditions, the ventilation estimated from the
difference between maximum and minimum indoor
gas concentrations were higher than that estimated
from the difference between average indoor and
outdoor gas concentrations. These occurrences were
Figure 7. Spatial distribution of carbon dioxide because, in the windy cases, outdoor CO2
at 4 m height in the dairy barn. concentrations were the same as minimum indoor
concentrations. This resulted in the average
concentration approach leading to an
A 2- D pictorial representation of the movement of underestimation of ventilation rates in the dairy
air across the centre section of the dairy barn building. It can also be noted that wide variations
measured with the 3-D anemometer and the CO2 exist between ventilation rates estimated using CO2
sensor is shown in Figure 8. balance as compared to CH4 balance. This was
attributed to the differences in nutrient composition,
Figure 8 shows that cold air enters the building from manure removal frequencies and the differences in
the ventilation openings at the sides of the dairy types of dairy animals in the buildings. These results
barn. As the air warms up, it rises at the middle of also raise questions about the reliability of
the barn, but cools down due to cold roofs and estimating ventilation in dairy buildings without
moves downwards along the roof. This usually crosschecking with other ventilation rate estimation
causes problems during the winter as air moving methods.
down along the roof is saturated with a RH of about
100%. Although carbon dioxide is denser than air, it
is driven up by the air draught in the barn causing a 5. Discussion
build-up of higher concentration at the ridge where
air exits the dairy building. For naturally ventilated buildings with large
openings, the gas decay trial method in which
4.4 Windy Situations ventilation openings were first closed and then
opened in sequence, was found to be an accurate
To confirm the deductions made in Equation (12), method (with 10% deviation) for measuring instant
ventilation measurements were performed in four ventilation in cases where there are no other reliable
dairy buildings in Finland and four in Estonia. ways. The gas decay method will be very useful for
Windy conditions were observed in buildings E1, cross-checking or calibrating other, less accurate,
E3 and E4 during the measurement period (Table 1). ventilation estimation methods.

Figure 8. Air flow and CO2 pattern in the barn. Outdoor temperature was -13°C, indoor +3°C.

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Table 1. Ventilation in the dairy buildings. Notation; the measurement place is E: Estonia, F: Finland, 1-4: building number.
V: volume of the dairy building, v: velocity, ave: averages, VT: ventilation, mx-mn: maximum minus minimum gas
concentration in the buildings.

Name Cows V Tout Vin Vout CO2in CH4in CO2in VT VT VT


tock ×103 (°C) Ave Ave ave ave ave VT CH4inav CO2in CH4in
(m3) (m/s) (m/s) (ppm) (ppm) (m3/h) e (m3/h) mx-mn mx-mn
(m3/h) (m3/h)
E1 460 22.3 27 0.6* 2.5 605 12 680 1570 780 1000
E2 500 32.8 29 0.3 0.4 525 13 1180 1550 1000 1160
E3 600 31.9 28 0.6* 2.5 560 18 630 880 830 580
E4 500 26.3 32 0.7* 1.0 550 15 1000 2020 1750 1020
F1 60 4.8 18 0.2 1.0 810 24 400 630 900 900
F2 50 2.8 26 0.2 2.7 785 22 450 720 170 160
F3 110 7.3 19 0.3 1.5 1060 19 270 840 1600 1530
F4 66 3.9 17 0.2 1.6 595 13 770 1350 1690 4590
*windy conditions with heterogeneous distribution of gas concentration.

Equation (12) was found to be a useful alternative causes rusting and moulding in dairy buildings can
for estimating ventilation rates in windy conditions be prevented; furthermore air exchange in the
in dairy buildings. This is especially useful when building will be improved.
ventilation rates are high and the difference between
indoor maximum and minimum gas concentrations In general, gas and relative humidity meters are not
is higher than the difference between average indoor found in dairy buildings because farmers do not find
and outdoor gas concentrations. This however needs them necessary. However, since CO2 balances give a
more tests to confirm its accuracy and the ranges of good estimation of ventilation rates in dairy
ventilation rates within which the method is buildings, continuous measurement of CO2 in the
applicable. buildings will be a good parameter for assessing air
quality conditions and performance of ventilation in
Good agreement was found between CO2, H2O and such buildings. Furthermore, through CO2
heat balances during the short 2-hour measurement. measurement, ventilation openings can be automated,
Straight velocity measurement for ventilation rate or give an indication to the dairy farmer about how
estimation was found to be inaccurate for naturally much to adjust their ventilation. Installation of
ventilated buildings. For economical estimation of relative humidity sensors in dairy barns will also give
ventilation rates, CO2 and H2O balances are an indication of how prone the environment in the
recommended as CO2 and RH meters are generally dairy barn is to rust and mould development.
cheap. Straight velocity measurement for ventilation
rate estimation is not economic as it requires
expensive and many velocity sensors for improved 6. Conclusions
accuracy. The heat balance method was found to be
laborious as heat loss through all building materials Four methods of estimating ventilation in dairy
should be accurately estimated. This requires many buildings were compared. Water, carbon dioxide
expensive heat flow sensors on all the different and heat balance methods were found to be adequate
surfaces in the building or a good estimation of for estimating ventilation rates.
material insulation properties.
The dynamic case of closing and opening all
High relative humidity during cold seasons is a ventilation openings in a dairy building, as developed
major problem in dairy buildings. From the gas in Equation (10), was found to be useful in estimating
distribution and velocity profile measurements it instant ventilation rates in dairy buildings.
became obvious that a good insulation of roofs is
needed in naturally ventilated dairy buildings to In the case of large variations in gas concentrations
prevent re-cooling and re-circulation of air in the in buildings, where gas concentrations are
building. With adequate roof insulation, heterogeneously distributed as a result of wind flow
condensation of moisture at the roof level which through the building, and ideal mixing cannot be
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FK Teye and M Hautala
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assumed, Equation (12) was found to be useful in carbohydrate composition of feed concentrates on
obtaining better estimation of ventilation rates. methane emission from dairy cows and their slurry”,
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 107,
Although farmers have the sole responsibility of pp329-350.
controlling ventilation in dairy buildings at present,
there is a lack of indicators to aid the farmers in Johnson KA and Johnson DE: (1995) “Methane
accurately accomplishing this task. Carbon dioxide emissions from cattle”, Journal of Animal Science.
and relative humidity indicators, coupled with the 73, pp2483-2492.
farmers’ own judgment, will aid better regulation of
ventilation for improved air quality conditions in Jungbluth T, Hartung E and Brose G: (2001)
dairy buildings. “Greenhouse gas emissions from animal houses and
manure stores”, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems.
60, pp133-145.
Acknowledgement
Mago PJ and Sherif SA: (2005) “Frost formation
Thanks to Professor Jukka Ahokas of the and heat transfer on a cold surface in ice fog”,
Department of Agrotechnology, University of International Journal of Refrigeration. 28, pp538-
Helsinki, Tapani Kivinen of MTT Agrifood 546.
Research, Finland, and Professor Vaino Poikalainen
and research group of the Estonian University of Marik T and Levin I: (1996) “A new tracer
Life Sciences. Financing of the research was by the experiment to estimate the methane emissions from
Southern Finland-Estonia-EU INTERREG IIIA a dairy cow shed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6)”,
project cooperation (ECOSTALL). Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 10, pp413-418.

Pedersen S, Takai H, Johnsen JO, Metz JHM, Groot


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