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RATIO 1
TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS
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TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS
Preface
IIT-JEE Syllabus : Trigonometrical Ratios
Trigonometrical ratios of compound angles, Trigonometric ratios of multiple angles, sub
multiple angles, conditional identities, greatest and the least value of the expression.
Trigonometry is the corner stone of the whole mathematics of which trigonometric ratio plays an
important role. It is observed that there is a clear lack of problem solving aptitude which was an
absolute prerequisite for an examination like IIT-JEE.
It is motivated us to compile the concepts, fundamentals to fulfill this vaccume but would be helpful to
elevate the ordinary students to become extra ordinary. Before studying trigonometric ratio students
are advised to clear the basic concept of trigonometry.
This material is exclusively designed by the CAREER POINT'S core members so that CPians need
not refer to any other book or study material.
Total number of Questions in Trigonometrical Ratios are :
In chapter Examples ................................. 21
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1. DEFINITION
Trigonometry is the branch of science in which
we study about the angles and sides of a triangle.
1.1 ANGLE :
Consider a ray
OA
÷→
. If this ray rotates about its
end points O and takes the position OB, then
the angle ∠AOB has been generated.
An angle is considered as the figure obtained by
rotating a given ray about its end-point.
The initial position OA is called the initial side
and the final position OB is called terminal side
of the angle. The end point O about which the
ray rotates is called the vertex of the angle.
1.2 Sense of an Angle :
The sence of an angle is said to be positive or
negative according as the initial side rotates in
anticlockwise or clockwise direction to get to the
terminal side.
1.3 Some Useful terms :
1.3.1 Quadrant :
Let XOX′ and YOY′ be two lines at right angles
in the plane of the paper. These lines divide the
plane of the paper into four equal parts which are
known as quadrants.
The lines XOX′ and YOY′ are known as x-axis
and y-axis respectively. These two lines taken
together are known as the coordinate axes. The
regions XOY, YOX′, X′OY′ and Y′OX are known
as the first, the second, the third and the fourth
quadrant respectively.
1.3.2 Angle In Standard Position : An angle is
said to be in standard position if its vertex
coincides with the origin O and the initial side
coincides with OX i.e. the positive direction of
x-axis.
1.3.3 Co–terminal Angles : Two angles with different
measures but having the same initial sides and
the same terminal sides are known as co-terminal
angles.
2. SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF ANGLE
There are three system for measuring angles.
2.1 Sexagesimal or English system
2.2 Centesimal or French system
2.3 Circular system
2.1 Sexagesimal system :
The principal unit in this system is degree ( º ).
One right angle is divided into 90 equal parts and
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each part is called one degree (1º ). One degree
is divided into 60 equal parts and each part is
called one minute. Minute is denoted by (1′ ).
One minute is equally divided into 60 equal parts
and each part is called one second (1′′

).
In Mathematical form :
One right angle = 90º
1º = 60

1

= 60
′′
Sexagesimal system
Ex.1 45º 15
′′
30
′′
changes into degree
Sol. 60
′′
is equal to 1

1
′′
is equal to

|
.
|

\
|
60
1
30
′′
is equal to

|
.
|

\
|
×30
60
1
=

|
.
|

\
|
2
1
Total minutes ⇒ 15′ +

|
.
|

\
|
2
1
=

|
.
|

\
|
2
31
60′ is equal to 1º and 1′ is equal to
1
60
F
H
G
I
K
J
º

|
.
|

\
|
2
31
is equal to
1
60
31
2
×
F
H
G
I
K
J
º
=
31
120
F
H
G
I
K
J
º
Total degrees ⇒ 45º +
31
120
F
H
G
I
K

5400
1
F
H
G

5431
120
F
H
G
2.2 Centesimal system :
The principal unit in system is grade and is
denoted by (
g
). One right angle is divided into
100 equal parts, called grades, and each grade
is subdivided into 100 minutes, and each minutes
into 100 seconds.
In Mathematical Form :
One right angle = 100
g
1
g
= 100

1

= 100
′′
Centesimal system
Ex.2 50
g
30

50
′′
change into grade system.
Sol. We know that , 50′



|
.
|

\
|
2
1
Total minute 30′ +

|
.
|

\
|
2
1
=

|
.
|

\
|
2
61
100′ is equal to 1
g
1′ is equal to
1
100
F
H
G
I
K
J
g

|
.
|

\
|
2
61
is equal to
1
100
61
2
×
F
H
G
I
K
J
g
=
61
200
F
H
G
Total grade ⇒ 50
g

+
61
200
F
H
G

10000 61
200
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
g

10061
200
F
H
G
I
K
J
g
2.2.1 Relation between sexagesimal and
centesimal systems :
One right angle = 90º (degree system) ......... (1)
One right angle = 100
g
(grade system) ....... (2)
by (1) and (2),
90º = 100
g
or,
D G
90 100
=
then we can say,
1º =
100
90
F
H
G
I
K
J
g
1
g
=
9
10
F
H
G
I
K
J
º
Relation between sexagesimal and
centesimal systems
Examples
based on
Ex.3 63º 14′ 51′′ change into grade system.
Sol. We know that in degree system
60′′ equal to 1′
51′′ is equals =

|
.
|

\
|
60
51
= (0.85)′
(14.85)′ change into degree.
(14.85)′ is equals =
14 85
60
.
º
F
H
G
I
K
J
= (0.2475)º
So 63º 14′ 51′′ = 63.2475º
63.2475º change into grade system.
63.2475º is equals =
63 2475
10
9
. ×
F
H
G
I
K
J
g
= 70.2750
g
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70.2750
g
= 70
g
27

50
′′
finally we can say,
63º 14

57

= 70
g
27

50
′′
2.3 Circular system :
One radian, written as 1
C
, is the measure of an
angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an
arc of length equal to the radius of the circle.
Consider a circle of radius r having centre at O.
Let A be a point on the circle. Now cut off an arc
AB whose length is equal to the radius r of the
circle. Then by the definition the measure of
∠AOB is 1 radian (1
C
).
2.3.1 Some Important Conversion :
π Radian = 180º
One radian =
180
π
F
H
G
I
K
J
º
π
6
Radian = 30º
π
4
Radian = 45º
π
3
Radian = 60º
π
2
Radian = 90º
2
3
π
Radian = 120º
3
4
π
Radian = 135º
5
6
π
Radian = 150º
7
6
π
Radian = 210º
5
4
π
Radian = 225º
5
3
π
Radian = 300º
2.3.2 Relation between systems of measurement
of angles :
D G C
90 100
2
= =
π
Relation between systems of
measurement of angles
Examples
based on
Ex.4
2
15
π F
H
G
I
K
J
C
change into degree system.
Sol. We know that, π radian = 180º
1
C
=
180
π
F
H
G
I
K
J
º
°
|
.
|

\
|
π
×
π
= |
.
|

\
| π 180
15
2
15
2
C
= 24º
Ex.5 Find the length of an arc of a circle of radius
5 cm subtending a central angle measuring
15º.
Sol. Let s be the length of the arc subtending an
angle θ at the centre of a circle of radius r.
then , θ =
s
r
Here, r = 5 cm, and θ = 15º =
15
180
×
F
H
G
I
K
J
π
C
θ =
π
12
F
H
G
I
K
J
C
θ =
s
r

π
12
=
s
5
s =
5
12
π
cm.
3.TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OR FUNCTIONS
In the right angled triangle OMP , we have base
(OM) = x, perpendicular (PM) = y and hypotenuse
(OP) = r, then we define the following trigonometric
ratios which are known as trigonometric function.
sinθ=
P
H
y
r
=
cosθ =
B
H
x
r
=
tanθ =
P
B
y
x
=
cotθ =
B
P
=
x
y
secθ =
H
B
r
x
=
cosecθ =
H
P
r
y
=
O
M
P
x
r
y
θ
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Note :
(1) It should be noted that sinθ does not mean the
product of sin and θ. The sinθ is correctly read
sin of angle θ.
(2) These functions depend only on the value of the
angle θ and not on the position of the point P
chosen on the terminal side of the angle θ.
3.1 Fundamental Trigonometrical Identities :
(a) sinθ =
1
cosecθ
(b) cosθ =
1
secθ
(c) cotθ =
1
tan
cos
sin θ
θ
θ
=
(d) 1 + tan
2
θ = sec
2
θ
or, sec
2
θ –tan
2
θ = 1
(secθ – tanθ)=
1
(sec tan ) θ θ +
(e) sin
2
θ + cos
2
θ = 1
(f) 1 + cot
2
θ = cosec
2
θ
(cosecθ –cotθ) =
1
cos cot ecθ θ +
Trigonometrical ratios or functions
Ex.6 Prove that, sin
8
θ – cos
8
θ = (sin
2
θ

– cos
2
θ)
(1 – 2sin
2
θ cos
2
θ )
Sol. L.H.S,(sin
8
θ – cos
8
θ )
or, (sin
4
θ)
2
– (cos
4
θ)
2
or, (sin
2
θ – cos
2
θ)(sin
2
θ +

cos
2
θ)[(sin
4
θ +
cos
4
θ)]
or, (sin
2
θ – cos
2
θ) [(sin
2
θ +

cos
2
θ)

– 2 sin
2
θ
cos
2
θ]
or, (sin
2
θ – cos
2
θ) [(1 – 2sin
2
θ

cos
2
θ)] =
RHS
Ex.7 Prove the identity
tan sec
tan sec
sin
cos
θ θ
θ θ
θ
θ
+ −
− +
=
+ 1
1
1
Sol. L.H.S =
tan sec
tan sec
θ θ
θ θ
+ −
− +
1
1
=
(tan sec ) (sec tan )
tan sec
θ θ θ θ
θ θ
+ − −
− +
2 2
1
[
Q
sec
2
θ – tan
2
θ = 1]
=
(secθ
=
(sec tan )(tan sec )
tan sec
θ θ θ θ
θ θ
+ − +
− +
1
1
= secθ + tanθ =
1
cosθ
+
sin
cos
θ
θ
=
1+ sin
cos
θ
θ
= RHS
3.2 Signs of the trigonometrical ratios or functions:
Their signs depends on the quadrant in which
the terminal side of the angle lies.
In First quadrant : x > 0 , y > 0 ⇒ sinθ =
y
r
> 0,
cosθ =
x
r
> 0, tanθ =
y
x
> 0, cosecθ =
r
y
> 0,
secθ =
r
x
> 0 and cotθ =
x
y
> 0
Thus, in the first quadrant all trigonometry
functions are positive.
In Second quadrant : x < 0 , y > 0 ⇒ sinθ
=
y
r
> 0, cosθ =
x
r
< 0, tanθ =
y
x
< 0, cosecθ =
r
y
> 0, secθ =
r
x
< 0 and cotθ =
x
y
< 0
Thus, in the second quadrant sin and cosec
function are positive and all others are negative.
In Third quadrant : x < 0 , y < 0 ⇒ sinθ =
y
r
< 0,
cosθ =
x
r
< 0, tanθ =
y
x
> 0, cosecθ =
r
y
< 0,
secθ =
r
x
< 0 and cotθ =
x
y
> 0
Thus, in the third quadrant all trigonometric
functions are negative except tangent and
cotangent.
In Fourth quadrant : x > 0 , y < 0 ⇒ sinθ =
y
r
< 0, cosθ =
x
r
> 0, tanθ =
y
x
< 0, cosecθ =
r
y
< 0, secθ =
r
x
> 0 and cotθ =
x
y
< 0
Thus, in the fourth quadrant all trigonometric
functions are negative except cos and sec.
To be Remember :
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A crude ai d to memori se the si gns of
trigonometrical ratio in different quadrant.
“ All Students to Career Point ”
3.3 Variations in values of Trigonometrical
Functions in Different Quadrants :
Let XOX

and YOY

be the coordinate axes. Draw
a circle with centre at origin O and radius unity.
Let M (x, y) be a point on the circle such that
∠AOM = θ
then x = cosθ and y = sinθ
– 1 ≤ cosθ ≤ 1 and –1≤ sinθ ≤ 1 for all values of θ.
I – Quadrant
sinθ → increases from 0 to 1
cosθ → decreases from 1 to 0
tanθ → increases from 0 to ∞
cotθ → decreases from ∞ to 0
secθ → increases from 1 to ∞
cosecθ → decreases from ∞ to 1
II – Quadrant
sinθ → decreases from 1 to 0
cosθ → decreases from 0 to –1
tanθ → increases from – ∞ to 0
cotθ → decreases from 0 to – ∞
secθ → increases from –∞ to –1
cosecθ → increases from 1 to ∞
III – Quadrant
sinθ → decreases from 0 to –1
cosθ → increases from –1 to 0
tanθ → increases from 0 to ∞
cotθ → decreases from ∞ to 0
secθ → decreases from –1 to –∞
cosecθ → increases from –∞ to –1
IV – Quadrant
sinθ → increases from –1 to 0
cosθ → increases from 0 to 1
tanθ → increases from –∞ to 0
cotθ → decreases from 0 to –∞
secθ → decreases from ∞ to 1
cosecθ → decreases from –1 to – ∞
Remark:
+ ∞ and – ∞ are two symbols. These are not real
number. When we say that tan θ increases from
0 to ∞ for as θ varies from 0 to
π
2
it means that
tan θ increases in the interval
0
2
,
π F
H
G
I
K
J
and it attains
large positive values as θ tends to
π
2
. Similarly
for other trigo. functions.
Signs of the trigonometrical ratios
or functions
Examples
based on
Ex.8 If secθ =
2
, and
3
2
π
< θ < 2π. Find the
value of
1
1
+ +
+ −
tan cos
cot cos
θ θ
θ θ
ec
ec
Sol. If secθ =
2
or, cosθ =
1
2
,sinθ =
± − 1
2
cos θ
=
± − 1
1
2
=
±
1
2
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But θ lies in the fourth quadrant in which sinθ is
negative.
sinθ =

1
2
, cosec θ = − 2
tanθ =
sin
cos
θ
θ
⇒ tanθ =
− ×
1
2
2
1
⇒ tanθ = –1
⇒ cotθ = –1
then,
1
1
+ +
+ −
tan cos
cot cos
θ θ
θ θ
ec
ec
=
1 1 2
1 1 2
− −
− +
⇒ –1
4. GRAPHS OF DIFFERENT TRIGONOMETRICAL
RATIOS
cosecθ =
4.1 Domain and Range of Trigonometrical
Function
Trig.
Function
Domain Range
sin θ R [-1, 1]
cos θ R [-1, 1]
tan θ R - {(2n+1) π/2, n ∈ z} (−∞. ∞) or R
cosec θ R - {nπ, n ∈ z} (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞)
sec θ
R - {(2n + 1) π/2, n ∈
z}
(-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞)
cot θ R - {nπ, n ∈ z} (−∞. ∞) = R
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5. TR IGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF ALLIED
ANGLES
Two angles are said to be allied when their sum
or difference is either zero or a multiple of 90º.
5.1 Trigonometrical Ratios of (–θ θθ θθ) :
Let a revolving ray starting from its initial position
OX, trace out an angle
∠ XOA = θ. Let P(x, y) be a point on OA such
that OP = r. Draw PM ⊥ from P on x-axis. angle
∠ XOA
/
= –θ in the clockwise sense. Let P
/
be
a point on OA
/
such that OP
/
= OP. Clearly M
and M
/
coincide and ∆OMP is congruent to
∆OMP
/
. then P
/
are (x, –y)
sin(–θ) =



= −
y
r
y
r
sinθ
cos(–θ) =
x
r
= cosθ
tan(–θ) =

=−
y
x
tanθ
Taking the reciprocal of these trigonometric ratios,
cosec (–θ)= –cosecθ
sec(–θ)= secθand cot(–θ) = – cotθ
Note : A function f(x) is said to be even function if
f(–x) = f(x) for all x in its domain.
A function f(x) is an odd function if f(–x) = –f(x)
for all x in its domain.
sinθ, tanθ, cotθ, cosecθ all odd functions and
cosθ, secθ are even functions.
Allied angles
Ex.9 Find the value of the following trigonometric
ratios -
(a) cos (–45º) (b) sin (–30º)
(c) cot (–60º)
Sol.(a) cos (–45º) = cos45º [Q cos(–θ) = cosθ]
=
1
2
Ans.
(b) sin(–30º) = – sin 30º [Q sin(–θ) = – sinθ]
=

1
2
Ans.
(c) cot(–60º) = – cot 60º [Q cot(–θ) = – cotθ]
=

1
3
Ans.
5.2 Trigonometrical Functions of (90 – θ θθ θθ) :
Let the revolving line, starting from OA, trace out
any acute angle AOP, equal to θ. From any point
P on it draw PM ⊥ to OA. Three angles of a
triangle are together equal to two right angles,
and since OMP is a right angle, the sum of the
two angles MOP and OPM is right angle.
∠ OPM = 90º – θ.
[When the angle OPM is consider, the line PM
is the ´base´ and MO is the ´perpendicular´ ]
sin (90º – θ) = sin MPO =
MO
PO
= cos AOP = cosθ
cos (90º – θ) = cos MPO =
PM
PO
= sin AOP = sinθ
tan (90º – θ) = tan MPO =
MO
PM
= cot AOP = cotθ
cot (90º – θ) = cot MPO =
PM
MO
= tan AOP = tanθ
cosec (90º – θ) = cosec MPO =
PO
MO
= sec AOP
= secθ
and sec (90º – θ) = sec MPO =
PO
PM
= cosec
AOP = cosecθ
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5.3 Trigonometrical Functions of (90 + θ θθ θθ) :
Let a revolving ray OA starting from its initial
posi ti on OX, trace out an angl e
∠ XOA = θ and let another revolving ray OA

starting from the same initial position OX, first
trace out an angle θ so as to coincide with OA
and then it revolves through an angle of 90º in
ant i cl ockwi se di rect i on t o f orm an angl e
∠ XOA

= 90º + θ.
Let P and P

be poi nts on OA and OA

respectively such that OP = OP

= r.
Draw perpendicular PM and P

M

from P and P

respectively on OX. Let the coordinates of P be
(x, y). Then OM = x and PM = y clearly,
OM
/
= PM = y and P

M

= OM = x
so the coordinates of P

are (–y, x)
sin (90 + θ) =
M P
OP
x
r
′ ′

= = cosθ
cos (90 + θ) =
OM
OP
y
r


=

= – sinθ
tan (90 + θ) =
M P
OM
′ ′

= –
x
y
= – cotθ
similarly,
cot (90 + θ) = – tan θ
sec(90 + θ) = – cosec θ
cosec (90 + θ) = sec θ
[where – π/2< θ < π/2]
5.4 Periodic Function :
All the trigonometric functions are periodic
functions. They will repeat after a certain period
sin (2nπ + θ ) = sinθ
cos (2nπ + θ ) = cosθ where n ∈ I
tan (2nπ + θ ) = tanθ
Trigonometric ratio of allied angles
Ex.10 Prove that , cos 510º cos330º +sin 390º cos 120º
= –1
Sol. LHS = cos 510º cos 330º+ sin 390º cos 120º
= cos (360º + 150º) cos (360º – 30º) +
sin(360º + 30º) cos(90º + 30º)
= cos 150º cos 30º – sin 30º(–sin 30º)
= cos (180º – 30º)
3
4
+
1
4
= – cos 30º
3
2
F
H
G
I
K
J –
1
4
= –
3
4

1
4
= – 1 = R.H.S
Trigo. ratio (– θ) 90 – θ 90 + θ 180 – θ 180 + θ 270 – θ 270 + θ 360 – θ
or
π
θ
2

F
H
G
I
K
J
or
π
θ
2
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
or (π - θ) or (π + θ) or
3
2
π
θ −
F
H
G
I
K
J
or
3
2
π
θ +
F
H
G
I
K
J
or (2π - θ)
sin θ –sin θ cos θ cos θ sin θ – sin θ – cos θ – cos θ – sin θ
cos θ cos θ sin θ – sin θ – cos θ – cos θ – sin θ sin θ cos θ
tan θ – tan θ cot θ – cot θ – tan θ tan θ cot θ – cot θ – tan θ
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6. SUM OR DIFFERENCE OF THE ANGLE
The algebraic sums of two or more angles are
generally called compound angles and the angles
are known as the constituent angles.
For example : If A, B, C are three angles then
A ± B, A + B + C, A – B + C etc. are compound
angles.
6.1 (a) sin (A + B) =sin A cos B + cos A sin B
(b) sin(A – B) = sinA cosB – cosA sinB
(c) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B
(d) cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
(e) tan (A + B) =
tan tan
tan tan
A B
A B
+
− 1
(f) tan (A – B) =
tan tan
tan tan
A B
A B

+ 1
(g) cot (A + B) =
cot cot
cot cot
A B
B A

+
1
(h) cot (A – B) =
cot cot
cot cot
A B
B A
+

1
6.2 Some More Results :
*(a) sin (A + B).sin (A – B) = sin
2
A – sin
2
B
= cos
2
B – cos
2
A
*(b) cos (A + B).cos (A – B) = cos
2
A – sin
2
B
= cos
2
B – sin
2
A
(c) sin (A + B + C) = sin A cos B cos C + cos A
sin B sin C + cos A cos B sin C – sin A
sin B sin C
(d) cos (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C – cos A.
sin B sin C – sin A cos B sin C – sin A
sinB cosC
(e) tan (A + B + C)
=
tan tan tan tan tan tan
tan tan tan tan tan tan
A B C A B C
A B B C C A
+ + −
− − − 1
(Note : * Important)
Sum or difference of the angle
Ex.11 If sin A =
3
5
and cos B =
9
41
, 0 < A <
π
2
.
0 < B <
π
2
, find the values of the following -
(a) sin (A + B)
(b) cos (A – B)
Sol. (a) sin (A + B) ⇒ sin A cos B + cos A sin
B
sin A =
3
5
cos A =
4
5
and cos B =
9
41
sin B =
40
41
sin (A + B)=
3
5
×
9
41
+
4
5
×
40
41
=
187
205
(b) cos (A – B)= cosA cos B + sin A sin B
=
4
5
×
9
41
+
3
5
×
40
41
=
156
205
Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 12
7. FORMULA TO TRANSFORM THE PRODUCT
INTO SUM OR DIFFERENCE
We know that,
sin A cos B + cos A sin B = sin (A + B) .......(i)
sin A cos B – cos A sin B = sin (A – B) ......(ii)
cos A cos B – sin A sin B = cos (A + B) .....(iii)
cos A cos B + sin A sin B = cos (A – B) .....(iv)
Adding (i) and (ii),
2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B)
Subtracting (ii) from (i),
2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) – sin (A – B)
Adding (iii) and (iv),
2 cosA cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B)
Subtraction (iii) from (iv).
2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B)
Formula :
(a) 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B)
(b) 2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) – sin (A – B)
(c) 2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B)
(d) 2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B)
To transform the product into sum
or difference
Examples
based on
Ex.12 Prove that, cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) +
cos(45º + A).cos(45º – A) = cos2A +
1
4
Sol. L.H.S. = cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) +
cos(45º + A).cos(45º – A)
=
1
2
[2 cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) +
2 cos (45º + A).cos(45º – A)]
=
1
2
cos 60º + cos 2A + cos 90º + cos 2A
=
1
2
[ 2cos2A +
1
2
]
= cos 2A +
1
4
= R.H.S.
8. FORMULA TO TRANSFORM THE SUM OR
DIFFERENCE INTO PRODUCT
We know that,
sin (A + B) + sin(A – B) = 2 sin A cos B ......(i)
Let A+ B = C and A – B = D
then A =
C D +
2
and B =
C D −
2
Substituting in (i),
(a) sin C+ sin D = 2 sin
C D + F
H
G
I
K
J
2
.cos
C D − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
similarly other formula,
(b) sin C – sin D = 2 cos
C D + F
H
G
I
K
J
2
.sin
C D − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
(c) cos C + cos D = 2 cos
C D + F
H
G
I
K
J
2
.cos
C D − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
)
(d) cos C – cos D = 2 sin
C D + F
H
G
I
K
J
2
.sin
D C − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
To Transform the sum of difference
into product
Examples
based on
Ex.13 Prove that, (cos α + cos β)
2
+ (sin α + sin β)
2
= 4cos
2
α β − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
Sol. L.H.S,
(cos α + cos β)
2
+ (sin α + sin β)
2
2
2

cos
2
cos 2

|
.
|

\
| β α
|
.
|

\
| β + α
+
2
2

cos
2
sin 2

|
.
|

\
| β α
|
.
|

\
| β + α
= 4cos
2
α β + F
H
G
I
K
J
2
.cos
2
α β − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
+
4sin
2
α β + F
H
G
I
K
J
2
.cos
2
α β − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
= 4 cos
2
α β − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
.
cos sin
2 2
2 2
α β α β + F
H
G
I
K
J
+
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
= 4cos
2

α β − F
H
G
I
K
J
2
Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 13
9. TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF MULTIPLE
ANGLES
Trigonometric ratios of an angle 2A in terms
of an angle A :
(a) sin 2A= 2sin A cos A =
A tan 1
A tan 2
2
+
(b) cos 2A= cos
2
A – sin
2
A = 2 cos
2
A – 1
= 1– 2 sin
2
A =
A tan 1
A tan 1
2
2
+

(c) tan 2A =
2
1
2
tan
tan
A
A −
(d) sin 3A = 3 sinA – 4 sin
3
A
(e) cos 3A = 4 cos
3
A – 3 cosA
(f) tan 3A =
A tan 3 1
A tan A tan 3
2
3


(g) tan
2
A =
A 2 cos 1
A 2 cos 1
+

(h) tan A =
A 2 sin
A 2 cos 1−
(i) A 2 sin 1+ = |sin A + cos A|
(j) A 2 sin 1− = |sin A – cos A|
Trigonometrical Ratios of Multiple
angles
Examples
based on
Ex.14 Prove that ,
1
1
+ −
+ +
sin cos
sin cos
θ θ
θ θ
= tan
θ
2
F
H
G
I
K
J
Sol. L.H.S =
1
1
+ −
+ +
sin cos
sin cos
θ θ
θ θ
=
( cos ) sin
( cos ) sin
1
1
− +
+ +
θ θ
θ θ
=
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
sin sin cos
cos sin cos
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
=

θ
+
θ
|
.
|

\
| θ

θ
+
θ
|
.
|

\
| θ
2
cos
2
sin
2
cos 2
2
cos
2
sin
2
sin 2
= tan
θ
2
F
H
G
I
K
J
= R.H.S
Ex.15 Show that,
2 2 2 2 8 2 + + + = cos cos θ θ
where θ ∈

π π

16
,
16
Sol. L.H.S., =
2 2 2 2 8 + + + cos θ
1 8 2
8
2
2
+ =
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
cos cos θ
θ
=
2 2 2 2 4
2
+ + ( cos ) θ
=
2 2 2 4 + + cos θ
=
2 2 1 4 + + ( cos ) θ
=
2 2 2 2
2
+ ( cos ) θ
=
2 2 2 + cos θ
= 2 1 2 ( cos ) + θ =
2 2
2
( cos ) θ
= 2cosθ = R.H.S
10. CONDITIONAL TRIGONOMETRICAL
IDENTITIES
We have certain trigonometric identities
like, sin
2
θ + cos
2
θ = 1
and 1 + tan
2
θ = sec
2
θ etc.
Such identities are identities in the sense that
they hold for all value of the angles which satisfy
the given condition among them and they are
called conditional identities.
If A, B, C denote the angle of a triangle ABC,
then the relation A + B + C = π enables us to
establish many important identities involving
trigonometric ratios of these angles.
(I) If A + B + C = π, then A + B = π – C,
B + C = π – A and C + A = π – B
(II) If A + B + C = π, then sin(A + B) = sin(π – C)
= sinC
similarly, sin (B + C) = sin(π – A) = sin A
and sin ( C + A ) = sin (π – B) = sin B
(III) If A + B + C = π, then cos(A + B) = cos(π – C)
= – cos C
similarly, cos (B + C) = cos(π – A) = – cos A
and cos (C + A ) = cos (π – B) = – cos B
(IV) If A + B + C = π, then tan(A + B) = tan(π – C)
= – tan C
similarly, tan (B + C) = tan(π – A) = – tan A
and, tan (C + A ) = tan (π – B) = – tan B
(V) If A + B + C = π, then
A B +
2
=
π
2 2

C
and
B C A +
= −
2 2 2
π
and
C A B +
= −
2 2 2
π
sin sin cos
A B C C + F
H
G
I
K
J
= −
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
2 2 2 2
π
Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 14
cos cos sin
A B C C + F
H
G
I
K
J
= −
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
2 2 2 2
π
tan tan cot
A B C C + F
H
G
I
K
J
= −
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
2 2 2 2
π
All problems on conditional identities are
broadly divided into the following four types :
(I) Identities involving sines and cosines of the
multiple or sub-multiples of the angles involved.
(II) Identities involving squares of sines and
cosines of the multiple or sub-multiples of the
angles involved.
(III) Identities involving tangents and cotangents
of the multiples or sub-multiples of the angles
involved.
(IV) Identities involving cubes and higher powers
of sines and cosines and some mixed identities.
10.1 TYPE I : Identities involving sines and
cosines of the multiple or sub-multiple of the
angles involved.
Working Methods :
Step – 1 Express of the sum of first two terms
as product by using C & D formulae.
Step – 2 In the product obtained in step II
replace the sum of two angles in terms of the
third by using the given relation.
Step – 3 Expand the third term by using formulae
(Double angle change into single angle or change
into half angle).
Step – 4 Taking common factor.
Step – 5 Express the trigonometric ratio of the
single angle in terms of the remaining angles.
Step – 6 Use the one of the formulae given in
the step I to convert the sum into product.
Conditional trigonometrical
identities type I
Examples
based on
Ex.16 If A + B + C = π, prove that , cosA + cosB
+ cosC =1 + 4 sin
A
2
F
H
G
I
K
J
.sin
B
2
F
H
G
I
K
J
.sin
C
2
F
H
G
I
K
J
Sol. L.H.S.= cosA+ cosB+cosC
=
2
2 2
cos .cos cos
A B A B
C
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
+
=
2
2 2 2 2
cos .cos cos
π

F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J
+
C A B
C
=
2
2 2 2
1 2
2
2
sin .cos sin
C A B C F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J
+ −
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
2
2 2 2
2
2
1
2
sin .cos sin
C A B C F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J
+
=
2
2 2 2 2
1 sin cos sin
C A B C F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
+
=
2
2 2 2 2 2
1 sin cos sin
C A B A B F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J
− −
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
+
π
=
2
2 2 2 2 2
1 sin cos cos
C A B A B F
H
G
I
K
J

F
H
G
I
K
J
− +
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
+
=
2
2
2
2 2
1 sin sin .sin
C A B F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
+
=
1 4
2 2 2
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
sin .sin .sin
A B C
= R.H.S.
Ex.17 If A + B + C =π, Prove that
sin sin sin
A B C
2 2 2
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
1 4
4 4 4
+
− F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
sin .sin .sin
π π π A B C
=
1 4
4 4 4
+
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
sin .sin .sin
B C C A A B
Sol. L.H.S.= sin sin sin
A B C
2 2 2
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
= 2
4 4 2 2
sin .cos cos
A B A B C + F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
+ −
F
H
G
I
K
J
π
= 2
4 4
1 2
4
2
sin .cos sin
π π − F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
+ −
− F
H
G
I
K
J
C A B C
= 2
4 4 4
1 sin cos sin
π π − F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J

− F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
+
C A B C
=
2
4 4 2 4
1 sin cos cos
π π π − F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
− −
− F
H
G
I
K
J
R
S
T
U
V
W
L
N
M
M
O
Q
P
P
+
C A B C
= 2
4 4 4
1 sin . cos cos
π π − F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J

+ F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
+
C A B C
|
.
|

\
| π
=
4
C –
sin 2
1
8
B A – C
sin
8
C B – A
sin 2 +

|
.
|

\
| + + π
|
.
|

\
| + π +
|
.
|

\
| π
=
4
C –
sin 2
1
8
B A – C
sin
8
B – C A
sin 2 +

|
.
|

\
| + + π
|
.
|

\
| π + +
|
.
|

\
| π
=
4
C –
sin 2
Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 15
1
8
A – A –
sin
8
B – B
sin 2 +

|
.
|

\
| π + π
|
.
|

\
| π + + π
= 2
4
2
4 4
1 sin sin .sin
π π π − F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
+
C B A
=
1 4
4 4 4
+
− F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
− F
H
G
I
K
J
sin .sin .sin
π π π A B A
= 1 4
4 4 4
+
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
+ F
H
G
I
K
J
sin .sin .sin
B C C A A B
= R.H.S
10.2 TYPE II :Identities involving squares of
sines and cosines of multiple or sub-multiples
of the angles involved.
Working step :
(I) Arrange the terms on the L.H.S of the identity
so that either sin
2
A – sin
2
B = sin(A+B).
sin(A – B)
or cos
2
A – sin
2
B = cos(A+B).cos(A – B) can
be used.
(II) Take the common factor outside.
(III) Express the trigonometric ratio of a single
angle inside the bracket into that of the sum
of the angles.
(IV) Use the formulaes to convert the sum into
product.
Conditional trigonometrical
identities type II
Examples
based on
Ex.18 If A + B + C = π
Prove that, cos
2
A + cos
2
B + cos
2
C =
1 – 2 cosA cosB cosC
Sol. I Method
L.H.S. cos
2

A + cos
2

B + cos
2

C
= cos
2
A + (1 – sin
2
B) + cos
2
C
= (cos
2
A – sin
2
B) + cos
2
C + 1
[QA + B = π – C, cos(A + B) = – cosC]
= cos (A + B).cos( A - B) + cos
2
C + 1
= – cos C. cos(A – B) + cos
2
C + 1
= – cos C [cos (A - B) – cos C] + 1
= – cos C [cos (A – B) + cos (A + B)] + 1
[
Q
cos C = –cos (A + B)]
= – cos C [ 2 cosA cosB) + 1
= 1 – 2 cosA cosB cosC = R.H.S.
II Method
cos
2

A + cos
2

B + cos
2

C
=
1
2
[2 cos
2

A + 2 cos
2

B + 2 cos
2

C]
[Qcos 2A = 2cos
2
A – 1]
=
1
2
[(1 + cos 2A) + (1 + cos 2B) + (1 + cos 2C)]
=
1
2
[3 + cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C]
=
3
2
+
1
2
[ cos 2A + cos 2B + cos

2C]
=
3
2
+
1
2
[2 cos(A + B).cos(A – B) + 2cos
2
C – 1]
=
3
2
+
1
2
[ –2 cosC cos(A – B) + 2cos
2
C – 1]
=
3
2

1
2
+
1
2
[–2cosC {cos (A – B) – cos C}]
= 1 – cosC[cos (A – B) – cosC]
= 1 – cos C [cos (A – B) + cos (A + B)]
[cosC = – cos(A + B)]
= 1 – cosC[2 cosA . cosB]
= 1 – 2 cosA . cosB cosC
10.3 Type III :Identities for tan and cot of the
angles
Working step :
(I) Express the sum of the two angles in terms
of third angle by using the given relation.
(II) Taking tan from both the sides.
(III) Expand the L.H.S in step II by using the
formula for the tangent of the compound
angles.
(IV) Use cross multiplication in the expression
obtained in the step III.
(V) Arrange the terms as per the requirement in
the sum.
Conditional trigonometrical
identities type III
Examples
based on
Ex.19 If x + y + z = xyz
Prove that,

2
1
2
1
2
1
8
1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
x
x
y
y
z
z
xyz
x y z −
+

+

=
− − − ( )( )( )
Sol. Let x = tanA , y = tanB, z = tanC
then x + y + z = xyz
tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA.tanB.tanC
⇒ tanA + tanB + tanC – tanA tanB tanC = 0
Dividing by [1 – tanA tanB – tanB tanC –
tanC tanA] both the sides
Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 16

tan tan tan tan tan tan
tan tan tan tan tan tan
A B C A B C
A B B C C A
+ + −
− − −
=
1
0
⇒ tan(A + B + C) = 0
⇒ A + B + C = nπ [n ∈ z]
Now,A + B + C = nπ
2A + 2B + 2C = 2nπ
⇒ tan(2A + 2B + 2C) = tan 2nπ

tan tan tan tan tan tan
tan tan tan tan tan tan
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
A B C A B C
A B B C C A
+ + −
− − −
=
⇒ tan2A + tan2B + tan2C – tan2A tan2B
tan2C = 0
⇒ tan2A + tan2B + tan2C – tan2A tan2B
tan2C

C tan – 1
C tan 2
B tan – 1
B tan 2
A tan – 1
A tan 2
2 2 2
+ +
=
C tan – 1
C tan 2
·
B tan – 1
B tan 2
·
A tan – 1
A tan 2
2 2 2

2 2 2
z – 1
z 2
y – 1
y 2
x – 1
x 2
+ +
=
) z – 1 ( ) y – 1 ( ) x – 1 (
xyz 8
z – 1
z 2
.
y – 1
y 2
.
x – 1
x 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
=
11. TO FIND THE GREATEST AND LEAST VALUE
OF THE EXPRESSION [a sinθ θ θ θ θ + b cosθ θθ θθ]
Let a = r cosα ...........(1)
and b = r sin α ...........(2)
Squaring and adding (1) and (2)
then a
2
+ b
2
= r
2
or, r a b = +
2 2
∴ a sinθ + b cosθ
= r (sinθ cosα + cosθ sinα)
= r sin(θ + α)
But –1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1
so –1 ≤ sin(θ + α) ≤ 1
then –r ≤ r sin(θ + α) ≤ r
hence,
− + a b
2 2
≤ a sinθ + b cosθ ≤
a b
2 2
+
then the greatest and least values of a sinθ + b cosθ
are respectively
a b
2 2
+
and
− + a b
2 2
To find the greatest and least value
of the expression
Examples
based on
Ex.20 Prove that 5 cosθ+ 3 cos
θ
π
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
3
+ 3. lies
between – 4 and 10.
Sol. The given expression is,
5 cosθ+ 3 cos
θ
π
+
F
H
G
I
K
J
3
+ 3
⇒ 5 cosθ + 3[cosθ cos 60º – sinθ sin 60º] + 3
⇒ 5 cosθ + 3 [
1
2
cosθ –
3
2
sinθ] + 3

1
2
[13 cos θ –
3 3
sin θ] + 3
Put 13 = r cosα,
3 3
= r sinα
r =
169 27 +
= 14

1
2
[r cos(θ + α)] + 3

14
2
[cos(θ + α)] + 3
⇒ 7 cos(θ + α) + 3
Hence maximum and minimum values of
expression are (7+ 3) and (–7 +3)
i.e., 10 and – 4 respectively.
12. MISCELLANEOUS POINTS
(1) Some useful Identities :
(a) tan (A + B + C) =
tan tan tan tan
tan . tan
A A B C
A B




1
(b) cotθ – tanθ = 2 cot 2θ
(c)
4
1
sin 3θ = sinθ.sin(60 – θ).sin(60 + θ)
(d)
4
1
cos 3θ = cosθ.cos(60 – θ).cos(60 + θ)
(e) tan 3θ = tanθ.tan(60 – θ).tan (60 + θ)
(f) tan(A + B) – tanA – tanB = tanA.tanB.tan(A + B)
(2) Some useful result :
(a) ver sinθ = 1– cosθ
(b) cover sinθ = 1 – sinθ
Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 17
(3) Some useful series :
(a) sin α + sin (α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + ....
+ to n terms
=
sin sin
sin
α β
β
β
+
− F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
F
H
G
I
K
J
n n 1
2 2
2
; β ≠ 2nπ
(b) cos α + cos (α + β) + cos (α + 2β) +.....
+ to n terms =
cos sin
sin
α β
β
β
+
− F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
F
H
G
I
K
J
n n 1
2 2
2
;
β ≠ 2nπ
Series
Ex.21 Prove that cos
π
14
F
H
G
I
K
J
+ cos
3
14
π F
H
G
I
K
J
+ cos
5
14
π F
H
G
I
K
J
=
1
2
cot
π
14
F
H
G
I
K
J
Sol. Here α
π
=
14
, β
π
=
2
14
and n = 3.
S =
+
− F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
L
N
M
O
Q
P
×
F
H
G
I
K
J
×
F
H
G
I
K
J
cos sin
sin
π π π
π
14
3 1
2
2
14
2
14
3
2
2
14
1
2
S =
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
2
3
14
3
14
2
14
cos sin
sin
π π
π
S =
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
sin
sin
6
14
2
14
π
π
=
1
2 2 14
14
sin
sin
π π
π

F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
S =
F
H
G
I
K
J
1
2 14
cot
π
(4) An Increasing Product series :
(a) p = cosα. cos 2α . cos 2
2
α ... cos (2
n–1

α)

¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
π + = α
π = α
π ≠ α
α
α
) 1 k 2 ( if , 1 –
k 2 if , 1
n if ,
sin 2
2 sin
n
n
(5) sine, cosine and tangent of some angle less
than 90º.
15º 18º 22½º 36º
sin
3 1
2 2

5 1
4

2 2
2
1

10 2 5
4

cos
3 1
2 2
+
10 2 5
4
+
2 2
2
1
+
5 1
4
+
tan
2 3 −
25 10 5
5

2
– 1
5 2 5 −
(6) Conversion 1 radian = 180º/π ππ ππ = 57º 17
/
45
//
(approximately)
and 1º =
π
180
= 0.01475 radians (approximately)
(7) Basic right angled triangle are (pythogerian
Triplets)
3, 4, 5 ; 5, 12, 13; 7, 24, 25; 8, 15, 17;
9, 40, 41; 11, 60, 61; 12, 35, 37; 20, 21,
29 etc.
(8) Each interior angle of a regular polygon of n
sides
=
n
n

×
2
180 degrees

.. Before studying trigonometric ratio students are advised to clear the basic concept of trigonometry... Road No. IPIA. Trigonometry is the corner stone of the whole mathematics of which trigonometric ratio plays an important role. "Future belongs to those who are willing to work for it" Total number of Questions in Trigonometrical Ratios are : In chapter Examples . RATIO 2 . sub multiple angles... This material is exclusively designed by the CAREER POINT'S core members so that CPians need not refer to any other book or study material.... conditional identities..TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS Preface IIT-JEE Syllabus : Trigonometrical Ratios Trigonometrical ratios of compound angles..... Trigonometric ratios of multiple angles.... It is motivated us to compile the concepts... Kota (Raj.. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. It is observed that there is a clear lack of problem solving aptitude which was an absolute prerequisite for an examination like IIT-JEE. 21 Corporate Office: CP Tower.....)...... greatest and the least value of the expression... fundamentals to fulfill this vaccume but would be helpful to elevate the ordinary students to become extra ordinary.1..

then the angle ∠AOB has been generated.e.1 Sexagesimal system : The principal unit in this system is degree ( º ).2 Centesimal or French system 2. 1.3. 1. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO.1. Kota (Raj. These two lines taken together are known as the coordinate axes. the second. The lines XOX′ and YOY′ are known as x-axis and y-axis respectively.3.1. 2. The end point O about which the ray rotates is called the vertex of the angle.1 Quadrant : Let XOX′ and YOY′ be two lines at right angles in the plane of the paper.3 Circular system 2. SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF ANGLE 1. The initial position OA is called the initial side and the final position OB is called terminal side of the angle. 1. the third and the fourth quadrant respectively. Road No. DEFINITION Trigonometry is the branch of science in which we study about the angles and sides of a triangle. IPIA. One right angle is divided into 90 equal parts and Corporate Office: CP Tower.3 Some Useful terms : 1. → An angle is considered as the figure obtained by rotating a given ray about its end-point. RATIO 3 .3. The regions XOY. There are three system for measuring angles. the positive direction of x-axis.1 ANGLE : Consider a ray OA . X′OY′ and Y′OX are known as the first. If this ray rotates about its end points O and takes the position OB.2 Sense of an Angle : The sence of an angle is said to be positive or negative according as the initial side rotates in anticlockwise or clockwise direction to get to the terminal side. 2.1 Sexagesimal or English system 2. These lines divide the plane of the paper into four equal parts which are known as quadrants.3 Co–terminal Angles : Two angles with different measures but having the same initial sides and the same terminal sides are known as co-terminal angles. YOX ′. 1.).2 Angle In Standard Position : An angle is said to be in standard position if its vertex coincides with the origin O and the initial side coincides with OX i.

85)′  60  (14. 50 ′ ⇒   2 ′ = (0. RATIO 4 . IPIA.. (2) by (1) and (2). 63. In Mathematical form : One right angle = 90º 1º = 60′ 1′ = 60′′  1  61  Total minute 30 ′ +   =   2  2 g 100′ is equal to 1 ′ ′ 1′ is equal to  61     2 ′ FG 1 IJ H 100 K F 1 × 61IJ is equal to G H 100 2 K g g = Sexagesimal system Ex. and each minutes into 100 seconds. 90º = 100g D G = 90 100 then we can say.).85)′ change into degree. One degree is divided into 60 equal parts and each part is called one minute..2475º is equals = = 70. One right angle is divided into 100 equal parts.2750g FG 63.3 Sol.1 Sol... We know that in degree system 60′′ equal to 1′  51  51′′ is equals =   = (0. and each grade is subdivided into 100 minutes... 63º 14′ 51′′ change into grade system. In Mathematical Form : One right angle 1g = 100g = 100′ 1′ = 100′′ Relation between sexagesimal and centesimal systems Ex. Kota (Raj...1. called grades.  1 We know that . 60′ is equal to 1º and 1′ is equal to  31    is equal to  2 ′ FG 1 × 31IJ H 60 2 K º = FG 1 IJ H 60 K FG 31 IJ H 120 K º º or.1 Relation between sexagesimal and centesimal systems : ′ ′ 30′′  1   1 × 30  =   is equal to  60   2 ′  1 Total minutes ⇒ 15 ′ +   2  31  =    2 ′ One right angle = 90º (degree system) .2475 × 10 IJ H 9K g Corporate Office: CP Tower.85)′ is equals = FG 14. ′ (14. (1) One right angle = 100g (grade system) .85 IJ H 60 K º Centesimal system Ex..2475º change into grade system. One minute is equally divided into 60 equal parts and each part is called one second (1′′ ).2 Centesimal system : The principal unit in system is grade and is denoted by ( g )..2 Sol.each part is called one degree (1º ).2. 1º = 1g = Examples based on Total degrees ⇒ ⇒ 45º + ⇒ FG 100 IJ H 90 K FG 9 IJ H 10 K º g 61 FG 5400 5431 31 I 61 200 H 1201K 120 200 2. 50g 30′ 50′′ change into grade system... Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. 45º 15′′ 30′′ changes into degree 60′′ is equal to 1′  1  1′′ is equal to    60  ′ Total grade ⇒ 50 + g g ⇒ FG 10000 + 61IJ H 200 K ⇒ FG 10061IJ H 200 K g 2. Road No.2475)º So 63º 14′ 51′′ = 63.2475º 63... Minute is denoted by (1′ ).

). then we define the following trigonometric ratios which are known as trigonometric function. 63º 14′ 57′ = 70g 27′ 50′′ 2. Find the length of an arc of a circle of radius 5 cm subtending a central angle measuring 15º. Road No.4 Sol. and θ = 15º = º FG 180 IJ HπK FG15 × π IJ H 180 K C θ= θ= FG π IJ H 12 K C Radian = 30º π 4 π 3 π 2 2π 3 3π 4 5π 6 7π 6 5π 4 5π 3 Radian = 45º Radian = 60º Radian = 90º Radian = 120º Radian = 135º Radian = 150º Radian = 210º Radian = 225º Radian = 300º s π s ⇒ = r 12 5 5π s = cm.3.3. Then by the definition the measure of ∠AOB is 1 radian (1C). Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. r = 5 cm.3 Circular system : One radian. s then .TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OR FUNCTIONS In the right angled triangle OMP . perpendicular (PM) = y and hypotenuse (OP) = r. we have base (OM) = x. written as 1C. Let s be the length of the arc subtending an angle θ at the centre of a circle of radius r. Examples based on Relation between systems of measurement of angles C Ex. Now cut off an arc AB whose length is equal to the radius r of the circle.1. Consider a circle of radius r having centre at O. π radian = 180º FG 180 IJ HπK º  2π     15  C  2π 180  = ×  = 24º π   15 ° Ex. is the measure of an angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of length equal to the radius of the circle.2 Relation between systems of measurement of angles : D G 2C = = 90 100 π Corporate Office: CP Tower. P y = sinθ= H r B x P = cosθ = H r P y = tanθ = B x r y B x = cotθ = P y θ H r x = secθ = M O B x H r = cosecθ = P y 2. FG 2π IJ H 15 K 1C = change into degree system. IPIA. RATIO 5 .5 Sol.70.2750g = 70g 27′ 50′′ finally we can say. θ = r 2. Let A be a point on the circle. 12 3. We know that. Kota (Raj.1 Some Important Conversion : π Radian = 180º One radian = π 6 Here.

y > 0 ⇒ sinθ = (secθ – tanθ)= In Second quadrant : x < 0 . tanθ = > 0.2 Signs of the trigonometrical ratios or functions: Their signs depends on the quadrant in which the terminal side of the angle lies. y r x x r secθ = < 0 and cotθ = > 0 y x Thus. cosθ = < 0. = Trigonometrical ratios or functions Ex. cosθ = y r x x r secθ = > 0 and cotθ = > 0 y x Thus. IPIA. tanθ = < 0. In First quadrant : x > 0 . cosecθ = < 0. y < 0 ⇒ sinθ = Ex.(sin8θ – cos8θ ) or. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. cosecθ = r r x r x r < 0.7 In Fourth quadrant : x > 0 . cosecθ = r r x r x r > 0. Kota (Raj. r r x y > 0. (sin2θ – cos2θ) [(sin2θ + cos2θ) – 2 sin2θ cos2θ] or.6 Sol. 3.1. cosecθ = > 0. in the first quadrant all trigonometry functions are positive. Sol.1 Fundamental Trigonometrical Identities : 1 (a) sinθ = cos ecθ 1 (b) cosθ = sec θ 1 cos θ = (c) cotθ = tan θ sin θ (d) 1 + tan2θ = sec2θ or. cosθ = > 0. y > 0. RATIO 6 . Prove that. Road No. tanθ = > 0. In Third quadrant : x < 0 . (2) These functions depend only on the value of the angle θ and not on the position of the point P chosen on the terminal side of the angle θ. (sin4θ)2 – (cos4θ)2 or. tanθ = < 0.). in the fourth quadrant all trigonometric functions are negative except cos and sec. in the third quadrant all trigonometric functions are negative except tangent and cotangent. (sin2 θ – cos 2θ)(sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ)[(sin 4θ + cos4θ)] or. sin8θ – cos 8θ = (sin2θ – cos 2θ) (1 – 2sin2θ cos2θ ) L.H. r r x y cosθ = < 0. The sinθ is correctly read sin of angle θ. y > 0 ⇒ sinθ y x y > 0.S = tan θ + sec θ − 1 tan θ − sec θ + 1 = (tan θ + sec θ) − (sec 2 θ − tan 2 θ) tan θ − sec θ + 1 [ sec2θ – tan2 θ = 1] To be Remember : = Corporate Office: CP Tower. (sin2θ – cos2θ) [(1 – 2sin2θ cos2θ)] = RHS Prove the identity tan θ + sec θ − 1 1 + sin θ = tan θ − sec θ + 1 cos θ Q θ (sec y < 0. secθ = > 0 and cotθ = < 0 y y x Thus. in the second quadrant sin and cosec function are positive and all others are negative.Note : (1) It should be noted that sinθ does not mean the product of sin and θ.H. sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 1 (sec θ + tan θ) (e) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 (f) 1 + cot2θ = cosec2θ 1 (cosecθ –cotθ) = cos ecθ + cot θ = (sec θ + tan θ)(tan θ − sec θ + 1) tan θ − sec θ + 1 = secθ + tanθ = = RHS 1 sin θ 1+ sin θ + = cos θ cos θ cos θ 3. y < 0 ⇒ sinθ = y x y < 0. secθ = < 0 and cotθ = < 0 y y x Thus.S. L.

These are not real number. Kota (Raj. RATIO 7 Corporate Office: CP Tower. Road No. functions. and Ex.3 Variations in values of Trigonometrical Functions in Different Quadrants : Let XOX′ and YOY′ be the coordinate axes.8 3π < θ < 2π. When we say that tan θ increases from π 0 to ∞ for as θ varies from 0 to it means that 2 π and it attains tan θ increases in the interval 0. Find the 2 1 + tan θ + cos ecθ value of 1 + cot θ − cos ecθ If secθ = Sol. If secθ = cosecθ → decreases from ∞ to 1 or.II – Quadrant sinθ cosθ tanθ cotθ secθ → decreases from 1 to 0 → decreases from 0 to –1 → increases from – ∞ to 0 → decreases from 0 to – ∞ → increases from –∞ to –1 cosecθ → increases from 1 to ∞ III – Quadrant sinθ → decreases from 0 to –1 → increases from –1 to 0 cosθ tanθ → increases from 0 to ∞ cotθ → decreases from ∞ to 0 secθ → decreases from –1 to –∞ cosecθ → increases from –∞ to –1 IV – Quadrant sinθ cosθ tanθ cotθ secθ cosecθ Remark: + ∞ and – ∞ are two symbols. 2 π large positive values as θ tends to . Similarly 2 for other trigo. cosθ = = ± 1− 2 1 2 . → → → → → → increases from –1 to 0 increases from 0 to 1 increases from –∞ to 0 decreases from 0 to –∞ decreases from ∞ to 1 decreases from –1 to – ∞ A crude aid to memorise the signs of trigonometrical ratio in different quadrant. Let M (x.). Ph: 0744-2434159 .sinθ = ± 1 − cos 2 θ 1 1 = ± 2 2 TRIGONO. IPIA. “ All Students to Career Point ” 3. y) be a point on the circle such that ∠AOM = θ then x = cosθ and y = sinθ – 1 ≤ cosθ ≤ 1 and –1≤ sinθ ≤ 1 for all values of θ. I – Quadrant sinθ cosθ tanθ cotθ secθ → increases from 0 to 1 → decreases from 1 to 0 → increases from 0 to ∞ → decreases from ∞ to 0 → increases from 1 to ∞ FG IJ H K Examples based on Signs of the trigonometrical ratios or functions 2 .1. Draw a circle with centre at origin O and radius unity.

∞) or R (-∞.). cosec θ = − 2 tanθ = 1 2 sin θ × ⇒ tanθ = − 1 2 cos θ ⇒ tanθ = –1 ⇒ cotθ = –1 then. n ∈ z} R . n ∈ z} R . n ∈ z} R . Kota (Raj. n ∈ z} Range [-1. RATIO 8 . 1] (−∞. -1] ∪ [1. 1− 1− 2 1 + tan θ + cos ecθ = ⇒ –1 1 + cot θ − cos ecθ 1− 1+ 2 cosecθ = 4. -1] ∪ [1.{(2n + 1) π/2.1.{(2n+1) π/2. ∞) (-∞.1 Domain and Range of Trigonometrical Function Trig. Road No. sinθ = − 1 2 . ∞) = R Corporate Office: CP Tower. 1] [-1.{nπ. Domain Function sin θ cos θ tan θ cosec θ sec θ cot θ R R R .But θ lies in the fourth quadrant in which sinθ is negative.{nπ. GRAPHS OF DIFFERENT TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS 4. IPIA. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. ∞) (−∞.

angle ∠ XOA/ = –θ in the clockwise sense. 5.2 Trigonometrical Functions of (90 – θ) : Let the revolving line. x sin (90º – θ) = sin MPO = Allied angles Ex. Road No.9 Find the value of the following trigonometric ratios (a) cos (–45º) (b) sin (–30º) (c) cot (–60º) and sec (90º – θ) = sec MPO = AOP = cosecθ PO = cosec PM Corporate Office: CP Tower. 11 1 − 23 −y −y ⇒ = − sin θ r r x = cos θ cos(–θ) = r −y = − tanθ tan(–θ) = sin(–θ) = ∠ OPM = 90º – θ. cotθ. IPIA. sinθ. y) be a point on OA such that OP = r. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. –y) Sol.5. cosecθ all odd functions and cosθ. RATIO 9 .1. [ Q sin(–θ) = – sinθ] (c) cot(–60º) = – cot 60º [ Q cot(–θ) = – cotθ] = Ans. tanθ.). [When the angle OPM is consider.(a) cos (–45º) = cos45º = Ans. [ Q cos(–θ) = cosθ] (b) sin(–30º) = – sin 30º = Ans. cosec (–θ)= –cosecθ sec(–θ)= secθand cot(–θ) = – cotθ Note : A function f(x) is said to be even function if f(–x) = f(x) for all x in its domain. Kota (Raj. the sum of the two angles MOP and OPM is right angle. starting from OA. Clearly M and M/ coincide and ∆OMP is congruent to ∆OMP/. and since OMP is a right angle. equal to θ. then P/ are (x. secθ are even functions. From any point P on it draw PM ⊥ to OA.1 Trigonometrical Ratios of (–θ) : θ Let a revolving ray starting from its initial position OX. trace out any acute angle AOP. Let P/ be a point on OA/ such that OP/ = OP. trace out an angle ∠ XOA = θ. Let P(x. 5. the line PM is the ´base´ and MO is the ´perpendicular´ ] MO = cos AOP = cosθ PO PM cos (90º – θ) = cos MPO = = sin AOP = sinθ PO MO tan (90º – θ) = tan MPO = = cot AOP = cotθ PM PM cot (90º – θ) = cot MPO = = tan AOP = tanθ MO PO cosec (90º – θ) = cosec MPO = = sec AOP MO = secθ Taking the reciprocal of these trigonometric ratios. Three angles of a triangle are together equal to two right angles. Draw PM ⊥ from P on x-axis. TR IGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF ALLIED ANGLES Two angles are said to be allied when their sum or difference is either zero or a multiple of 90º. A function f(x) is an odd function if f(–x) = –f(x) for all x in its domain.

Let the coordinates of P be (x. They will repeat after a certain period sin (2nπ + θ ) = sinθ cos (2nπ + θ ) = cosθ tan (2nπ + θ ) = tanθ where n ∈ I Trigonometric ratio of allied angles Ex.Trigo. OM/ = PM = y and P′M′ = OM = x tan (90 + θ) = similarly.H. Then OM = x and PM = y clearly.θ) sin θ – cos θ – tan θ 180 + θ 270 – θ 270 + θ or 2 + θ – cos θ sin θ – cot θ 360 – θ or (2π .). RATIO 10 . y). first trace out an angle θ so as to coincide with OA and then it revolves through an angle of 90º in anticlockwise direction to form an angle ∠ XOA ′ = 90º + θ. ratio (– θ) 90 – θ or 90 + θ or 180 – θ or (π . Let P and P ′ be points on OA and OA ′ respectively such that OP = OP′ = r. Road No.θ) – sin θ cos θ – tan θ FG π − θIJ H2 K FG π + θIJ H2 K or (π + θ) or – sin θ – cos θ tan θ FG 3π − θIJ H2 K FG 3π IJ H K sin θ cos θ tan θ –sin θ cos θ – tan θ cos θ sin θ cot θ cos θ – sin θ – cot θ – cos θ – sin θ cot θ 5. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. LHS = cos 510º cos 330º+ sin 390º cos 120º = cos (360º + 150º) cos (360º – 30º) + sin(360º + 30º) cos(90º + 30º) = cos 150º cos 30º – sin 30º(–sin 30º) = cos (180º – 30º) 3 1 + 4 4 so the coordinates of P′ are (–y. IPIA.10 Prove that . Draw perpendicular PM and P′M′ from P and P′ respectively on OX. x) sin (90 + θ) = cos (90 + θ) = M′ P′ x = = cosθ OP′ r OM′ − y = = – sinθ OP′ r = – cos 30º = – 3 1 – 4 4 F 3I GH 2 JK – 1 4 = – 1 = R. trace out an angle ∠ XOA = θ and let another revolving ray OA′ starting from the same initial position OX.1.3 Trigonometrical Functions of (90 + θ) : Let a revolving ray OA starting from its initial position OX.4 Periodic Function : All the trigonometric functions are periodic functions. x M′ P′ = – = – cotθ y OM′ cot (90 + θ) = – tan θ sec(90 + θ) = – cosec θ cosec (90 + θ) = sec θ [where – π/2< θ < π/2] 5. Kota (Raj.S Corporate Office: CP Tower. cos 510º cos330º + sin 390º cos 120º = –1 Sol.

A + B + C. are compound angles. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO.11 If sin A = 0<B< (b) sin(A – B) = sinA cosB – cosA sinB Sol. B 3 9 π and cos B = . find the values of the following 2 (a) sin (A + B) (b) cos (A – B) (a) sin (A + B) ⇒ sin A cos B + cos A sin 3 5 4 5 sin A = cos A = (c) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B (d) cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B (e) tan (A + B) = (f) tan (A – B) = tan A + tan B 1 − tan A tan B 4 5 tan A − tan B 1 + tan A tan B cot A cot B − 1 cot B + cot A cot A cot B + 1 cot B − cot A and cos B = 40 41 9 41 (g) cot (A + B) = (h) cot (A – B) = sin B = 6.sin (A – B) = sin2 A – sin2 B = cos2 B – cos2 A cos (A + B). B. RATIO 11 . For example : If A. 5 41 2 π .cos (A – B) = cos2 A – sin2 B = cos2 B – sin2 A sin (A + B + C) = sin A cos B cos C + cos A sin B sin C + cos A cos B sin C – sin A sin B sin C sin (A + B)= 3 9 4 40 187 × + × = 5 41 5 41 205 (b) cos (A – B)= cosA cos B + sin A sin B = × 156 9 3 40 + × = 41 205 5 41 Corporate Office: CP Tower. A – B + C etc.). Kota (Raj. C are three angles then A ± B.2 Some More Results : *(a) *(b) (c) sin (A + B).0<A< . Road No.6. SUM OR DIFFERENCE OF THE ANGLE The algebraic sums of two or more angles are generally called compound angles and the angles are known as the constituent angles. 6. IPIA.1.1 (a) sin (A + B) =sin A cos B + cos A sin B (d) cos (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C – cos A. sin B sin C – sin A cos B sin C – sin A sinB cosC (e) tan (A + B + C) = tan A + tan B + tan C − tan A tan B tan C 1 − tan A tan B − tan B tan C − tan C tan A (Note : * Important) Sum or difference of the angle Ex.

S. 2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B) Formula : (a) 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) (b) 2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) – sin (A – B) (c) 2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) (d) 2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B) Examples based on 8. FORMULA TO TRANSFORM THE SUM OR DIFFERENCE INTO PRODUCT We know that.12 Prove that. sin (A + B) + sin(A – B) = 2 sin A cos B ...cos(45º – A) 1 [2 cos(30º – A).(i) sin A cos B – cos A sin B = sin (A – B) ..cos2 2 2 α+β α−β 4sin2 .cos 2 2 2 FG H FG H IJ K IJ K FG H FG H IJ K IJ K + = 4 cos2 FG α − β IJ .H..cos(30º + A) + 2 2 cos (45º + A).cos(45º – A)] Ex. FG C + D IJ . (cos α + cos β)2 + (sin α + sin β)2 α −β = 4cos2 2 FG H IJ K Sol. LMcos FG α + β IJ + sin FG α + β IJ OP H 2 K N H 2 K H 2 KQ F α − β IJ = 4cos G H 2 K 2 2 2 Corporate Office: CP Tower.H. L..13 Prove that...H.. 2 cosA cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) Subtraction (iii) from (iv). 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) Subtracting (ii) from (i).. cos(30º – A)...(iv) Adding (i) and (ii).S....(ii) cos A cos B – sin A sin B = cos (A + B) .).cos(30º + A) + 1 cos(45º + A).cos FG C − D IJ (c) cos C + cos D = 2 cos G H 2 K H 2 K F C + D IJ .1.sin FG C − D IJ H 2 K H 2 K F C + D IJ .. Road No. 4  α + β  α – β   cos   2 sin  2   2   α+β α−β = 4cos2 .cos FG C − D IJ H 2 K H 2 K FG C + D IJ .. Kota (Raj. IPIA..(iii) cos A cos B + sin A sin B = cos (A – B) . sin A cos B + cos A sin B = sin (A + B) . = cos(30º – A). Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO.sin FG D − C IJ (d) cos C – cos D = 2 sin G H 2 K H 2 K (b) sin C – sin D = 2 cos Examples based on To transform the product into sum or difference To Transform the sum of difference into product Ex. 2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) – sin (A – B) Adding (iii) and (iv).. (a) sin C+ sin D = 2 sin similarly other formula...7.. L... FORMULA TO TRANSFORM THE PRODUCT INTO SUM OR DIFFERENCE We know that.S.cos(30º + A) + cos(45º + A). (cos α + cos β)2 + (sin α + sin β)2  α + β  α – β   cos   2 cos 2    2   2 + 2 = = 1 cos 60º + cos 2A + cos 90º + cos 2A 2 1 1 = [ 2cos2A + ] 2 2 1 = cos 2A + = R.(i) Let A+ B = C and A – B = D then A = C +D C −D and B = 2 2 Substituting in (i)..cos(45º – A) = cos2A + 4 Sol. RATIO 12 .

B. then cos(A + B) = cos(π – C) = – cos C similarly.15 Show that. L. B + C = π – A and C + A = π – B (II) If A + B + C = π. TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF MULTIPLE ANGLES Trigonometric ratios of an angle 2A in terms of an angle A : 2 tan A (a) sin 2A= 2sin A cos A = 1 + tan 2 A (b) cos 2A= cos2 A – sin2 A = 2 cos2 A – 1 = 1– 2 sin2 A = (c) tan 2A = 2 tan A 1 − tan 2 A (d) sin 3A = 3 sinA – 4 sin3A (e) cos 3A = 4 cos3A – 3 cosA Sol. then = and 2 2 2 B+C π A C+A π B = − = − and 2 2 2 2 2 2 π C A +B C sin = sin − = cos 2 2 2 2 FG H IJ K FG H IJ K FG IJ H K Corporate Office: CP Tower. (I) If A + B + C = π.S FG θ IJ H 2K Ex. then A + B = π – C. C denote the angle of a triangle ABC. If A.S. Such identities are identities in the sense that they hold for all value of the angles which satisfy the given condition among them and they are called conditional identities. L. then sin(A + B) = sin(π – C) = sinC similarly.14 Prove that .S 10. Kota (Raj.S = FG IJ H K (1 − cos θ) + sin θ 1 + sin θ − cos θ = (1 + cos θ) + sin θ 1 + sin θ + cos θ = FG θ IJ + 2 sinFG θ IJ cosFG θ IJ H 2K H 2K H 2K F θI F θI F θI 2 cos G J + 2 sinG J cosG J H 2K H 2K H 2K 2 sin 2 2 θ θ  θ  2 sin  sin + cos  2  2 2  = θ θ  = tan  θ  2 cos  sin + cos  2  2  2 = R. tan (B + C) = tan(π – A) = – tan A and. Road No.H. sin (B + C) = sin(π – A) = sin A and sin ( C + A ) = sin (π – B) = sin B (III) If A + B + C = π. = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 cos 8θ 2 LM1 + cos 8θ = 2 cos FG 8θ IJ OP H 2 KQ N = = = = 2 + 2 + 2( 2 cos 2 4θ) 2 + 2 + 2 cos 4θ = 2 + 2(1 + cos 4θ) 2 + 2(2 cos 2 2θ) = 2(1 + cos 2θ) = 2 + 2 cos 2θ 2(2 cos 2 θ) = 2cosθ = R. then tan(A + B) = tan(π – C) = – tan C similarly.. then the relation A + B + C = π enables us to establish many important identities involving trigonometric ratios of these angles. tan (C + A ) = tan (π – B) = – tan B A +B π C − (V) If A + B + C = π. sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 and 1 + tan2θ = sec2θ etc. RATIO 13 .1. CONDITIONAL TRIGONOMETRICAL IDENTITIES We have certain trigonometric identities like. cos (B + C) = cos(π – A) = – cos A and cos (C + A ) = cos (π – B) = – cos B (f) tan 3A = 1 − cos 2A (g) tan2 A = 1 + cos 2 A (h) tan A = (i) 1 − cos 2 A sin 2A 1 + sin 2A = |sin A + cos A| 1 − tan 2(j)tan1 − sin 2A = |sin A – cos A| A 3A 3 tan A − 2 1 + tan tan 2 A 1− 3 A Examples based on Trigonometrical Ratios of Multiple angles θ 1 + sin θ − cos θ = tan 2 1 + sin θ + cos θ Ex. IPIA.).H. Sol.   16 16  (IV) If A + B + C = π.H. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO.9. 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 cos 8θ = 2 cos θ  π π where θ ∈ − .H.

sinG 2 J P + 1 H KN H K H KQ F A I F BI F CI = 1 + 4 sinG J .S. Road No.).= cosA+ cosB+cosC = 2 cos = =   A – B + π + C  π + C – A + B   sin   + 1 2 sin  8 8      π – C = 2 sin    4  FG A + B IJ.cos FG A + B IJ = cosFG π − C IJ = sinFG C IJ H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K F A + B IJ = tanFG π − C IJ = cotFG C IJ tanG H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K All problems on conditional identities are broadly divided into the following four types : (I) Identities involving sines and cosines of the multiple or sub-multiples of the angles involved.sin 2 2 2 FG IJ H K FG IJ H K FG IJ H K π – C = 2 sin    4  Sol. Step – 2 In the product obtained in step II replace the sum of two angles in terms of the third by using the given relation.sinFG π − C IJ = 1 + 4 sinG H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K F B + C IJ.S. Step – 4 Taking common factor.= sinG J + sinG J + sinG J H 2 K H 2K H 2 K F A + B IJ .H.cosFG A − B IJ − 2 sin FG C IJ + 1 H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K F CI L F A BI F CI O = 2 sinG 2 J McosG 2 − 2 J − sinG 2 J P + 1 H KN H K H KQ F CI L F A BI F π A + BI O = 2 sinG 2 J McosG 2 − 2 J − sinG 2 − 2 J P + 1 H KN H K H KQ F CI L F A BI F A BI O = 2 sinG 2 J McosG 2 − 2 J − cosG 2 + 2 J P + 1 H KN H K H KQ F CI L F A I F BI O = 2 sinG 2 J M2 sinG 2 J .17 If A + B + C =π. Examples based on FG C IJ .cosG − J + cos C H 2 2 K H 2 2K F CI F A BI F CI 2 sinG J .1 TYPE I : Identities involving sines and cosines of the multiple or sub-multiple of the angles involved.cosFG A − B IJ + cos C H 2 K H 2 K F π CI F A BI 2 cosG − J .H. LMcosFG A − B IJ − cosFG π + C IJ OP + 1 = 2 sinG H 4 K N H 4 K H 4 KQ 2 Ex. (III) Identities involving tangents and cotangents of the multiples or sub-multiples of the angles involved. Kota (Raj. Step – 3 Expand the third term by using formulae (Double angle change into single angle or change into half angle).cosFG A − B IJ + cosFG π − C IJ = 2 sinG H 4 K H 4 K H2 2K F π − C IJ. Prove that sin Conditional trigonometrical identities type I FG A IJ + sinFG B IJ + sinFG C IJ H 2 K H 2K H 2 K F π − A IJ.sin . L. Ph: 0744-2434159 . prove that . 10.S. Step – 5 Express the trigonometric ratio of the single angle in terms of the remaining angles.sinG J = R.16 If A + B + C = π.sinFG π − B IJ. RATIO 14 Corporate Office: CP Tower. Step – 6 Use the one of the formulae given in the step I to convert the sum into product. (II) Identities involving squares of sines and cosines of the multiple or sub-multiples of the angles involved.sinFG C + A IJ.cosFG A − B IJ + 1 − 2 sin FG π − C IJ = 2 sinG H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K F π − C IJ LMcosFG A − B IJ − sinFG π − C IJ OP + 1 = 2 sinG H 4 KN H 4 K H 4 KQ F π − C IJ LMcosFG A − B IJ − cosR π − FG π − C IJ UOP + 1 = 2 sinG H 4 K NM H 4 K S 2 H 4 K VQP T W F π − C IJ.1. Working Methods : Step – 1 Express of the sum of first two terms as product by using C & D formulae. H 2 K H 2K H 2 K = 2 sin 2 Ex. (IV) Identities involving cubes and higher powers of sines and cosines and some mixed identities.H. IPIA. cosA + cosB A B C + cosC =1 + 4 sin .sinFG A + B IJ = 1 + 4 sinG H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K F A I F BI F CI Sol. L.sinG J .cosG − J + 1 − 2 sin G J H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K 2  A + C + π – B  π + C – A + B   sin   + 1 2 sin  8 8      π – C = 2 sin    4  TRIGONO.

2x 1− x 2 + 2y 1− y 2 + 2z 1− z 2 = 8 xyz (1 − x )(1 − y 2 )(1 − z2 ) 2 Sol. y = tanB. (IV) Use cross multiplication in the expression obtained in the step III.S.S.sinFG π − A IJ OP + 1 = 2 sinG H 4 K N H 4 K H 4 KQ F π − A IJ .B) + cos2 C + 1 = – cos C. (II) Taking tan from both the sides. Let x = tanA . Ph: 0744-2434159 .tanC ⇒ tanA + tanB + tanC – tanA tanB tanC = 0 Dividing by [1 – tanA tanB – tanB tanC – tanC tanA] both the sides TRIGONO. Kota (Raj. Road No.3 Type III :Identities for tan and cot of the angles Working step : (I) Express the sum of the two angles in terms of third angle by using the given relation.H.19 If x + y + z = xyz Prove that.2 TYPE II :Identities involving squares of sines and cosines of multiple or sub-multiples of the angles involved. cos(A + B) = – cosC] = cos (A + B). (II) Take the common factor outside.tanB.H. π + B + π – B  π – A + π – A   sin   + 1 2 sin  8 8      [ Q cos 2A = 2cos2A – 1] = = = = = = = = = = [(1 + cos 2A) + (1 + cos 2B) + (1 + cos 2C)] 1 [3 + cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C] 2 3 1 + [ cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C] 2 2 3 1 + [2 cos(A + B). II Method cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C = [2 cos2 A + 2 cos2 B + 2 cos2 C] Conditional trigonometrical identities type III Ex. RATIO 15 Corporate Office: CP Tower. Q 1 2 Examples based on 10.1. cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C = 1 – 2 cosA cosB cosC Sol.sinFG π − B IJ. cosB] 1 – 2 cosA .B) – cos C] + 1 = – cos C [cos (A – B) + cos (A + B)] + 1 [ cos C = –cos (A + B)] = – cos C [ 2 cosA cosB) + 1 = 1 – 2 cosA cosB cosC = R.H.H. I Method L.cos(A – B) + 2cos2 C – 1] 2 2 3 1 + [ –2 cosC cos(A – B) + 2cos2 C – 1] 2 2 3 1 1 – + [–2cosC {cos (A – B) – cos C}] 2 2 2 1 – cosC[cos (A – B) – cosC] 1 – cos C [cos (A – B) + cos (A + B)] [cosC = – cos(A + B)] 1 – cosC[2 cosA .cos(A – B) can be used. Working step : (I) Arrange the terms on the L.sinFG A + B IJ = 1 + 4 sinG H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K = R. (III) Expand the L. Examples based on Conditional trigonometrical identities type II Ex.). (III) Express the trigonometric ratio of a single angle inside the bracket into that of the sum of the angles.cos( A .18 If A + B + C = π Prove that. cos(A – B) + cos2 C + 1 = – cos C [cos (A . cosB cosC F π − C IJ LM2 sinFG π − B IJ. cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C = cos2 A + (1 – sin2 B) + cos2 C = (cos2 A – sin2 B) + cos2 C + 1 [ Q A + B = π – C.S 10.H.sinFG π − A IJ = 1 + 4 sinG H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K F B + C IJ. IPIA. (V) Arrange the terms as per the requirement in the sum.sinFG C + A IJ.S of the identity so that either sin2A – sin2B = sin(A+B). sin(A – B) or cos2A – sin2B = cos(A+B). z = tanC then x + y + z = xyz tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA. (IV) Use the formulaes to convert the sum into product.S in step II by using the formula for the tangent of the compound angles.

tan(A + B) (2) Some useful result : (a) ver sinθ = 1– cosθ (b) cover sinθ = 1 – sinθ − a2 + b2 ≤ a sinθ + b cosθ ≤ a2 + b2 then the greatest and least values of a sinθ + b cosθ are respectively a2 + b2 and − a2 + b2 Corporate Office: CP Tower.. 3 3 = r sinα r = ⇒ 169 + 27 = 14 = 2 tan B 2 tan C 1– tan 2 A 1– tan 2 B 1– tan 2 C 2x 1– x 2 ⇒ 2x 1– x + 2y 1– y 2 + 2z 1– z 2 = 2 .sin(60 + θ) 4 1 cos 3θ = cosθ.e.tan(60 – θ)... 2z 1– z 2 = 8 xyz (1– x ) (1– y 2 ) (1– z 2 ) 2 1 [r cos(θ + α)] + 3 2 14 ⇒ [cos(θ + α)] + 3 2 ⇒ 7 cos(θ + α) + 3 Hence maximum and minimum values of expression are (7+ 3) and (–7 +3) i. IPIA..A + B + C = nπ 2A + 2B + 2C = 2nπ ⇒ tan(2A + 2B + 2C) = tan 2nπ tan 2A + tan 2B + tan 2C − tan 2A tan 2B tan 2C =0 ⇒ 1 − tan 2A tan 2B − tan 2B tan 2C − tan 2C tan 2A Ex.. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO..... 10 and – 4 respectively.cos(60 – θ).tanB.. 5 cosθ+ 3 cos θ + FG H π 3 IJ K + 3.(1) and b = r sin α ..20 Prove that 5 cosθ+ 3 cos θ + Sol. RATIO 16 . Road No.tan B 1 sin 3θ = sinθ..tan (60 + θ) (f) tan(A + B) – tanA – tanB = tanA. r = a + b 2 2 12.. Kota (Raj...).cos(60 + θ) 4 ∴ a sinθ + b cosθ = r (sinθ cosα + cosθ sinα) = r sin(θ + α) But –1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1 so –1 ≤ sin(θ + α) ≤ 1 then –r ≤ r sin(θ + α) ≤ r hence. 11..1. 2y 1– y 2 . (b) cotθ – tanθ = 2 cot 2θ (c) (d) (e) tan 3θ = tanθ. lies FG H π 3 IJ K + 3 ⇒ 5 cosθ + 3[cosθ cos 60º – sinθ sin 60º] + 3 ⇒ 5 cosθ + 3 [ ⇒ 1 cosθ – 2 ⇒ tan2A + tan2B + tan2C – tan2A tan2B tan2C = 0 ⇒ tan2A + tan2B + tan2C – tan2A tan2B tan2C ⇒ 2 tan A 1– tan A 2 tan A · 2 3 sinθ] + 3 2 + 2 tan B 1– tan B · 2 + 2 tan C 1– tan 2 C 1 [13 cos θ – 3 3 sin θ] + 3 2 Put 13 = r cosα.. TO FIND THE GREATEST AND LEAST VALUE OF THE EXPRESSION [a sinθ + b cosθ] θ θ Let a = r cosα ....(2) Squaring and adding (1) and (2) then a2 + b2 = r2 or.sin(60 – θ). between – 4 and 10. MISCELLANEOUS POINTS (1) Some useful Identities : (a) ∑ tan A − tan A tanB tan C tan (A + B + C) = 1 − ∑ tan A.⇒ tan A + tan B + tan C − tan A tan B tan C =0 1 − tan A tan B − tan B tan C − tan C tan A Examples based on To find the greatest and least value of the expression ⇒ tan(A + B + C) = 0 ⇒ A + B + C = nπ [n ∈ z] Now. The given expression is..

35. 61. 11. RATIO 17 . 25. if α = (2k + 1) π    = LM FG n − 1IJ βOPLMsinFG nβ IJ OP N H 2 K QN H 2 K Q F βI sinG J H 2K cos α + . cos 22α . L π F 3 − 1IJ FG 2π IJ OP sinFG 2π × 3 IJ cos M + G N14 H 2 K H 14 K Q H 14 2 K S= F 2π × 1JI sinG H 14 2 K tan (6) Conversion 1 radian = 180º/π = 57º 17/ 45// π (approximately) and 1º = π = 0. 15º sin 18º 22½º 1 2− 2 2 1 2+ 2 2 2–1 . β = 14 and n = 3. 17. 15.. if α ≠ nπ  n  2 sin α   1. 8. β ≠ 2nπ (b) cos α + cos (α + β) + cos (α + 2β) +. 60. cosine and tangent of some angle less than 90º. + to n terms = LM FG n − 1IJ βOPLMsinFG nβ IJ OP N H 2 K QN H 2 K Q F βI sinG J H 2K (5) sine. 7. IPIA. 5.. if α = 2kπ – 1. 24. cos (2n–1 α)  sin 2n α .(3) Some useful series : (a) sin α + sin (α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + . cos 2α . 9..21 Prove that cos G J + cos G J + cos G J H 14 K H 14 K H 14 K FπI 1 cot I FG 3=π IJ2sinFG 3GHπ14 JK 2 cos H 14 K H 14 JK S= F π I π 2π Sol. 2 sinG J = Here α H 14 K 14 . 4.). (8) Each interior angle of a regular polygon of n sides = n−2 × 180 degrees n FG 6π IJ H 14 K S= F πI 2 sinG J H 14 K 1 F πI S = cotG J H 14 K 2 sin 1 π π sin − 2 2 14 = π sin 14 FG IJ H K FG IJ H K Corporate Office: CP Tower. 13. 40... 12.1. 29 etc. + to n terms sin α + (4) An Increasing Product series : (a) p = cosα.01475 radians (approximately) 180 (7) Basic right angled triangle are (pythogerian Triplets) 3. Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO... 36º 3 −1 2 2 5 −1 4 10 + 2 5 4 25 − 10 5 5 β ≠ 2nπ cos 10 − 2 5 4 3 +1 2 2 2− 3 Series 5 +1 4 5−2 5 FπI F 3π I F 5π I Ex. 41. 21. 5 . Road No. 12.. Kota (Raj. 20. 37..

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