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Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 1

TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS

Preface

Trigonometrical ratios of compound angles, Trigonometric ratios of multiple angles, sub

multiple angles, conditional identities, greatest and the least value of the expression.

Trigonometry is the corner stone of the whole mathematics of which trigonometric ratio plays an

important role. It is observed that there is a clear lack of problem solving aptitude which was an

absolute prerequisite for an examination like IIT-JEE.

It is motivated us to compile the concepts, fundamentals to fulfill this vaccume but would be helpful to

elevate the ordinary students to become extra ordinary. Before studying trigonometric ratio students

are advised to clear the basic concept of trigonometry.

This material is exclusively designed by the CAREER POINT'S core members so that CPians need

not refer to any other book or study material.

In chapter Examples ................................. 21

Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 2

1. DEFINITION

Trigonometry is the branch of science in which

we study about the angles and sides of a triangle.

1.1 ANGLE :

→

Consider a ray OA . If this ray rotates about its

end points O and takes the position OB, then

the angle ∠AOB has been generated.

and y-axis respectively. These two lines taken

together are known as the coordinate axes. The

regions XOY, YOX ′, X′OY′ and Y′OX are known

An angle is considered as the figure obtained by as the first, the second, the third and the fourth

rotating a given ray about its end-point. quadrant respectively.

The initial position OA is called the initial side 1.3.2 Angle In Standard Position : An angle is

and the final position OB is called terminal side said to be in standard position if its vertex

of the angle. The end point O about which the coincides with the origin O and the initial side

ray rotates is called the vertex of the angle. coincides with OX i.e. the positive direction of

1.2 Sense of an Angle : x-axis.

The sence of an angle is said to be positive or 1.3.3 Co–terminal Angles : Two angles with different

negative according as the initial side rotates in measures but having the same initial sides and

anticlockwise or clockwise direction to get to the the same terminal sides are known as co-terminal

terminal side. angles.

1.3 Some Useful terms : There are three system for measuring angles.

1.3.1 Quadrant : 2.1 Sexagesimal or English system

Let XOX′ and YOY′ be two lines at right angles 2.2 Centesimal or French system

in the plane of the paper. These lines divide the 2.3 Circular system

plane of the paper into four equal parts which are 2.1 Sexagesimal system :

known as quadrants.

The principal unit in this system is degree ( º ).

One right angle is divided into 90 equal parts and

Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 3

each part is called one degree (1º ). One degree ′ ′

1 61

is divided into 60 equal parts and each part is Total minute 30 ′ + =

called one minute. Minute is denoted by (1′ ). 2 2

100′ is equal to 1 g

One minute is equally divided into 60 equal parts

and each part is called one second (1′′ ). FG 1 IJ g

H 100 K

One right angle = 90º

1º = 60′ 61

′

is equal to G

F 1 × 61IJ g

1′ = 60′′

2 H 100 2 K =

g

Sexagesimal system Total grade ⇒ 50 +

Ex.1

60′′ is equal to 1′

FG 10000 + 61IJ g

FG 10061IJ g

Sol.

′

⇒

H 200 K ⇒

H 200 K

1

1′′ is equal to 2.2.1 Relation between sexagesimal and

60 centesimal systems :

′ ′

1 1 One right angle = 90º (degree system) ......... (1)

30′′ is equal to × 30 =

60 2 One right angle = 100g (grade system) ....... (2)

′ ′ by (1) and (2),

1 31

Total minutes ⇒ 15 ′ + =

2 2

90º = 100g

FG 1 IJ º

D G

60′ is equal to 1º and 1′ is equal to

H 60 K or, =

90 100

31

′

FG 1 × 31IJ º

FG 31 IJ º

then we can say,

FG 5431

61 I

is equal to

2 H 60 2 K =

H 120 K FG 100 IJ g

61

31

5400

H 120

200

1201K

Total degrees ⇒ 45º +

1º =

H 90 K 200

FG 9 IJ º

⇒ ⇒

1g =

H 10 K

Examples Relation between sexagesimal and

2.2 Centesimal system : based on centesimal systems

The principal unit in system is grade and is

denoted by ( g ). One right angle is divided into Ex.3 63º 14′ 51′′ change into grade system.

100 equal parts, called grades, and each grade Sol. We know that in degree system

is subdivided into 100 minutes, and each minutes

60′′ equal to 1′

into 100 seconds.

′

In Mathematical Form : 51

51′′ is equals = = (0.85)′

One right angle = 100g 60

1g = 100′ (14.85)′ change into degree.

1′ = 100′′ FG 14.85 IJ º

(14.85)′ is equals =

H 60 K

Centesimal system = (0.2475)º

So 63º 14′ 51′′ = 63.2475º

63.2475º change into grade system.

Ex.2 50g 30′ 50′′ change into grade system.

FG 63.2475 × 10 IJ g

Sol.

1

We know that , 50 ′ ⇒

′ 63.2475º is equals =

H 9K

2 = 70.2750g

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70.2750g = 70g 27′ 50′′

Examples Relation between systems of

finally we can say, based on measurement of angles

63º 14′ 57′ = 70g 27′ 50′′

2.3 Circular system : FG 2π IJ C

Ex.4

H 15 K change into degree system.

angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an Sol. We know that, π radian = 180º

arc of length equal to the radius of the circle.

FG 180 IJ º

Consider a circle of radius r having centre at O.

Let A be a point on the circle. Now cut off an arc

1C =

HπK

AB whose length is equal to the radius r of the C °

2π 2π 180

circle. Then by the definition the measure of = × = 24º

15 15 π

∠AOB is 1 radian (1C).

Ex.5 Find the length of an arc of a circle of radius

5 cm subtending a central angle measuring

15º.

Sol. Let s be the length of the arc subtending an

angle θ at the centre of a circle of radius r.

s

then , θ =

r

2.3.1 Some Important Conversion : FG15 × π IJ C

π Radian = 180º

Here, r = 5 cm, and θ = 15º =

H 180 K

FG 180 IJ º

FG π IJ C

One radian =

HπK θ=

H 12 K

s π s

π Radian = 30º θ= ⇒ =

r 12 5

6 π 5π

Radian = 45º

4 s = cm.

12

π

Radian = 60º

3 3.TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OR FUNCTIONS

π

Radian = 90º

2 In the right angled triangle OMP , we have base

2π (OM) = x, perpendicular (PM) = y and hypotenuse

Radian = 120º

3 (OP) = r, then we define the following trigonometric

3π ratios which are known as trigonometric function.

Radian = 135º

4 P y

sinθ= =

5π H r

Radian = 150º

6 B x P

cosθ = =

7π H r

Radian = 210º P y

6 tanθ = =

5π B x r

Radian = 225º y

4 B x

cotθ = =

5π P y

Radian = 300º θ

3 H r

secθ = = O x M

2.3.2 Relation between systems of measurement B x

of angles : H r

cosecθ = =

P y

D G 2C

= =

90 100 π

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Note : (sec θ + tan θ)(tan θ − sec θ + 1)

=

(1) It should be noted that sinθ does not mean the tan θ − sec θ + 1

product of sin and θ. The sinθ is correctly read

sin of angle θ. 1 sin θ 1+ sin θ

= secθ + tanθ = + =

(2) These functions depend only on the value of the cos θ cos θ cos θ

angle θ and not on the position of the point P = RHS

chosen on the terminal side of the angle θ.

3.2 Signs of the trigonometrical ratios or functions:

3.1 Fundamental Trigonometrical Identities :

Their signs depends on the quadrant in which

1 the terminal side of the angle lies.

(a) sinθ =

cos ecθ

y

1 In First quadrant : x > 0 , y > 0 ⇒ sinθ = > 0,

(b) cosθ = r

sec θ

x y r

1 cos θ cosθ = > 0, tanθ = > 0, cosecθ = > 0,

(c) cotθ = = r x y

tan θ sin θ

(d) 1 + tan2θ = sec2θ r x

secθ = > 0 and cotθ = > 0

or, sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 x y

1 Thus, in the first quadrant all trigonometry

(secθ – tanθ)= functions are positive.

(sec θ + tan θ)

(e) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 In Second quadrant : x < 0 , y > 0 ⇒ sinθ

(f) 1 + cot2θ = cosec2θ y x y

= > 0, cosθ = < 0, tanθ = < 0, cosecθ =

1 r r x

(cosecθ –cotθ) =

cos ecθ + cot θ r r x

> 0, secθ = < 0 and cotθ = < 0

y x y

Trigonometrical ratios or functions Thus, in the second quadrant sin and cosec

function are positive and all others are negative. (sec θ

Q

Ex.6 Prove that, sin8θ – cos 8θ = (sin2θ – cos 2θ)

y

(1 – 2sin2θ cos2θ ) In Third quadrant : x < 0 , y < 0 ⇒ sinθ = < 0,

r

Sol. L.H.S,(sin8θ – cos8θ ) r

x y

or, (sin4θ)2 – (cos4θ)2 cosθ = < 0, tanθ = > 0, cosecθ =

y

< 0,

r x

or, (sin2 θ – cos 2θ)(sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ)[(sin 4θ + x

r

cos4θ)] secθ = < 0 and cotθ = > 0

x y

or, (sin2θ – cos2θ) [(sin2θ + cos2θ) – 2 sin2θ

Thus, in the third quadrant all trigonometric

cos2θ]

functions are negative except tangent and

or, (sin2θ – cos2θ) [(1 – 2sin2θ cos2θ)] =

RHS cotangent.

Ex.7 Prove the identity =

tan θ − sec θ + 1 cos θ y x y

< 0, cosθ = > 0, tanθ = < 0, cosecθ =

r r x

tan θ + sec θ − 1 r r x

Sol. L.H.S = < 0, secθ = > 0 and cotθ = < 0

tan θ − sec θ + 1 y x y

Thus, in the fourth quadrant all trigonometric

(tan θ + sec θ) − (sec 2 θ − tan 2 θ) functions are negative except cos and sec.

=

tan θ − sec θ + 1 To be Remember :

[ sec2θ – tan2 θ = 1]

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II – Quadrant

sinθ → decreases from 1 to 0

cosθ → decreases from 0 to –1

tanθ → increases from – ∞ to 0

cotθ → decreases from 0 to – ∞

secθ → increases from –∞ to –1

cosecθ → increases from 1 to ∞

III – Quadrant

sinθ → decreases from 0 to –1

cosθ → increases from –1 to 0

A crude aid to memorise the signs of tanθ → increases from 0 to ∞

trigonometrical ratio in different quadrant. cotθ → decreases from ∞ to 0

“ All Students to Career Point ” secθ → decreases from –1 to –∞

3.3 Variations in values of Trigonometrical cosecθ → increases from –∞ to –1

Functions in Different Quadrants :

IV – Quadrant

sinθ → increases from –1 to 0

cosθ → increases from 0 to 1

tanθ → increases from –∞ to 0

cotθ → decreases from 0 to –∞

secθ → decreases from ∞ to 1

cosecθ → decreases from –1 to – ∞

Remark:

+ ∞ and – ∞ are two symbols. These are not real

number. When we say that tan θ increases from

π

Let XOX′ and YOY′ be the coordinate axes. Draw 0 to ∞ for as θ varies from 0 to it means that

2

a circle with centre at origin O and radius unity. πFG IJ

Let M (x, y) be a point on the circle such that

tan θ increases in the interval 0,

2 H K

and it attains

∠AOM = θ π

large positive values as θ tends to . Similarly

then x = cosθ and y = sinθ 2

for other trigo. functions.

– 1 ≤ cosθ ≤ 1 and –1≤ sinθ ≤ 1 for all values of θ.

Examples Signs of the trigonometrical ratios

based on or functions

I – Quadrant

sinθ → increases from 0 to 1 3π

Ex.8 If secθ = 2 , and < θ < 2π. Find the

cosθ → decreases from 1 to 0 2

1 + tan θ + cos ecθ

tanθ → increases from 0 to ∞ value of

1 + cot θ − cos ecθ

cotθ → decreases from ∞ to 0

Sol. If secθ = 2

secθ → increases from 1 to ∞

1

cosecθ → decreases from ∞ to 1 or, cosθ = ,sinθ = ± 1 − cos 2 θ

2

1 1

= ± 1− = ±

2 2

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But θ lies in the fourth quadrant in which sinθ is

negative.

1

sinθ = − , cosec θ = − 2

2

sin θ 1 2

tanθ = ⇒ tanθ = − ×

cos θ 2 1

⇒ tanθ = –1

⇒ cotθ = –1

1 + tan θ + cos ecθ 1− 1− 2

then, = ⇒ –1

1 + cot θ − cos ecθ 1− 1+ 2

cosecθ =

4. GRAPHS OF DIFFERENT TRIGONOMETRICAL

RATIOS

Function

Trig.

Domain Range

Function

sin θ R [-1, 1]

cos θ R [-1, 1]

R - {(2n + 1) π/2, n ∈

sec θ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞)

z}

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5. TR IGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF ALLIED Sol.(a) cos (–45º) = cos45º [ Q cos(–θ) = cosθ]

ANGLES

Two angles are said to be allied when their sum = Ans.

or difference is either zero or a multiple of 90º. (b) sin(–30º) = – sin 30º [ Q sin(–θ) = – sinθ]

θ) :

5.1 Trigonometrical Ratios of (–θ

Let a revolving ray starting from its initial position = Ans.

OX, trace out an angle (c) cot(–60º) = – cot 60º [ Q cot(–θ) = – cotθ]

∠ XOA = θ. Let P(x, y) be a point on OA such

that OP = r. Draw PM ⊥ from P on x-axis. angle = Ans.

∠ XOA/ = –θ in the clockwise sense. Let P/ be

a point on OA/ such that OP/ = OP. Clearly M 5.2 Trigonometrical Functions of (90 – θ) :

and M/ coincide and ∆OMP is congruent to

Let the revolving line, starting from OA, trace out

∆OMP/. then P/ are (x, –y)

any acute angle AOP, equal to θ. From any point

P on it draw PM ⊥ to OA. Three angles of a

triangle are together equal to two right angles,

and since OMP is a right angle, the sum of the

two angles MOP and OPM is right angle.

111

−

23

−y −y

sin(–θ) = ⇒ = − sin θ

r r

x ∠ OPM = 90º – θ.

cos(–θ) = = cos θ

r [When the angle OPM is consider, the line PM

−y is the ´base´ and MO is the ´perpendicular´ ]

tan(–θ) = = − tanθ

x MO

Taking the reciprocal of these trigonometric ratios, sin (90º – θ) = sin MPO = = cos AOP = cosθ

PO

cosec (–θ)= –cosecθ

PM

sec(–θ)= secθand cot(–θ) = – cotθ cos (90º – θ) = cos MPO = = sin AOP = sinθ

PO

Note : A function f(x) is said to be even function if MO

tan (90º – θ) = tan MPO = = cot AOP = cotθ

f(–x) = f(x) for all x in its domain. PM

A function f(x) is an odd function if f(–x) = –f(x) PM

cot (90º – θ) = cot MPO = = tan AOP = tanθ

for all x in its domain. MO

sinθ, tanθ, cotθ, cosecθ all odd functions and PO

cosθ, secθ are even functions. cosec (90º – θ) = cosec MPO = = sec AOP

MO

= secθ

Allied angles PO

and sec (90º – θ) = sec MPO = = cosec

PM

Ex.9 Find the value of the following trigonometric AOP = cosecθ

ratios -

(a) cos (–45º) (b) sin (–30º)

(c) cot (–60º)

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Trigo. ratio (– θ) 90 – θ 90 + θ 180 – θ 180 + θ 270 – θ 270 + θ 360 – θ

or H2 K or H2 K or (π - θ) or (π + θ) or H2 K or 2 + θ

H K or (2π - θ)

cos θ cos θ sin θ – sin θ – cos θ – cos θ – sin θ sin θ cos θ

tan θ – tan θ cot θ – cot θ – tan θ tan θ cot θ – cot θ – tan θ

tan (90 + θ) = = – = – cotθ

OM′ y

Let a revolving ray OA starting from its initial

similarly,

position OX, trace out an angle

cot (90 + θ) = – tan θ

∠ XOA = θ and let another revolving ray OA′

sec(90 + θ) = – cosec θ

starting from the same initial position OX, first

trace out an angle θ so as to coincide with OA cosec (90 + θ) = sec θ

and then it revolves through an angle of 90º in [where – π/2< θ < π/2]

anticlockwise direction to form an angle

∠ XOA ′ = 90º + θ. 5.4 Periodic Function :

All the trigonometric functions are periodic

Let P and P ′ be points on OA and OA ′

functions. They will repeat after a certain period

respectively such that OP = OP′ = r.

Draw perpendicular PM and P′M′ from P and P′ sin (2nπ + θ ) = sinθ

respectively on OX. Let the coordinates of P be cos (2nπ + θ ) = cosθ where n ∈ I

(x, y). Then OM = x and PM = y clearly, tan (2nπ + θ ) = tanθ

OM/ = PM = y and P′M′ = OM = x

Trigonometric ratio of allied angles

Ex.10 Prove that , cos 510º cos330º + sin 390º cos 120º

= –1

Sol. LHS = cos 510º cos 330º+ sin 390º cos 120º

= cos (360º + 150º) cos (360º – 30º) +

sin(360º + 30º) cos(90º + 30º)

= cos 150º cos 30º – sin 30º(–sin 30º)

3 1

= cos (180º – 30º) +

4 4

= – cos 30º GH 2 JK –

1

4

M′ P′ x

sin (90 + θ) = = = cosθ 3 1

OP′ r = – – = – 1 = R.H.S

4 4

OM′ − y

cos (90 + θ) = = = – sinθ

OP′ r

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6. SUM OR DIFFERENCE OF THE ANGLE (d) cos (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C – cos A.

sin B sin C – sin A cos B sin C – sin A

The algebraic sums of two or more angles are sinB cosC

generally called compound angles and the angles

(e) tan (A + B + C)

are known as the constituent angles.

For example : If A, B, C are three angles then tan A + tan B + tan C − tan A tan B tan C

=

A ± B, A + B + C, A – B + C etc. are compound 1 − tan A tan B − tan B tan C − tan C tan A

angles.

6.1 (a) sin (A + B) =sin A cos B + cos A sin B (Note : * Important)

3 9 π

Ex.11 If sin A = and cos B = ,0<A< .

5 41 2

π

0<B< , find the values of the following -

2

(b) sin(A – B) = sinA cosB – cosA sinB (a) sin (A + B)

(b) cos (A – B)

Sol. (a) sin (A + B) ⇒ sin A cos B + cos A sin

B

3

sin A =

5

4

4 cos A =

5

(c) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B

5

(d) cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

tan A + tan B

(e) tan (A + B) =

1 − tan A tan B

tan A − tan B 9

(f) tan (A – B) = and cos B =

1 + tan A tan B 41

cot A cot B − 1 40

(g) cot (A + B) = sin B =

cot B + cot A 41

cot A cot B + 1

(h) cot (A – B) =

cot B − cot A

6.2 Some More Results :

= cos2 B – cos2 A 3 9 4 40 187

sin (A + B)= × + × =

5 41 5 41 205

*(b) cos (A + B).cos (A – B) = cos2 A – sin2 B

= cos2 B – sin2 A (b) cos (A – B)= cosA cos B + sin A sin B

(c) sin (A + B + C) = sin A cos B cos C + cos A 9 3 40 156

sin B sin C + cos A cos B sin C – sin A = × + × =

41 5 41 205

sin B sin C

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7. FORMULA TO TRANSFORM THE PRODUCT 8. FORMULA TO TRANSFORM THE SUM OR

INTO SUM OR DIFFERENCE DIFFERENCE INTO PRODUCT

sin A cos B + cos A sin B = sin (A + B) .......(i) sin (A + B) + sin(A – B) = 2 sin A cos B ......(i)

Let A+ B = C and A – B = D

sin A cos B – cos A sin B = sin (A – B) ......(ii)

cos A cos B – sin A sin B = cos (A + B) .....(iii) C +D C −D

then A = and B =

2 2

cos A cos B + sin A sin B = cos (A – B) .....(iv)

Substituting in (i),

Adding (i) and (ii),

2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) FG C + D IJ .cos FG C − D IJ

Subtracting (ii) from (i),

(a) sin C+ sin D = 2 sin H 2 K H 2 K

2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) – sin (A – B) similarly other formula,

Adding (iii) and (iv), FG C + D IJ .sin FG C − D IJ

2 cosA cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) (b) sin C – sin D = 2 cosH 2 K H 2 K

Subtraction (iii) from (iv).

F C + D IJ .cos FG C − D IJ

(c) cos C + cos D = 2 cos GH

2 K H 2 K

2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B)

Formula :

(a) 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B)

(d) cos C – cos D = 2 sin G

F C + D IJ .sin FG D − C IJ

(b) 2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) – sin (A – B) ) H 2 K H 2 K

(c) 2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B)

(d) 2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B) Examples To Transform the sum of difference

based on into product

Examples To transform the product into sum

based on or difference Ex.13 Prove that, (cos α + cos β)2 + (sin α + sin β)2

α −β FG IJ

Ex.12 Prove that, cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) + = 4cos2

2 H K

1

cos(45º + A).cos(45º – A) = cos2A + Sol. L.H.S,

4

(cos α + cos β)2 + (sin α + sin β)2

Sol. L.H.S. = cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) +

2

cos(45º + A).cos(45º – A) α + β α – β

2 cos cos +

2 2

1

= [2 cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) + 2

2 α + β α – β

2 sin cos

2 cos (45º + A).cos(45º – A)] 2 2

α+β FG α−βIJ FG IJ

=

1

2

cos 60º + cos 2A + cos 90º + cos 2A = 4cos2 2 H.cos2

2 K H K +

FG

α+β IJα−β FG IJ

=

1

[ 2cos2A +

1

]

4sin2 H2 .cos 2 K 2 H K

2 2

= 4 cos2

1

= cos 2A +

4

= R.H.S. FG α − β IJ . LMcos FG α + β IJ + sin FG α + β IJ OP

2 2

H 2 K N H 2 K H 2 KQ

= 4cos GH

F α − β IJ

2 K

2

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9. TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF MULTIPLE

Sol. L.H.S., = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 cos 8θ

ANGLES

LM1 + cos 8θ = 2 cos FG 8θ IJ OP

2

of an angle A : N H 2 KQ

2 tan A

(a) sin 2A= 2sin A cos A =

1 + tan 2 A = 2 + 2 + 2( 2 cos 2 4θ)

(b) cos 2A= cos2 A – sin2 A = 2 cos2 A – 1

= 2 + 2 + 2 cos 4θ = 2 + 2(1 + cos 4θ)

= 1– 2 sin2 A =

= 2 + 2(2 cos 2 2θ) = 2 + 2 cos 2θ

2 tan A

(c) tan 2A =

1 − tan 2 A = 2(1 + cos 2θ) = 2(2 cos 2 θ)

(d) sin 3A = 3 sinA – 4 sin3A = 2cosθ = R.H.S

(e) cos 3A = 4 cos3A – 3 cosA 10. CONDITIONAL TRIGONOMETRICAL

IDENTITIES

(f) tan 3A =

We have certain trigonometric identities

like, sin2θ + cos2θ = 1

1 − cos 2A and 1 + tan2θ = sec2θ etc.

(g) tan2 A = 1 + cos 2 A

Such identities are identities in the sense that

they hold for all value of the angles which satisfy

1 − cos 2 A the given condition among them and they are

(h) tan A =

sin 2A called conditional identities.

If A, B, C denote the angle of a triangle ABC,

(i) 1 + sin 2A = |sin A + cos A| then the relation A + B + C = π enables us to

2 establish many important identities involving

3−tan

1 tan −Atan13 −Asin 2A = |sin A – cos A|

A (j)

2 trigonometric ratios of these angles.

1 +1tan A2A

− 3 tan

Examples Trigonometrical Ratios of Multiple (I) If A + B + C = π, then A + B = π – C,

based on angles B + C = π – A and C + A = π – B

Ex.14 Prove that ,

1 + sin θ + cos θ

= tan

2 H K = sinC

similarly, sin (B + C) = sin(π – A) = sin A

1 + sin θ − cos θ (1 − cos θ) + sin θ

Sol. L.H.S = = and sin ( C + A ) = sin (π – B) = sin B

1 + sin θ + cos θ (1 + cos θ) + sin θ

(III) If A + B + C = π, then cos(A + B) = cos(π – C)

FG θ IJ + 2 sinFG θ IJ cosFG θ IJ

2 sin 2 = – cos C

H 2K H 2K H 2K similarly, cos (B + C) = cos(π – A) = – cos A

=

F θI F θI F θI

2 cos G J + 2 sinG J cosG J

2 and cos (C + A ) = cos (π – B) = – cos B

H 2K H 2K H 2K

θ θ θ (IV) If A + B + C = π, then tan(A + B) = tan(π – C)

2 sin sin + cos = – tan C

2

2 2 FG θ IJ

= θ θ θ = tan

2 cos sin + cos H 2K similarly, tan (B + C) = tan(π – A) = – tan A

and, tan (C + A ) = tan (π – B) = – tan B

2 2 2

= R.H.S A +B π C

(V) If A + B + C = π, then = − and

2 2 2

Ex.15 Show that, B+C π A C+A π B

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 cos 8θ = 2 cos θ = − and = −

2 2 2 2 2 2

π π

where θ ∈ − ,

FGA +B IJ π C

= sin −

FG = cos

CIJ FG IJ

16 16

sin

H 2 K 2 2 H 2 K H K

Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 13

FG A + B IJ = cosFG π − C IJ = sinFG C IJ FG C IJ .cosFG A − B IJ − 2 sin FG C IJ + 1

cos

H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K = 2 sin H 2 K H 2 2K

2

H 2K

F A + B IJ = tanFG π − C IJ = cotFG C IJ

tanG F CI L F A BI F CI O

H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K = 2 sinGH 2 JK McosGH 2 − 2 JK − sinGH 2 JK P + 1

N Q

All problems on conditional identities are

broadly divided into the following four types : F CI L F A BI F π A + BI O

= 2 sinGH 2 JK McosGH 2 − 2 JK − sinGH 2 − 2 JK P + 1

(I) Identities involving sines and cosines of the N Q

multiple or sub-multiples of the angles involved. F CI L F A BI F A BI O

= 2 sinGH 2 JK McosGH 2 − 2 JK − cosGH 2 + 2 JK P + 1

(II) Identities involving squares of sines and

cosines of the multiple or sub-multiples of the

N Q

angles involved. F CI L F A I F BI O

= 2 sinGH 2 JK M2 sinGH 2 JK .sinGH 2 JK P + 1

(III) Identities involving tangents and cotangents N Q

of the multiples or sub-multiples of the angles

involved.

F A I F BI F CI

= 1 + 4 sinGH JK .sinGH JK .sinGH JK = R.H.S.

2 2 2

(IV) Identities involving cubes and higher powers Ex.17 If A + B + C =π, Prove that

of sines and cosines and some mixed identities.

FG A IJ + sinFG B IJ + sinFG C IJ

10.1 TYPE I : Identities involving sines and

cosines of the multiple or sub-multiple of the

sin

H 2 K H 2K H 2 K

angles involved.

= 1 + 4 sinGH

F π − A IJ.sinFG π − B IJ.sinFG π − C IJ

4 K H 4 K H 4 K

Working Methods :

= 1 + 4 sinGH

F B + C IJ.sinFG C + A IJ.sinFG A + B IJ

4 K H 4 K H 4 K

Step – 1 Express of the sum of first two terms

as product by using C & D formulae.

Step – 2 In the product obtained in step II F A I F BI F CI

L.H.S.= sinG J + sinG J + sinG J

replace the sum of two angles in terms of the

Sol.

H 2 K H 2K H 2 K

third by using the given relation.

= 2 sinG

F A + B IJ .cosFG A − B IJ + cosFG π − C IJ

Step – 3 Expand the third term by using formulae

(Double angle change into single angle or change

H 4 K H 4 K H2 2K

into half angle). = 2 sinG

F π − C IJ.cosFG A − B IJ + 1 − 2 sin FG π − C IJ

2

H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K

Step – 5 Express the trigonometric ratio of the

= 2 sinG

F π − C IJ LMcosFG A − B IJ − sinFG π − C IJ OP + 1

single angle in terms of the remaining angles. H 4 KN H 4 K H 4 KQ

Step – 6 Use the one of the formulae given in

the step I to convert the sum into product. = 2 sinG

F π − C IJ LMcosFG A − B IJ − cosRS π − FG π − C IJ UVOP + 1

H 4 K MN H 4 K T 2 H 4 K WPQ

Examples Conditional trigonometrical

= 2 sinG

F π − C IJ. LMcosFG A − B IJ − cosFG π + C IJ OP + 1

based on identities type I H 4 K N H 4 K H 4 KQ

π – C

Ex.16 If A + B + C = π, prove that , cosA + cosB = 2 sin

4

A B FG IJ C FG IJ FG IJ

+ cosC =1 + 4 sin

2

.sin

2 H K

.sin

2 H K H K A – B + π + C

2 sin

8

π + C – A + B

sin

8

+ 1

Sol. L.H.S.= cosA+ cosB+cosC

FG A + B IJ.cosFG A − B IJ + cos C π – C

= 2 sin

= 2 cos H 2 K H 2 K 4

π + C – A + B

F π CI F A BI

2 cosG − J .cosG − J + cos C

A + C + π – B

2 sin sin + 1

= H 2 2 K H 2 2K 8 8

F CI F A BI

2 sinG J .cosG − J + 1 − 2 sin G J

F CI

2

π – C

= 2 sin

= H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K 4

Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 14

π + B + π – B π – A + π – A [ Q cos 2A = 2cos2A – 1]

2 sin sin + 1

8 8

= [(1 + cos 2A) + (1 + cos 2B) + (1 + cos 2C)]

F π − C IJ LM2 sinFG π − B IJ.sinFG π − A IJ OP + 1

= 2 sinG

H 4 K N H 4 K H 4 KQ =

1

[3 + cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C]

F π − A IJ .sinFG π − B IJ.sinFG π − A IJ

= 1 + 4 sinG

2

H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K =

3

+

1

[ cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C]

F B + C IJ.sinFG C + A IJ.sinFG A + B IJ

= 1 + 4 sinG

2 2

H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K 3 1

= R.H.S = + [2 cos(A + B).cos(A – B) + 2cos2 C – 1]

2 2

10.2 TYPE II :Identities involving squares of 3 1

sines and cosines of multiple or sub-multiples = + [ –2 cosC cos(A – B) + 2cos2 C – 1]

2 2

of the angles involved.

Working step : 3 1 1

= – + [–2cosC {cos (A – B) – cos C}]

(I) Arrange the terms on the L.H.S of the identity 2 2 2

so that either sin2A – sin2B = sin(A+B). = 1 – cosC[cos (A – B) – cosC]

sin(A – B) = 1 – cos C [cos (A – B) + cos (A + B)]

or cos2A – sin2B = cos(A+B).cos(A – B) can [cosC = – cos(A + B)]

be used. = 1 – cosC[2 cosA . cosB]

(II) Take the common factor outside. = 1 – 2 cosA . cosB cosC

(III) Express the trigonometric ratio of a single 10.3 Type III :Identities for tan and cot of the

angle inside the bracket into that of the sum angles

of the angles.

Working step :

(IV) Use the formulaes to convert the sum into

(I) Express the sum of the two angles in terms

Q product.

1 of third angle by using the given relation.

2 (II) Taking tan from both the sides.

Examples Conditional trigonometrical

(III) Expand the L.H.S in step II by using the

based on identities type II

formula for the tangent of the compound

Ex.18 If A + B + C = π angles.

Prove that, cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C = (IV) Use cross multiplication in the expression

1 – 2 cosA cosB cosC obtained in the step III.

Sol. I Method (V) Arrange the terms as per the requirement in

L.H.S. cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C the sum.

= cos2 A + (1 – sin2 B) + cos2 C

= (cos2 A – sin2 B) + cos2 C + 1 Examples Conditional trigonometrical

[ Q A + B = π – C, cos(A + B) = – cosC]

based on identities type III

= cos (A + B).cos( A - B) + cos2 C + 1 Ex.19 If x + y + z = xyz

= – cos C. cos(A – B) + cos2 C + 1 Prove that,

= – cos C [cos (A - B) – cos C] + 1

2x 2y 2z 8 xyz

= – cos C [cos (A – B) + cos (A + B)] + 1 2

+ 2

+ 2

=

[ cos C = –cos (A + B)] 1− x 1− y 1− z (1 − x )(1 − y 2 )(1 − z2 )

2

= 1 – 2 cosA cosB cosC = R.H.S. then x + y + z = xyz

II Method tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA.tanB.tanC

cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C ⇒ tanA + tanB + tanC – tanA tanB tanC = 0

Dividing by [1 – tanA tanB – tanB tanC –

= [2 cos2 A + 2 cos2 B + 2 cos2 C] tanC tanA] both the sides

Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 15

tan A + tan B + tan C − tan A tan B tan C Examples To find the greatest and least value

⇒ =0

1 − tan A tan B − tan B tan C − tan C tan A based on of the expression

⇒ tan(A + B + C) = 0

⇒ A + B + C = nπ [n ∈ z] Ex.20 Prove that 5 cosθ+ 3 cos θ +

FG π IJ

Now,A + B + C = nπ

H 3 K + 3. lies

between – 4 and 10.

2A + 2B + 2C = 2nπ Sol. The given expression is,

⇒ tan(2A + 2B + 2C) = tan 2nπ

5 cosθ+ 3 cos θ +

FG π IJ

⇒

tan 2A + tan 2B + tan 2C − tan 2A tan 2B tan 2C

=0

H 3 K + 3

1 − tan 2A tan 2B − tan 2B tan 2C − tan 2C tan 2A ⇒ 5 cosθ + 3[cosθ cos 60º – sinθ sin 60º] + 3

⇒ tan2A + tan2B + tan2C – tan2A tan2B 1 3

tan2C = 0 ⇒ 5 cosθ + 3 [ cosθ – sinθ] + 3

2 2

⇒ tan2A + tan2B + tan2C – tan2A tan2B

tan2C 1

⇒ [13 cos θ – 3 3 sin θ] + 3

2

2 tan A 2 tan B 2 tan C

⇒ + +

1– tan A 2

1– tan B 2

1– tan 2 C Put 13 = r cosα, 3 3 = r sinα

r = 169 + 27 = 14

2 tan A 2 tan B 2 tan C

= · ·

1– tan 2 A 1– tan 2 B 1– tan 2 C 1

⇒ [r cos(θ + α)] + 3

2

2x 2y 2z 14

⇒ + + ⇒ [cos(θ + α)] + 3

2 2

1– x 1– y 1– z 2 2

⇒ 7 cos(θ + α) + 3

2x 2y 2z 8 xyz Hence maximum and minimum values of

= . . =

1– x 2

1– y 2

1– z 2

(1– x ) (1– y 2 ) (1– z 2 )

2 expression are (7+ 3) and (–7 +3)

i.e., 10 and – 4 respectively.

11. TO FIND THE GREATEST AND LEAST VALUE

θ + b cosθ

OF THE EXPRESSION [a sinθ θ]

12. MISCELLANEOUS POINTS

Let a = r cosα ...........(1)

and b = r sin α ...........(2) (1) Some useful Identities :

Squaring and adding (1) and (2)

then a2 + b2 = r2

∑ tan A − tan A tanB tan C

1 − ∑ tan A.tan B

(a) tan (A + B + C) =

2 2

or, r = a + b

(b) cotθ – tanθ = 2 cot 2θ

∴ a sinθ + b cosθ

1

= r (sinθ cosα + cosθ sinα) (c) sin 3θ = sinθ.sin(60 – θ).sin(60 + θ)

4

= r sin(θ + α)

But –1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1 1

(d) cos 3θ = cosθ.cos(60 – θ).cos(60 + θ)

so –1 ≤ sin(θ + α) ≤ 1 4

then –r ≤ r sin(θ + α) ≤ r (e) tan 3θ = tanθ.tan(60 – θ).tan (60 + θ)

hence, (f) tan(A + B) – tanA – tanB = tanA.tanB.tan(A + B)

then the greatest and least values of a sinθ + b cosθ

(a) ver sinθ = 1– cosθ

are respectively a2 + b2 and − a2 + b2 (b) cover sinθ = 1 – sinθ

Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 16

(3) Some useful series : (4) An Increasing Product series :

(a) sin α + sin (α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + .... (a) p = cosα. cos 2α . cos 22α ... cos (2n–1 α)

+ to n terms

sin 2n α

LM FG n − 1IJ βOPLMsinFG nβ IJ OP

sin α +

n

2 sin α

, if α ≠ nπ

N H 2 K QN H 2 K Q 1, if α = 2kπ

=

F βI

sinG J

; β ≠ 2nπ – 1, if α = (2k + 1) π

H 2K

(5) sine, cosine and tangent of some angle less

LM FG n − 1IJ βOPLMsinFG nβ IJ OP

cos α +

than 90º.

+ to n terms =

F βI

sinG J

;

H 2K sin

3 −1

2 2

5 −1

4

1

2

2− 2 10 − 2 5

4

β ≠ 2nπ

3 +1 10 + 2 5 1 5 +1

cos 2+ 2

2 2 4 2 4

Series

25 − 10 5

tan 2–1

FπI

Ex.21 Prove that cos GH JK + cos GH JK + cos GH JK

F 3π I F 5π I 2− 3

5

5−2 5

14 14 14

π = 57º 17/ 45//

(6) Conversion 1 radian = 180º/π

F π IJ (approximately)

3GHπ14

1

F 3=π I2 cot

2 cosG J sinG J K

F I π

S=

H 14 K H 14 K and 1º =

180

= 0.01475 radians (approximately)

Here

2π

and n = 3. (7) Basic right angled triangle are (pythogerian

Triplets)

L π F 3 − 1IJ FG 2π IJ OP sinFG 2π × 3 IJ

cos M + G

3, 4, 5 ; 5, 12, 13; 7, 24, 25; 8, 15, 17;

29 etc.

11, 60, 61; 12, 35, 37; 20, 21,

F 2π × 1JI

sinG

H 14 2 K (8) Each interior angle of a regular polygon of n

sides

n−2

= × 180 degrees

n

FG 6π IJ 1

sin −

π πFG IJ

S=

H 14 K

sin

2 2 14H K

F πI

2 sinG J

=

π FG IJ

H 14 K sin

14 H K

1

S = cotG J

F πI

2 H 14 K

Corporate Office: CP Tower, Road No.1, IPIA, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-2434159 TRIGONO. RATIO 17

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