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TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS

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TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS

Preface

IIT-JEE Syllabus : Trigonometrical Ratios


Trigonometrical ratios of compound angles, Trigonometric ratios of multiple angles, sub
multiple angles, conditional identities, greatest and the least value of the expression.

Trigonometry is the corner stone of the whole mathematics of which trigonometric ratio plays an
important role. It is observed that there is a clear lack of problem solving aptitude which was an
absolute prerequisite for an examination like IIT-JEE.

It is motivated us to compile the concepts, fundamentals to fulfill this vaccume but would be helpful to
elevate the ordinary students to become extra ordinary. Before studying trigonometric ratio students
are advised to clear the basic concept of trigonometry.

This material is exclusively designed by the CAREER POINT'S core members so that CPians need
not refer to any other book or study material.

"Future belongs to those who are willing to work for it"

Total number of Questions in Trigonometrical Ratios are :


In chapter Examples ................................. 21

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1. DEFINITION
Trigonometry is the branch of science in which
we study about the angles and sides of a triangle.
1.1 ANGLE :
→
Consider a ray OA . If this ray rotates about its
end points O and takes the position OB, then
the angle ∠AOB has been generated.

The lines XOX′ and YOY′ are known as x-axis


and y-axis respectively. These two lines taken
together are known as the coordinate axes. The
regions XOY, YOX ′, X′OY′ and Y′OX are known
An angle is considered as the figure obtained by as the first, the second, the third and the fourth
rotating a given ray about its end-point. quadrant respectively.
The initial position OA is called the initial side 1.3.2 Angle In Standard Position : An angle is
and the final position OB is called terminal side said to be in standard position if its vertex
of the angle. The end point O about which the coincides with the origin O and the initial side
ray rotates is called the vertex of the angle. coincides with OX i.e. the positive direction of
1.2 Sense of an Angle : x-axis.
The sence of an angle is said to be positive or 1.3.3 Co–terminal Angles : Two angles with different
negative according as the initial side rotates in measures but having the same initial sides and
anticlockwise or clockwise direction to get to the the same terminal sides are known as co-terminal
terminal side. angles.

2. SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT OF ANGLE

1.3 Some Useful terms : There are three system for measuring angles.
1.3.1 Quadrant : 2.1 Sexagesimal or English system
Let XOX′ and YOY′ be two lines at right angles 2.2 Centesimal or French system
in the plane of the paper. These lines divide the 2.3 Circular system
plane of the paper into four equal parts which are 2.1 Sexagesimal system :
known as quadrants.
The principal unit in this system is degree ( º ).
One right angle is divided into 90 equal parts and

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each part is called one degree (1º ). One degree ′ ′
 1  61 
is divided into 60 equal parts and each part is Total minute 30 ′ +   =  
called one minute. Minute is denoted by (1′ ). 2  2
100′ is equal to 1 g
One minute is equally divided into 60 equal parts
and each part is called one second (1′′ ). FG 1 IJ g

In Mathematical form : 1′ is equal to


H 100 K
One right angle = 90º
1º = 60′  61 

is equal to G
F 1 × 61IJ g

1′ = 60′′
 
 2 H 100 2 K =

g
Sexagesimal system Total grade ⇒ 50 +

45º 15′′ 30′′ changes into degree


Ex.1
60′′ is equal to 1′
FG 10000 + 61IJ g
FG 10061IJ g
Sol.


H 200 K ⇒
H 200 K
 1 
1′′ is equal to   2.2.1 Relation between sexagesimal and
 60  centesimal systems :
′ ′
 1   1 One right angle = 90º (degree system) ......... (1)
30′′ is equal to  × 30  =  
 60  2 One right angle = 100g (grade system) ....... (2)
′ ′ by (1) and (2),
 1  31 
Total minutes ⇒ 15 ′ +   =  
2  2
90º = 100g
FG 1 IJ º
D G
60′ is equal to 1º and 1′ is equal to
H 60 K or, =
90 100
 31 

FG 1 × 31IJ º
FG 31 IJ º
then we can say,
FG 5431
61 I
  is equal to
 2 H 60 2 K =
H 120 K FG 100 IJ g
61
31
5400
H 120
200
1201K
Total degrees ⇒ 45º +
1º =
H 90 K 200

FG 9 IJ º

⇒ ⇒
1g =
H 10 K
Examples Relation between sexagesimal and
2.2 Centesimal system : based on centesimal systems
The principal unit in system is grade and is
denoted by ( g ). One right angle is divided into Ex.3 63º 14′ 51′′ change into grade system.
100 equal parts, called grades, and each grade Sol. We know that in degree system
is subdivided into 100 minutes, and each minutes
60′′ equal to 1′
into 100 seconds.

In Mathematical Form :  51 
51′′ is equals =   = (0.85)′
One right angle = 100g  60 
1g = 100′ (14.85)′ change into degree.
1′ = 100′′ FG 14.85 IJ º
(14.85)′ is equals =
H 60 K
Centesimal system = (0.2475)º
So 63º 14′ 51′′ = 63.2475º
63.2475º change into grade system.
Ex.2 50g 30′ 50′′ change into grade system.
FG 63.2475 × 10 IJ g

Sol.
 1
We know that , 50 ′ ⇒  
′ 63.2475º is equals =
H 9K
2 = 70.2750g
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70.2750g = 70g 27′ 50′′
Examples Relation between systems of
finally we can say, based on measurement of angles
63º 14′ 57′ = 70g 27′ 50′′
2.3 Circular system : FG 2π IJ C

One radian, written as 1C, is the measure of an


Ex.4
H 15 K change into degree system.
angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an Sol. We know that, π radian = 180º
arc of length equal to the radius of the circle.
FG 180 IJ º
Consider a circle of radius r having centre at O.
Let A be a point on the circle. Now cut off an arc
1C =
HπK
AB whose length is equal to the radius r of the C °
 2π   2π 180 
circle. Then by the definition the measure of   = ×  = 24º
 15   15 π 
∠AOB is 1 radian (1C).
Ex.5 Find the length of an arc of a circle of radius
5 cm subtending a central angle measuring
15º.
Sol. Let s be the length of the arc subtending an
angle θ at the centre of a circle of radius r.
s
then , θ =
r
2.3.1 Some Important Conversion : FG15 × π IJ C

π Radian = 180º
Here, r = 5 cm, and θ = 15º =
H 180 K
FG 180 IJ º
FG π IJ C

One radian =
HπK θ=
H 12 K
s π s
π Radian = 30º θ= ⇒ =
r 12 5
6 π 5π
Radian = 45º
4 s = cm.
12
π
Radian = 60º
3 3.TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OR FUNCTIONS
π
Radian = 90º
2 In the right angled triangle OMP , we have base
2π (OM) = x, perpendicular (PM) = y and hypotenuse
Radian = 120º
3 (OP) = r, then we define the following trigonometric
3π ratios which are known as trigonometric function.
Radian = 135º
4 P y
sinθ= =
5π H r
Radian = 150º
6 B x P
cosθ = =
7π H r
Radian = 210º P y
6 tanθ = =
5π B x r
Radian = 225º y
4 B x
cotθ = =
5π P y
Radian = 300º θ
3 H r
secθ = = O x M
2.3.2 Relation between systems of measurement B x
of angles : H r
cosecθ = =
P y
D G 2C
= =
90 100 π
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Note : (sec θ + tan θ)(tan θ − sec θ + 1)
=
(1) It should be noted that sinθ does not mean the tan θ − sec θ + 1
product of sin and θ. The sinθ is correctly read
sin of angle θ. 1 sin θ 1+ sin θ
= secθ + tanθ = + =
(2) These functions depend only on the value of the cos θ cos θ cos θ
angle θ and not on the position of the point P = RHS
chosen on the terminal side of the angle θ.
3.2 Signs of the trigonometrical ratios or functions:
3.1 Fundamental Trigonometrical Identities :
Their signs depends on the quadrant in which
1 the terminal side of the angle lies.
(a) sinθ =
cos ecθ
y
1 In First quadrant : x > 0 , y > 0 ⇒ sinθ = > 0,
(b) cosθ = r
sec θ
x y r
1 cos θ cosθ = > 0, tanθ = > 0, cosecθ = > 0,
(c) cotθ = = r x y
tan θ sin θ
(d) 1 + tan2θ = sec2θ r x
secθ = > 0 and cotθ = > 0
or, sec2θ – tan2θ = 1 x y
1 Thus, in the first quadrant all trigonometry
(secθ – tanθ)= functions are positive.
(sec θ + tan θ)
(e) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 In Second quadrant : x < 0 , y > 0 ⇒ sinθ
(f) 1 + cot2θ = cosec2θ y x y
= > 0, cosθ = < 0, tanθ = < 0, cosecθ =
1 r r x
(cosecθ –cotθ) =
cos ecθ + cot θ r r x
> 0, secθ = < 0 and cotθ = < 0
y x y
Trigonometrical ratios or functions Thus, in the second quadrant sin and cosec
function are positive and all others are negative. (sec θ
Q
Ex.6 Prove that, sin8θ – cos 8θ = (sin2θ – cos 2θ)
y
(1 – 2sin2θ cos2θ ) In Third quadrant : x < 0 , y < 0 ⇒ sinθ = < 0,
r
Sol. L.H.S,(sin8θ – cos8θ ) r
x y
or, (sin4θ)2 – (cos4θ)2 cosθ = < 0, tanθ = > 0, cosecθ =
y
< 0,
r x
or, (sin2 θ – cos 2θ)(sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ)[(sin 4θ + x
r
cos4θ)] secθ = < 0 and cotθ = > 0
x y
or, (sin2θ – cos2θ) [(sin2θ + cos2θ) – 2 sin2θ
Thus, in the third quadrant all trigonometric
cos2θ]
functions are negative except tangent and
or, (sin2θ – cos2θ) [(1 – 2sin2θ cos2θ)] =
RHS cotangent.

tan θ + sec θ − 1 1 + sin θ In Fourth quadrant : x > 0 , y < 0 ⇒ sinθ =


Ex.7 Prove the identity =
tan θ − sec θ + 1 cos θ y x y
< 0, cosθ = > 0, tanθ = < 0, cosecθ =
r r x
tan θ + sec θ − 1 r r x
Sol. L.H.S = < 0, secθ = > 0 and cotθ = < 0
tan θ − sec θ + 1 y x y
Thus, in the fourth quadrant all trigonometric
(tan θ + sec θ) − (sec 2 θ − tan 2 θ) functions are negative except cos and sec.
=
tan θ − sec θ + 1 To be Remember :
[ sec2θ – tan2 θ = 1]

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II – Quadrant
sinθ → decreases from 1 to 0
cosθ → decreases from 0 to –1
tanθ → increases from – ∞ to 0
cotθ → decreases from 0 to – ∞
secθ → increases from –∞ to –1
cosecθ → increases from 1 to ∞

III – Quadrant
sinθ → decreases from 0 to –1
cosθ → increases from –1 to 0
A crude aid to memorise the signs of tanθ → increases from 0 to ∞
trigonometrical ratio in different quadrant. cotθ → decreases from ∞ to 0
“ All Students to Career Point ” secθ → decreases from –1 to –∞
3.3 Variations in values of Trigonometrical cosecθ → increases from –∞ to –1
Functions in Different Quadrants :
IV – Quadrant
sinθ → increases from –1 to 0
cosθ → increases from 0 to 1
tanθ → increases from –∞ to 0
cotθ → decreases from 0 to –∞
secθ → decreases from ∞ to 1
cosecθ → decreases from –1 to – ∞
Remark:
+ ∞ and – ∞ are two symbols. These are not real
number. When we say that tan θ increases from
π
Let XOX′ and YOY′ be the coordinate axes. Draw 0 to ∞ for as θ varies from 0 to it means that
2
a circle with centre at origin O and radius unity. πFG IJ
Let M (x, y) be a point on the circle such that
tan θ increases in the interval 0,
2 H K
and it attains

∠AOM = θ π
large positive values as θ tends to . Similarly
then x = cosθ and y = sinθ 2
for other trigo. functions.
– 1 ≤ cosθ ≤ 1 and –1≤ sinθ ≤ 1 for all values of θ.
Examples Signs of the trigonometrical ratios
based on or functions
I – Quadrant
sinθ → increases from 0 to 1 3π
Ex.8 If secθ = 2 , and < θ < 2π. Find the
cosθ → decreases from 1 to 0 2
1 + tan θ + cos ecθ
tanθ → increases from 0 to ∞ value of
1 + cot θ − cos ecθ
cotθ → decreases from ∞ to 0
Sol. If secθ = 2
secθ → increases from 1 to ∞
1
cosecθ → decreases from ∞ to 1 or, cosθ = ,sinθ = ± 1 − cos 2 θ
2
1 1
= ± 1− = ±
2 2
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But θ lies in the fourth quadrant in which sinθ is
negative.

1
sinθ = − , cosec θ = − 2
2

sin θ 1 2
tanθ = ⇒ tanθ = − ×
cos θ 2 1
⇒ tanθ = –1
⇒ cotθ = –1
1 + tan θ + cos ecθ 1− 1− 2
then, = ⇒ –1
1 + cot θ − cos ecθ 1− 1+ 2
cosecθ =
4. GRAPHS OF DIFFERENT TRIGONOMETRICAL
RATIOS

4.1 Domain and Range of Trigonometrical


Function

Trig.
Domain Range
Function

sin θ R [-1, 1]

cos θ R [-1, 1]

tan θ R - {(2n+1) π/2, n ∈ z} (−∞, ∞) or R

cosec θ R - {nπ, n ∈ z} (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞)

R - {(2n + 1) π/2, n ∈
sec θ (-∞, -1] ∪ [1, ∞)
z}

cot θ R - {nπ, n ∈ z} (−∞, ∞) = R

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5. TR IGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF ALLIED Sol.(a) cos (–45º) = cos45º [ Q cos(–θ) = cosθ]
ANGLES
Two angles are said to be allied when their sum = Ans.
or difference is either zero or a multiple of 90º. (b) sin(–30º) = – sin 30º [ Q sin(–θ) = – sinθ]
θ) :
5.1 Trigonometrical Ratios of (–θ
Let a revolving ray starting from its initial position = Ans.
OX, trace out an angle (c) cot(–60º) = – cot 60º [ Q cot(–θ) = – cotθ]
∠ XOA = θ. Let P(x, y) be a point on OA such
that OP = r. Draw PM ⊥ from P on x-axis. angle = Ans.
∠ XOA/ = –θ in the clockwise sense. Let P/ be
a point on OA/ such that OP/ = OP. Clearly M 5.2 Trigonometrical Functions of (90 – θ) :
and M/ coincide and ∆OMP is congruent to
Let the revolving line, starting from OA, trace out
∆OMP/. then P/ are (x, –y)
any acute angle AOP, equal to θ. From any point
P on it draw PM ⊥ to OA. Three angles of a
triangle are together equal to two right angles,
and since OMP is a right angle, the sum of the
two angles MOP and OPM is right angle.

111

23
−y −y
sin(–θ) = ⇒ = − sin θ
r r
x ∠ OPM = 90º – θ.
cos(–θ) = = cos θ
r [When the angle OPM is consider, the line PM
−y is the ´base´ and MO is the ´perpendicular´ ]
tan(–θ) = = − tanθ
x MO
Taking the reciprocal of these trigonometric ratios, sin (90º – θ) = sin MPO = = cos AOP = cosθ
PO
cosec (–θ)= –cosecθ
PM
sec(–θ)= secθand cot(–θ) = – cotθ cos (90º – θ) = cos MPO = = sin AOP = sinθ
PO
Note : A function f(x) is said to be even function if MO
tan (90º – θ) = tan MPO = = cot AOP = cotθ
f(–x) = f(x) for all x in its domain. PM
A function f(x) is an odd function if f(–x) = –f(x) PM
cot (90º – θ) = cot MPO = = tan AOP = tanθ
for all x in its domain. MO
sinθ, tanθ, cotθ, cosecθ all odd functions and PO
cosθ, secθ are even functions. cosec (90º – θ) = cosec MPO = = sec AOP
MO
= secθ
Allied angles PO
and sec (90º – θ) = sec MPO = = cosec
PM
Ex.9 Find the value of the following trigonometric AOP = cosecθ
ratios -
(a) cos (–45º) (b) sin (–30º)
(c) cot (–60º)

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Trigo. ratio (– θ) 90 – θ 90 + θ 180 – θ 180 + θ 270 – θ 270 + θ 360 – θ

FG π − θIJ FG π + θIJ FG 3π − θIJ FG 3π IJ


or H2 K or H2 K or (π - θ) or (π + θ) or H2 K or 2 + θ
H K or (2π - θ)

sin θ –sin θ cos θ cos θ sin θ – sin θ – cos θ – cos θ – sin θ


cos θ cos θ sin θ – sin θ – cos θ – cos θ – sin θ sin θ cos θ
tan θ – tan θ cot θ – cot θ – tan θ tan θ cot θ – cot θ – tan θ

5.3 Trigonometrical Functions of (90 + θ) : M′ P′ x


tan (90 + θ) = = – = – cotθ
OM′ y
Let a revolving ray OA starting from its initial
similarly,
position OX, trace out an angle
cot (90 + θ) = – tan θ
∠ XOA = θ and let another revolving ray OA′
sec(90 + θ) = – cosec θ
starting from the same initial position OX, first
trace out an angle θ so as to coincide with OA cosec (90 + θ) = sec θ
and then it revolves through an angle of 90º in [where – π/2< θ < π/2]
anticlockwise direction to form an angle
∠ XOA ′ = 90º + θ. 5.4 Periodic Function :
All the trigonometric functions are periodic
Let P and P ′ be points on OA and OA ′
functions. They will repeat after a certain period
respectively such that OP = OP′ = r.
Draw perpendicular PM and P′M′ from P and P′ sin (2nπ + θ ) = sinθ
respectively on OX. Let the coordinates of P be cos (2nπ + θ ) = cosθ where n ∈ I
(x, y). Then OM = x and PM = y clearly, tan (2nπ + θ ) = tanθ
OM/ = PM = y and P′M′ = OM = x
Trigonometric ratio of allied angles
Ex.10 Prove that , cos 510º cos330º + sin 390º cos 120º
= –1
Sol. LHS = cos 510º cos 330º+ sin 390º cos 120º
= cos (360º + 150º) cos (360º – 30º) +
sin(360º + 30º) cos(90º + 30º)
= cos 150º cos 30º – sin 30º(–sin 30º)
3 1
= cos (180º – 30º) +
4 4

so the coordinates of P′ are (–y, x) F 3I


= – cos 30º GH 2 JK –
1
4
M′ P′ x
sin (90 + θ) = = = cosθ 3 1
OP′ r = – – = – 1 = R.H.S
4 4
OM′ − y
cos (90 + θ) = = = – sinθ
OP′ r

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6. SUM OR DIFFERENCE OF THE ANGLE (d) cos (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C – cos A.
sin B sin C – sin A cos B sin C – sin A
The algebraic sums of two or more angles are sinB cosC
generally called compound angles and the angles
(e) tan (A + B + C)
are known as the constituent angles.
For example : If A, B, C are three angles then tan A + tan B + tan C − tan A tan B tan C
=
A ± B, A + B + C, A – B + C etc. are compound 1 − tan A tan B − tan B tan C − tan C tan A
angles.
6.1 (a) sin (A + B) =sin A cos B + cos A sin B (Note : * Important)

Sum or difference of the angle

3 9 π
Ex.11 If sin A = and cos B = ,0<A< .
5 41 2
π
0<B< , find the values of the following -
2
(b) sin(A – B) = sinA cosB – cosA sinB (a) sin (A + B)
(b) cos (A – B)
Sol. (a) sin (A + B) ⇒ sin A cos B + cos A sin
B
3
sin A =
5
4
4 cos A =
5
(c) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B
5
(d) cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

tan A + tan B
(e) tan (A + B) =
1 − tan A tan B

tan A − tan B 9
(f) tan (A – B) = and cos B =
1 + tan A tan B 41

cot A cot B − 1 40
(g) cot (A + B) = sin B =
cot B + cot A 41
cot A cot B + 1
(h) cot (A – B) =
cot B − cot A
6.2 Some More Results :

*(a) sin (A + B).sin (A – B) = sin2 A – sin2 B


= cos2 B – cos2 A 3 9 4 40 187
sin (A + B)= × + × =
5 41 5 41 205
*(b) cos (A + B).cos (A – B) = cos2 A – sin2 B
= cos2 B – sin2 A (b) cos (A – B)= cosA cos B + sin A sin B
(c) sin (A + B + C) = sin A cos B cos C + cos A 9 3 40 156
sin B sin C + cos A cos B sin C – sin A = × + × =
41 5 41 205
sin B sin C

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7. FORMULA TO TRANSFORM THE PRODUCT 8. FORMULA TO TRANSFORM THE SUM OR
INTO SUM OR DIFFERENCE DIFFERENCE INTO PRODUCT

We know that, We know that,


sin A cos B + cos A sin B = sin (A + B) .......(i) sin (A + B) + sin(A – B) = 2 sin A cos B ......(i)
Let A+ B = C and A – B = D
sin A cos B – cos A sin B = sin (A – B) ......(ii)
cos A cos B – sin A sin B = cos (A + B) .....(iii) C +D C −D
then A = and B =
2 2
cos A cos B + sin A sin B = cos (A – B) .....(iv)
Substituting in (i),
Adding (i) and (ii),
2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) FG C + D IJ .cos FG C − D IJ
Subtracting (ii) from (i),
(a) sin C+ sin D = 2 sin H 2 K H 2 K
2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) – sin (A – B) similarly other formula,
Adding (iii) and (iv), FG C + D IJ .sin FG C − D IJ
2 cosA cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B) (b) sin C – sin D = 2 cosH 2 K H 2 K
Subtraction (iii) from (iv).
F C + D IJ .cos FG C − D IJ
(c) cos C + cos D = 2 cos GH
2 K H 2 K
2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B)
Formula :
(a) 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A – B)
(d) cos C – cos D = 2 sin G
F C + D IJ .sin FG D − C IJ
(b) 2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) – sin (A – B) ) H 2 K H 2 K
(c) 2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A – B)
(d) 2 sin A sin B = cos (A – B) – cos (A + B) Examples To Transform the sum of difference
based on into product
Examples To transform the product into sum
based on or difference Ex.13 Prove that, (cos α + cos β)2 + (sin α + sin β)2
α −β FG IJ
Ex.12 Prove that, cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) + = 4cos2
2 H K
1
cos(45º + A).cos(45º – A) = cos2A + Sol. L.H.S,
4
(cos α + cos β)2 + (sin α + sin β)2
Sol. L.H.S. = cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) +
2
cos(45º + A).cos(45º – A)  α + β  α – β 
2 cos  cos   +
  2   2 
1
= [2 cos(30º – A).cos(30º + A) + 2
2  α + β  α – β 
2 sin  cos  
2 cos (45º + A).cos(45º – A)]   2   2 
α+β FG α−βIJ FG IJ
=
1
2
cos 60º + cos 2A + cos 90º + cos 2A = 4cos2 2 H.cos2
2 K H K +
FG
α+β IJα−β FG IJ
=
1
[ 2cos2A +
1
]
4sin2 H2 .cos 2 K 2 H K
2 2
= 4 cos2
1
= cos 2A +
4
= R.H.S. FG α − β IJ . LMcos FG α + β IJ + sin FG α + β IJ OP
2 2
H 2 K N H 2 K H 2 KQ
= 4cos GH
F α − β IJ
2 K
2

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9. TRIGONOMETRICAL RATIOS OF MULTIPLE
Sol. L.H.S., = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 cos 8θ
ANGLES

Trigonometric ratios of an angle 2A in terms


LM1 + cos 8θ = 2 cos FG 8θ IJ OP
2
of an angle A : N H 2 KQ
2 tan A
(a) sin 2A= 2sin A cos A =
1 + tan 2 A = 2 + 2 + 2( 2 cos 2 4θ)
(b) cos 2A= cos2 A – sin2 A = 2 cos2 A – 1
= 2 + 2 + 2 cos 4θ = 2 + 2(1 + cos 4θ)
= 1– 2 sin2 A =
= 2 + 2(2 cos 2 2θ) = 2 + 2 cos 2θ
2 tan A
(c) tan 2A =
1 − tan 2 A = 2(1 + cos 2θ) = 2(2 cos 2 θ)
(d) sin 3A = 3 sinA – 4 sin3A = 2cosθ = R.H.S
(e) cos 3A = 4 cos3A – 3 cosA 10. CONDITIONAL TRIGONOMETRICAL
IDENTITIES
(f) tan 3A =
We have certain trigonometric identities
like, sin2θ + cos2θ = 1
1 − cos 2A and 1 + tan2θ = sec2θ etc.
(g) tan2 A = 1 + cos 2 A
Such identities are identities in the sense that
they hold for all value of the angles which satisfy
1 − cos 2 A the given condition among them and they are
(h) tan A =
sin 2A called conditional identities.
If A, B, C denote the angle of a triangle ABC,
(i) 1 + sin 2A = |sin A + cos A| then the relation A + B + C = π enables us to
2 establish many important identities involving
3−tan
1 tan −Atan13 −Asin 2A = |sin A – cos A|
A (j)
2 trigonometric ratios of these angles.
1 +1tan A2A
− 3 tan
Examples Trigonometrical Ratios of Multiple (I) If A + B + C = π, then A + B = π – C,
based on angles B + C = π – A and C + A = π – B

1 + sin θ − cos θ θ FG IJ (II) If A + B + C = π, then sin(A + B) = sin(π – C)


Ex.14 Prove that ,
1 + sin θ + cos θ
= tan
2 H K = sinC
similarly, sin (B + C) = sin(π – A) = sin A
1 + sin θ − cos θ (1 − cos θ) + sin θ
Sol. L.H.S = = and sin ( C + A ) = sin (π – B) = sin B
1 + sin θ + cos θ (1 + cos θ) + sin θ
(III) If A + B + C = π, then cos(A + B) = cos(π – C)
FG θ IJ + 2 sinFG θ IJ cosFG θ IJ
2 sin 2 = – cos C
H 2K H 2K H 2K similarly, cos (B + C) = cos(π – A) = – cos A
=
F θI F θI F θI
2 cos G J + 2 sinG J cosG J
2 and cos (C + A ) = cos (π – B) = – cos B
H 2K H 2K H 2K
 θ  θ θ (IV) If A + B + C = π, then tan(A + B) = tan(π – C)
2 sin  sin + cos  = – tan C
2
  2 2  FG θ IJ
=  θ  θ θ  = tan
2 cos  sin + cos  H 2K similarly, tan (B + C) = tan(π – A) = – tan A
and, tan (C + A ) = tan (π – B) = – tan B
 2  2 2
= R.H.S A +B π C
(V) If A + B + C = π, then = − and
2 2 2
Ex.15 Show that, B+C π A C+A π B
2 + 2 + 2 + 2 cos 8θ = 2 cos θ = − and = −
2 2 2 2 2 2
 π π
where θ ∈ − , 
FGA +B IJ π C
= sin −
FG = cos
CIJ FG IJ
 16 16 
sin
H 2 K 2 2 H 2 K H K
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FG A + B IJ = cosFG π − C IJ = sinFG C IJ FG C IJ .cosFG A − B IJ − 2 sin FG C IJ + 1
cos
H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K = 2 sin H 2 K H 2 2K
2
H 2K
F A + B IJ = tanFG π − C IJ = cotFG C IJ
tanG F CI L F A BI F CI O
H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K = 2 sinGH 2 JK McosGH 2 − 2 JK − sinGH 2 JK P + 1
N Q
All problems on conditional identities are
broadly divided into the following four types : F CI L F A BI F π A + BI O
= 2 sinGH 2 JK McosGH 2 − 2 JK − sinGH 2 − 2 JK P + 1
(I) Identities involving sines and cosines of the N Q
multiple or sub-multiples of the angles involved. F CI L F A BI F A BI O
= 2 sinGH 2 JK McosGH 2 − 2 JK − cosGH 2 + 2 JK P + 1
(II) Identities involving squares of sines and
cosines of the multiple or sub-multiples of the
N Q
angles involved. F CI L F A I F BI O
= 2 sinGH 2 JK M2 sinGH 2 JK .sinGH 2 JK P + 1
(III) Identities involving tangents and cotangents N Q
of the multiples or sub-multiples of the angles
involved.
F A I F BI F CI
= 1 + 4 sinGH JK .sinGH JK .sinGH JK = R.H.S.
2 2 2
(IV) Identities involving cubes and higher powers Ex.17 If A + B + C =π, Prove that
of sines and cosines and some mixed identities.
FG A IJ + sinFG B IJ + sinFG C IJ
10.1 TYPE I : Identities involving sines and
cosines of the multiple or sub-multiple of the
sin
H 2 K H 2K H 2 K
angles involved.
= 1 + 4 sinGH
F π − A IJ.sinFG π − B IJ.sinFG π − C IJ
4 K H 4 K H 4 K
Working Methods :
= 1 + 4 sinGH
F B + C IJ.sinFG C + A IJ.sinFG A + B IJ
4 K H 4 K H 4 K
Step – 1 Express of the sum of first two terms
as product by using C & D formulae.
Step – 2 In the product obtained in step II F A I F BI F CI
L.H.S.= sinG J + sinG J + sinG J
replace the sum of two angles in terms of the
Sol.
H 2 K H 2K H 2 K
third by using the given relation.
= 2 sinG
F A + B IJ .cosFG A − B IJ + cosFG π − C IJ
Step – 3 Expand the third term by using formulae
(Double angle change into single angle or change
H 4 K H 4 K H2 2K
into half angle). = 2 sinG
F π − C IJ.cosFG A − B IJ + 1 − 2 sin FG π − C IJ
2

Step – 4 Taking common factor.


H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K
Step – 5 Express the trigonometric ratio of the
= 2 sinG
F π − C IJ LMcosFG A − B IJ − sinFG π − C IJ OP + 1
single angle in terms of the remaining angles. H 4 KN H 4 K H 4 KQ
Step – 6 Use the one of the formulae given in
the step I to convert the sum into product. = 2 sinG
F π − C IJ LMcosFG A − B IJ − cosRS π − FG π − C IJ UVOP + 1
H 4 K MN H 4 K T 2 H 4 K WPQ
Examples Conditional trigonometrical
= 2 sinG
F π − C IJ. LMcosFG A − B IJ − cosFG π + C IJ OP + 1
based on identities type I H 4 K N H 4 K H 4 KQ
π – C
Ex.16 If A + B + C = π, prove that , cosA + cosB = 2 sin  
 4 
A B FG IJ C FG IJ FG IJ
+ cosC =1 + 4 sin
2
.sin
2 H K
.sin
2 H K H K   A – B + π + C
2 sin 
8
 π + C – A + B 
 sin 
8
 + 1
    
Sol. L.H.S.= cosA+ cosB+cosC
FG A + B IJ.cosFG A − B IJ + cos C π – C
= 2 sin  
= 2 cos H 2 K H 2 K  4 
  π + C – A + B 
F π CI F A BI
2 cosG − J .cosG − J + cos C
A + C + π – B
2 sin   sin   + 1
= H 2 2 K H 2 2K   8   8 

F CI F A BI
2 sinG J .cosG − J + 1 − 2 sin G J
F CI
2
π – C
= 2 sin  
= H 2 K H 2 2K H 2K  4 
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 π + B + π – B  π – A + π – A  [ Q cos 2A = 2cos2A – 1]
2 sin   sin   + 1
  8   8 
= [(1 + cos 2A) + (1 + cos 2B) + (1 + cos 2C)]
F π − C IJ LM2 sinFG π − B IJ.sinFG π − A IJ OP + 1
= 2 sinG
H 4 K N H 4 K H 4 KQ =
1
[3 + cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C]
F π − A IJ .sinFG π − B IJ.sinFG π − A IJ
= 1 + 4 sinG
2
H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K =
3
+
1
[ cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C]
F B + C IJ.sinFG C + A IJ.sinFG A + B IJ
= 1 + 4 sinG
2 2
H 4 K H 4 K H 4 K 3 1
= R.H.S = + [2 cos(A + B).cos(A – B) + 2cos2 C – 1]
2 2
10.2 TYPE II :Identities involving squares of 3 1
sines and cosines of multiple or sub-multiples = + [ –2 cosC cos(A – B) + 2cos2 C – 1]
2 2
of the angles involved.
Working step : 3 1 1
= – + [–2cosC {cos (A – B) – cos C}]
(I) Arrange the terms on the L.H.S of the identity 2 2 2
so that either sin2A – sin2B = sin(A+B). = 1 – cosC[cos (A – B) – cosC]
sin(A – B) = 1 – cos C [cos (A – B) + cos (A + B)]
or cos2A – sin2B = cos(A+B).cos(A – B) can [cosC = – cos(A + B)]
be used. = 1 – cosC[2 cosA . cosB]
(II) Take the common factor outside. = 1 – 2 cosA . cosB cosC
(III) Express the trigonometric ratio of a single 10.3 Type III :Identities for tan and cot of the
angle inside the bracket into that of the sum angles
of the angles.
Working step :
(IV) Use the formulaes to convert the sum into
(I) Express the sum of the two angles in terms
Q product.
1 of third angle by using the given relation.
2 (II) Taking tan from both the sides.
Examples Conditional trigonometrical
(III) Expand the L.H.S in step II by using the
based on identities type II
formula for the tangent of the compound
Ex.18 If A + B + C = π angles.
Prove that, cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C = (IV) Use cross multiplication in the expression
1 – 2 cosA cosB cosC obtained in the step III.
Sol. I Method (V) Arrange the terms as per the requirement in
L.H.S. cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C the sum.
= cos2 A + (1 – sin2 B) + cos2 C
= (cos2 A – sin2 B) + cos2 C + 1 Examples Conditional trigonometrical
[ Q A + B = π – C, cos(A + B) = – cosC]
based on identities type III
= cos (A + B).cos( A - B) + cos2 C + 1 Ex.19 If x + y + z = xyz
= – cos C. cos(A – B) + cos2 C + 1 Prove that,
= – cos C [cos (A - B) – cos C] + 1
2x 2y 2z 8 xyz
= – cos C [cos (A – B) + cos (A + B)] + 1 2
+ 2
+ 2
=
[ cos C = –cos (A + B)] 1− x 1− y 1− z (1 − x )(1 − y 2 )(1 − z2 )
2

= – cos C [ 2 cosA cosB) + 1 Sol. Let x = tanA , y = tanB, z = tanC


= 1 – 2 cosA cosB cosC = R.H.S. then x + y + z = xyz
II Method tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA.tanB.tanC
cos2 A + cos2 B + cos2 C ⇒ tanA + tanB + tanC – tanA tanB tanC = 0
Dividing by [1 – tanA tanB – tanB tanC –
= [2 cos2 A + 2 cos2 B + 2 cos2 C] tanC tanA] both the sides

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tan A + tan B + tan C − tan A tan B tan C Examples To find the greatest and least value
⇒ =0
1 − tan A tan B − tan B tan C − tan C tan A based on of the expression
⇒ tan(A + B + C) = 0
⇒ A + B + C = nπ [n ∈ z] Ex.20 Prove that 5 cosθ+ 3 cos θ +
FG π IJ
Now,A + B + C = nπ
H 3 K + 3. lies
between – 4 and 10.
2A + 2B + 2C = 2nπ Sol. The given expression is,
⇒ tan(2A + 2B + 2C) = tan 2nπ
5 cosθ+ 3 cos θ +
FG π IJ

tan 2A + tan 2B + tan 2C − tan 2A tan 2B tan 2C
=0
H 3 K + 3
1 − tan 2A tan 2B − tan 2B tan 2C − tan 2C tan 2A ⇒ 5 cosθ + 3[cosθ cos 60º – sinθ sin 60º] + 3
⇒ tan2A + tan2B + tan2C – tan2A tan2B 1 3
tan2C = 0 ⇒ 5 cosθ + 3 [ cosθ – sinθ] + 3
2 2
⇒ tan2A + tan2B + tan2C – tan2A tan2B
tan2C 1
⇒ [13 cos θ – 3 3 sin θ] + 3
2
2 tan A 2 tan B 2 tan C
⇒ + +
1– tan A 2
1– tan B 2
1– tan 2 C Put 13 = r cosα, 3 3 = r sinα

r = 169 + 27 = 14
2 tan A 2 tan B 2 tan C
= · ·
1– tan 2 A 1– tan 2 B 1– tan 2 C 1
⇒ [r cos(θ + α)] + 3
2
2x 2y 2z 14
⇒ + + ⇒ [cos(θ + α)] + 3
2 2
1– x 1– y 1– z 2 2
⇒ 7 cos(θ + α) + 3
2x 2y 2z 8 xyz Hence maximum and minimum values of
= . . =
1– x 2
1– y 2
1– z 2
(1– x ) (1– y 2 ) (1– z 2 )
2 expression are (7+ 3) and (–7 +3)
i.e., 10 and – 4 respectively.
11. TO FIND THE GREATEST AND LEAST VALUE
θ + b cosθ
OF THE EXPRESSION [a sinθ θ]
12. MISCELLANEOUS POINTS
Let a = r cosα ...........(1)
and b = r sin α ...........(2) (1) Some useful Identities :
Squaring and adding (1) and (2)
then a2 + b2 = r2
∑ tan A − tan A tanB tan C
1 − ∑ tan A.tan B
(a) tan (A + B + C) =
2 2
or, r = a + b
(b) cotθ – tanθ = 2 cot 2θ
∴ a sinθ + b cosθ
1
= r (sinθ cosα + cosθ sinα) (c) sin 3θ = sinθ.sin(60 – θ).sin(60 + θ)
4
= r sin(θ + α)
But –1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1 1
(d) cos 3θ = cosθ.cos(60 – θ).cos(60 + θ)
so –1 ≤ sin(θ + α) ≤ 1 4
then –r ≤ r sin(θ + α) ≤ r (e) tan 3θ = tanθ.tan(60 – θ).tan (60 + θ)
hence, (f) tan(A + B) – tanA – tanB = tanA.tanB.tan(A + B)

− a2 + b2 ≤ a sinθ + b cosθ ≤ a2 + b2 (2) Some useful result :


then the greatest and least values of a sinθ + b cosθ
(a) ver sinθ = 1– cosθ
are respectively a2 + b2 and − a2 + b2 (b) cover sinθ = 1 – sinθ

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(3) Some useful series : (4) An Increasing Product series :
(a) sin α + sin (α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + .... (a) p = cosα. cos 2α . cos 22α ... cos (2n–1 α)
+ to n terms
 sin 2n α
LM FG n − 1IJ βOPLMsinFG nβ IJ OP
sin α +
 n
 2 sin α
, if α ≠ nπ

N H 2 K QN H 2 K Q  1, if α = 2kπ
=
F βI
sinG J
; β ≠ 2nπ – 1, if α = (2k + 1) π

H 2K 

(b) cos α + cos (α + β) + cos (α + 2β) +.....


(5) sine, cosine and tangent of some angle less
LM FG n − 1IJ βOPLMsinFG nβ IJ OP
cos α +
than 90º.

N H 2 K QN H 2 K Q 15º 18º 22½º 36º


+ to n terms =
F βI
sinG J
;
H 2K sin
3 −1
2 2
5 −1
4
1
2
2− 2 10 − 2 5
4
β ≠ 2nπ
3 +1 10 + 2 5 1 5 +1
cos 2+ 2
2 2 4 2 4
Series
25 − 10 5
tan 2–1
FπI
Ex.21 Prove that cos GH JK + cos GH JK + cos GH JK
F 3π I F 5π I 2− 3
5
5−2 5

14 14 14
π = 57º 17/ 45//
(6) Conversion 1 radian = 180º/π
F π IJ (approximately)
3GHπ14
1
F 3=π I2 cot
2 cosG J sinG J K
F I π
S=
H 14 K H 14 K and 1º =
180
= 0.01475 radians (approximately)

Sol. 2 sin GHF 14π IJKα = 14π , β = 14


Here

and n = 3. (7) Basic right angled triangle are (pythogerian
Triplets)
L π F 3 − 1IJ FG 2π IJ OP sinFG 2π × 3 IJ
cos M + G
3, 4, 5 ; 5, 12, 13; 7, 24, 25; 8, 15, 17;

S= N14 H 2 K H 14 K Q H 14 2 K 9, 40, 41;


29 etc.
11, 60, 61; 12, 35, 37; 20, 21,

F 2π × 1JI
sinG
H 14 2 K (8) Each interior angle of a regular polygon of n
sides
n−2
= × 180 degrees
n

FG 6π IJ 1
sin −
π πFG IJ
S=
H 14 K
sin
2 2 14H K
F πI
2 sinG J
=
π FG IJ
H 14 K sin
14 H K
1
S = cotG J
F πI
2 H 14 K

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