Heat Gain from Electrical and Control

Equipment in Industrial Plants



ASHRAE Research Project 1104-TRP


PHASE I – PART A: CLASSIFICATION
PART B: TEST PLAN



Warren N. White, Ph.D.
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering
and
Anil Pahwa, Ph.D.
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering



Kansas State University


June 10, 2001

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 i
Table of Contents

Page

List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

List of Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x

Introduction and Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Heat Loss and Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Assessment Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Conclusions and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Phase I Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

The Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

First Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Equipment Heat Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Liquid Immersed Units . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Dry Type Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Ambient Temperature Influence . . . . . . . . . . 19

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 ii
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Second Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Cables and Cable Trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Equipment Heat Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Heat Loss in Cable Trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Adjustable Speed Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 iii
Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Battery Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 iv
Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Composite Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Motor Control Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 v
Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Low Voltage Circuit Breakers. . . . . . . . 59

Disconnect Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Motor Starters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Space Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Auxiliary Compartments. . . . . . . . . . . 61

Adjustable Speed Drives. . . . . . . . . . . 61

Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 vi
Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Medium Voltage and DC Breakers . . . . . 64

Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Control Power Transformers . . . . . . . . 64

Potential Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Current Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Auxiliary Compartments. . . . . . . . . . . 64

Space Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Panelboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Low Voltage Circuit Breakers. . . . . . . . 66

Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Unit Substation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 vii
Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Low Voltage Circuit Breakers. . . . . . . . 68

Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Auxiliary Compartments. . . . . . . . . . . 68

Space Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Unit Substation Transformers . . . . . . . . 69

Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Third Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Transfer Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 viii
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Summary of Phase II Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Uncertainty of Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Phase II Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Letter of Contact Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Equipment Donation from General Electric. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

E-Mail - Western Resources Concerning Med. Voltage Breakers . . . . . 83

E-Mail on Two Matched 15 kV ABB Med. Voltage Breakers - TVA . . . 84

E-Mail Regarding Battery Chargers from TVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87



ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 ix
List of Figures

FIGURES

Figure 1: ASD Test Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Figure 2: Apparatus for Testing Losses in Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Figure 3: Apparatus for Testing Losses in Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Figure 4: Apparatus for Testing Motor Starters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60



ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 x
List of Tables

TABLES

Table 1: Equipment to be Investigated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Table 2: Equipment Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Table 3: Equipment Table Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Table 3a: Equipment Table Summary (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Table 4: Limits for Temperature Rises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Table 5: Influence of 20
o
C Change in Ambient Temperature on Load Loses . . . . . . 20

Table 6: Components of Composite Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Table 7: Electric Power Equipment to be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Table 8: Budget for Testing for ASHRAE TRP 1104. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Table 9: Phase II Time Schedule for Completion of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Table 10: Summary of Equipment Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78








ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 1
Introduction and Executive Summary

In order to size the required equipment, the HVAC design engineer must be able to estimate with
certainty the amount of energy added from various heat sources and lost through various heat
sinks located in a room. Heat could be added from several sources such as the presence of many
people in a classroom or office, solar radiation through windows, and incandescent room
lighting. A sink could consist of outside doors and windows in winter or a basement floor or
wall that remains at an essentially constant temperature throughout the year. By closely
estimating the heat gain or loss, the HVAC equipment will not be undersized with insufficient
capacity or oversized with costly unutilized excess capability.

Building and industrial plants make use of electrical power for many uses such as lighting,
driving motorized devices, HVAC, and energy transmission and distribution throughout the
structure. All of this electrical equipment contributes to the total heat load. Estimating the total
amount of rejected heat is a necessary part of sizing the heating and refrigeration equipment
required for the building.

The primary source of information available to the design engineer for estimating the electrical
equipment rejected heat is the paper by Rubin (1979). In this well used document, the rejected
heat values for transformers, power distribution equipment, motors, switchgear, and power
cables, to name a few, were presented in tables for a range of equipment sizes common to indoor
equipment. The data presented by Rubin was obtained from the paper presented by Hickok
(1978) and from other, unspecified manufacturers. Hickok, who worked for GE at the
publication time of his paper, states, “The data are on General Electric products …” At no point
in either Hickok’s paper or in Rubin’s paper is there a discussion of measurement procedure or
measurement uncertainty. Rubin’s motivation for publishing the data was to aid the HVAC
design engineer. Hickok’s motivation in his paper was to aid the factory engineer in identifying
plant locations where efficiency could be improved. Hickok’s motivation is easy to appreciate
since the energy price shocks provided by two oil embargoes made increasing efficiency of
existing plants, buildings, and factories the first choice in reducing the costs of production.
McDonald and Hickok (1985) later co-authored an update of Hickok’s 1978 paper with much of
the same data.

The information provided by these papers is dated. Since the oil embargoes of the 1970’s, many
electrical equipment manufacturers have taken pains to increase the efficiency of their products.
At the same time, advances in power electronics and computer control have made much of the
technology reflected in the 1970 equipment obsolete. Another change that has occurred since
Rubin published his work is that the manufacturing standards that apply to the various items of
power equipment have been re-issued and updated several times. These standards could provide
details for measuring the power loss in the equipment where, perhaps, originally none existed.
Also, the standards might specify a maximum level of uncertainty for performing the
measurements and any data reported by a manufacturer claiming to follow the standard could be
deemed reliable. Thus, there is a need to update the 20 years old information presented by
Rubin. A recent addition to the published information regarding motor heat gains is contained in
Chapter 11 of the 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook which provides a table of “Heat
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 2
Gains from Typical Electric Motors” for fractional horsepower AC motors up to 250 horsepower
three phase motors.

The purpose of this work is to provide a means of estimating the rejected heat of specific
electrical equipment by a means similar to Rubin, but which accounts for updated data, current
testing standards, level of use, and more than one power equipment manufacturer. To
accomplish this goal, the work is divided into phases consisting of an assessment of the
availability of reliable data and a testing phase for providing a reference for those data deemed
uncertain. Phase I of this project consists of an assessment part and a test planning part. The
assessment part (Part A) requires a review of the heat loss measurement procedures included in
the manufacturing standards for each type of power equipment included in this study along with
a survey of the measurement procedures used by manufacturers when the standards do not cover
this type of measurement. Based on the results of this assessment, a testing program is planned
(Part B of Phase I) to verify loss information supplied by manufacturers. Phase II consists of the
execution of the data gathering and testing program.

This document describes the assessment and test - planning phase of the investigation. The
organization of the material to be presented includes a summary of the Phase I conclusions and
the recommendations concerning the Phase II work. Also included, is a description of the
method or strategy used in the assessment. The results of the assessment will then be presented
followed by a recommendation for those types of equipment to be included in the testing phase.
The remainder of the report contains an examination of each type of equipment, the
manufacturing standards relevant to the assessment, and a discussion supporting the conclusions
reached in the assessment.


Heat Loss and Heat Transfer

The equipment rate of heat losses to be determined in this work represent constant values from
steady operation. The device rejecting heat is assumed to have reached thermal equilibrium with
the surroundings and no thermal transient process is taking place. Thus, all heat loss occurring in
a device is additional heat added to the surroundings. The manner in which the heat transfer
takes place is not of a concern. Heat convection to the surroundings and conduction to
surrounding structures is not hard to appreciate as viable transfer mechanisms. Any thermal
radiation is assumed to be absorbed by the surrounding structures (perhaps after several
absorptions and re-emissions) and the eventual manifestation of the radiant energy is an increase
in room temperature in the absence of any environmental control.


Assessment Results

The scope of the equipment specified in ASHRAE TRP – 1104 is listed in Table 1. The
equipment review is divided into three categories. The first category consists of equipment for
which either well defined methods for loss determination are specified in the manufacturing
standards . The third category includes equipment for which there is no standard either requiring
or describing any heat loss tests and for which no heat loss data could be found. The second
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 3
category includes all equipment satisfying neither of the first and third category descriptions.
Items in the second category represent a wide range of different conditions. The best description
for this category is that information is available on equipment heat losses however the
measurement quality is unknown. The manufacturing standards covering rate of heat loss

Equipment Size Range
Electric Motors 10 – 4000 hp (reg. and high efficiency)
Medium Voltage Switchgear (breakers,
heaters, and auxiliary compartments)
5 kV, 7.2 kV, and 13.8 kV with 1200, 2000,
and 3000 amp breakers
Unit Substation Components (including
breakers, heaters, bus losses, and auxiliary
compartments)
800, 1600, 2000, 3200, and 4000 amp frame
sizes
Transformers 300 – 2500 kVA and 120/208/600 V units
below 300 kVA
Reactors Standard Sizes
Panelboards Standard Sizes for 120, 125, and 600 V
Cable and Cable Trays 0.6, 5, and 15 kV of widths 12” – 30”
Battery Chargers 100 to 600 amp
Inverters 20, 30, 50, 75, and 100 kV - single phase
150 kV – three phase
DC Switchgear 125 VDC for 100 to 1500 amp
Manual Transfer Switches 0.6 kV for 150, 260, 400, 600, 800, an 1000
amp
Motor Control Centers (starters, breakers,
auxiliary relay compartments, bus losses, and
space heaters)
Standard NEMA sizes

Variable (adjustable) Speed Drives 25 to 500 hp – three phase
Table 1: Equipment to be Investigated

Category 1 Category 2 Category 3
Transformers Cable and Cable Trays Transfer Switches
Motors Adjustable Speed Drives
Battery Chargers
Inverters
Reactors
Circuit Breakers
Substation Components (heaters, bus
losses, and auxiliary compartments)

Panelboards
Motor Control Centers
Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear

Table 2: Equipment Categories
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 4
measurement of the second category equipment are in some cases excellent and in other cases
poor or nonexistent. In the case where the standards for equipment in the second category
provide good information regarding heat loss measurements, the following of the standards by
the manufacturing community is not commonplace.

Table 3 is a summary of the results of the equipment under consideration including relevant
standard numbers and overall results from the manufacturer surveys regarding losses. The
details of the survey are included in the body of the report. The justification for the equipment
classification is contained in the report sections to follow the Executive summary where the each
device is discussed. The discussion in the sections to follow will support and expand the
information shown in Table 3.

The organization of Table 3 reflects the equipment classification, the results of finding and
examining the relevant manufacturing standards, the results of the manufacturer survey, and
finally the number of manufacturers reporting data through either their web pages, catalogs, or
though their responses to the survey. The columns of Table 3 are arranged in the same order in
which the equipment items are covered in the text of this report. The first category equipment is
contained in the two equipment columns toward the left of the table. The third category
equipment item is contained in the rightmost column of the table. The three columns of the
second category equipment labeled as Composite Devices consist of those devices which are
made up of several different pieces of equipment, some of which are contained in the other
columns of the table. The devices that fall into this distinction will be treated in a different way
when the heat losses are discussed in the report. The leftmost column of the table contains
subject headings regarding the standards search, the manufacturers survey, the deficiencies of the
available data, the category the equipment item is placed into, and finally the details of the test
plan. The lower part of the table contains space where additional manufacturing standard
information is provided.

For each equipment piece, the relevant standard describing the power loss or efficiency
determination is listed. In some cases, there is more than one standard and in others cases there
are no standards that address power loss. Where possible, the article number which addresses
rate of heat loss and/or efficiency is listed. In some cases, such as NEMA MG 1, the loss testing
procedures are spread over many articles. Whether the standard is commonly used by
manufacturers or not is also indicated in the table.

The next few lines of the table summarize the results of the manufacturer survey. The
approximate number of manufacturers is listed in the table. The source of manufacturer names
for a given equipment item was the NEMA web site which has a search engine for such
purposes. The word approximate is used since the names of manufacturers obtained from
NEMA for a specific equipment piece would consist of only NEMA members and this may
exclude some foreign manufacturers. Any list of manufacturers for a particular equipment item
would include both OEMs and equipment service companies. The immediate task once a group
of names is obtained from NEMA is to eliminate all companies that are not OEMs. If a company
did not have extensive information on their web site and if they did not respond to the survey,
then the type of company might not be easy to determined. Also shown for some of the
equipment categories together with the number of NEMA listed manufacturers is the number of
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 5
OEMs of this particular equipment type and size found (number following slash). The number
of manufacturers contacted in the survey is listed. This number might be smaller than the
approximation number of manufacturers for the reasons just cited. The number of manufacturers
who responded to the survey is also listed. Not all manufacturers who responded to the survey
supplied data. Some responded that they were not an OEM or did not make products in the
range under question. Finally, the number of manufacturers reporting heat gains is listed. This
is the number of different manufacturers providing information through either a web site and/or a
response to the manufacturer survey. The source of the data is next listed in the table which, in
many circumstances, is the web site and/or catalog. The assessed quality of the data next follows
in the table. Usually the data was classified as good or uncertain. When no data are available,
the quality is listed as N/A.

Deficiencies in the data are next listed in the table. All of the five situations that apply are
checked with an “X” in the table. If a standard detailing how heat loss and/or efficiency is
available but not used by industry then the line titled “Standard but not used” receives a check.
If the significant standard applying to the manufacture and testing of the device does not address
heat loss or efficiency, then the box on the line of “Standard not germane to heat loss” is
checked. If the available loss data is measured in a way consistent with a standard, then the box
titled “Data available and consistent” is marked. If the opposite is true then the box
corresponding to “Data available but not consistent” is marked. If no data is available, then the
“Data not available” cell is marked.

In the section of the table titled “Recommended Testing,” the action to be taken with each device
is listed. First the source of the data to be used in completing or building the loss tables is listed.
For the Category I equipment, this is listed as “Manufacturers” while for Category II equipment,
this is listed as “Man. and test” for Manufacturer and Test meaning that the data is coming from
both sources. For Category III equipment, this is listed as “Test.” The purposes of the test are
listed in the next line. The number of different sizes of each device to be tested is provided on
the next line of the table. On the line of the table designating the number of test sizes, there are
some notes for the equipment classified as “Composite Devices.” The composite devices or
equipment are Category II items which can be characterized as consisting of a collection of many
different components. Some of these different components are already listed in the table and no
additional tests for these devices are needed. Some of the components of the composite devices
are found in more than one composite device. If the composite device component is not already
listed in the TRP 1104 Work Statement then some testing will need to be done but the testing of
the component is mentioned in the table only once. In order to provide some estimation of the
variation of the power losses of identical pieces of equipment, it would be beneficial to test more
than one device of a given size and manufacturer. In order to best utilize the financial resources
and the generosity of manufacturers, it is recommended that we test one device of a given size
and manufacturer and then estimate the repeatability of the measurement through a knowledge of
the manufacturer’s quality control. The use of one device for testing is especially viable when
there exists manufacturer data to which a comparison can be made. In those cases where there is
not a large amount of data, it is recommended that at least two identical items be tested. The
number of identical items to be tested is listed on the next line of the table. The source of the
equipment for the testing is specified as either loan or donation. There is money in the original
project budget for building the test apparatus for measuring heat losses, however there are not
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 6
sufficient financial resources for purchasing all the equipment to be tested. In order to appreciate
how the losses of the same size equipment might vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, the
number of different manufacturers from which to obtain equipment is listed on the next line of
the table. In all cases where testing is warranted, it is recommended that equipment be obtained
from at least 2 different manufacturers.

The lower portion of Table 3 contains additional standard information that did not fit in the upper
area of the table.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 7

First Category Second Category
Equipment Type: Transformers
Motors
Cables &
Cable Trays
Adjustable
Speed Drives
Battery
Chargers Inverters Reactors
Circuit
Breakers
MCC
Components
Review Type
Review Subcategory
Relevant Standards
Standard/Date See Below See Below IEEE 835 IEEE 995 NEMA PE-5 None IEEE C57.16 IEEE C37.09 None
Is Standard Specific to Heat Gains? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes None Yes No N/A
Heat Gain Article No. See Below See Below Intro pp. 1-45 Sect. 5/ 1987 8.8 N/A 7.1, 11.4 5.14 / 1999 N/A
Used by Industry? Yes Yes N/A No No N/A No Yes N/A
Manufacturers
Approximate Number 30 27 36 21 4 18/4 33/5 17/5 26
Number Contacted 20 0 0 21 4 8 0 17 28
Number of Replied 5 N/A 0 5 1 0 0 4 2
# Reporting Values for Heat Gains 2 N/A 0 7 3 3 1 2 2
How is data reported? Web, Catalog, See Below Web, Cat. Formula Web, Cat. Web Web Web Web, Cat. Web, Cat.
Quality of data Good Good Good Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain
Deficiencies in Data
Standard but not used X X X
Standards not germane to heat loss X X X
Data availible and consistent X X X
Data availible but not consistent X X X X X X
Data not available
Recommended Testing
Data Source Manufacturers Manufacturers Calculation Man. and test Man. and test
Man. and
test Man. and test
Man. and
test Man. and test
Purpose of Test Verify Verify Verify Verify Verify Verify
Number of Test Sizes 2 3 2 3 2 See Note 1
Number of Types within each size >2 > 2 > 2 > 1 > 1 N/A
Equipment Source
Loan or
Donation
Loan or
Donation
Loan or
Donation Purchase
Purchase,
Donation,
and Loan
Purchase,
Donation, and
Loan
# of different Man. Equipment to test 3 3 3 2 2 2 of each item
Add. Stand./Section/Date IEEE C57.12.90 IEEE 115 IEEE 835 IEEE 995
NEMA PE-5,
1985 IEEE C57.16
8.0, 9.4 / 1999 4.1-4.6/1995 1994 Sect. 5/ 1987 8.8 / 1996 1996
IEEE C57.12.91 IEEE 112
8.0, 9.4 / 1995 5,6 / 1996
NEMA TP 2-1998
IEEE 113 -
1985
4.0 / 1998 NEMA MG-1
Note 1: LV CB, ASD, and enclosures tested elsewhere - Dissconnect switches - test with motor starters, motor starters - 2 sizes, Bus bars - calculation, space heaters - 2 sizes, Auxiliary compartments -
Note 2: MV and DC CB, bus bars, auxiliary compartments, space heaters, and enclosures tested elsewhere - Potential, control power, and current transformers - get manufacturer data
Note 3: LV CB, bus bars, and enclosures investigated elsewhere
Note 4: LV CB, Bus bars, auxiliary compartments, space heaters, unit substation transformers, and enclosurers tested elsewhere
TABLE 3: EQUIPMENT SUMMARY
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 8


Testing Equipment Accuracy Data
Source
No.
of
Man.
No.
of
Sizes
Total
tests
Add.
Man.
Req.
Total
No.
to
Test
Add.
Funds
Req.
Transformers Sufficient Published Data
Motors Sufficient Published Data
Cables and
Cable Trays
Sufficient Calculations
Bus Bars Sufficient Calculations
Reactors Fair Published Data
/Measurements
2 / 5 3 6 2 12
Motor Starters Fair Published Data
/Measurements
2 / 5 2 2 2 8
20K
Space Heaters Sufficient Published Data
/Measurements
2 2 4
Low Voltage
Circuit Breakers
Fair/ Not
Certain
Published Data
/Measurements
1 / 5 3 3 3 12 17K
Medium
Voltage Circuit
Breakers
Fair/ Not
Certain
Published Data
/Measurements
1 / 5 3 3 3 12 430K
Adjustable
Speed Drives
Fair/ Not
Certain
Published Data
/Measurements
2 1 Size
each
2 3 6 41K
Battery
Chargers
Fair/ Not
Certain
Published Data
/Measurements
Wait 3 410K
Inverters Not
Certain
Published Data 2 3 6 320K
Auxiliary
Compartments
Not
Certain
Published Data
Manual
Transfer
Switches
Not
Available
Not Available

TABLE 3a: EQUIPMENT SUMMARY (continued)

Table 3a lists different equipment categories, an assessment of the accuracy of the study results,
the source of the equipment heat loss data, the number of different manufacturers from which
test equipment will be obtained, the number of test sizes, the total number of items to be tested
with the TRP – 1104 budget, the additional manufacturers necessary to test to change the
accuracy designation, the total number of tests required to have a “Sufficient” accuracy
designation, and the additional funds required to accomplish this. In the “Number of
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 9
Manufacturers” column, the table entry of “i / j’ denotes “i” manufacturers out of a total of “j”
manufacturers found in this work. The assessment of accuracy is divided into three designations
being “Sufficient,” “Fair”, and “Not Certain.” The designation of “sufficient” is applied to that
equipment for which the results will be a realistic representation of the heat losses of this
particular device and size. The next level of accuracy designation is “Fair” which is used in
those situations where the subset of the different manufacturer products to be tested is deemed
too small to warrant a “Sufficient” designation. In the case of reactors and combination motor
starters, only 40% of the manufacturers found in this study can be tested using the equipment
obtained through purchases and donations. The last designation of accuracy is “Not Certain”
which is used for those situations where the only information available is manufacturer published
data having neither documented test methods nor uncertainty. The “Not Certain” designation is
used for auxiliary compartments and inverters since manufacturer loss data is available, however
no test articles are available. The accuracy of some equipment items in Table 3a have been
classified as “Fair/Not Certain” which has been applied in those situations where the sample of
equipment to test is too small to draw conclusions. The “Fair/Not Certain” designation has been
applied to low and medium voltage circuit breakers, adjustable speed drives, and battery
chargers.

The seventh column of Table 3a lists the number of additional manufacturers required. This
figure refers to the number of other company manufactured equipment items that need to be
tested in order to change the accuracy designation from “Fair” to “Sufficient.” The criterion for
making this accuracy transition is to test 75% or more of the manufacturers, found in this study,
of a particular equipment item and size. The last column of the table presents the expense of
additional equipment to purchase so as to change the accuracy designation from that listed to
“Sufficient.” For reactors and combination motor starters, this additional equipment expense is
totaled together.

Based on Table 3a, there are several testing options available each with an additional expense for
equipment purchase. These testing options are:

1) No additional expense – Accuracy per column of Table 3a.
2) 20K – Accuracy of transformers to combination motor starters in Table 3a is
“Sufficient.”
3) 37K – Accuracy of transformers to low voltage breakers in Table 3a is “Sufficient.”
The 37K include to 20K from the second testing option.
4) 1240K – Accuracy of transformers to inverters in Table 3a is “Sufficient.” This
figure includes the 37K from the third testing option.

The total budget for TRP – 1104 is $138K. The second option listed above would bring the total
project budget up to $158K. The third testing option would bring the total project budget up to
$175K.

Note that the increase in expense for testing is exclusively for equipment purchase. Funding for
equipment purchase does not incur university overhead. Also, purchases by Kansas State
University are not subject to sales tax. Thus, every additional dollar for equipment purchase
goes exclusively to that purpose.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 10
Conclusions and Recommendations

From the foregoing, it is evident that not all of the equipment listed in the TRP – 1104 work
statement will be able to be tested. Even so, advantage still exists in continuing with the Phase II
investigation. An examination of Table 3a shows that 50% of the items listed have received an
accuracy designation of either “Sufficient” or “Fair.” Thus, the project as budgeted provides
approximately half of the information desired. If additional funds were available for equipment
purchase, the priority for using these funds would be:

• Purchase additional reactors and combination motor starters to change the accuracy
designation for these two equipment items from “Fair” to “Sufficient.” While the
selected reactor test items completely bracket the available equipment, only small to
medium size combination motor starters are to be tested. The limiting factor for
testing the NEMA 4 and NEMA 5 starters is expense.

• Purchase additional low voltage breakers. Owing to expense, only small to medium
frame sizes are being tested in this work.

If $20K or $37K were available for equipment purchase, this would allow the additional testing
of the reactors and the combination motor starters and possibly low voltage circuit breakers. The
priority established in the above list is dictated by what additional testes are possible given a
limited amount of additional funds.

The purchase of adjustable speed drives, battery chargers, and inverters for testing purposes is
very expensive owing to the great expense of these power electronic devices.

As stated earlier, there is advantage in continuing with the Phase II investigation. The benefits of
the Phase II work can be summarized as:

• This is the first update to the tables originally presented by Rubin in the late 70’s.
The Phase II information will consist of test data and recently collected information
from manufacturers.

• In addition to the updated loss information, methods of predicting losses for fractions
of full load capacity and variations of room temperature will also be provided in the
Phase II work.

• The tests and test methods will be documented so that the test procedures can be
repeated and/or applied to new equipment.

• A design guide for using the accumulated heat loss information will be a product of
the Phase II efforts. A significant feature of the results to be presented is that Phase II
marks the start of being able to attach significance to the quality of estimated heat
loads.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 11
In addition to the above recommendations, several conclusions are drawn on the basis of the
Phase I work. These conclusions are:

• The Phase II work should continue since this allows the opportunity to begin the
updating of Rubin’s work. As stated earlier, calibrated heat loss information for
approximately half of the items listed in Table 3a can be developed in Phase II. In
addition to the tested data, manufacturer published data has been gathered – even for
some equipment devices for which testing will involve significant additional expense.

• There is a significant need for the information to be developed in this study.

• The scope of this project is very larger.

• Serious consideration should be given to updating and refining the heat loss
information through continued testing and future projects.

• The current study goes a long way in providing the necessary information and
establishing a firm foundation for any future work and investigations in this area.

• So that no testing opportunity is lost, recruitment of equipment will continue
throughout the testing portion of Phase II.


References

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 1997 ASHRAE
Fundamentals Handbook, Chapter 28, “Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations,”
ASHRAE, 1997.

Hickok, Herbert N., “Electrical Energy Losses in Power Systems,” IEEE Transactions on
Industry Applications, vol IA-14, no. 5, Sep-Oct 1978, pp. 373-387.

McDonald, William J. and Hickok, Herbert N., “Electrical Energy Losses in Power Systems,”
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. IA-21, no. 3, May – June 1985, pp. 803-819.

Rubin, I. M., “Heat Losses from Electrical Equipment in Generating Stations,” IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-98, no. 4, July-Aug. 1979, pp. 1149-
1152.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 12
Phase I –Results

The Method

The method or strategy behind the assessment is described here. This is important information
since this documents the approach taken and future inquiries along these lines can make use of
this strategy and/or improve the strategy through modification. Without this information, any
future inquiry would have to start from scratch as this study did. The strategy consists of a
sequential process through which the conclusions regarding a specific type of equipment were
reached. The specific types of equipment are listed in Table 1.

The steps of the assessment process consist of:

1) One very important source of information is equipment manufacturers.
Manufacturers of a particular equipment item were located through a search of the
National Electrical Manufacturers Association web site located at the URL
(http://www.nema.org/standards/) which has a manufacturers and product search
capability. This search provided the starting point for any contact with equipment
manufacturers. Together with the manufacturer name, recording the web site address
together with e-mail address provides a means for making contacts and the location of
information relevant to specific equipment.

2) In parallel to the effort of identifying equipment manufacturers, the manufacturing
standards for the equipment under study relevant to heat loss were identified. The
identification process began by creating a list of manufacturing standards relevant to
the type of equipment. This was first attempted by searching manufacturer web sites
for the specific standards that were followed in the equipment production. An
improved method of accumulating this information was through the Global
Engineering Documents web site (http://global.ihs.com) by clicking on the link to
Document Search. This gives one the capability of searching for standard documents
having a particular phrase or word in the title. The advantage offered by this search is
the ability to receive titles of standards that are applicable to the product of interest
from many standard organizations. Also, by doing a search on a partial standard
number, for example C57, many standard titles from ANSI and IEEE related to
transformers could be found. The list of relevant standards were refined by excluding
those standards that did not address equipment heat loss or efficiency. In addition to
the standards specified in the TRP-1104 work statement, standards from ANSI,
NEMA, and UL were included in the review.

3) The relevant standards for each product were acquired. The number of standards to be
examined is so large that the purchase of these documents was not an option.
Standards were acquired through Inter-Library Loan at the Hale Library at Kansas
State University. A problem of searching other libraries for the standards is that
many libraries do not list individual standards by number in their holdings, they only
list that they have e.g. NEMA or ANSI standards.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 13
4) Each of the acquired standards were reviewed to determine if the standard requires
power loss measurements to be made and if so how are the measurements to be
performed and what are the uncertainty levels of the test procedures. The process of
reviewing standards is best summarized as the determination of the heat gain
measurement requirements, measurement methods, measurement uncertainty, and
measurement reporting. Based upon the results of the standard review, the specific
equipment item was placed into one of two broad classes. One class consisted of
those devices for which clear power loss measurement information was present while
the other class consisted of those devices for which no power loss information was
presented in the standard. While the standards helped in the eventual classification of
the equipment, they were not used exclusively in the final equipment classification
required by the TRP-1104 work statement. An example where no heat loss standards
were found is the transfer switch. In contrast to the transfer switch example just
cited, the availability of a document requiring and describing the measurement of heat
loss does not necessarily mean that manufacturers will use the standard. Heat loss
information was found for battery chargers in the standard NEMA PE 5 covering
utility type battery chargers; however, no manufacturer was found that claimed to
follow this relevant standard that specifies how battery charger efficiency is to be
determined.

5) Contact though e-mail was made to the companies included on the NEMA obtained
manufacturer lists to inquire about dissipated heat from their products. The
motivation behind this step was to acquire information useful to the eventual
classification of the equipment. Since a contact was being made with equipment
manufacturers, information not only relevant to the classification was sought but also
information useful to other parts of the study. For each type of power equipment
involved in the survey, a contact letter was written which explained the nature of the
project and requested information relevant to this study. The requested information
consists of the name and number of the standards followed in determining the loss
numbers or the procedures used to determine the losses in the case where no loss
determination procedures are specified in the standards. Also, the manufacturer is
requested to supply loss numbers for their products or to specify the web pages and/or
public company documents where loss figures are presented. In doing this company
contact, the web address of that part of the company’s web site which best
corresponds to the product of interest was noted. The home web page address of the
companies contained on the product manufacturer lists can also be found on the
NEMA web site at the address (http://www.nema.org/membership/members.html).
Also the e-mail address to which the letter of contact is sent was recorded. In this
fashion, we are able to put together an e-mail distribution list for the various products
so that if we need to seek additional information at some time in the future, this can
be quickly done. An example of the contact letter is included in the Appendix. This
step was not done for every piece of equipment under study, e.g. cables, since it was
not expected that power losses would vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and
excellent cable loss models are available.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 14
6) Each of the equipment types is documented regarding applicable standards, loss
measurement methods, and results of the manufacturer survey. From the
accumulated data, the equipment is classified into one of three categories as specifies
by the TRP-1104 work statement. The overall results of the assessment are
summarized in the Introduction and Executive Summary section. The justification
behind the classification is presented in each of the equipment sections of the report
to follow. The manufacturer lists are not included in this document. The first
category consisted of those products for which the standards require specific tests for
loss determination. Included in this first category are devices that have very well
documented information regarding the power loss mechanisms and test procedures
from which loss information can be accumulated and reported. This first category
includes transformers and motors. The second category included those devices where
there was some information that could be used to help in the loss determination but
verification of the information was needed. The devices in this category are reactors,
DC and medium voltage switchgear, circuit breakers, panelboards, motor control
centers, inverters, battery chargers, adjustable speed drives, plus cables and cable
trays. The remainder of the power equipment constitutes the third category that
includes transfer switches. The third category is characterized by the situation where
there is both an absence of loss data and the standards do not require the rate of heat
losses to be measured.

7) From the assessment determined in the previous steps, a test plan is devised to
provide the information necessary to complete this study for each of the equipment
items listed in the ASHRAE TRP 1104 work statement. In case of the first category
equipment, the information will be gathered from manufacturer web sites and through
personal contacts. For the equipment in the second and third categories, the test plan
involves experimental procedures for building and/or verifying the information
necessary to complete this study. Both the steps of the test plan and the necessary
experimental apparatus are described for each of the required equipment items.







ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 15
First Category

The first category consists of transformers and motors. Each of the first category equipment
types will be examined here.

Transformers

Of all the equipment studied in this work, the state of the art for transformer losses is among the
best defined. According to the insulating medium, transformers are divided into two categories
which are liquid immersed units and dry-type units. The testing and manufacturing standards are
written according to this insulating distinction. The sizes of the transformers covered in this
study range up to 2.5 MVA. Specifically, the types of transformers under consideration are unit
sub-station transformers from 0.3 to 2.5 MVA plus power and lighting transformers 300 KVA
and below.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

The method of testing to determine the total power losses for both dry and liquid immersed core
and coils are specified in IEEE Std. C57.12.90 for liquid immersed windings and IEEE Std.
C57.12.91 for dry type windings. Also relevant to the loss determination are IEEE Std.
C57.12.00 and Std. C57.12.01 since these documents specify what is to be measured and also
specify measurement uncertainty and IEEE Std. C57.12.80 which defines many terms used in the
other cited documents.

Two other useful documents related to losses are NEMA TP 1 and NEMA TP 2 for distribution
transformers. NEMA TP 1 defines a “Class 1” efficiency for distribution transformers which is
presented in the form of a table. The table lists the minimum efficiency necessary for “Class 1”
designation for both single and three phase units as a function of rated KVA. There is a table for
dry type units and another table for liquid immersed units. For dry type units, the table in the
standard makes a distinction between low voltage and medium voltage transformers. The “Class
1” efficiency essentially defines an upper limit for rejected heat. NEMA TP 1 and NEMA TP 2
observe the test codes presented in IEEE Std. C57.12.90 and C57.12.91. Dry type power and
lighting transformers are covered in NEMA ST 20 which observes IEEE Std. C57.12.01 and
C57.12.91.

Equipment Heat Losses

As stated earlier, it is assumed that the device under discussion is operating in a “steady state”
capacity. Thus, it is assumed that the transformer has been operated in the current condition for
a sufficient period of time that all thermal transients have decayed to the point that they can no
longer be detected. Under these conditions, any energy loss is in the form of heat that travels to
the local environment. The manner in which the heat transfer takes place is not of a concern.
Heat convection to the surroundings and conduction to surrounding structures is not hard to
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 16
appreciate as viable transfer mechanisms. Any thermal radiation is assumed to be absorbed by
the surrounding structures (perhaps after several absorptions and re-emissions) and the eventual
manifestation of the radiant energy is an increase in room temperature in the absence of any
environmental control.

The definitions of total losses as defined by the standards are slightly different for liquid –
immersed units and for dry type units. Each of these two cases will be treated separately. Not
included in the loss figure is any power required for cooling fans, oil pumps, or any other
ancillary equipment. For units of 2.5 MVA or less, this is not an issue since the primary cooling
means is free convection, however, forced air cooling is an option available on some larger unit
substation transformers. The power consumed by the fan must be included in any loss figures.
The rating and efficiency of the fan motor determines the environmental heat gain created by a
forced air fan. The fan heat loss is small compared to that of the transformer. Units having a
forced air cooling option will have different capacities and heat losses for each cooling mode, i.e.
self cooled or forced air.

It should be noted that for both dry and liquid immersed type windings, both IEEE Std.
C57.12.00 and C57.12.01 state that transformers conforming to those standards are suitable for
operation at rated KVA so long as the ambient temperature does not exceed 40
o
C and the
average ambient temperature does not exceed 30
o
C in a 24 hour period.

To be presented in the following text is a discussion of no load and load losses for both dry and
liquid immersed windings. The influence of the ambient temperature on losses will also be
discussed. It will be shown that the variable to which the losses are the most sensitive is the load
current while the ambient temperature does not play a significant role in determining the total
losses.

Before discussing the different transformer types, the measurement of the winding resistance will
be covered first since this is common to both transformer insulation types. The winding
resistance is measured after the unit has remained de-energized for a specific time (three to eight
hours for liquid immersed units and 24 to 72 hours for dry type units) in a draft free area. The
use of the time span is to assure that the unit is in thermal equilibrium with the environment and,
thus, the winding temperature is known. Once the base resistance value is measured, the
winding resistance is used as a means of measuring the average winding temperature. The
variation of resistance with temperature is determined by
k m
k s
m s
T T
T T
R R
+ ++ +
+ ++ +
= == =
where R
m
is the measured cold resistance at temperature T
m
in
o
C, R
s
is the resistance
corresponding to some other average winding temperature T
s
in
o
C, and T
k
is 234.5
o
C for copper
windings or 225
o
C for aluminum windings.

Liquid Immersed Units: The total losses are defined as the sum of the load losses and the no
load losses. The load losses are determined at rated frequency and current then corrected to the
reference temperature. To conduct the load test, one winding is short circuited while the other
winding is excited to the point where rated current flows in the windings. The losses occurring
in this situation are the load losses. Since the transformer is excited at a reduced voltage, the no
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 17
load losses are small and the measured losses attributable only to load losses. The no load losses
are determined at rated frequency and voltage and are reported at the no load loss standard
reference temperature. The standard reference temperature for load losses of liquid immersed
transformers is 85
o
C. The standard reference temperature for no load losses is 20
o
C. In
general, transformer losses vary with core and coil temperature. The use of the reference
temperature is to express these measurements on a basis that allows comparison with other units.

The following discussion illustrates how transformer losses are reported using the reference
temperatures.

The no load losses occur when the unit is excited at rated voltage and frequency in the absence of
any load current. No load losses are made up of core losses (hysteresis, eddy-current, and
magneto-striction), dielectric or insulation losses, and winding I
2
R created by the no load
excitation current and the circulating current which might be present in parallel windings. The
transformer core contributes the greatest portion of the no load losses. The no load losses are
essentially a constant value, however, the losses are a very mild function of core temperature
which influences core steel resistivity, hysteresis losses, and stress caused by magnetostriction
(the 120 Hz. hum one hears from an energized unit). Also, how the losses vary with core
temperature is determined by core design and by the way an individual unit is constructed, i.e.
matched units may have different loss variations with core temperature change. The constraints
under which the no load loss measurements are made is that rated sinusoidal voltage is applied to
a unit where the average insulating liquid temperature is within ± 10
o
C of the 20
o
C reference
temperature and the difference between the top and bottom liquid temperature does not exceed
5
o
C. Should the test conditions differ from those presented by the standards, a correction is
applied to the measured data through the calculation of

( (( ( ) )) ) [ [[ [ ] ]] ]
T r m m r
K T T 1 ) T ( P ) T ( P − −− − + ++ + = == =

where P(T
m
) is the no load losses at the measurement temperature T
m
in
o
C, P(T
r
) is the no load
losses at the reference temperature T
r
(20
o
C), K
T
is an empirically derived constant having units
of
o
C
-1
. A suggested value for K
T
in the absence of other information is 0.00065 (
o
C)
-1
as stated
in IEEE Std. C57.12.90. Given the no load loss value at the reference temperature, the no load
loss value at some temperature can be determined from this last result by turning the last
equation around to produce

T r m
r
m
K ) T T ( 1
) T ( P
) T ( P
− −− − + ++ +
= == =

where P(T
m
) is now the no load losses at some other temperature T
m
. Notice that the losses
decrease as the temperature T
m
increases. To illustrate how insensitive the no load loss is to core
temperature variation, evaluate the expression just presented with the suggested constant and a
temperature difference of 65
o
C (i.e. 85
o
C – 20
o
C), the decrease in no load losses is a factor of
4%. Also consider that the 85
o
C number used in this calculation is the standard load loss
winding reference temperature, not the core temperature. Under load, the winding is the hottest
part of the transformer. The core and insulating liquid would be at lower temperatures. Thus,
the actual difference between the no load losses at the no load reference temperature and the no
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 18
load losses under load conditions will be smaller than 4%. The change in no load losses is then
on the same order as the loss measurement uncertainty (to be presented in a later section).

From this brief argument, it is seen that the omission of the temperature correction provides a
slightly conservative figure for the no load losses should the transformer core temperature
increase. To account fo the increase in core temperature, one suggestion is to evaluate the loss at
the temperature value of 55
o
C for T
m
, a figure close to the average of the 20
o
C and the 85
o
C
reference temperatures. This would compensate for some of the reduction in loss with core
temperature increase. It should also be appreciated that little change would occur in overall heat
load if the no load losses at the reference temperature of 20
o
C were used. Also, the inference
that the no load losses are an even weaker function of ambient temperature than with core
temperature is a valid conclusion. The recommendation of this work is to treat the no load loss
as a constant.

Load losses are measured when rated current flows in both the excited and the unexcited
windings. The load losses include winding I
2
R and eddy-current losses, stray magnetic field
losses in the transformer structures or tank, and losses associated with circulating currents in
parallel connected windings or strands. The load losses are broken into two parts being the stray
losses (caused by eddy currents induced in transformer structures such as core clamps, shields,
and tank surfaces) and the winding I
2
R losses. The load losses are determined by wattmeter
measurements. Once the load losses are determined, the unit is de-energized and the winding
resistance is measured. The winding resistance determines the average winding measurement
temperature, T
m
. By calculating the I
2
R loss and subtracting this from the load losses, the stray
losses are determined. The stay loss decreases with temperature (resistivity increases with
temperature that, in turn, limits the induced currents causing stray loss) while the I
2
R loss
increases with winding temperature. Variation of load losses with winding temperature for a
transformer is described by
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
+ ++ +
+ ++ +
+ ++ +
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
+ ++ +
+ ++ +
= == =
m K
k
m r
K
m K
m s
T T
T T
) T ( P
T T
T T
) T ( P ) T ( P
where P(T) is the power loss at the desired temperature T specified in
o
C, P
s
(T
m
) is the stray
loss at the measured temperature T
m
specified in
o
C, P
r
(T
m
) is the winding I
2
R loss at the
measurement temperature, and T
K
is the same as defined previously. Note that this calculation
applies to both liquid immersed and dry type units as well with the exception that the standard
reference temperature for liquid immersed load losses differs from that for dry type load losses.

In performing the load tests, IEEE Std. C57.12.90 states that no ambient temperature correction
need be applied to the data provided the ambient temperature is within the range of 10 to 40
o
C.

Dry Type Units: The total losses of a transformer are the sum of the no load losses at room
temperature (25
o
C ) and the load losses at the standard reference temperature. The standard
reference temperature for load losses is the highest rated winding temperature rise plus 20
o
C. A
temperature rise is defined as a measured temperature less the ambient temperature. The highest
rated temperature rise is determined by the insulation class and is shown in Table 4. The
information for Table 4 is taken from IEEE Std. C57.12.01. The highest average winding
temperature rise under full load is a transformer nameplate item. The highest average
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 19
temperature rise is dependent on the type of winding insulation and can range from 75
o
C to 150
o

C. Any loss figure or efficiency reported for a unit would incorporate this temperature value.

Insulation System
Temperature Class (
o
C)
Highest Average
Winding Temperature
Rise (
o
C)
130 75
150 90
180 115
200 130
220 150
Table 4: Limits for Temperature Rises (assuming 40
o
C
maximum ambient temperature and 30
o
C average
ambient temperature)

The standards do not specify the necessity for temperature correction of the no load losses for
dry type windings. IEEE Std. C57.12.91 does acknowledge that the no load losses are a function
of core temperature. The recommendation for this work is to treat the no load losses as constant.

Ambient Temperature Influence

When the ambient conditions differ from those assumed by the standards (30
o
C), IEEE Std.
C57.12.91 specifies a correction for the average winding temperature for dry type windings. The
standards are concerned with determining the average winding temperature which would occur
when the ambient temperature differs from the expected 30
o
C. If the ambient temperature differs
from this figure, then C57.12.91 supplies a formula for correcting the measured average winding
temperature occurring at the current ambient temperature to the average winding temperature
which would occur if the ambient were 30
o
C. The concern of this work is just the opposite in
that the average winding temperature occurring at an ambient temperature other than 30
o
C is of
interest given that the reference temperature rise occurs at an ambient of 30
o
C. The
recommendation is to take this correction and use it in reverse. The reversed temperature
correction takes the form
n
ra k r
a k r
r cr
T T T
T T T
T T
  
  
  
  
  
  
+ ++ + + ++ +
+ ++ + + ++ +
= == =
where T
r
is the load loss reference temperature rise, T
cr
is the corrected average winding
temperature rise, T
k
is as defined previously, T
ra
is the standard ambient temperature (30
o
C), and
T
a
is the new ambient temperature. The suggested value for the exponent n is 0.8 for ventilated,
self cooled units, 1.0 for ventilated units with forced air, and 0.7 for sealed units. This
expression applies to dry type units. However, since liquid immersed units are also sealed this
expression can be used for those units. For liquid immersed units, IEEE Std. C57.12.90 does not
specify a temperature correction, however it does state that an appropriate temperature correction
can be used.

By knowing the new average winding temperature, the load loss formula can be evaluated to find
the new load losses corresponding to the new ambient temperature. Through this means, the
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 20
influence of the environment on transformer load losses can be determined. It will be seen that
the change in losses produced by this calculation will be small and the recommendation in this
work is to ignore the influence of ambient temperature on load losses.

The correction of load losses based on ambient temperature variations requires the knowledge of
both portions of the load loss, namely the I
2
R loss and the stray loss. The I
2
R loss can be
determined from the winding resistance at the load loss reference temperature and the rated
current. The winding resistance is not a nameplate item and must obtained from the
manufacturer.

As an example of this calculation, consider two separate evaluations of the last expression, one
to provide the largest possible factor for temperature rise increase and another to provide the
smallest possible factor given a 20
o
C increase in the ambient temperature. The calculations are
summarized in Table 5.

Largest Smallest Notes
Reference Rise -
o
C 55 150
T
k
-
o
C 225 234.5
T
a
-
o
C 50 50
T
ra
-
o
C 30 30
n 0.7 0.7
T
cr
-
o
C 57.5 155
Standard Reference
Temperature -
o
C
85 180
T
m
= T
cr
+ standard
rise
107 205
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
+ ++ +
+ ++ +
r K
m K
T T
T T

1.07 1.06 factor for I
2
R loss
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
+ ++ +
+ ++ +
m K
r k
T T
T T

0.93 0.94 factor for stray loss
Table 5: Influence of 20
o
C Change in Ambient Temperature on Load Losses

The information in Table 5 shows the factor of how the losses will change with an increase of 20
o
C in the ambient temperature. Should the ambient temperature fall by 20
o
C, the numbers in the
last two lines of Table 5 are swapped. Depending on the size of the stray loss relative to the I
2
R
loss, the new load losses are within ± 7% of the losses at the standard reference temperature. To
put this in perspective, consider that the ambient temperature is changed by 67% and found that
the load losses changed by less the 7%. Now consider if the winding current were to increase
from 100% to 110%. A 10% change in current will produce at least a 21% increase in load loss
(the “at least” stems from the possibility that the winding resistance could increase). Also,
consider the case where the I
2
R loss is the same size as the stray loss. From the numbers in
Table 5, it is seen that the load losses would be unchanged. If the I
2
R loses were three times
larger than the stray loss, the increase in load losses for a 20
o
C increase in ambient temperature
would be 3%, the same as the loss measurement uncertainty.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 21

If the changes in losses with ambient temperature were ignored, then the overall uncertainty of
the load loss figure at the reference temperature would be slightly larger then ± 7%.

Measurement Uncertainty

Any manufacturer citing that they follow the standards specified previously would be providing
believable data. In making any table related to transformer losses, it will be necessary to
ascertain that the manufacturer follows these standards before using that information.

For all of the sizes of transformers included in this study, the standards require the manufacturer
to either test a representative sample of a specific transformer size or to make direct
measurements on the unit in order to determine the loss values.

Units tested in accordance with IEEE Std. C57.12.90 or C57.12.91 (observed by NEMA TP1,
TP2 and ST20) to determine losses must have a measurement uncertainty of ± 3% or less.
Losses presented by manufacturers were interpreted as being the average of a test batch. The
uncertainty of the average losses of a test batch would be smaller than ± 3% and the specific
value would depend upon the number of units in the test batch being averaged. It is then seen
that the ± 3% is an upper limit for loss uncertainty.

Manufacturers

A table of manufacturers was assembled using the method described earlier in this report. Of the
thirty manufacturer names obtained from the NEMA web site, twenty manufacturers were sent e-
mail requests for loss data and testing methods. Five manufacturers replied. Of the five, three
manufacturers reported loss data. The three manufacturers who supplied the loss data are well
known within the power and utility industry.

Information Deficiencies

All of the manufacturers examined in this work state that they follow IEEE Std. C57.12.90 and
C57.12.91. The information supplied by these manufacturers is believable since it is known how
the tests were made and the uncertainty of the results. Owing to the clear standards used by
industry and the availability of good loss data, transformers are placed in Category I. The only
information deficiency regarding transformer losses is the construction of the heat gain tables to
present the results of this work

Test Plan

In order to complete the loss tables required in this work, the following tasks will be
accomplished:

1) The loss data will be separated into that for dry type and liquid immersed units.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 22
2) For each transformer size required by the TRP 1104 work statement, the average and
standard deviation of the manufacturer data for both no load and full load losses will
be reported.

3) Additional contacts with larger (having significant market share/reputation)
manufacturers of transformers will be made through a telephone survey to acquire
more data points for the loss tables. If any new information is obtained, this new data
will be included with the other information.

The reporting of load and no load data allows for diversity since the loss at some fractional
current load level, say x, can be determined by

P(x) = P
NL
+ P
L
x
2


where P(x) is the power loss at a given per unit current load - x, P
NL
is the no load loss, and P
L
is
the full load loss. This expression provides an interpolation of the power loss as a function of
load current.

These tasks are to be completed in Phase II of this project. No additional resources or equipment
will be needed for the execution of the steps just listed.


References

IEEE Std. C57.12.00 – 1999 General Requirements for Liquid – Immersed Distribution, Power,
and Regulating Transformers.

IEEE Std. C57.12.01 – 1998 Standard General Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and
Power Transformers Including Those with Solid Cast and/or Resin-Encapsulated Windings.

IEEE Std.C57.12.80 – 1978 (R1992) Terminology for Power and Distribution Transformers.

IEEE Std. C57.12.90 - 1999 Test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power, and Regulating
Transformers.

IEEE Std. C57.12.91 - 1995 Test Code for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers.

NEMA ST 20 – 1992 (R1997) Dry-Type Transformers for General Applications.

NEMA TP 1 – 1996 Guide for Determining Energy Efficiency for Distribution Transformers.

NEMA TP 2 – 1998 Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution
Transformers.



ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 23
Motors
Since the size range under consideration as specified by the TRP-1104 work statement is from 10
horsepower to 4000 horsepower, the devices examined in this work include polyphase induction
motors, polyphase synchronous motors, and DC motors.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

The significant standards for motors regarding heat loss consist of NEMA MG 1 together with
IEEE Std. 112 for induction motors, IEEE Std. 115 for synchronous motors, and IEEE Std. 113
for DC motors. It should be noted that IEEE Std. 113 has been withdrawn and has not been
superseded. The various frame assignments for integral hp, AC induction motors is contained in
NEMA MG 1.

Equipment Heat Losses

The determination of the efficiency, definition of losses, measurement methods for polyphase
induction motors is covered in Sections 5 and 6 of IEEE Std. 112. Efficiency determination for
synchronous motors is covered in Section 4 of IEEE Std. 115. IEEE Std. 113 describes the
determination of efficiency of DC machines. For synchronous, induction, and DC machinery,
NEMA MG 1 states that the procedures specified in IEEE Std. 115, 112, and 113, respectively
are to be followed. The losses for a motor are determined by first selecting a representative
sample of a given size motor. The losses which can be divided into quantities such as winding
I
2
R loss, friction and windage, core loss, stray field or eddy loss, etc. are added together and used
in an efficiency calculation. The nominal efficiency is determined from the mean of the sample
efficiencies. Heat loss values in BTU’s/hr. are not available, however, the nominal efficiency
can be observed on manufacturer web pages or catalogs. All of the efficiency measurements are
at steady state therefore, any heat loss must go to the environment. Warming the equipment and
thermal transients are not considered. The ambient temperature does have an effect on the heat
loss of all three types of motors considered. Specifically, there are two types of losses that are
affected by ambient temperature. These are I
2
R losses and stray-load losses. The value of the
winding resistance increases linearly as the ambient temperature increases, in the same manner
as with transformers. This increase in resistance changes the I
2
R losses. The stray-load losses
have an inverse relationship with ambient temperature. So as the ambient temperature increases,
the stray-load loss will decrease. Chapter 28 of the ASHRAE FUNDAMENTALS Handbook
contains a table of heat gains from typical electric motors. The motors under consideration in the
ASHRAE Handbook are both single and polyphase AC motors.

Measurement Uncertainty

For power measurements associated with the determination of the efficiency of an induction
motors using Test Method B specified by the standard (IEEE Std. 112), the uncertainty of the
instruments is specified by the standards to be no greater than ±0.2 % of full scale. For all other
general measurements the instrument uncertainty is to be no greater than ±0.5 % of full scale.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 24
IEEE Std. 115 for synchronous machines does not specify instrument uncertainty values other
than to state that instruments of high accuracy are to be used in the testing. Since the overall
efficiency is calculated from the sum of several different types of losses, the overall uncertainty
depends on the combination of the uncertainties of each individual test. There are five to six
different types of tests for different types of losses depending on the type of motor being tested
(synchronous, induction, or DC). Since many variables go into this, an overall uncertainty is
hard to quantify at this time.

Manufacturers

In compiling the information related to electrical machinery, no manufacturers were contacted
owing to the easy availability of information regarding motor efficiencies. A list of
manufacturers has been compiled for use in Phase II. This list is not presented here.

Information Deficiencies

There are two primary deficiencies in the information related to power losses of electric motors.
These are:

1) What is the size of the contribution of the I
2
R and stray-load losses to the overall heat
loss of the motor?

2) What is the overall uncertainty of the efficiency numbers found on manufacturers web
sites and catalogs?

In order to determine the influence of the ambient temperature on the power losses, the portion
of the losses attributable to I
2
R heating needs to be estimated. Also, while the uncertainty of the
instruments used in the test procedures specified by the standards are themselves specified in the
same documents, the overall uncertainty of the efficiency figures is not immediately obvious.
The determination of efficiency is a process involving many steps and separate tests. The results
of these tests are combined together in the efficiency calculation. The overall uncertainty is a
function of the uncertainty of the individual tests. Given the tests and the instrument uncertainty,
no overall uncertainty estimate has so far been found.

Test Plan

The test plan for DC, induction, and synchronous motors consists of several steps. These steps
are:

1) Tables of heat loss information are to be built from the data acquired regarding motor
efficiency. This may require phone calls to the manufacturers in addition to the data
found on their web sites and catalogs. A significant item to extract from the
manufacturer contacts is an estimate of the portion of the total power losses contributed
by I
2
R and stray losses.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 25
2) An estimate of the efficiency uncertainty cap is to be determined through calculations.
This will be accomplished by determining the uncertainty of individual tests that
contribute to the overall efficiency reported by the manufacturers. The uncertainties of
individual tests are then to be combined into an overall uncertainty.

3) Once the contribution of I
2
R and stray losses to the overall efficiency can be estimated,
this information is then used to provide an estimate of the influence of the ambient
temperature on the power losses.

4) In order to address diversity in power losses based upon equipment loading, two
approaches are to be tried. The first is based on the overall efficiency where reduced
loads entail proportionally reduced heat losses. The second approach is to attempt to
segregate the losses into those that remain constant with load such as friction and
windage and those that vary with load such as I
2
R. Which approach is feasible will be
determined in this step of the test plan.

References

IEEE Std. 112 – 1996, Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators.

IEEE Std. 113 – 1985, Guide: Test Procedures for Direct-Current Machines.

IEEE Std. 115 – 1995, Part I – Acceptance and Performance Testing, Part II – Test Procedures
and Parameter Determination for Dynamic Analysis.

NEMA MG 1 – 1998, Motors and Generators.




ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 26
Second Category

The equipment falling into the second category is reviewed in the following sections with an
explanation regarding the information found from investigating the standards and conducting
manufacturer surveys. Also presented are the test plans for each of the second category
equipment. All those devices classified as Category II (or second category) can be determined
from entries in Table 3.

Measurements

Equipment placed in this category has been designated as those devices for which loss
information is known, however the quality of the loss numbers is uncertain. To remedy this lack
of certainty, measurements of environmental heat gains are necessary. The tests are necessary to
draw a conclusion as to the trend between the published data and the measured data.

The test procedure to be used with each type of equipment is, in certain cases, unique and, in
other cases, similar to that required for other equipment types. If the procedure to test one item
is the same as that specified for another item, then the test setup or apparatus will not be
presented again.




ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 27
Cables and Cable Trays

Characteristics of electrical cables have been studied by different investigators for well over one
hundred years. The bibliography presented by Anders, 1997 adequately demonstrates this point.
Various standards governing cables are available and the literature on cables is well documented
as seen in IEEE Std. 835, IEEE Standard Power Cable, Ampacity Tables and NEMA WC-51,
Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays. The most valuable reference, however, is a
recently published book by Anders, 1997 (see references at the end of the section). This book
provides details on construction of cables, losses in cables, and methods to compute capacity of
cables under different conditions. The range of consideration of cable trays is from 12 to 30 inch
widths in increments of 6 inches. Also, the AC voltage level of the cables in the tray is either
600 V, 5 kV, or 15 kV.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

IEEE and NEMA standards available for cables address constructional details, ampacity issues,
losses, and issues related to testing of physical characteristics of cables. The most significant
standard is IEEE Std 835-1994, IEEE Standard Power Cable Ampacity Tables. Also significant
to cable trays is NEMA WC-51-1986, Ampacities of Cables in Open-top Cable Trays. The book
by Anders is the most comprehensive on the subjects and it includes all the issues discussed in
the IEEE and NEMA standards. The original approach to developing cable ampacities was
presented in the pioneering paper by Neher and McGrath, 1957.

Equipment Heat Losses

Cable heat losses are caused by I
2
R losses in the conductor. These heat losses depend upon the
cable material, e.g. copper or aluminum, the current level, and the current type, either AC or DC.
The limiting factor for the cable heat loss is the temperature rise of the conductor, since too high
a temperature rise will damage the electrical insulation. The ampacity of the cable, the
maximum ability to safely conduct electric current, is the subject of the cited standards and
references.

Losses take place in different parts of the cable. The most significant are the resistive losses in
the main conductor. These losses however are influenced by the skin effect and proximity effect.
Expressions to account for these effects are available in the literature and can be very easily
included in any loss calculations. Other significant losses take place in the sheath of the cable.
The sheath is usually made of solid lead or aluminum, or concentric copper or aluminum. Sheath
losses consist of two parts, one is due to eddy currents and the other due to circulating currents.
Circulating currents are induced in the sheath due to magnetic interaction of main conductors
with the sheath. Circulating current in sheaths exist only if sheaths of two or more cables are
bonded together at least at two locations. Eddy current losses are much smaller than circulating
current losses and are generally neglected. The power cables also have dielectric losses in the
insulating material and they are dependent upon the electric field across the dielectric. These
losses are significant only at transmission voltages (above 69 kV).
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 28

In power plants, power cables are routed in cable trays, which come in 12 to 30 inch widths in 6
inch increments. In special situations, such as nuclear plants, cables are routed through conduits,
mainly for safety. Trays and conduits will have some eddy current losses, but they are extremely
small and, thus, are neglected. Hence, if sheaths are not connected, the bulk of the cable losses
are the resistive losses in the main conductors. Thus, if the number of cables and their physical
arrangement in the trays are known, total losses per foot of that specific cable tray can be
computed. Rubin, 1979 assumed typical cable arrangements in trays of different sizes to obtain a
rough approximation of losses. However, he has neither specified the cable sizes and
arrangement of cables in the trays nor the method used to calculate the values. Thus, it is
impossible to duplicate his results just so that his assumptions could be identified. Moreover, his
results are not of much use since different cable sizes and arrangement could be used in a
specific tray size.

To follow is a discussion and some calculations to demonstrate that there is essentially an upper
limit to the amount of heat that can be produced by a full cable tray of a given width. Based
upon this discussion, a test plan is presented which accounts for tray width, cable size, number of
cables, insulation and sheath type, loading, and ambient temperature.

Heat Loss in Cable Trays

The National Electrical Code specifies the maximum number of conductors and their ampacities
in cable trays, from which the maximum possible heat loss can be calculated. It is recognized
that trays will rarely be filled with the maximum number of conductors and that these conductors
will rarely be operated at maximum current, so substantial discount factors will need to be used.
The following looks only at the maximum possible heat loss that meets the NEC as an
illustration of the calculation.

Conductors may be either copper or aluminum. Only copper will be used in the following
discussion.

Copper wire maintains its integrity to very high temperatures, but its insulation is only specified
to temperatures such as 60, 75, and 90
o
C. A given insulation may be put on a conductor in
different thicknesses, which makes a difference in how many conductors fit in a tray. The sizes
of conductor plus insulation are given in NEC Table 5. (The Table appears after Article 830 and
before Appendix A of the NEC). Many of the insulation types cover only a few wire sizes.
There are four families of insulation that cover a range of conductor size from 1 gauge or smaller
to 1000 kcmil or larger. The first includes types RH, RHH, RHW, and RHW-2. The second
includes types TW, THW, THHW, and THW-2. The third includes THHN, THWN, and
THWN-2. And the fourth includes XHHW, XHHW-2, and XHH. Once the conductor size and
insulation type is selected, this table can be used to find the diameter of the cable (conductor plus
insulation).

The next step is to find out how many cables can be placed in a cable tray. This is prescribed in
Article 318, Cable Trays. There are four main combinations: multi-conductor cables versus
single conductor cables, and 2000 volts or less versus greater than 2000 volts. Then there are
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 29
other constraints based on wire size. It also makes a difference if the cable tray is covered or not.
And there is a separate calculation for the case where the cables are spaced apart at least one
diameter as opposed to the case where they can touch each other. All of the rules were
developed with heating effects in mind, so any combination should not result in vastly different
losses.

Consider a 6 inch uncovered tray with single conductor cables of 1/0 copper and THHW
insulation, rated at 600 V. Table 5 gives the diameter of this cable as 0.532 in and the area as
0.2223 in
2
. Article 318-10(a)(4) states “Where any of the single conductor cables are Nos. 1/0
through 4/0, the sum of the diameters of all single conductor tables shall not exceed the cable
tray width.” The ratio 6/0.532 = 11.3 so the maximum number of cables is 11.

Article 318-11(b)(2) contains the statement “Where installed according to the requirements of
Section 318-10, the ampacities for No. 1/0 through 500 kcmil single conductor cables in
uncovered cable trays shall not exceed 65 percent of the allowable ampacities in Tables 310-17
and 317-19.” Table 310-17 is for insulation ratings up to 90
o
C while Table 310-19 covers the
range 150
o
C through 250
o
C. Type THHW is listed in the second column of Table 310-17. The
allowable ampacity is given as 230 A for a single cable in free air at 30
o
C. This figure is
multiplied by 0.65 to get the allowable ampacity for each cable in the tray, which is (0.65)(230)
= 150 A.

The worst case heating loss is when all 11 cables are carrying 150 A. The dc resistance of 1/0
copper is 0.09827 ohms per 1000 ft at 20
o
C. The power loss to the environment under these
conditions would be
P = (11 conductors)(0.09827
kft

)(150)
2
= 24,300 W/kft = 24.3 W/ft.

One problem with this computation is that resistance increases with temperature. If the
conductors started at 20
o
C, they would not remain at that temperature for long. The temperature
coefficient of annealed copper is 0.00393 ohm/ohm/degree C at 20
o
C. If the temperature of the
copper increased to 50
o
C, the power loss would increase by 24.3(0.00393)(50-20) = 2.86 W/ft.
It is obvious that conductor temperature is an important parameter in determining the heat losses
to the surrounding space.

In general, the resistance R
2
of a conductor at temperature T
2
in terms of the resistance R
1
at
temperature T
1
is given by

R
2
= R
1
( 1 +α (T
2
- T
1
))

where α is positive number specifying the fractional change in electrical resistance per change in
conductor temperature. This calculation is similar to the one carried out for transformer winding
electrical resistance.

A second problem with this computation is that skin effect is ignored. This was done solely for
the purpose of this discussion. In general, the resistance with alternating currents is always
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 30
higher than with direct currents. The effect is negligible for small diameters, but should be
considered for larger diameters.

A third problem with this calculation is that interactions with surrounding materials are ignored.
How the cable is installed must be accounted for in finding the overall heat gain. The lack of
consideration of the surrounding materials was done simply to demonstrate the influence of these
materials on the heat gains for the purposes of the current discussion. If the cable is resting on an
aluminum surface, the magnetic fields will induce eddy currents in the aluminum. If the material
is steel, there will be both eddy current and hysteresis losses. The National Electrical Code
attempts to deal with all these effects in Table 9, “Alternating-Current Resistance and Reactance
for 600 –Volt Cables, 3-Phase, 60 Hz, 75
o
C, -Three Single Conductors in Conduit”. This Table
lists resistance values of 0.12 Ω /kft for PVC conduit, 0.13Ω /kft for aluminum conduit, and 0.12
w/kft for steel conduit. PVC is non-conducting so the listed values are just the resistance of the
copper. The dc resistance of 1/0 copper at 75
o
C is 0.1195 Ω /kft, so skin effect does not affect
the tabulated value, given to two significant digits, up to this size. For larger sizes, skin effect
does make a difference in the table. At 1000 kcmil, the tabulated ac resistance is 19% higher
than the dc resistance of the same cable.

For AC conductors, it would be good practice to use Table 9, rather the dc resistance. However,
if the conductor temperature is known to be less than 75
o
C, the values given in Table 9 can be
reduced by using the equation shown above. Using the 75
o
C AC resistance for 1/0 cable, the
loss would be

P = (11)(0.12)(150)
2
= 29,7000 W/kft = 29.7 W/ft.

What happens if another option is chosen? Suppose Article 318-11(b)(3) is used. This article
states: “Where single conductors are installed in a single layer in uncovered cable trays, with a
maintained space of not less than one cable diameter between individual conductors, the
ampacity of Nos. 1/0 and larger cables shall not exceed the allowable ampacities in Tables 310-
17 and 310-19.” This reduces the allowable number of cables in a 6 inch tray from 11 to 6, but
increases the allowable ampacity from 65% of 230 A to the full 230 A. The maximum power
loss in the tray is now

P = (6)(0.12)(230)
2
= 38,000 W/kft = 38 W/ft.

Consider a new example, using 750 kcmil copper wire and THHW insulation, in a 6 inch tray.
From Table 5, the diameter is 1.218 in and the area is 1.1652 in
2
. If the tray contains
conductors, all of the same size, then Article 318-10(a)(2) applies which states: “Where are all of
the cables from 250 kcmil, the sum of the cross-sectional areas of all single conductor cables
shall not exceed the maximum allowable cable fill area in Column 1 of Table 318-10, for the
appropriate cable tray width." Table 318-10 specifies a maximum cable area of 6.5 in
2
for a 6
inch tray. The ratio 6/1.1652 = 5.58, so the maximum number of cables is 5.

Article 318-11(b)(1) specifies that the ampacity of this size cable can not exceed 75%
of the number shown in Table 310-17, which is 785 A. The result is (0.75)(785) = 589 A.
Table 9 gives an ac resistance of 0.019 Ω/kft. The power loss is
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 31

P = (5)(0.019)(589)
2
= 33,000 W/kft = 33 W / ft.

Measurement Uncertainty

Calculations similar to the above could be performed for several wire sizes, a “thick”
and a “thin” insulation, multi-conductor cables and single conductor cables, and different
tray widths, to find a typical maximum power loss per foot. Based on the above examples,
this number is probably in the range of 30 to 35 W/ft for 6 inch tray. Not all trays will have the
maximum number of cables, and not all cables will be carrying a maximum current. If the
voltage drop is used as a determining criterion rather than maximum ampacity, one would expect
to see the wire size increase, with a resulting drop in losses of at lease a factor or two. If
efficiency is used instead of voltage drop, the losses might decrease by a factor of ten. By
efficiency, we mean using the optimum wire size to minimize the sum of capital and operating
costs.

For example, suppose a building is designed with 100 ft of tray that dissipates 30 W/ ft
continuously. The total dissipation is 3 kW, which results in (3)(8760) = 26,280 kWh / year.
This is multiplied by the cost of kWh to get an annual payment. If this energy is being extracted
by air conditioning, this represents an additional cost. An appropriate interest rate and time
period can be used to find a present worth of energy loss. If the incremental cost of a larger wire
diameter is less than the present worth of electricity saved, then the obvious choice is to install a
larger wire. In these days of relatively cheap copper and relatively expensive electricity, the
economic optimum could easily be several wire sizes larger than the minimum specified by the
NEC. In such a case, the NEC may not even be a good starting place for determining losses. It
would not be unrealistic for the actual losses to be in the range of 1 to 3 W /ft, rather than the 30
W/ft calculated above.

Uncertainty related to the loss calculations themselves is small, i.e. if all of the many factors
cited above were known then the heat losses produced by the calculations would be close to the
actual conductor power losses.

Manufacturers

No manufacturers were contacted during Part A of Phase I concerning cable power losses owing
to the quality of the loss models. Likewise, no manufacturer list was created.

Information Deficiencies

Of concern here is the loss produced by a single conductor and the power dissipated by an array
of conductors in a cable tray. In order to construct tables for use by HVAC engineers, both
situations must be considered. The ability to calculate the cable tray power losses is readily
available. Calculations are necessary to produce these tables. At the present time, these tables
do not exist.


ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 32
Test Plan

The test plan for cables and cable trays is divided into the following steps:

1) Construct tables for single conductor power loss which include factors of conductor
material, size, insulation and sheathing, and ambient temperature. These losses will
depend on the load current and the tables are to be constructed with that fact well
represented. Should any of the factors mentioned above be found not to be a
significant influence on the results, it will then be removed from consideration.

2) As illustrated by the discussion, it was seen that the maximum losses produced by a
given size cable tray was not heavily dependent upon the conductor size. The test
plan for cable trays consists of randomly choosing the many cited factors for a given
tray width. By repeating this calculation many times, each time selecting a new batch
of factors, the intent is to arrive at a statistical mean loss for the given cable tray
width.

It should be appreciated that the test plan to be used here consists exclusively of a numerical
calculation. The mathematical loss models for cables are of sufficient quality that the needed
results can be obtained through the evaluation of these models.

These tasks are to be completed in Phase II of this project. No additional resources or equipment
will be needed for the execution of the steps just listed.

References

G.J. Anders, Rating of Electric Power Cables, IEEE Press, New York, 1997.

IEEE Std. 835-1994 IEEE Standard Power Cable, Ampacity Tables.

Mark W. Earley (Editor), Joseph V. Sheehan (Editor), John M. Caloggero, National Electrical
Code Handbook 1999 (National Electrical Code Handbook, Natl. Fire Protection Assn.; ISBN:
0877654379, 8th Ed, 1999.

Neher, J.H. and M.H. McGrath, “The Calculation of the Temperature Rise and Load Capability
of Cable Systems,” Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 76,
1957.

NEMA WC-51-1986 Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays.




ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 33
Adjustable Speed Drives

The standard NEMA ICS 7 – 1993 defines a “drive” as a combination of the power converter,
motor, motor mounted auxiliary devices (encoders, tachometers, thermal switches and detectors,
air blowers, heaters, and vibration sensors). A drive system is an interconnected combination of
equipment that provides a means of adjusting the speed of a mechanical load coupled to a motor.
The concern of this work are three phase adjustable speed drives in sizes ranging from 25 to 500
hp in 50 hp increments.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

There are many standards which treat adjustable speed drives yet only one treats the
determination of losses. This standard is the withdrawn ANSI/IEEE Std. 995 - 1987 titled “IEEE
Recommended Practice for Efficiency Determination of Alternating-Current Adjustable-Speed
Drives.” Most of the other standards are issued by NEMA and UL and cover construction and
manufacturing details. Testing is done primarily to verify ratings and to assure safety
considerations. A useful discussion of adjustable speed drives is found in Chapter 40 of the
ASHRAE Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
Handbook. However, no loss information is presented.

Equipment Heat Losses

It is quite common to find power loss figures for adjustable speed drives listed on manufacturer
web sites. This common situation occurs despite the lack of clear, widely used standard
covering equipment heat loss. Despite the absence of a standard, data on heat losses is plentiful.
No information was discovered from which the quality of the data can be inferred nor has any
published presentation of manufacturer power loss measurement methods for adjustable speed
drives been located.

In examining the reported rate of heat losses, it has been found that for a given horsepower
rating, the loss figures from different manufacturers vary widely. The conclusion regarding the
reason for the difference in loss figures is one of technology, not all adjustable speed drives work
on the same principles. Some technologies are more efficient than others. A comparison of data
from one manufacturer with another is not straight forward since different manufacturers use
different techniques for design of variable frequency drives. Some examples are: different
manufacturers use either silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), insulated gate bipolar transistor
(IGBT), or metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) for the electronics
circuits in the drives. These drives are either pulse width modulated (PWM) or pulse amplitude
modulated (PAM) and their internal operating frequency varies from 2 kHz to 15 kHz.
Moreover, these drives are designed sometimes for constant torque operation while others are
designed for variable torque operation. Thus, it is expected that the losses reported by different
manufacturers will span a wide range and that is indeed reflected by the data found in this study.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 34
Measurement Uncertainty

No uncertainty numbers are available with the loss figures available from manufacturer web sites
and catalogs. It is desirable to have a confidence interval to attach to the loss figures presented
by manufacturers.

Manufacturers

A list of adjustable speed drive manufacturers was compiled and these manufacturers were
contacted through e-mail concerning losses and loss test methods. The results of this survey
were used in completing Table 3. We were able to identify 21 manufacturers associated with
adjustable speed drives trough the NEMA web site. All of these identified manufacturers were
contacted through e-mail concerning equipment heat losses and/or efficiencies. Of the 21
contacted, five manufacturers replied. Of those not replying, loss data were found on two web
sites bringing to seven the total number of manufacturers having available loss data.

Information Deficiencies

Owing to the good quantity of uncertain power loss data, adjustable speed drives are placed in
the second category. There is a sizable amount of data available on adjustable speed drive heat
losses, however, the quality of this data has not been ascertained. Since so many manufacturers
supply loss information for adjustable speed drives, supplying this information appears to be a
competitive issue. Assuming that this is a competitive issue, then the loss numbers are
concluded to be on the low side or the efficiency was determined at the most favorable load
level. Before a table of losses can be completed, some quantification of the loss figure
uncertainty and validity must be made. This is a Phase II activity.

Test Plan

The test plan is divided into the following steps:

1) The construction of the test apparatus shown in Figure 1 is the first step of the test
plan. A thermally insulated box will be constructed. Inlet and outlet power lines will
be available as well as cooling air for maintaining the environmental temperature.
The temperature of the environmental air in addition to the inlet and outlet air will be
measured by means of thermocouples. The air flow rate is measured by means of a
turbine flow meter. The data acquisition will be accomplished by a laptop computer.
The fan speed will be controlled by the computer to maintain the interior temperature
at a desired level. The AC motor can be loaded by a DC generator tied to a resistor
bank or to an eddy current brake (not shown in the figure). This allows testing at
different power levels. The output power of the AC motor is determined through the
measurement of shaft torque (through moment arm and scale) and shaft speed. By
knowing the efficiency of the motor and the motor output power, the load level of the
ASD can be determined. The rejected heat is determined by

T C m Q
p
∆ = D
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 35

where Q is the heat gain, mD the mass flow rate of the air, C
p
is the specific heat of air at
an average inlet and outlet temperature, and ∆T is the temperature difference between the
ambient air and the heated air. The calorimeter was chosen to measure the dissipated
heat over other methods since it is simple and accurate. Rejected heat could be
determined by measuring the input and output power. This is not as easy as it sounds.
The variable frequency supply is accomplished though electronic switching of the power,
a process rich in noise and voltage spikes. Even if it were possible to separately measure
the voltage and current (and then compute the power), the measuring instruments must
have a flat frequency response over a very wide band of frequencies since the frequency
content of the current and voltage signals would be so different. Also, computing a
difference in input and output power is a process that can introduce its own significant
error.

Adjustable Speed Drive
AC
Supply
Variable
DC Supply Ambient Air
Exhaust Air
Thermocouples
Thermocouple
Flowmeter
Resistor
Bank
50 HP
AC Motor
DC
Generator
Fan
Insulated Box
Figure 1: ASD Test Apparatus


2) Once the test apparatus is constructed, the device will be calibrated so that the
uncertainty of any test results will be known. The goal of the calibration process will
be to achieve a measurement uncertainty of ±10%. The calibration process will
consist of introducing a known heat source into the calorimeter and recording the
output. A resistive bank whose current, voltage, and power dissipation can be
measured externally through other instruments of known uncertainty would provide
the necessary information for calibrating the test device.

3) Given the range of ASDs to be covered by ASHRAE TRP 1104, only two sizes of
drives can be tested with the given apparatus, these are 25 and 50 hp. The intent is to
vary the load and the environmental temperature to determine the power loss.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 36
4) For the two sizes tested, the goal is to draw conclusions concerning the quality of the
published loss information, specifically the correctness of the published heat loss
figure and the variation of heat loss with room temperature and load. In addition,
there are a number of other concerns to be addressed. These are:
A) Is the published information higher or lower than the measured data?
B) Is it possible to infer the quality of the published information for the
equipment sizes not tested?
C) How can diversity be determined for those devices not tested?
D) Will tests at higher power levels be necessary?

5) Based on the test results and the data available from manufacturers, tables will be
constructed showing the loss information and confidence intervals.

In order to assemble the test apparatus, several pieces of equipment need to be purchased. These
are:

1) 50 hp, three phase induction motor $ 500
2) Laptop computer $2000
3) Data acquisition equipment $1000
4) Shop time $ 500
5) Load cell, turbine flow meter, and speed transducer $1000
6) DC power supply, amp, and fan $1000
7) Insulating board, TC wire, miscellaneous equipment $ 500
TOTAL $6500

The items listed here are covered by the project budget.

Additional resources necessary for the tests are the adjustable speed drive units themselves.
Owing to the price of adjustable speed drives, purchasing these devices for measurement
purposes is expensive. It is necessary to rely on equipment donations and/or loans in order to
accomplish this task.


References

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2000 ASHRAE
Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment Handbook, Chapter 40,
“Motors, Motor Controls, and Variable-Speed Drives,” ASHRAE, 2000.

ANSI/IEEE Std. 995 – 1987, IEEE Recommended Practice for Efficiency Determination of
Alternating-Current Adjustable-Speed Drives.

NEMA ICS 7 – 1993, Industrial Control and Adjustable Speed Drives.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 37
Battery Chargers

A battery charger is classified as a converter since it converts AC power to DC power. Battery
chargers can be used to replenish power supplies of mobile units such as fork lifts or backup
emergency devices such as IC engine starters for generators.

The range of battery charger sizes to be studied in this work is 100 to 600 amp in 100 amp
increments.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

In searching for standards for battery chargers, four have been found. There are three UL
standards and one NEMA standard. The three UL documents, UL 458, Power
Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land Vehicles and Marine
Crafts, UL 508C Power Conversion Equipment, and UL 1564 Industrial Battery Chargers are
written for chargers for mobile vehicles. The NEMA standard, NEMA PE 5, Utility Type
Battery Chargers is not aimed at a specific application. The NEMA document is the only one
specifying a test for the measurement of efficiency. The efficiency is determined by measuring
the total power supplied to the charger through the AC connection with a wattmeter and by
determining the charger output power by measurements of the output voltage and current. The
efficiency is then the ratio of the DC volt-amp output divided by the input watts and the fraction
is expressed in per cent. The power not delivered to the load is lost to the surrounding space.
The input power includes the power delivered to accessories such as panel lights and fans which
also adds entirely to the environmental heat gain. NEMA PE 5 also states in the documentation
section, “Instruction manuals and test reports shall be made available for all chargers.” The
tests performed on battery chargers are divided into two classes designated as “design tests” and
“production tests.” The efficiency test is part of the design test sequence. Design tests consist of
measurements made on the device to assure its performance with the NEMA PE 5 standard and
to determine the device performance characteristics. Design tests are usually performed when
design changes occur or for new products. Design tests are not performed on each production
unit.

While the NEMA PE 5 standard appears to provide exactly the information needed by this study,
no manufacturer of battery chargers was found to use the standard.

Equipment Heat Losses

Information on battery charger heat loss was found on some manufacturer web sites. These
losses are presented in the form of BTU/hr values and efficiencies. Some manufacturers have
presented curves of charger efficiency as a function of load current. In examining these battery
charger efficiency curves, the efficiency of the device generally appears to peak near 50% of
load. Generally, the efficiency curves are concave downward with the greatest difference
between the minimum and maximum efficiency less than 10 %. In examining the tables of
published efficiency, it appears that the peak value is reported as opposed to an average value.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 38
No information has been found on the way these losses are measured. Based on this information,
the conclusion drawn as to the quality of the loss data is that the heat losses at rated load will be
greater than reported, whereas the heat losses at a fractional load will probably be closer.
However, no conclusion can be drawn as to the validity of the data since no information on
testing procedure has been found.

Manufacturers

Only three manufacturers of chargers have been found A list of battery charger manufacturers
was created and these manufacturers were contacted by e-mail and by telephone to ask about
heat loss and test methods. The results of the survey were used in completing Table 3.
Information from all three manufacturers is available. One manufacturer has data for the
complete range of equipment specified in the work statement, while the other two manufacturers
present power loss numbers for only part of the range.

Measurement Uncertainty

No measurement uncertainty for charger heat loss or efficiency is specified by the standards. No
manufacturer has provided any information regarding the uncertainty of their published loss
numbers. One battery charger manufacturer used the efficiency value of 85% for calculating the
power loss numbers for all of its products, another used 92%. No conclusions can be drawn as to
the correctness of the loss measurements.

Information Deficiencies

Since loss information has been found, battery chargers are placed in Category II. In addition to
the tables to be produced by this study, other information deficiencies consist of insufficient data
at certain current levels and a complete lack of power loss measurement uncertainty. The
information needed to complete this work is to ascertain the quality of the loss information.
Only one manufacturer supplies the data for the entire range required by ASHRAE TRP 1104. It
is necessary to test equipment from the other manufacturers to determine brackets on the losses
of a unit of a particular size. Battery chargers come in different voltage levels, such as 12, 24, or
48 volts for smaller current ratings and 24 or 48 volts for the higher current ratings. The voltage
levels need to be reflected in the tabulated data to be produced by this study if the different
voltage levels are significant to the power losses.

Test Plan

In order to acquire the information necessary to complete this study, a test plan will be initiated.
This test plan consists of using a modified version of the apparatus shown in Figure 1 to provide
the measurement data. The test plan consists of:

1) The test setup of Figure 1 is to be modified for the battery charger. The battery
charger is placed in the insulated box. The output of the battery charger is delivered
to either a resistive load, a DC motor and eddy-current brake, or the DC motor
driving the AC induction machine as a generator connected to a resistive load. The
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 39
charger output voltage and current will be measured. The voltage measurement will
be made with the data acquisition equipment which is part of the test setup shown in
Figure 1. A transducer will be necessary to measure the DC current. The
measurement of output voltage and current is necessary to determining the load with
which the battery charger is being operated. The laboratory kVA constraints
discussed in the section on adjustable speed drives do not limit out ability to make
tests anywhere in the range of battery charger ratings. As stated earlier, the device of
Figure 1 will be calibrated so that the uncertainty is no larger than ±10%. Since the
test setup will be slightly changed for these measurements, the calibration procedure
will again be performed to check the validity of the measurements performed in the
evaluation. In order to test the complete range of battery chargers, chargers of 100 A,
400 A, and 600 A capacity will be tested. Testing one of these devices from two
different manufacturers will provide the information necessary for this study.

2) The price of battery chargers is large compared to the total project budget. It is
necessary to rely on equipment donations and/or loans in order to conduct these tests.

3) The goal of the testing will be to verify published heat loss values. One manufacturer
supplies curves of battery charger efficiency as a function of load. If these curves
could be verified, then an extremely good collection of data will be had on which to
base diversity information.

4) The final step of the test plan is to use the measured information to construct the
tables necessary for the HVAC design engineer.

The resource necessary to construct the test apparatus is a DC current transducer, which will
require $500 to purchase. In order to conduct the tests themselves, battery chargers need to be
obtained. If these items could be loaned or donated, then the tests can be accomplished.

The steps described in this test plan are to be completed during Phase II.

References

NEMA PE 5 – 1996, Utility Type Battery Chargers.

UL 458 – 1993, Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land
Vehicles and Marine Crafts.

UL 508C – 1996, Power Conversion Equipment.

UL 1564- 1993, Industrial Battery Chargers.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 40
Inverters

An inverter is a device used for converting DC power to variable or constant frequency AC
power for applications such as motor speed control or an uninterruptible power supply. This
process of power inversion could be carried out with a DC motor and AC generator. The devices
under consideration accomplish the inversion with solid state electronics. The range of inverters
under consideration consists of single phase units of ratings 20, 30, 50, 75, and 100 kVA and a
three phase unit of 150 kVA.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

No standards were found which treat inverter efficiency or heat dissipation. The only standard
found in the database searches addressing inverter manufacturing and testing was UL 458 titled
“Standard for Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land
Vehicles and Marine Crafts.” Of the testing covered by this standard, no procedures or
requirements are specified which treat power loss or efficiency.

Equipment Heat Losses

Information on inverter heat loss was found on some manufacturer web sites. These losses are
presented in the form of efficiencies. One company faxed a data sheet that contained heat loss in
BTU’s/hr. No information has been found on the way that the efficiency or BTU’s/hr were
measured. Likewise, no uncertainty information is presented with the power loss values or
efficiencies.

Manufacturers

A list of manufacturers of inverters was created and these manufacturers were surveyed through
e-mail contacts and by examination of company web sites. The results of this survey were used
in completing Table 3. One manufacturer has data for the complete range of equipment, while
two other manufacturers only have partial data. From the NEMA web page 18 manufacturers of
inverters were identified. After some visits were made to web sites, 10 manufacturers were
eliminated owing to the size of the manufactured inverters, the company only manufactures
products related to inverters, or the company is no longer an inverter manufacturer. Of the
remaining eight companies, e-mail contacts were made and no manufacturers responded. Loss
information has been found on two web sites and another manufacturer faxed a sheet containing
losses after a phone contact was made.

Measurement Uncertainty

Given the data presented by some of the manufacturers, no conclusion can be reached as to the
uncertainty of the measured test data since neither the test method is known nor is the uncertainty
of the instruments used in conducting the test provided.

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Information Deficiency

Since efficiency values have been found for inverters, the task remains to verify this information.
Owing to this fact, this equipment is placed in Category II. That which is not known is the
uncertainty of the loss numbers, how uniform the loss information is for different manufacturers
of the same size of equipment, how the ambient temperature influences the rejected heat, and
how the power losses vary with load.

Test Plan

In order to determine the information required in this study, testing of inverters must be
performed. The testing of the inverters is broken into the following steps:

1) The inverters will also be placed into an insulated box as indicated in Figure 1. The
uncertainty goal of this test apparatus, as stated previously, is ±10%. The major
difference between the test apparatus for inverters and adjustable speed drives is the
power source. For adjustable speed drives, the power source was a three phase
supply. A DC power source, which is available in the laboratory, is necessary to run
the inverter. The same power limitation applies to the inverter test apparatus, thus it
will only be possible to test single phase inverters of 20 and 30 kVA sizes. The
output of the inverter will be delivered to a resistive load. The load of the inverter
will be determined through computing the time average of the power delivered to the
resistance bank. The testing of a 20 and a 30 kVA units at different input voltage
levels will supply the information necessary for this study. Owing to the price of
inverters, the purchase of these devices is expensive. It is necessary to rely on
equipment donations and/or loans in order to conduct these tests.

2) The questions to be answered by the tests are:
A) How well do the measured results agree with the published data?
B) Does uniformity exist in similar size inverter losses from different
manufacturers?
C) What role does the input voltage levels play in the determination of power
losses?
D) Can any conclusions be drawn concerning the loss information from inverter
sizes not tested?
E) What is the influence of load level (diversity) and ambient temperature on
heat loss values?
F) Are measurements at higher power levels necessary?

3) The final step of the test process is to arrange the loss information is tables for the
purposes of this project. This table will present the loss data together with
uncertainty information.

No additional resources will be necessary to construct the test apparatus. Ideally, in order to
conduct the tests, at least two matched inverters of the 20 and 30 kVA sizes are necessary. Also
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
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ideally, having inverters from at least three different manufacturers will provide answers
regarding uniformity of losses.

The test plan describes activities to be performed during Phase II of this project.

Reference

UL 458 – 1993, Standard for Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems
for Land Vehicles and Marine Crafts.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
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Circuit Breakers

The circuit breakers in this study consist of both low and medium voltage AC devices and DC
breakers. The actuator of the breaker does not contribute a significant portion of the overall
device rate of heat loss. The power loss of the circuit breaker comes from I
2
R ohmic heating.
The ranges of devices under consideration consist of DC breakers from 100 to 1500 amp, low
voltage breakers up to 4000 amp, and medium voltage breakers from 1200 to 3000 amp.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

There is only one standard which comes close to treating breaker power loss and this standard is
IEEE Std. C37.09, Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis. According to IEEE Std. C37.09, the DC resistance is measured by
passing 100 amps through the breaker and then determining the voltage drop. The motivation for
testing the DC resistance is simply to determine the continuity of the conducting path. These are
over a hundred standards in the IEEE/ANSI C37 series and C37.09 is the only standard which
provides a test procedure for the breaker DC resistance. No breaker standard reviewed in this
work was found to address circuit breaker heat loss.

Equipment Heat Losses

The circuit breaker dissipates heat through I
2
R losses. The DC resistance provides only part of
the picture for AC devices since skin effect tends to increase the resistance value. Also,
conductor temperature plays a roll in determining resistance. The influence of a conducting
enclosure around the breaker can increase the losses of AC breakers through stray loss created by
eddy-currents in the enclosure material. Proximity effect of the individual breaker poles,
mounted close to one another, can also increase the heat loss of the breaker compared to a single
pole. The environmental temperature could also play a roll in influencing the conductor
temperature and the breaker resistance. All of the items mentioned here have some influence on
the total breaker heat loss.

The thermal performance of the breaker is of concern to the electrical design engineer.
Overheating, especially in those breakers that are thermally activated is to be avoided. This
overheating, caused by excessive current, alters the shape (through thermal expansion) of the
latch holding the breaker in the “on” or energized position. Once the latch changes shape, the
spring pressing against the breaker switch all the while it is energized is free to move the breaker
to the “off” position, thus, tripping the breaker. Should overheating, caused by other factors such
as the environment, take place in the absence of excessive current then nuisance tripping of the
breaker occurs. This information provides an upper limit for the breaker conductor temperature
and, as a result, the power loss.

No information has been found in this work that accounts for all of the various influencing
conditions cited above. A discussion on how the breaker heat losses can be modeled is now
presented. Increases in conductor resistance above the DC value caused by skin effect might
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possibly be estimated through analytical or empirical corrections. Likewise, the DC resistance
could be measured at room temperature using a current much smaller than the device rating
which could be several thousand amps. In this case, at the rated current, the breaker conductor
temperature approaches the maximum temperature rise specified by the standards. If the DC
resistance was measured at reduced current and at room temperature, then the temperature rise
caused by the rated AC current increases the electrical resistance above the measured DC value
corrected for skin effect. By using a resistance corrected for both skin effect and temperature,
the I
2
R calculation at rated current might provide a useful estimate of the overall device losses.
The study of the increase in breaker heat losses with an enclosure might provide another
empirical means to estimate the enclosure influence. Likewise, the determination of the
sensitivity of the heat losses to ambient temperature, with and without an enclosure, might
provide a way to model the power loss should this be a significant factor. This brief discussion
highlights a strategy that might provide a means of predicting the breaker heat loss.

Manufacturers

A list of circuit breaker manufacturers was assembled and the manufacturers were contacted by
e-mail concerning breaker losses and loss test methods. This information was used in
completing Table 3. From one manufacturer, a catalog containing the DC power loss values was
obtained while from another a spreadsheet providing loss as a function of load current for
breakers of several frame sizes was obtained. The purpose of the DC power loss values,
provided by one manufacturer, is to provide information useful to field maintenance and testing
of breakers. The DC power loss of an AC breaker is measured by passing a DC current through
the breaker equal in value to the rated RMS current. No information on the measurement
uncertainty of the manufacturer supplied data was found.

Measurement Uncertainty

The standard C37.09 does not address instrument uncertainty in the measurement of the DC
resistance. If the DC resistance is to provide a possible means to model the heat losses, the
quality of the resistance value must be known. As stated earlier, no breaker manufacturer
measurement uncertainty information has been found.

Information Deficiencies

Starting with the DC power loss value, the DC resistance can be found. The uncertainty of the
DC resistance must be determined. If the heat loss is to be based upon the DC ohms to which
empirical factors are applied, then the quality of the base resistance value must be known. The
influence of AC skin effect, load created conductor temperature increase, enclosures, and
ambient temperature has to be determined in order to adequately account for all the contributing
factors of breaker heat loss. None of this information on influences is currently available.

Test Plan

The goal of the test plan is to provide a means of predicting the heat loss of a circuit breaker
which accounts for the various factors mentioned. To achieve this end, the plan has as a first
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sub-goal to determine the uncertainty of the power loss information that is publicly available.
The second sub-goal is to quantify the influence of all of the other factors. Based upon the
measured data, a decision on whether the breaker power losses can be approached through
empirical factors or not has to be made. If empirical factors can be used then the treatment of
breaker losses would be a fast and simple calculation since once the breaker DC resistance is
corrected for skin effect, temperature, enclosure, and ambient temperature then the heat loss of
the breaker can be estimated given the load current. If the empirical approach is not practical,
then tables of loss information must be developed. The initial approach is to study the loss
influence factors for several breakers in order to build a body of information for determining the
empirical factors or to construct tables to satisfy the needs of this study. Several breakers will
have to be tested to assemble this information and to provide a basis of deciding how to model
the breaker losses. This activity would be conducted during Phase II of this work.

Before the steps of the test plan are enumerated, a discussion of the measurement of breaker
power loss will be presented. This discussion will lead to the construction of an additional test
apparatus.

The philosophy of breaker usage is that if the breaker performs its desired task, and if the dc
resistance is below some specified value, then whatever the losses happen to be are just accepted
as part of the cost of doing business. One reason for this situation is that circuit breaker (CB)
power losses are difficult to measure. One obvious way to measure the losses would be to place
wattmeters on both the line side and the load side of the breaker and simply subtract the two
readings. Since the readings would be so close, subtractive cancellation would render the result
useless. To illustrate this point, consider the example of the three-pole, 300 A, 480 V CB
operated at the rated voltage and current supplying a unity power factor load. The power is
( )( ) 000 , 250 480 300 3 = W. Based on the tests of a CB removed from service, the power loss is
probably no more than 100 W. This is one part in 2500, virtually impossible to measure.

If it is assumed that dielectric losses are independent of ohmic losses, then it becomes possible to
test a CB on the bench with a modest amount of test equipment. A wattmeter could be used to
measure the loss at rated voltage and no current to determine the dielectric losses. To determine
the load losses, rated current could be passed through the breaker at low voltage and these power
losses could be measured by a wattmeter. The sum of the two wattmeter readings would be the
CB power loss.

The dielectric loss can usually be neglected without significant error (a reasonable assumption
for medium voltage levels and below). As a confirmation of small dielectric losses, a modern
wattmeter could not measure a loss (less than 0.1 W) when the middle pole of a 300 A CB was
energized at rated voltage and the outer poles were grounded. This brief test demonstrates that
only the load losses need to be measured.

In order to test CB load losses, a source is needed that will deliver hundreds of amperes at a
fraction of a volt. Unfortunately, such sources are not readily available from equipment
manufacturers. After a source is located, there is still a problem with test leads. Even heavy
cables will have significant voltage drops at these current levels. Connections need to be bolted.
Even the best plug and socket will probably dissipate a similar amount of power as each pole of
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the CB would dissipate. The desired qualities of the breaker test apparatus include that it is
inexpensive, easy to use, constructed of readily available components, low uncertainty
(say % 5 ± ), and portable. One method of driving rated current through a CB and measuring the
power is shown in Figure 2. The power source is a single-phase autotransformer, rated at
120VAC and 8 A. (larger ratings would obviously work but are not essential). Next is a modern
single-phase wattmeter. A wide variety is commercially available. The recommendation is to use
a wattmeter that provides a visual and a digital readout (data acquisition system compatible) of
watts, power factor or VA, volts, and amps. The wattmeter should have a convenient means of
excitation and must be compatible with the autotranformer. The capacitor limits the current to
the very low impedance to be tested and allows the use of the full range of the variable
autotransformer without damage to the instruments. A capacitance of 150 µF will allow 5A to
flow at a voltage of about 90 VAC. An inductive reactor could also be used in series, but a
motor run capacitor is more efficient. The power loss in the capacitor and leads is measured by
moving the lead from one terminal of the load (high current) side of the current transformer to
the opposite terminal (thus forming a short) and applying power. On the prototype of this
apparatus, a figure of 7.5 W at 5 A was measured in a preliminary test.


120 VAC
Variable
Autotransformer
Current
Transformer
5:400
Turns
Ratio
C
1
150 µF
Wattmeter Breaker
Load
Figure 2: Apparatus for Testing Losses in Circuit Breakers

High currents are obtained with a current transformer (CT) operated backwards from the normal
application. Usually a conductor carrying a large current is passed through the CT opening and
the low current winding are used to measure a proportional output current. For example, a 400:5
CT would produce an output of 5 A when 400 A passed through the opening. It is unusual to
operate a CT in this reverse mode, so a word of explanation is in order. Any 60 Hz, iron core
transformer will act like an ideal transformer under no load conditions, provided the voltage is
not excessive. In the no load configuration, the unexcited winding is left as an open circuit and
the current in this winding is zero while the voltage is proportional to the excitation voltage
through the turns ratio. If the unexcited winding is short - circuited, the winding voltage is zero
and the winding current is inversely proportional to excited winding current through the turns
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ratio. If the excitation voltage is too high, the corresponding magnetic flux causes the iron to
saturate. There will be a large magnetizing current and the output tends to decrease from the
expected value without saturation. A CT is just like any other transformer in that it can be
operated in either direction (5 A in or 5A out) as long as the iron does not saturate. As the load
resistance increases from zero, the output (and input) voltages rises. When the voltage gets to
the voltage rating of the transformer, there will be saturation of the magnetic path. Therefore a
CT can supply rated current to a resistive load (such as the resistance of one pole of a circuit
breaker) if the resistance is not too large.

Neither the voltage rating nor the VA rating of a CT is published. The only number published is
something called the burden, specifying the maximum load for which the CT maintains its rated
accuracy. The CT is still useful for loads beyond the specified burden. The actual rating would
have to be determined experimentally. For example, a GE JCW – O 400:5 CT goes into
saturation at about 22 V on the 5A winding. It would be called a 100 VA transformer. This is
generally consistent with its weight of about five pounds. The rated voltage on the high current
side would be 100/400 = 0.25 V. The maximum impedance would be 0.25/400 = 625 µΩ. By
way of reference, a 30-inch length of 2 gauge welding cable with heavy copper lugs soldered at
each end has a resistance of about 500 µΩ. Two such cables in parallel would have a resistance
of about 250 µΩ, so a resistance of up to 625 – 250 = 375 µΩ could be measured with this
circuit. A larger resistance could be measured by putting two or three CTs in parallel, or by using
lower resistance test leads.

Actual measurement of the power loss in a CB at room temperature requires a two step process.
First, the test leads are inserted through the opening of the CT, and the terminations are securely
bolted together creating a short circuit. There is now a shorted turn through the CT. Power
measurements are made at several convenient current levels. The wattmeter would measure the
losses in the capacitor, the CT, the low current leads, and the high current leads. Second, the test
lead termination is unbolted and the CB now takes the place of the short circuit. Power
measurements are repeated at the same current levels. The difference in the wattmeter readings,
with and without the breaker, is the power loss in one pole or phase of the CB. For example,
circuit losses for a 400:5 CT with two test leads were measured at 48 W for rated current. When
a 400 A CB was inserted, the measured losses increased to about 78 W. Each pole of this
particular CB is dissipating78 – 48 = 30 W when rated current is flowing. The total loss
(maximum) in three-phase operation would be 3(30) = 90 W. Normally, a CB is operated at no
more than about 80% of its rated current, so the actual loss would be less than the maximum.
Likewise a used CB was tested where pitting, wear, and oxidation of the breaker contacts could
have taken place. New breakers may have lower losses than the particular device that was used
to test the prototype apparatus.

It is not difficult to measure power and the true rms voltage and current on the low current side
of the CT to within 1%. The current in the high current side can be measured to within 1% with a
second CT operated in the conventional fashion. It is probably not realistic to expect the actual
power losses in a given CB to be known to this level of uncertainty, for a number of reasons.
Two are obvious since they apply to most types of electrical equipment. The first is that the
ohmic loss varies as the square of the current, and the actual current is usually not known. The
second is that ohmic loss increases with temperature and the actual conductor temperature is
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usually not known. But reasonable estimates can be made for load diversity and for ambient
temperature. A good engineer might get within 5% or 10% with these estimates. If this is true,
there is little need to measure power to an uncertainty of less than 1%. Metering class CTs
(0.1% uncertainty) are not needed for this work. A less expensive relay class CT will be
adequate.

Another, hard to control factor is the variability of the contact resistance. There are three contact
surfaces involved in this testing, two at the terminals of the CT, and one at the pole inside the
breaker. The history of the surfaces (dust, grease, corrosion, pitting) can make a substantial
difference in measured power loss. Values may change when a CB is opened and reclosed. For
example, the 400 A CB mentioned above and used with the prototype apparatus tests had
measured resistances of 140, 140, and 200 µΩ of its three phases, using 20 A DC. The measured
power loss of the same phases was 27.1 and 31.4 W, respectively. Both methods indicate that
the third pole has higher losses, presumably due to surface conditions. If the CB could be
disassembled and all surfaces polished, the readings would probably be closer. Calculated loses
at the 400 amp AC current using the DC resistance measured at 20 A DC were 22.4, 22.4, and
31.8 W. The AC resistance is always higher than the DC resistance and the percentage
difference between AC and DC resistance increases as the circuit breaker rating increases. The
measured and calculated powers look plausible for the first two poles. For the third pole it
appears that 20 A was not enough to thoroughly wet the surfaces. A higher DC current would
yield a lower resistance, giving a calculated loss closer to 25 W than 31.8 W.

A demonstration of the influence of an enclosure where hysteresis and eddy current losses in the
metals located near the current carrying conductors was performed. Laying a CB on a steel sheet
increased the measured power losses by 2% above the value obtained by mounting the CB on
wood or some other non-conducting surface.

The influence of the enclosure created stray loss on the overall breaker power loss needs to be
examined for AC devices. Since the breaker transfers heat to the surroundings via free
convection, it is unclear at this time if the enclosure alters or hinders the free convective air flow
(especially when the enclosure is ventilated) and, thus, the breaker electrical resistance and
associated power losses.

There are several steps in the test plan. This idea will have to be examined. The steps of the test
plan are:

1) The apparatus of Figure 2 needs to be constructed. The intended limit on the test
currents is 2000 amp. Required for this testing will be two CTs of the 400:5 turns
ratio size and two CTs of the 1000/2000:5 rating. The second two CTs provide 2000
amp test capability. Two CTs are required for either test setup where one CT supplies
the load and the other CT is used to measure the load current. The wattmeter needs to
be purchased as well as large diameter cable and copper lugs for attaching leads to the
breaker. The same laptop computer used with the apparatus of Figure 1 will be used
with the test setup of Figure 2. The apparatus of Figure 2 and the laptop computer
provide a portable testing device. It would be possible to visit a manufacturer or
equipment distributor and measure breaker AC resistance. A variable
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autotransformer is already available. An estimate of the equipment expenses is
provided at the end of this section. The goal of the apparatus and experiment design
is to predict the device losses with an uncertainty no larger than ±10%. This
uncertainty will be obtained through proper calibration.

2) In order to provide control of the ambient temperature, the breaker will be placed in
the insulated box of Figure 1. The insulated box provides some redundancy to the
power loss measurements. The redundancy is beneficial since it provides
confirmation of the other test results.

3) The testing will investigate the following questions:
A) What is the uncertainty of the power loss values provided by manufacturers?
B) How do the losses vary with load current?
C) By what factor does the AC resistance increase over the DC resistance? Does
this factor depend upon rating of the breaker?
D) By what factor does the AC resistance increase when the breaker is placed in
an enclosure?
E) What is the influence of ambient temperature on the breaker losses (with and
without an enclosure)?

4) Based on the results of the testing program, a decision will be made regarding the
modeling of the circuit breaker power loses. The test data is to be organized into a
form suitable for use by HVAC engineers.

In order to complete these tests, several equipment items need to be purchased. These are:

1) Current Transformers $ 400
2) Wattmeter $ 600
3) Shipping, conductors, lugs $ 200
TOTAL $1200

The equipment items to be purchased fit within the project budget.

In order to perform these tests, DC circuit breakers and both low and medium voltage circuit
breakers must be obtained. Since data are available for low voltage AC breakers, only the 800
and 2000 amp frames need to be tested. It was learned that all the breakers within a frame are
the same breaker with the exception that the breaker is set to trip at different current levels. This
is easily appreciated since all the breakers within a frame have the same price. Thus, it is only
necessary to purchase one breaker per frame with the current rating being the same as the frame
size. This one breaker will then provide heat loss information for any breaker in the frame. The
plan is to purchase two breakers, 800 and 2000 amp, from two different manufacturers in order
to perform the tests. Breakers having ratings greater than 2000 amp cannot be tested with the
apparatus of Figure 2. Low voltage AC breakers can also be used as DC breakers at voltage
levels of 125 or 250 volts. The low voltage AC breakers then serve a dual purpose. Medium
voltage AC circuit breakers have a current rating of 1200, 2000, and 3000 amps for voltage
levels of 5, 10, and 15 kV. The plan is to test the 5 and 15 kV breakers having ratings of 1200
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and 2000 amps. Owing to the price of the medium voltage breakers, the purchase of these
devices is expensive. A loan of two identical 15 kV medium voltage breakers from ABB
(through TVA) has been secured. Western Resources has agreed to allow us into one of their
generation facilities to test a 15 kV medium voltage breaker. The Appendix contains a copy of
the communications regarding this equipment. Other than the test equipment listed for purchase
and the test pieces, no other resources are necessary.

All TRP 1104 listed equipment that will be purchased in order to perform the Phase II tests is
listed in a later section.

The activity described in the test plan is to be performed during Phase II of this project.

Reference

IEEE Std. C37.09 – 1999. Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis.
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Reactors

Series reactors are used in situations involving limiting current on feeder lines under fault
conditions and in motor starting, among other applications. Reactors of interest in this study are
of the air or gapped core, dry-type and are cooled exclusively by natural convection. Another,
more common name for a reactor is an inductor. By construction, the reactor appears similar to a
transformer, with the exception that there is only one winding, no secondary. Given the
similarity of reactors to transformers, it is not surprising that the same standards committee
within IEEE that produced the transformer standards has produced the standard for series
reactors. The concern of this work is the power loss of standard size series and load reactors.
The series reactor is usually found in both DC and AC applications where the reactor is
connected in series with the power line for filtering and/or current limiting purposes. During
normal operation, there is only a resistive voltage drop across the reactor for DC applications or
a small voltage drop in AC applications. Should a fault occur on the line, the line current would
tend to increase rapidly, however, since the current in an inductor cannot change instantaneously,
the increase in line current caused by the fault is limited by the inductor. The limiting of the
fault current is only temporary, but this provides sufficient time for any fault remediation device,
such as a breaker, to operate. The limiting of the fault current protects the surrounding
equipment. Another application of series reactors consists of using the reactor to filter voltage
spikes and/or fast voltage rise times for electric motor, DC bus capacitors, and rectifier
protection and prevention of voltage spike produced nuisance tripping. Rectifiers are used on
both the input (DC) and output (AC) sides of an inverter.

The same core steel used in transformer cores is used in reactors. The main distinction between
transformer cores and reactor cores is that reactor cores have sizable air gaps in the magnetic
circuit. The air gaps reduce the winding inductance and prevent saturation. Saturation of the
magnetic path is undesirable since saturation could greatly reduce the inductance during high
voltage spikes which is exactly when the reactor is most needed to counteract or filter the voltage
harmonics or disturbances.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

The definitive standards for reactors begin with ANSI C57.16-1958 that covered both dry-type
and oil filled reactors. This standard was withdrawn (although it is reported to be still used by
the industry) when IEEE Std. C57.16-1996 was issued. C57.16-1996 is titled Standard
Requirements, Terminology and Test Code for Dry-Type Air Core Series-Connected Reactors.
Even though a clear standard exists for loss determination, a visit to reactor manufacturer web
sites have demonstrated that the standard followed by manufacturers is not C57.16 but rather UL
506 – 2000, Specialty Transformers. UL 506 does not call for the determination of heat losses.

Equipment Heat Losses

Reactor heat losses are divided into those produced through load current created I
2
R heating and
conductor skin effect (including conductor eddy losses), those produced by current circulating in
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parallel windings, and finally eddy losses induced in metallic parts via stray magnetic fields. It
should be noted that stray field induced losses in surrounding equipment or apparatus is an
application issue and not part of the reported reactor losses. The winding AC resistance of the
reactor is obtained by dividing the sum total of the losses by the square of the rated current.

According to C57.16, the loss figure of any individual reactor is not to exceed the average unit
power losses by more than 6%. While the application of this standard is clear for single phase
units, for three units the average loss of a particular phase is used for the basis of comparison for
the losses of the same phase of a given unit.

Since gapped core reactors do not saturate, the loss test can be determined at any current level
and then corrected for rated current. A significant result of this situation is that the losses of the
reactor can be predicted closely for any current level. Suggested methods for loss determination
include wattmeter, voltage drop, and bridge methods.

As with transformers, the winding resistance (either AC or DC) is a linear function of the
winding temperature. Variations of the winding resistance for temperature is accounted for by
( (( ( ) )) )
( (( ( ) )) )
k m
k s
m s
T
T
R R
+ ++ + θ θθ θ
+ ++ + θ θθ θ
= == =
where R
s
is the winding resistance at the temperature of interest, R
m
is the resistance measured at
the known temperature, θ
s
is the temperature of interest in
o
C, θ
m
is the temperature in
o
C
corresponding to the known resistance, and T
k
is 234.5 for copper and 225 for aluminum. In
order that the winding not change temperature while the measurements are taking place, the
current is specified by the standard not to exceed 15% of the rated continuous current. Since the
power loss is produced by I
2
R heating, the power loss varies with temperature by the same factor
as the resistance. The reported losses of a reactor are corrected to 75
o
C. This expression just
presented assumes that the environmental temperature is not changing.

The physics of operation for a reactor is the same as a transformer. The major difference
between the two devices is the magnetic field in the vicinity of the winding. In a transformer, the
net ampere-turns of the winding are sufficient to drive the magnetic flux in the core necessary for
rated voltage. The net ampere-turns are small and would be zero in an ideal transformer having
an infinitely permeable magnetic path. While under load, the transformer winding currents differ
in sign and vary by a factor of approximately the turns ratio (the slight difference producing the
net ampere-turns to drive the magnetizing flux). The opposite and almost proportional winding
currents create “load” magnetic flux essentially confined to the space around the turns of the
windings in addition to the magnetizing flux that is confined to the highly permeable core steel.
The place in the windings where the magnetic field strength is greatest is the space between the
two windings. In a reactor, there is no secondary winding to provide balancing ampere-turns.
Owing to the one winding, the reactor magnetic field in the vicinity of the winding is free to flow
through the path of least reluctance such as steel core clamps or tank walls. As a result, the
expectation is that the stray loss of a reactor is a bigger portion of the power losses than for a
transformer. In regard to the influence of temperature on power losses, the same relation holds
with reactors as it would hold with transformers, i.e. the winding power loss increases with
temperature increase while the stray losses decrease with temperature increase. Since the stray
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
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loss is a larger fraction of the overall power losses, the expectation is that the reactor rejected
heat is even more insensitive to ambient temperature than the transformer.

Steady state operation is assumed and any heat lost by the reactor is heat added to the
environment containing the reactor.

Measurement Uncertainty

According to IEEE Std. C57.16, the uncertainty for power loss values is that the losses on any
individual unit may not differ by more than 6 % from the average loss of all units of the same
design. If a manufacturer does not follow C57.16, then the uncertainty of any power loss data
presented by that manufacturer is not known and there is no information concerning the method
by which the losses were measured.

Manufacturers

A list of reactor manufacturers was created. A total of 34 reactor manufacturers were found
from the NEMA web site. Examination of company web sites disclosed that some of these
companies were only indirectly related to the manufacture of reactors. Ten companies were
contacted by e-mail in the survey and no responses were received. The web sites of the reactor
manufacturers were studied to observe the standards claimed to be followed in the production
process. The only observed standard, which specifically deals with reactors, listed on the web
sites studied was UL 506 – 2000, Specialty Transformers. UL 506 does not require power loss
measurements. The web site investigation has turned up extensive tables of loss figures for
series/load reactors on one manufacturer’s web site.

Information Deficiencies

The extensive table of reactor losses provided by one manufacturer serves as a starting point for
constructing the tables required in this work. The quality of the published loss information is not
known. Since a large number of manufacturers do not follow IEEE Std. C57.16, there is little
expectation for any information to be available on loss measurement uncertainty or loss
measurement test methods. Also, the influence of the environmental temperature on power
losses cannot be determined from the loss information found. For these reasons, reactors have
been placed in category II.

Test Plan

The test plan for reactors involves several steps. These are:

1) The circuit of Figure 3 will be used to excite the reactor with AC voltage and to
measure the power loss. The insulated box of Figure 1 will be used for power loss
verification and for controlling the ambient temperature of the reactor. The circuit of
Figure 3 will supply in excess of 600 amp AC at 16 volts AC with the 15:1, 240V
AC, 10kVA transformer. The series inductor is used to limit test circuit current. The
wattmeter is used to measure the power delivered to the test leads and the reactor.
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Owing to the high current, the current sensor of the wattmeter will be supplied
through a CT. The expense of the test circuit is listed at the end of this section. The
test apparatus allows the determination of power loss uncertainty in the manufacturer
supplied loss data. It should be appreciated that Figure 3 is a three phase circuit
although it is drawn as a single phase circuit for conceptual purposes. In order to
measure the power loss, the “two wattmeter” method will be used. The addition of a
second wattmeter will require additional expense. The expenses are included at the
end of this section. The goal of the design of the experimental apparatus is to achieve
a measurement uncertainty of no larger than ±10%.


240 VAC
10 kVA
Transformer
Wattmeter
Figure 3: Apparatus for Testing Losses in Reactors
CT 15:1
Current Limiting
Inductor
Test Leads
Reactor
Load

2) In order to measure the power loss of a reactor being used in a DC application, the
motor – generator set of Figure 1 will be used. The AC motor of the motor-generator
set will be supplied at rated voltage and the field winding of the DC generator will be
adjusted to supply DC current levels of up to 100 amps DC. The apparatus of Figure
1 will be used to control the ambient temperature and to measure the power loss

3) Based upon the results of the first two steps, a decision will be made regarding the
necessity of additional tests to provide the amount of information required to
complete the goal of this study.

4) The final step of the test plan involves the organization of the data into tables to
provide power loss information.

In order to perform these test procedures, a 10 kVA transformer must be purchased. It is
anticipated that the transformer expense is $1000. Likewise, the wattmeter will require an
additional $600 bringing the total to $1600. No other additional resources are needed for
completion of the two test setups. In order to conduct the reactor tests, three different sizes
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
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(small, medium, and large or 2, 200, and 750 amps AC) from two different manufacturers are
required. If these units will be purchased and are listed in an equipment table contained in a later
section of this report. The funds for the 10 kVA transformer are available from the project
budget.

The purchase of the transformer offers the opportunity to test this device.

References

IEEE Std. C57.16 – 1996, Requirements, Terminology, and Test Code for Dry-Type Air-Core
Series-Connected Reactors.

UL 506 – 2000, Specialty Transformers.


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Composite Equipment

Three of the equipment items placed in Category II involve a construction of smaller, standard
items that might be common to more than one device. These three items are medium voltage and
DC switchgear, panelboards, and motor control centers. Some of the items that these devices
have in common are busses, circuit breakers, and space heaters. The unit substation is added to
these three items since it can be found as a part of switchgrear and motor control centers. The
approach to be taken toward quantifying the heat loss from these devices is to be determined
from the heat loss of the components that make up each of these devices. Some of the
components are already treated in this study such as circuit breakers and adjustable speed drives.

Table 6 contains a list of the composite equipment and the components into which they are
divided.

Motor Control Centers Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear
LV Circuit Breakers MV Circuit Breakers
Disconnect Switches Bus Bars
Motor Starters Potential Transformers
Bus Bars Control Power Transformers
Space Heaters Current Transformers
Auxiliary Compartments for Relays
and Instruments
Auxiliary Compartments for Relays
and Instruments
Adjustable Speed Drives Space Heaters
Enclosure Enclosure
Unit Substations Panelboards
LV Circuit Breakers LV Circuit Breakers
Bus Bars Bus Bars
Auxiliary Compartments for Relays
and Instruments
Enclosure
Space Heaters
Unit Substation Transformers
Enclosure
Table 6: Components of Composite Equipment

To determine the losses of these devices, attention will be devoted to the individual items. The
losses of bus bars can be calculated through analytical means. Space heater losses are easy to
predict through nameplate values. The losses of the various transformers can be obtained
through manufacturers and has been addressed elsewhere in this study. Low and medium
voltage circuit breakers are addressed within this study. The enclosure losses arise by passing
current carrying conductors near a conducting surface. This is a quantity that depends upon the
construction of a particular device and is by no means a quantity that depends only upon the size
or rating of a particular device. This information has been found from one manufacturer and it is
anticipated that it will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The only items appearing in
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Table 4 once are adjustable speed drives, motor starters, and disconnect switches. Adjustable
speed drives are covered in this study. Information is lacking on motor starters and disconnect
switches.

In the sections to follow here, each of the composite equipment items will be covered. It will be
seen that there exists published manufacturer loss values for motor control centers, switchgear,
and panelboards. For some of the composite equipment components, loss values are available
from manufacturer web sites or catalogs. Motor control centers, panelboards, switchgear, and
unit substations will be covered in the same fashion as the other equipment items. The
individual components of each composite item will be discussed. If the individual component
has already been treated in a previous part of the report, reference will be made to that part. If
the individual item has not been treated, then whatever test or measurement method needing
application is discussed.

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Motor Control Centers

Motor control centers provide the capability of combining electric motor control devices and
other related components. The motor control center consists of free standing, floor-mounted,
vertical sections that are bolted together and consist of totally enclosed, dead front structures.
The vertical sections are linked together by a common, horizontal, electric power bus. The
vertical section themselves are used to house motor controllers mounted one above the other.
The controllers are normally linked together within the vertical section by vertical power busses
tied to the common power bus. The motor control center is essentially a shell or closet into
which a variety of equipment can be installed. This equipment can consist of combination
motor-control units, adjustable speed drives, and lighting panelboards. NEMA Std. ICS 3
contains a more extensive list of the equipment possibilities that can be included in a motor
control center.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

In addition to NEMA Std. ICS 3, other standards relevant to motor control centers are NEMA
Std. ICS 1; 2; and 2.3 in addition to UL 845. Owing to the variety of ways a motor control
center can be utilized, the choice of equipment included with the motor control center establishes
the level of losses. The bare motor control center consists of empty enclosures and a power bus.
Of itself, the bare motor control center produces no losses. When equipment is added, there is a
loss associated with the added equipment and electric current flowing in the power bus. The bus
losses are usually reported with the device losses. NEMA Std. ICS 3 outlines the method of
measuring the electrical resistance of the power bus. This resistance is usually not reported on
the equipment nameplate nor listed in the manufacturer literature.

Equipment Heat Loss

No standard has been found that treats heat losses or efficiency of motor control centers. As with
the other equipment, thermal equilibrium is assumed. Any heat lost by the equipment is added to
the environment.

As an illustration of the diverse range of equipment in a motor control center, consider that the
motor control center can be made up of combination starters (circuit breaker or fusible
disconnect), main and branch feeder breakers, main and branch feeder switches, relays, timers,
and other control devices, and busses.

The conclusion reached in this examination of motor control centers is that greater attention has
to be devoted to the loss values of the installed equipment types and the determination of the bus
losses.




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Measurement Uncertainty

No information is available concerning the measurement uncertainty of motor control center
power losses. The quality of the loss figures associated with a motor control center obtained
from manufacturers depends on the quality of the loss figures associated with the installed
equipment.

Manufacturers

A list of motor control center manufacturers was assembled and a survey on equipment heat
losses was performed through e-mail and through examination of company web sites. A total of
28 manufacturers of motor control centers was found on the NEMA web site and all off these
manufacturers were contacted in the survey. Two manufacturers responded to the survey. From
an examination of manufacturer web sites, power loss information was found bring to three the
number of manufacturers reporting power loss data.

Information Deficiencies

For those manufacturers who list motor control center heat losses on their web sites, a menu
approach was taken. The deficiency in the published loss information is the equipment
contained in the “typical” motor control center. When specific equipment items are tabulated,
the means used to measure the power losses and the uncertainty of the tabulated loss numbers is
not presented.

Test Plan

The test plan consists of determining the heat loss of the individual components making up a
motor control center. Each of the items listed in Table 6 under the heading of motor control
center will be discussed in this section. Should a measurement technique or apparatus be
required, then the details of that issue are discussed.

Low Voltage Circuit Breakers: The information relevant to low voltage circuit breakers has been
covered in the section treating circuit breakers.

Disconnect Switches: A disconnect switch is similar to a circuit breaker in that there are
electrical resistive power losses, some caused by the switch material and some contributed by the
contacts of the switch. No information has been found concerning either resistance or power loss
values. Of the equipment listed in the TRP 1104 Work-statement, the disconnect switch is found
as part of a combination motor starter. The testing of the disconnect switch will be performed
with the motor starters.

Motor Starters: The motor starter consists of relays, coils, switches, and panel lights among other
equipment. The motor starter remains in the circuit as long as the electric motor it is attached to
continues to run. The losses of the starter consist of resistive heating. Data has been located
from one manufacturer regarding power losses from motor starters. No rejected heat uncertainty
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information is available form this manufacturer. It is necessary to test the losses of the motor
starters.

240 VAC
10 kVA
Transformer
Wattmeter
Figure 4: Apparatus for Testing Motor Starters
CT 15:1
Current Limiting
Inductor
Test
Leads
Starter
Load
Balanced
Short
CT

In order to perform this test, the circuit of Figure 4 will be used. This circuit is similar to that of
Figure 3. The circuit leading up to the starter is three phase. It is shown as single phase in the
illustration so as not to clutter the diagram. As in Figure 3, the two wattmeter method of
measuring power will be used. Three CTs will be used to step up the transformer secondary line
current to as much as 2000 amp. Three identical CTs will be placed on the starter side to
monitor the current. This will require four additional CTs with an added total expense of $600.
Through proper calibration, the goal of the apparatus and experimental design is to achieve a
measurements uncertainty no greater than ±10%.

To be tested will be NEMA types 1 and 3 combination motor starters. We have received a type 1
starter from the General Electric Company and we will purchase types 1 and 3 starters from
another company. This equipment is listed in a later section of this report. The testing of any
starter is limited to 2000 amp. The purchase of the CTs is within the project budget.

Bus Bars: Bus bars are used to convey electric current through the motor control center. The bus
bar can be constructed either from copper or aluminum. The bus bar has a large cross sectional
area to reduce the electrical resistance per unit length of conductor. The power losses of the bar
are still subject to skin effect and enclosure. The bus bars run from the feeder lines to the
individual equipment housed in the motor control center. While power loss values per unit
length have been found for copper conductors, the best way to approach the power losses is
through calculation. As with cables, good analytical models of the bus bar are available. Some
of these are found in the Anders book mentioned in the section on Cables and Cable Trays.
Another is ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.23 which treats isolated phase buses. The plan is to develop
tables of losses for the buses on a per unit length basis and to also estimate the total length of bus
found in a motor control center.
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Space Heaters: The purpose of a space heater is to eliminate moisture or the keep equipment
fluids from becoming too viscous. The heater has a nameplate with the watt losses specified.
The plan is to test a few of these devices with the apparatus of Figure 1. If the devices deliver
the power claimed on the nameplate, then no further testing will be performed. If the nameplate
value is not an accurate representation of the total power losses, then additional testing will have
to be performed.

Auxiliary Compartments for Relays and Instruments: These compartments are used in
switchgear for housing relays and instruments. Total losses in these compartments depend on
the number of relays and instruments in these compartments. Since these losses are much
smaller in comparison to losses in the rest of the switchgear, instead of providing losses for
individual relays and meters the manufacturers give loss for the whole compartment for typical
configurations. However, it is not clear if these values are actually measured or estimated.

Owing to the great variations in what might occupy an auxiliary compartment, the plan is to
collect and average manufacturer information regarding the losses of auxiliary compartments.

Adjustable Speed Drives: Adjustable speed drives were covered in a previous section.

Enclosure: The magnetic field generated by the current flowing in different equipment creates
eddy currents in the enclosure in which the equipment is placed. For example, the current
flowing in the circuit breaker would induce eddy current in the metal cabinet in which the
breaker is mounted. These eddy current losses could be substantial. In fact one of the
manufacturers reported losses in the enclosure to be equal to that in the breaker itself. Other
manufacturers did not provide any information on the effect of enclosures. At this stage we are
not sure of the level of losses in the enclosure. We feel that the values provided by one
manufacturer more of less ad hoc values. Thus, we plan to test the effect of enclosure. The
approach would be to determine losses in the circuit breaker without an enclosure and then the
same test with the enclosure. Difference in the two values would give losses due to enclosure.
This test can be repeated for different type of enclosures to get a better feel of this effect. We
don't expect to obtain exact values of losses in enclosures of different type of switchgear
equipment. However, these tests will provide a better judgment on the effects of enclosure. At
the least, we will be able to establish the magnitude of these losses in relation to losses in the
equipment. In other words, we will be able to corroborate or refute one manufacturer's claim on
losses in the enclosure.

References

NEMA ICS 1-1993 Industrial Control and Systems – General Requirements.

NEMA ICS 2-1993 Industrial Control Devices – Controllers and Assemblies.

NEMA ICS 2 – 1996 PART 8: Industrial Control and Systems Controllers, Contactors, and
Over-load Rlays Rated Not More Than 2000 Volts AC or 750 Volts DC – Part 8 Disconnect
Devices for Use in Industrial Control Equipment.
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NEMA ICS 2.1 – 1990 Devices for Motor Service – A Guide for Understanding the Differences.

NEMA ICS 2.3-1995 Instructions for the Handling, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of
Motor Control Centers Rated Not More Than 600 Volts.

NEMA ICS 3-1988 (R1993) Industrial Systems.

ANSI/IEEE C37.23 – 1987 (1991) Guide for Metal-Enclosed Bus and Calculating Losses in
Isolated-Phase Bus.
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Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear

Switchgear is made up of several electrical sub-components, each of which contributes to the
rejected heat.

According to IEEE C37.20.2, the term switchgear denotes a general term covering switching and
interrupting devices and their combination with associated control, metering, protective, and
regulating devices; also assemblies of these devices with associated interconnections,
accessories, and supporting structures used primarily in connection with the generation,
transmission, and conversion of electric power. A switchgear assembly is a general term
referring to metal-enclosed switchgear, metal-enclosed bus, and control switchboards. The
switchgear described by standards C37.20.1 to C37.20.3 are all specific cases of metal-enclosed
switchgear. According to C37.21, a control switchboard is a type of switchboard including
control, instrumentation, metering, protective (relays) or regulating equipment for remotely
controlling other equipment. Control switchboards do not include the primary power switching
devices or their connections. Metal-clad switchgear have voltage levels which range from 5 kV
to 38 kV while station type cubical switchgear range in voltage levels from 15.5 kV to 72.5 kV.
Since the voltage levels for medium voltage switchgear range from 5 kV to 15 kV, both of these
types of switchgear need to be examined.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

From a review of standards, it is not clear if there is one procedure for determining the heat loss.
From C37.09, it is stated that the dc resistance of the current-carrying circuit from terminal to
terminal of each pole unit in the close position shall be measured with at least 100 A flowing in
the circuit and shall not exceed the limit set for the rating of the breaker by the manufacturer. In
order to quantify the heat dissipated by the switchgear, it is necessary to include the heat lost
from all of the various parts and accessories of the switchgear.

DC switchgear is covered by IEEE C37.20.1 and heat loss measurements are not specified by the
standard.

Equipment Heat Loss

No standard addresses switchgear heat loss, however, some manufacturer web sites have been
found which have power loss values.

Measurement Uncertainty

No information on measurement uncertainty applied to heat loss from switchgear has been
found.



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Manufacturers

A list of switchgear manufacturers was assembled and a survey on equipment heat losses was
performed through e-mail and through examination of company web sites. Some of the
manufacturers responded to the e-mail and loss data were found on some company web sites.
Table 9 contains this information.

Information Deficiencies

Those manufacturers who listed heat loss from switchgear in a catalog, a menu approach was
taken. The deficiency pertaining to the information is first how to subdivide the equipment,
uncertainty of loss numbers, and loss number validity.

Test Plan

The plan of representing information regarding the power losses from Medium Voltage and DC
Switchgear is to address the heat loss from the individual parts. Each of those parts will be
mentioned here.

Medium Voltage and DC Breakers: These components were discussed in the section on circuit
breakers.

Bus Bars: Bus bars were discussed in the section on motor control centers.

Control Power Transformers: Control Power Transformers are used in medium voltage
switchgear to provide low voltage for instruments and other control equipment in the switchgear.
These are standard power transformers for which sufficient data are available. Hence, the
procedure of the test plan is to gather loss information regarding these devices by contacting
manufacturers.

Potential Transformers: Potential transformers are used in conjunction with voltage
measurements in medium voltage switchgear. Potential transformers are very widely used in
power industry and significant information on losses in them is available. Therefore, we haven't
planned any tests for potential transformers. The procedure of the test plan is to gather loss
information regarding these devices by contacting manufacturers.

Current Transformers: Current transformers are used in conjunction with current measurements
of very high magnitude. Significant information on losses in current transformers is available
and thus they will not be tested with the exception of the two CTs purchased for the test
apparatus.

Auxiliary Compartments for Relays and Instruments: These components were discussed in the
section on motor control centers.

Space Heaters: These devices were discussed in the section on motor control centers.

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Enclosure: These components were discussed in the section on motor control centers.

References

IEEE C37.09 – 1999, Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a
Symmetrical Current Basis.

IEEE C37.20.1 – 1993, Standard for Metal-Enclosed Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breaker
Switchgear.

IEEE C37-20.2 – 1993, Standard for Metal-Clad and Station-Type Cubicle Switchgear.

ANSI C37.20.3 –1999, Metal - Enclosed Interrupter Switchgear.

ANSI/IEEE C37.21 – 1985 (R1998), Standard for Control Switchboards.

NEMA SG 5 – 1995, Power Switchgear Assemblies.

IEEE C37.100 – 1992, Standard Definitions for Power Switchgear.
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Panelboards

Standards relevant to panelboards are listed at the end of this section. According to NEMA PB
1, a panelboard is defined as “a single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the
form of a single panel, including buses, and with or without switches or automatic overcurrent
protective devices, or both, for the control of light, heat or power circuits designed to be placed
in a cabinet or enclosure accessible only from front.” Panelboards operate at 600 V or less with
a 1600 or less amp mains and 1200 amp or less branch circuits. The panelboards under
consideration exclude the familiar residential variety.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

The standards do not discuss heat loss. In order to estimate the heat loss of these devices, a
closer look has to be taken at the individual components that make up the panelboard.

Measurement Uncertainty

No information regarding panelboard heat loss measurement uncertainty has been found.

Manufacturers

A list of panelboard manufacturers was assembled and a survey on equipment heat losses was
performed through e-mail and through examination of company web sites. One manufacturer
responded to the e-mail and loss data were found in a catalog.

Information Deficiencies

The manufacturer who listed heat loss from panelboards in a catalog did not provide the
information as to what was included with the panelboard. The deficiency pertaining to the
information is first how to subdivide the equipment, verifying loss numbers, and loss number
uncertainty. Some measurement of component losses will have to be performed.

Test Plan

The plan of representing information regarding the power losses from panelboards is to address
the heat loss from the individual parts. Each of those parts will be mentioned here.

Low Voltage Circuit Breakers: Power losses from these devices were addressed in the section on
circuit breakers.

Bus Bars: Bus bars were discussed in the section on motor control centers.

Enclosure: The losses created by the equipment enclosure have been discussed in the section on
motor control centers.
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References

NEMA PB 1 – 1995, Panelboards.

NEMA PB 1.1 – 1996, Instructions for the Safe Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of
Panelboards.

UL 67 – 1993, Panelboards.
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Unit Substations

The unit substation consists of a power transformer, buses, enclosure, and breakers among other
equipment. The substation is usually located with other equipment such as motor control centers
or switchgear. The bulk of the substation losses is contributed by the transformer.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

No standards were found which discussed heat loss from the unit substation.

Heat Losses

No information on the heat losses of unit substations has been found. However, power loss
information from several of the components of unit substations is known.

Measurement Uncertainty

No information regarding unit substation heat loss measurement uncertainty has been found.

Manufacturers

No list of unit substation manufacturers was compiled since the bulk of the losses is from the
transformer and since the approach in this work is to estimate the heat loss through the rejected
heat of the individual components. No manufacturers were contacted regarding the power loss
of unit substations.

Information Deficiencies

The information deficiency is the loss data in a format it can be used by the design engineer.
Likewise, the quality of the information varies from good for transformers to uncertain for circuit
breakers.

Test Plan

The plan of representing information regarding the power losses from unit substations is to
address the heat loss from the individual parts. Each of those parts will be mentioned here.

Low Voltage Circuit Breakers: Power losses from these devices were addressed in the section on
circuit breakers.

Bus Bars: Bus bars were discussed in the section on motor control centers.

Auxiliary Compartments for Relays and Instruments: Information regarding heat losses from
these devices was presented in the section on motor control centers.
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Space Heaters: Information regarding heat losses from these devices was presented in the section
on motor control centers.

Unit Substation Transformers: Power losses from unit substation transformers were covered in
the section on transformers.

Enclosure: The losses created by the equipment enclosure have been discussed in the section on
motor control centers.
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Category III

Category III is made up of manual transfer switches. This device is discussed here. In order to
accumulate the necessary information, a series of tests need to be performed. For each size and
make, it is hoped that five independent tests of loss determination can be made.

Manual Transfer Switches

Applicable standards for non-automatic (manual) transfer switches are shown in the references at
the end of this section. NEMA ICS 10 defines a non-automatic transfer switch as “a device,
operated by direct manpower or electrical remote manual control, for transferring one or more
load conductor connections from one power source to another.” The switches are rated 600 V
or less and are used in single-phase or polyphase application.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains

Standards

While NEMA ICS 10 specifies the design tests for transfer switches, the standard also specifies
that the transfer switches covered by the standards must also pass the production tests specified
in UL 1008. The UL 1008 production tests for transfer switches do not include a heat loss
measurement. In the design test specified by UL 1008, no direct measurement of heat loss is
made. However, a possible way of determining the transfer switches heat loss is through the
resistance test used to determine temperature rise of the conductors in the transfer switches. The
resistance of the circuit is measured at a known temperature. By measuring the resistance of the
circuit after carrying rated current, the temperature rise of the conductor can be determined.
There is an alternate way of measuring the temperature rise through the use of thermocouples,
thus, it cannot be expected that all manufacturers would follow only the resistance method of
determining the temperature rise. The design test of NEMA ICS 10 specifies that the
temperature rise is to be determined, but does not specify how the temperature rise is to be
determined. The thrust of this discussion is that a possibility exists that design test data may be
available to predict the transfer switches heat loss.

Measurement Uncertainty

No information regarding power loss measurement uncertainty for transfer switches has been
found.

Manufacturers

Through the NEMA web site, no manufacturers of non-automatic transfer switches could be
found. By using the search key word “transfer switch,” only manufacturers of automatic transfer
switches could be found. We have found that Cutler-Hammer makes transfer switches of the
non-automatic variety. In examining the web site of manufacturers of transfer switches, no loss
information has been found. No survey was taken of transfer switch manufacturers.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 71

Information Deficiencies

Since no standards could be found and no information could be found from manufacturers,
transfer switches were placed in Category III.

Test Plan

The transfer switch can be treated the same as a circuit breaker and the apparatus/method used to
test a circuit breaker can be used here. The plan is to test as many as possible since no data has
been found on the heat losses of these devices. Owing to the extent of the project budget, the
purchase of these devices with project funds for testing purposes is not possible. It is necessary
to rely on equipment donations and/or loans in order to conduct these tests.

References

NEMA ICS 10 – 1999, Industrial Control and Systems, AC Transfer Switch Equipment.

UL 1008 – 1996, Automatic Transfer Switches.








ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 72
Summary of Phase II Information

The recommended ranges of equipment sizes to envelop the testing work in included in Table 7.

The type, number, and sizes of equipment to be purchased for testing are also listed in Table 7.

No equipment will be tested at a manufacturer’s factory.

The type, number, and sizes of equipment to be tested at in-use locations as well as the location
of each site is also contained in Table 7. Letters of equipment loaning, donation, and permission
for testing are included in the Appendix.

The test apparati to be used in the investigation together with the level of measurement
uncertainty have been documented in the test plan.

In regards to testing standards, all power equipment having applicable testing standards have
been identified. In performing the heat loss measurements, it is not necessary to follow any
testing standards since these are usually not addresses by the manufacturing standards. In the
case of where the testing standards exist, the published data eliminates the need for further
testing. In regard to data acquisition standards, those honored by the selected National
Instruments hardware (in this case the 6024E data acquisition card and the SC-270 terminal
board with cold junction compensation) and the software package LabVIEW published by
National Instruments will be followed.

A budget for the Phase II work is shown in Table 8. A time schedule for completion of the work
is provided in Table 9.

Table 10 lists all the equipment connected with this work. The first column lists the equipment
type while the second column shows any sub-categories of equipment. The third column shows
the source of the loss information such as manufacturer, testing of loaned equipment, and/or
testing of purchased equipment. The fourth column shows the activity that connected with the
equipment, which can be testing, calculating (such as bus bar losses), and/or assembling the
tables for the final report. For any verification tests to be performed with the equipment, the test
apparatus uncertainty is listed in column five. Column six contains either a GO or NO GO as far
as the completion of the data gathering and loss verification testing is concerned. If column six
contains a NO GO then an explanation is listed in the seventh column. These explanations
consist of either “Wait Equipment” indicating the a discussion(s) is (are) being held on
equipment loans or “No Equipment Source” indicating that there are currently no prospects of
being able to borrow the equipment. Several pieces of equipment such as bus bars and low
voltage circuit breakers are listed in Table 10 more than once. By considering the unique
equipment items listed with a GO and NO GO in Table 10, it is seen that 75 % of the equipment
contained in the TRP 1104 Work-statement is involved in the Phase II activity. For the 25 % of
the equipment for which verification measurements are not planned, we will be able to collect
and pool loss data from manufacturer web sites and catalogs for all equipment items with the
exception of the manual transfer switch.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 73
Uncertainty of Results

The testing apparati will be designed and calibrated so that the uncertainty of any measured test
results is no greater than ±10%. In as many cases as the budget and the equipment donations
permit, the testing will try to envelop or bracket the range of equipment specified in the TRP
1104 Work-statement. In the following explanation, the expectation of uncertainty of results will
be addressed.

Consider that there are two pieces of equipment from two manufacturers. Consider further that
the equipment brackets the necessary range of equipment. Each piece of equipment is tested at a
given load level and ambient condition. The measurements are averaged at either end of the
equipment range. In addition to computing a mean, a standard deviation is also computed at
each end of the range. Given the standard deviation at each end, the 95% confidence interval for
the true mean value at either end can be expressed as
2 /
95 , 1
σ µ t ±
where µ is the mean and σ is the standard deviation. The quantity t
1,95
is the Student t value for a
95% confidence interval for the mean of two numbers. Now suppose each measurement has an
uncertainty of ±10% or ±0.1 (expressed as a fraction). The uncertainty of the mean of each data
point is
( ) ( )
2
95 , 1
2
2 / 1 . 0 σ t ± + ± ±
which shows that the uncertainty of a given data point cannot be determined in advance but only after the
tests are performed. The uncertainty of the data is a product of the testing procedure. There are times
when an experimenter can make the second term under the radical very small by including a large number
of independent tests such as repeating a pressure or temperature measurement, say a hundred time or
more. In this case, the designer of the experiment can state the uncertainty of the results ahead of time.
For us, an additional independent measurement represents a test on another manufacturer’s device. We
do not have the luxury of having a hundred devices of the same size to test!

What is possible is to show how big or small the uncertainty of the data will be given a particular standard
deviation. This allows one to appreciate how the standard deviation influences the result, but this is only
an academic exercise.

Suppose it were possible to organize many samples of a particular type and size of an equipment item
from several manufacturers into a collection and it was also possible to randomly select items from this
collection. Further suppose that the sample standard deviation remained the same as you drew 30 random
samples from the collection. The uncertainty of the mean of this sample is

( ) ( )
2
95 , 29
2
30 / 1 . 0 σ t ± + ± ±
where the ratio of the second terms under these last two radicals is
( ) ( ) 00011 . 0 )) 30 * 707 . 12 /( 2 * 042 . 2 ( ) 30 ( / ) 2 (
2 2
95 , 1 95 , 29
= = t t
which makes the second term small compared to the first term under the radical. This might be a
good way to conduct the testing, however it would be hard to assemble a large collection of the
same size product from many manufacturers owing to the expense.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 74
If there were only five manufacturers of a given product and it was possible to test all of the
products, then you would have a fairly good estimate of the mean value of the heat loss.
Certainly, the uncertainty of this mean estimate can be reduced through further testing as shown
above but the significant information is not the fine estimate of the mean value but rather the
mean value and the spread of the data. If the data spread is small, then the mean is a
representative number of the heat losses. If the data spread is large, then the engineer may want
to use a heat loss value larger than the mean.

The significance of this discussion is that the loss values going into the mean calculation should
be as good as you can produce (± 10%). However, the significance of the mean heat loss value
is as important as the spread of the data, i.e. the sample standard deviation.

To arrive at a good estimate of the mean value and the standard deviation of the test data, the
recommendation is that 75% or more of the products (of a given size and equipment type)
available from different manufacturers be tested.

The figure of 75% is arrived at through the consideration of the uncertainty of the sample mean.
Suppose there are n manufacturers of a particular size device where n is greater than or equal to
5. This size requirement on n comes from the behavior of the Student t table. For degrees of
freedom of 5 or more, the table entries do not change rapidly with degrees of freedom. Since
t
ν,95
(where ν is the number of degrees of freedom) does not change rapidly with increases in ν
and since the standard deviation is not that sensitive to additional sample, the uncertainty in the
mean value for performing a test on 75% of the manufacturers would be
( ) ( ) ( )
2
95 , 75 . 0
2
% 75
75 . 0 / 1 . 0 n u
n
σ υ ± + ± ± = .
The uncertainty of the mean value obtained by testing all of the manufacturers would be
( ) ( )
2
95 ,
2
% 100
/ 1 . 0 n u
n
σ υ ± + ± ± = .
If σ was very large compared to the measurement uncertainty of 10%, then the limiting value of the ratio
u
100%
/u
75%
of these two uncertainties would be 0.75. If σ was very small compared to the measurement
uncertainty, then the limiting value of the same ratio is 1.0. Thus, if only 75 % of the manufacturers were
tested, then the uncertainty of the mean will be in the range from being the same as to 25 % larger than
the mean obtained from testing all of the manufacturers.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 75



Electric Power Equipment to be Tested
Testing Size Number Number of Equipment Equipment
Range to Test to Test Manufacturers Source Cost
Adjustable Speed Drives 25 - 50 hp 25 & 50 hp 2 2 ---
Battery Chargers 100 - 600 Amp 100, 400, 600 Amp 3 2 ---
Inverters 20 - 30 kVA 20 & 30 kVA 2 2 ---
Reactors 2 to 750 Amp 2, 200, 750 Amp 3 2 Purchase 7412
Low Voltage Circuit Breakers 800, 1600, 2000, 800 Amp/ 800 A frame 2 1 Purchase 8800
3200, 4000 Amp 2000 Amp/2000 A frame
Frames
Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker 5 - 15 kV 5 and 15 kV 4 1 Loan/Site test
Current
Combination Motor Starters NEMA Type 1-3 Types 1 & 3 2 2 Donation/Purchase 2195
Space Heaters Not Determined Two sizes 2 2 Purchase 100
TOTAL $18,507
Reactors: GE (Enclosed Units) 2A 155
200 A 690
750 A 2800
TOTAL 3645
Olsun Electric 2A 570
200 A 1269
750 A 1928
TOTAL 3767
TOTAL $7,412
REACTORS
Motor
Starters: Cutler-Hammer NEMA Type 1 604
NEMA Type 3 1,591
TOTAL $2,195
Low
Voltage
Circuit
Breakers: General Electric 800 A Frame 2800
(Spectra Line) 2000 A Frame 6000
(65k - AIC) TOTAL $8,800
Table 7: Electric Power Equipment to be Tested
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 76
Phase II Budget

The expenses for Phase II are estimated here. The funds remaining in the TRP 1104 budget are
sufficient to cover the test apparatus construction, personnel salaries, equipment purchase, and
travel. Table 8 shows the how these funds will be used. Table 8 shows the estimated cost for
acquiring the equipment or test articles for performing measurements.
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 77
Phase II Time Schedule

Phase II Time Schedule for Completion of Work

Month Activity
July Purchase components and build test apparatus
Purchase equipment for testing
Calibrate the test apparatus
Send request for shipping loaned equipment
Begin cable and bus loss calculations
August Begin testing purchased equipment
Test loaned equipment
Acquire and organize published loss information
Continue cable and bus loss calculations
September Continue testing and calculations
Teleconference with PMS to assess progress
Begin work on Part B, Phase II report
October Conclude Part A, testing and calculations
Continue work on Part B, Phase II report
Transmit Part A Report
November Transmit current Part B Guide document to PMS
Teleconference with PMS for first coordination meeting
Continue work on Phase II report
December Continue work on Phase II report
Incorporate comments from first review
January Continue work on Phase II, Part B Guide report
Transmit draft of Phase II, Part B Guide to PMS
Teleconference with PMS for second coordination meeting
February Incorporate comments from second review
Deliver Phase II final report to TC 9.2


Table 9: Phase II Time Schedule




ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 78
Equipment Category Sub-Categories Information Actions Verification GO/ Reason for NOGO
Source Test NOGO
Uncertainty
Transformers
Unit Substation Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Power and Lighting Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Potential Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Control Power Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Current Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Assemble Tables N/A GO
Motors
Synchronous Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Induction Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
DC Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Cables and Cable Trays Calculations Study/Assem. Tables N/A GO
Adjustable Speed Drives Manufacturer/Tests Test/Assem. Tables < 10% GO
Batter Chargers Manufacturer/Test Test/Assem. Tables <10% NOGO Wait Equipment
Inverters Manufacturer/Test Test/Assem. Tables <10% NOGO No Equipment Source
Circuit Breakers
LowVoltage Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% GO
MediumVoltage Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% GO
Motor Control Centers
Disconnect Switches **** Testing not necessary - combined with Combination Motor Starters **** GO
Combination Motor Starters Manufacturer/Donation/Purchase/Test Test/Assem. Tables <10% GO
Bus Bars Calculations Study/Assem. Tables N/A GO
Space Heaters Test Test/Assem. Tables <10% GO
Auxiliary Compartments Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Adjustable Speed Drives Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% GO
Enclosure Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test < 10% GO
Unit Substations
LowVoltage Circuit Breaker Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% GO
Bus Bars Calculations Study/Assem. Tables N/A GO
Auxiliary Compartments Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Space Heaters Test Test/Assem. Tables <10% GO
Unit Substation Transformer Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Enclosure Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% GO
MediumVoltage and DC
Switchgear
MediumVoltage Circuit Breakers Manufacturer/Loan/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% GO
Bus Bars Calculations Study/Assem. Tables N/A GO
Potential Transformer Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Control Power Transformer Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Current Transformer Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Assemble Tables N/A GO
Auxiliary Compartments Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A GO
Space Heaters Test Test/Assem. Tables <10% GO
Enclosure Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test < 10% GO
Panelboards
LowVoltage Circuit Breaker Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% GO
Bus Bars Calculations Study/Assem. Tables N/A GO
Enclosure Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% GO
Manual Transfer Switch Test Test/Assem. Tables <10% NOGO No Equipment Source
Table 10: Summary of Equipment Testing
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 79
Appendix

Letter of Contact Example

An example of the letter used for contacting manufactures through e-mail and requesting
information on loss figure tabulations and testing methods is included here. For each type of
equipment, a different letter was composed stating the specific sizes and ranges for the requested
information. The letter shown here was used for obtaining information on medium voltage
switchgear.


Date: April 11, 2000

To: Electric Equipment Manufacturers

From: Warren White
Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.
324 Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: 785-532-2615 Fax: 785-532-7057

Re: Medium Voltage Switchgear Heat Loss

To Whom It May Concern:

Currently, we are working on a project funded by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, http://www.ashrae.org ) where we are trying to
update the information provided by Hickok
1,2
and by Rubin
3
. The focus of the project, ASHRAE
# TRP 1104, is to supply the heating/refrigeration design engineer with reliable information
regarding electrical generating/distribution equipment heat loss so that heat load estimates can be
made for the purpose of sizing heating/refrigeration equipment. Up to now, the work of Rubin
and Hickok has been the sole source for these heat load estimates. As you can see, the data is
about 15 years old or older. Due to uncertainties in the heat loss information, the HVAC systems
for cooling electrical equipment rooms tend to be either over or under designed. It the intention
of this research endeavor to obtain fairly accurate updated information for proper sizing of the
HVAC cooling system. In order to update this heat loss information, I am contacting
manufacturers of electric power equipment to obtain current data and test methods.

Specifically, what we are seeking regarding medium voltage switchgear (5kV, 7.2kV, and
13.8kV of 1200A, 2000A, and 3000A sizes) is the following:

1) Is your loss data published in a public document or web site? If so could you identify the
document / web address where the information could be found? If there is no public data
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 80
source, could you provide us with loss numbers? Are these losses just I
2
R losses or are there
some constant losses included?
2) How is the loss information determined? If you use a test method described in a standard,
what is the standard organization and what is the standard number? If there is no applicable
standard for determining losses, how are the losses determined? Please describe the test
procedure.
3) Please state loss wattage and test methods for determining the losses for other equipment
such as space heaters, control power transformers, relays and control, etc.

The goal of seeking this information is to be able to predict a reasonable loss value for the
switchgear as a function of the load current.

If you wish to verify the information I have provided, you may contact the Project Supervisory
Committee Chairman, Mr. John Riley or ASHRAE's Manager of Research, Mr. Bill Seaton.
Their addresses are supplied at the end of this letter.

If so requested, any information you provide will be used anonymously, i.e. the source of the
information will not be attached to any non-public data revealed in any report. We will
acknowledge any participating manufacturers in an appropriate section of any report or paper
coming from this work. Any non-public information you provide will not be shared with other
manufacturers. We will be happy to provide you with a draft of our report prior to publication so
that you may examine it.

Should you have any questions or if you require additional information regarding the project
intent and/or scope, please contact me by phone or by e-mail (wnw@ksu.edu). Should you
believe another individual is a better choice of contact, please let me know and please pass this
document on to that individual. Thank you for you time. Your help is greatly valued.

Sincerely,

Warren N. White,
Associate Professor

References

1
Hickok, Herbert N. “Energy Losses in Electrical Power Systems.” IEEE Transactions on
Industry Applications, v IA-14 n 5, Sep-Oct 1978 pp. 373-387.

2
McDonald, William J.; Hickok, Herbert N. “Energy Losses in Electrical Power Systems.” IEEE
Transactions on Industry Applications, v IA-21 n 3, May/June 1985, pp. 803-819.

3
I. M. Rubin, “Heat Losses from Electrical Equipment in Generating Stations,” IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-98, No. 4 July/August 1979, pp. 1149-
1152.


ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 81
Mr. John B. Riley
Black & Veatch
11401 Lamar Avenue
Overland Park, KS 66211
Phone: 913-458-2344
Fax: 913-458-2934
e-mail: ( rileyjb@bv.com )


Mr. William W. Seaton,
Manager of Research
ASHRAE, Inc.
1791 Tullie Circle
N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329-2305
Fax: 404-321-5478
Phone: 404-636-8400
e-mail: ( bseaton@ashrae.org )


ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 82
Equipment Donation from General Electric



Warren,
I have already received these two items.
Anil
------- Forwarded message follows -------
From: "Niemi, Russ (IndSys,SLS)" <russ.niemi@indsys.ge.com>
To: "'pahwa@eece.ksu.edu'" <pahwa@eece.ksu.edu>
Subject: Equipment
Date sent: Mon, 23 Apr 2001 11:34:54 -0400
I have ordered you the following:
SEDA36AT0060 with SRPE60A60 Rating plug 60 amp current
limiting
breaker CR306C104 starter with CR123C778A heaters
I apologize for delay but in this economy, even modest samples
require
about 3 approvals. Hopefully, they will be shipped later this week.
------- End of forwarded message -------
Anil Pahwa (pahwa@ksu.edu)
Kansas State University
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Rathbone Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-5204
Tel: 785-532-4654
Fax: 785-532-1188




ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 83
E-Mail from Western Resources concerning Medium Voltage Circuit
Breakers




Warren,
For your information.
Anil
------- Forwarded message follows -------
From: Tom_Ward@wr.com
Subject: Re: ASHRAE project
To: "Anil Pahwa" <pahwa@eece.ksu.edu>
Date sent: Fri, 23 Feb 2001 13:28:57 -0600
Of the items on your list, we might be able to test a 5 kV and a 15
kV
circuit breaker. I don't think that either device could be removed
from our property, however.
The other items are not things that we use in our power plants.
Tom
------- End of forwarded message -------
Anil Pahwa (pahwa@ksu.edu)
Kansas State University
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Rathbone Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-5204
Tel: 785-532-4654
Fax: 785-532-1188



ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 84
E-Mail on two matched 15Kv ABB Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers from TVA
ABB told me the breaker is [refurbished breaker good as new]
James W. Kurtz, Manager
Substation Project's Protection & Control
751-3196
> ----------
> From: Warren N. White[SMTP:wnw@ksu.edu]
> Reply To: wnw@ksu.edu
> Sent: Monday, March 19, 2001 4:50 PM
> To: Kurtz, James W.
> Subject: RE: equipment
>
> Jim:
>
> We can use the breaker mentioned below. How old is it? In my
> last e-mail, I expressed several questions regarding the equipment.
> Are you now in a position to answer those questions? Thanks for
> your help?
>
> Warren
>
>
> From: "Kurtz, James W." <jwkurtz@tva.gov>
> To: "'wnw@ksu.edu'" <wnw@ksu.edu>
> Subject: RE: equipment
> Date sent: Fri, 16 Mar 2001 10:05:03 -0500
>
>
> Mr. White, below is some equipment from ABB. Please let me know if you
> have
> any interest in this equipment?
>
> > Item 1 --Qty (2) Dh150 air mag breakers with 250DC control 150DH500A -
> > 15kV,
> > 1200A
> >
> > Item 2 -- MSOC overcurrent relays
> >
> > Item 3 -- GPU 2000 generation protection relay
> >
> > Item 4 --TPU 2000 transformer protection relay
> >
> > Item 5 - Microsheild 32 Reverse Power Relay.
> >
> > Let me know if any interest is expressed.
> >
> >
> >
> > ----------
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 85
> > From: Warren N. White[SMTP:wnw@ksu.edu]
> > Reply To: wnw@ksu.edu
> > Sent: Wednesday, March 14, 2001 8:24 AM
> > To: Kurtz, James W.
> > Cc: pahwa@eece.ksu.edu
> > Subject: RE: equipment
> >
> > Jim:
> >
> > Thanks for your email. What is the voltage level of the disconnect
> > switch? We are looking for 600 V switches used in conjunction
> > with medium voltage switch gear. All of the equipment seems ok.
> > However, since we are looking for heat loss, I am concerned that
> > pitting and oxidation of breaker and switch contacts might give us
> > non-representatively high readings. Before you ship an item such
> > as this, it would be wise to determine if the device could provide
> > useful data. I am trying to determine if the heat loss from an aged
> > battery charger would be significantly different from a new one. Do
> > you have any knowledge of this? In our phone conversation, you
> > mentioned that you use 125V and 250V battery chargers. Are any
> > of these available? We might need to visit again with a phone
> > conversation regarding the quality of the data we would get from
> > this equipment.
> >
> > Looking forward to hearing from you,
> >
> > Warren White
> >
> >
> >
> > From: "Kurtz, James W." <jwkurtz@tva.gov>
> > To: "'wnw@ksu.edu'" <wnw@ksu.edu>
> > Subject: RE: equipment
> > Date sent: Fri, 9 Mar 2001 13:11:13 -0500
> >
> > Mr. White,
> >
> > Below is the first listing of material. Please evaluate for your
> project
> > and let me know if you can use. We are still looking.
> >
> > > The following items we may be able to get over a short period of time
> as
> > > they are retired from service.( 3-6 months.)
> > > * Battery chargers 24 & 48 volt
> > > * Circuit Breakers 15-kV 1200 amp
> > > * Disconnect Switch. 600 and 1200 amps
> > > NOTE: These items would be approximately 30 years old or older. Need
> > to
> > > check to see if they would meet their needs. Also, the disconnect
> > switch
> > > would require a more than a pick-up to haul. If they need the
> > insulators
> > > with these items, I would need to know that also.
> > >
> > > BOB PHILLIPS
> > > 423-751-6753
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 86
> > > blphillips@tva.gov
> > >
> > James W. Kurtz, Manager
> > Substation Project's Protection & Control
> > 751-3196
> >
> >
> >
> > > ----------
> > > From: Warren N. White[SMTP:wnw@ksu.edu]
> > > Reply To: wnw@ksu.edu
> > > Sent: Wednesday, March 07, 2001 2:52 PM
> > > To: Kurtz, James W.
> > > Subject: equipment
> > >
> > > Jim:
> > >
> > > This is a follow up to our conversation on Wednesday, March 7. There
> > are
> > > two time frames I am working with. The first involves lining up
> > > equipment to test. My hope is that I can complete the location of
> > > equipment to test by the end of March. The second time frame
> involves
> > > receiving and completing the tests on the equipment. In this regard,
> I
> > > would prefer to complete all testing by the end of this coming
> summer.
> > >
> > > One constraint that I have to observe is that ASHRAE (organization
> > > funding the investigation) needs to be informed that equipment is
> > > available to be tested. A letter from TVA describing the equipment
> > that
> > > you will allow me to test will help here significantly.
> > >
> > > Should you have any other questions, please don't hesitate to call or
> > > e-mail.
> > >
> > > Thank you for your help and time!
> > >
> > > Warren White
> > >
> > >
> > > wnw@ksu.edu Dr. Warren N. White, Associate Professor Mechanical and
> > > Nuclear Engineering Department 324 Durland Hall Kansas State
> University
> > > Manhattan, KS 66506-5106 USA Voice: (785) 532-2615 FAX: (785)
> 532-7057
> > >
> > wnw@ksu.edu
> > Dr. Warren N. White, Associate Professor
> > Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department
> > 324 Durland Hall
> > Kansas State University
> > Manhattan, KS 66506-5106
> > USA
> > Voice: (785) 532-2615
> > FAX: (785) 532-7057
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 87
E-Mail Regarding Battery Chargers from TVA


Attach is a list of equipment we have been asked to help provide. This is
all indoor type equipment. Please check at your plant sites to see if they
have any surplus.
Ken,
Mr. White said he might be able to use one of the towmotor chargers. He is
going to call you.
Thanks
BOB PHILLIPS
423-751-6753
blphillips@tva.gov
> ----------
> From: Higley, Arthur F.
> Sent: Wednesday, March 07, 2001 1:21 PM
> To: Phillips, Bobby L.; Allen, Kenneth W.
> Subject: FW: equipment list
>
> Revised list, can we help?
>
> ----------
> From: Pinkleton, Hugh M.
> Sent: Wednesday, March 07, 2001 10:11 AM
> To: Higley, Arthur F.; 'Bob Kleeb'
> Cc: Kurtz, James W.
> Subject: FW: equipment list
>
> BOB AND ART
> SEE E-MAIL BELOW FROM JIM KURTZ CONCERNING EQUIPMENT FOR KANSAS STATE. LET
> ME KNOW IF WE HAVE ANYTHING AVAILABLE. THANKS
>
> ----------
> From: Kurtz, James W.
> Sent: Wednesday, March 07, 2001 10:05 AM
> To: Pinkleton, Hugh M.
> Subject: FW: equipment list
>
> Hugh,
>
> I talked to Dr. White about the restrictive listed as asked if he could
> use other equipment. He said he could use other equipment.
>
> For example:
> He can use battery chargers up to 250 VDC, any rating.
> Inverters of almost any size
> Any circuit breaker up to 15KV (accept small less that 200 amps)
>
> If you find something and want to know if he can use the equipment then
> please contact him. He needs a listing of equipment before the end of the
> month.
>
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2 06/10/01 88
> James W. Kurtz, Manager
> Substation Project's Protection & Control
> 751-3196
>
>
>
> ----------
> From: Hall, David
> Sent: Friday, February 16, 2001 12:13 PM
> To: Kurtz, James W.
> Cc: Denney, Roy C.
> Subject: FW: equipment list
>
> Please review this list for potential items that we could loan them for
> testing, get vendors to give them, etc.
>
> ----------
> From: Warren N. White[SMTP:wnw@ksu.edu]
> Reply To: wnw@ksu.edu
> Sent: Thursday, February 15, 2001 5:37 PM
> To: Hall, David
> Subject: equipment list
>
> <<Attachment information.>> <<Equipment List.pdf>>
> David:
>
> Thanks for taking the time to discuss my measurement needs on
> the phone. The equipment list is attached and it is in pdf format. I
> look forward to hearing from you again and I hope we can work out
> a suitable deal regarding the equipment.
>
> Sincerely,
>
> Warren White
>
>
> wnw@ksu.edu
> Dr. Warren N. White, Associate Professor
> Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department
> 324 Durland Hall
> Kansas State University
> Manhattan, KS 66506-5106
> USA
> Voice: (785) 532-2615
> FAX: (785) 532-7057



Heat Gain from Electrical and Control
Equipment in Industrial Plants



ASHRAE Research Project 1104-TRP


PHASE II
PART A: TEST REPORT


Warren N. White, Ph.D.
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering
and
Anil Pahwa, Ph.D.
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering



Kansas State University


June 6, 2003

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Table of Contents

Page

List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

List of Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

Introduction and Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Phase II Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Medium Voltage Switchgear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Cables and Cable Trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Cable Trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
.
Loss Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Spreadsheet for Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Examples and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Uncertainty in Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Limits on Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Motor Control Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Motor Starters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Motor Starter Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Battery Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Low Voltage Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Unit Substations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 i
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Adjustable Speed Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Medium Voltage Breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Appendix 1 Raw Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53




Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 ii
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
List of Figures

FIGURES Page

Figure 1: Typical Arrangement of Cables in a Cable Tray. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 2: Snap Shot of Spreadsheet for Calculation of Losses in Cable Trays. . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 3: Extreme Range of Losses for 600V Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60%
Diversity Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Figure 4: Extreme Range of Losses for 5 kV Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60%
Diversity Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Figure 5: Extreme Range of Losses for 15 kV Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60%
Diversity Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Figure 6: Circuit for Measuring Heat Loss of Combination Motor Starters . . . . . . . . . . 21

Figure 7: NEMA 0 Power Losses with Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Figure 8: NEMA 0 Power Losses without Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Figure 9: Power Losses of NEMA 1 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure. . 23

Figure 10: Power Losses of NEMA 3 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure . 24
Figure 10a: Power Losses of NEMA 2 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure

Figure 11: Inverter Losses as a Function of Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Figure 12: 130 Volt DC Battery Charger Load and No Load Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Figure 13: 260 Volt DC Battery Charger Load and No Load Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Figure 14: 60 Amp Frame Circuit Breaker Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Figure 15: 60 Amp Frame Breaker Losses Without Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Figure 16: Figure 16: 100 Amp Breaker Power Losses in Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Figure 17: 100 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Figure 18: 200 Amp Breaker Power Loss With Enclosure (250 Amp Frame) . . . . . . . . . 33

Figure 19: 200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure (250 Amp Frame) . . . . . . . . 34

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 iii
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Figure 20: 800 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Figure 21: 800 Amp Breaker Heat Loss With Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Figure 22: 1200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Figure 23: 1200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss With Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Figure 24: Comparison of Measured and Reported Breaker Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Figure 25: Unit Substation Power Loss Calculation Spreadsheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Figure 26: Reactor Losses - 240 Volt Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Figure 27: Reactor Losses - 480 Volt Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Figure 28: Reactor Losses - 600 Volt Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Figure 29: 230 Volt Drive Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Figure 30: 460 Volt Drive Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Figure 31: 600 Volt Drive Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Figure 32: Drive Losses as a Function of Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Figure 33: Thermal Chamber Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Figure 34: 1200 Amp, Medium Voltage Breaker Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51




Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 iv
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
List of Tables

TABLES Page

Table1: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having an 80
o
C Temperature Rise . . . . . . . . 2

Table 2: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having a 115
o
C Temperature Rise . . . . . . . 2

Table 3: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having a 150
o
C Temperature Rise . . . . . . . 3

Table 4: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having an 80
o
C Temperature Rise . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Table 5: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having a 115
o
C Temperature Rise . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Table 6: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having a 150
o
C Temperature Rise . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Table 7: General Purpose Liquid Filled Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Table 8: NEMA TP1 Efficiencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Table 9: Manufacturera A and D Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses. . . 7

Table 10: Manufacturer E Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses. . . . . . 8

Table 11: Losses in Cable Trays for 600 V Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Table 12: Losses in Cable Trays for 5 kV Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Table 13: Losses in Cable Trays for 15 kV Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Table 14: Starter Watts Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Table 15: Comparison of Motor Starter Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Table 16: Motor Starter Coil Losses and Overall Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Table 17: Motor Control Center Bus Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Table 18: Inverter Losses as a Function of Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Table 19: Circuit Breaker Heat Loss at Rated Frame Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Table 20: CT Circuits Used to Test Low Voltage Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Table 21: Coefficients for Breaker Loss Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 v
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Table 22: Nominal Efficiencies for General Purpose Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Table 23: Arrangement of Motor Averages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Table 24: Reactor Power Losses at Rated Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Table 25: Regression Constants for Drive Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Table 26: Adjustable Speed Drive Losses – Tested Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 vi
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Introduction and Executive Summary

The Phase II report for “Heat Gain from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants” is
divided into two separate documents being Part A and Part B. Part A of the report, which this
document constitutes, consists of a compilation of heat loss data and a documentation of the
testing methods used to measure the heat loss of specific power equipment items. The Part B
document contains heat loss information together with instructions on using the heat loss
information in determining the heat load. The Part A document contains the heat loss
information accumulated through the data gathering methods specified in the Phase I report of
this investigation. The data gathering methods consist of both compiling industrial catalog data
when it was believed that this information is representative of actual losses as well laboratory
tests where a sample of certain equipment items were tested to verify published loss information.
The deciding factor between testing and simply accepting catalog data is the availability and
adherence to published testing and/or manufacturing standards. In some cases there is both an
absence of standards and an availability of only very crude estimates (if at all) of heat loss
information. These three scenarios represent the spectrum of the information presented in this
document.

Some of the presented results consist of graphs and/or tables of how the heat loss values vary as
a function of load. In addition to the graphical and tabulated representation of losses, formulae
are also presented for the calculation of losses since this might prove the most convenient for the
engineer. The means of using the data for calculations is contained in the Part B portion of this
report. In the situations where it was necessary to make equipment tests, the methods by which
the tests were performed are documented.

The order in which the data is presented consists of the order in which the data collection for the
various equipment types was performed. This order is different than the organization of
equipment coverage in the Phase I document where the three categories defined in the RP 1104
work statement were used to organize the discussion of heat losses.

Phase II –Test Results

Transformers

No load, full load, and total heat loss data for transformers were obtained from three different
manufacturers. When more than one set of loss values was available for the same size unit, both
an average and a standard deviation was computed. If only one set of loss values was available,
then the standard deviation is reported as N/A. The results of the data collection are shown in
Tables 1 through 7. Tables 1 through 3 present information concerning general purpose dry type
units. Tables 4 through 6 pertain to dry type, nonlinear units. Table 7 contains data concerning
liquid filled units. In each table involving the nonlinear units, losses are shown for units having
a K factor of 4 and 13. Since only one value was found for each size of nonlinear unit, no
average heat loss or standard deviation is reported. The same is true for the liquid immersed
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 1
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
units. The K Factor reported in Tables 4 through 6 is defined as the ratio between the additional
losses due to harmonics and the eddy losses at 60 Hz. It is used to specify transformers for
nonlinear loads.

Table1: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having an 80
o
C Temperature Rise

Table 2: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having a 115
o
C Temperature Rise
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 2
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Table 3: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having a 150
o
C Temperature Rise


Table 4: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having an 80
o
C Temperature Rise


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 3
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Table 5: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having a 115
o
C Temperature Rise
Table 6: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having a 150
o
C Temperature Rise

Table 7: General Purpose Liquid Filled Units


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 4
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


KVA Dry Type Low
Voltage
75
o
C – 35%
Load
Dry Type Medium
Voltage
75
o
C – 50%
Liquid Immersed
Medium Voltage
85
o
C – 50%
15 97.0 96.8 98.0
30 97.5 97.3 98.3
45 97.7 97.6 98.5
75 98.0 97.9 98.7
112.5 98.2 98.1 98.8
150 98.3 98.2 98.9
225 98.5 98.4 99.0
300 98.6 98.5 99.0
500 98.7 98.7 99.1
750 98.8 98.8 99.2
1000 98.9 98.9 99.2
1500 ----- 99.0 99.3
2000 ----- 99.0 99.4
2500 ----- 99.1 99.4





















Table 8: NEMA TP1 Efficiencies
Table 8 shows NEMA Class 1 transformer efficiencies. These efficiency values represent lower
bounds on the peak efficiency that a transformer must meet or surpass before is may be given the
Class 1 designation. For dry type, low voltage units, the peak efficiency usually occurs at 35 %
of full load while for medium voltage, dry type units and medium voltage liquid immersed units,
the peak efficiency usually occurs at 50 % of full load. Using the idea of peak efficiency, values
of load and no load losses can be determined. From the definition of efficiency, we have
)%
1000
1000
( 100
2
lf Loss Load NL lf kVA pf
lf kVA pf
o
⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= η (2)
where η
o
is the efficiency in percent, lf is the load fraction, pf is the power factor, NL is the no
load loss, Load Loss is the full load loss, and the units of both the numerator and denominator are
power. By setting the efficiency expression for a given unit type, kVA, and power factor equal
to the corresponding value obtained from Table 8 for the appropriate load fraction, i.e 0.35 or
0.5, we get one equation for the two unknowns of NL and Load Loss. Since the peak of the
efficiency vs. lf curve occurs at the given value, i.e. 0.35 or 0.5, the slope of the curve,
( ) lf d

, is
zero at this point and relation provides another equation for the two unknown losses. Solving the
two derived equations for the two unknown losses produces
100
2
1000
100
1
o
o
lf
kVA pf
Loss Load
η
η

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ |
.
|

\
|

= (3)
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 5
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
and
( Loss Load lf lf kVA pf NL
o
⋅ −
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
2
1
100
1000
η
) (4)
where η
o
comes from Table 8 and lf is either 0.35 or 0.5 depending if a low or medium voltage
unit, respectively, is under consideration.

Given the full capability of the of the unit in kVA, then the losses are approximately

transformer total losses ( )( ) watts
C T
T T
lf Loss Load NL
o
K
REF K
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
75
2
= (5)

where T
K
is 234.5
o
C for copper windings or 225
o
C for aluminum windings, and T
REF
is the
reference temperature, and lf is the load fraction. Only the dry type units require temperature
correction.




Medium Voltage Switchgear
Owing to the unavailability and expense of medium voltage switchgear, no testing was possible
within the scope of this project. While there are proprietary models and software packages used
by manufacturers for estimating the heat loss of these devices, the only devices uncovered in this
effort were simplified models for determining rejected heat. Likewise, some manufacturers
publish some general tables for predicting the heat loss. Tables 9 and 10 list the data obtained
from three different manufacturers. Although this information was obtained from the latest
versions of manufacturers’ documents, some of the information still matches data contained in
the 1985 paper of McDonald and Hickok listed in the Phase I report.


















Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 6
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Manufacturer Equipment Watts
Loss
1200 Amp Breaker 600
2000 Amp Breaker 1400
3000 Amp Breaker 2000
600 Amp Unfused Switch 500
1200 Amp Unfused Switch 750



A
100 Amp CL Fuse 840
1200 Amp Breaker 675
2000 Amp Breaker 1335
3000 Amp Breaker 2030
3500/4000 Amp Breaker 2765
2-1200 Amp Beakers - Stacked 1220
1-1200 Amp & 1-2000 Amp Breker - Stacked 1880
Each Vertical Section with Simple Relaying & Control 150
Each Vertical Section with Simple Relaying & Control 330
Each PT Rollout 50
Each CPT rollout up to 15kVA 600







D
Equipment Heaters if Supplied 300
Table 9: Manufacturers A & D Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses



















Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 7
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Equipment Watts Loss
Breakers
1200 Amp Breaker 413
2000 Amp Breaker 845
CTs – Sets of three
600:5 – Turns Ratio 23
1200:5 – Turns Ratio 45
2000:5 – Turns Ratio 75
3000:5 – Turns Ratio 113
4000:5 – Turns Ratio 150
Auxiliary Frames
Each Frame
150
Main Bus Per Frame
1200 Amp 108
2000 Amp 180
3000 Amp 115
4000 Amp 204
Control Power Transformers
CPT – 5 kVA, 1 Phase 60
CPT – 105 kVA, 1 Phase 115
CPT – 15 kVA, 1 Phase 175
CPT – 25 kVA, 1 Phase 295
CPT – 50 kVA, 1 phase 450
CPT – 45 kVA, 3 Phase 520
CPT – 75 kVA, 3 Phase 885
Heaters
150 Watt 150
300 Watt heater at 75 Watts 75
Table 10: Manufacturer E Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses

According to manufacturer E, the influence of the enclosure is to double the heat losses.
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 8
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
The information from manufacturer E comes in the form of a spreadsheet. A copy of this
spreadsheet has not been included in this document since it is possible to identify the
manufacturer.

Using the information provided by manufacturer E, eliminating that information pertaining to old
technology equipment (available only as replacement parts), and incorporating the information
from the other two manufacturers, provides a new spreadsheet useful to calculating the rejected
heat from medium voltage switchgear. This spreadsheet is contained in Part B of this report.

No accuracy information is available on any of this data.


Cables and Cable Trays


Cable Trays
In industrial facilities, power cables are routed in cable trays, which come in 6 to 30 inch widths
in 6-inch increments. Trays will have some eddy current losses, but they are extremely small
and, thus, are neglected. The bulk of the cable losses are the resistive losses in the main
conductors. Thus, if the number of cables and their physical arrangement in the trays are known,
total losses per foot at the room temperature of that specific cable tray can be computed. The
main difficulty arises due to the temperature of the cables in the trays and since resistance of the
conductors increase with temperature, the heat generated also increases. The temperature of the
cables depends on loading of the cables, size of cables, and packing of the cables. There are
almost infinite combinations of these variables. However, normal industry practice and some
simplifying assumptions make the task tractable.

Anders (1997) discusses a method for calculating the steady-state temperature of cables in open-
top trays. This method is based on a paper by Harshe and Black (1994) and it removes the
conservatism in the thermal models used in IEEE Std 835-1994 for generating the ampacity
tables. These tables are based on complete packing of the tray by cables and maximum current
loading of the cables. The method of this paper allows partial packing of the tray and allows
inclusion of load diversity. Details of the method are provided in the next section.

Loss Calculation
The model of Harshe and Black (1994) assumes that the current in all the cables in the bundle is
known. The model has two options for heating within the tray. One of the options assumes that
cables generate heat uniformly across the cable tray and the second option assumes that the
heavily loaded cables are located at the cable tray centerline and the lightly loaded cables are
placed above and below the centerline. The uniform loading option is used for calculations
presented in this report.

Figure 1 shows a typical arrangement of cables in a tray. For a bundle of n identical three-phase
cables carrying a current I per phase with a resistance R per phase, heat balance equation
considering flow of heat from center of the bundle to the surface and then from surface to the air
by radiation and convection is given by
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 9
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

) ( ) ( 3
4 4 2
amb s s amb s s s total
A A h I R n W θ θ ε σ θ θ − + − = =


This equation assumes that the cables are located indoors in still air and the heat flow is taking
place above and below the tray with no sideways heat flow. The equation presented by Harsh
and Black (1994) considers cables of different sizes and numbers in a cable bundle. The
calculations become very complex for a general case; therefore, we have modified it for identical
cables. The variables and symbols used in this equation are

total
W - Watts generated within the cable bundle per unit length (W/m)
s
h - Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
-
o
C)
s
A - Surface area of the cable bundle per unit length (m)
s
θ - Surface temperature of the cable bundle (
o
C)
amb
θ - Ambient air temperature (
o
C)
σ - Stephan-Boltzmann constant (W/m
2
-K
4
)
ε - Emissivity of the cable bundle surface


w
H
Figure 1: Typical Arrangement of Cables in a Cable Tray

In general, the temperature at the bottom surface of the bundle will be different from the top
surface, but as a simplification they are considered to be the same. However, the convective heat
transfer coefficient for the top and the bottom are different. The coefficient for the bottom
surface is

25 . 0
2
25 . 0
) ( 248 . 0


|
.
|

\
|
=

amb s air B
g
w k h θ θ
ν
β

and the coefficient for the top surface depends on the value of the Rayleigh Number (Ra):

25 . 0
2
25 . 0
) ( 496 . 0


|
.
|

\
|
=

amb s air T
g
w k h θ θ
ν
β
for 10
5
< Ra <10
7

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 10
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
333 . 0
2
) ( 134 . 0

− |
.
|

\
|
=
amb s air T
g
k h θ θ
ν
β
for 10
7
< Ra <10
10

The thermal properties in these equations are computed at an average film temperature
2 / ) (
amb s f
θ θ θ + = . The variables and symbols used in these equations are
air
k - Thermal conductivity of air (W/m-
o
C)
w - Cable tray width (m)
g - Acceleration of gravity (m/sec
2
)
β - Thermal expansion coefficient of air (1/
o
C)
ν - Kinematic viscosity of air (m
2
/sec)
and the Rayleigh number is given by

Ra ) ( 17 . 0
2
3
amb s
g
w θ θ
ν
β

|
.
|

\
|
=

The relationship between the centerline temperature,
max
θ , of the cable bundle and the surface
temperature is given by the following equation

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 4
max
total
s
W
w
H ρ
θ θ


where ρ is the thermal resistivity of the cable bundle including conductor, insulation and
encapsulated air (m-
o
C/W), and H is the total height of the cable bundle. Also, the product of
the convective heat transfer coefficient and the surface are can be expressed in terms of the
convective heat transfer coefficients at the top surface and the bottom surface by the following
equation

) (
T B s s
h h w A h + =


Since the heat transfer coefficients and resistance of the metallic parts of the cables are
dependent on the cable temperatures, an iterative procedure is needed to solve these equations.

Harshe and Black (1994) also collected test data over a period of four years to check the validity
of their model. These tests determined that the model predicted temperatures higher than the
measured except in cases where the temperature rise was up to5
o
C. The error was higher for
higher temperature rises. Thus to accurately reflect the temperature rise, a correction factor has
been used based on the measured data of Harshe and Black for calculation shown in this report.
The calculated temperature is unchanged for temperature rise up to 5
o
C, the temperature rise is
divided by 2.7 for temperature rise above 13.5
o
C, and temperature rise between between 5
o
C
and 13.5
o
C is divided by 0.2X, where X is the temperature rise. Hence, the temperature rise in
this range scales back to 5
o
C.


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 11
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Spreadsheet for Calculations
A spreadsheet was developed to compute the steady-state results based on the model described in
the previous section. A screen shot of the spreadsheet is given in Fig. 2. All data pertaining to a
specific cable tray is entered on this spreadsheet in appropriate cells. These data includes the
size of tray, size of cables, number of cables in each layer, number of layers, outer diameter of
the cable, maximum ampacity of the cable at 90
o
C, diversity factor for the cables, resistance at
20
o
C, and sheath and armor factor. It is assumed that the cables are sized such that the
maximum current in normal operation is 80% of the maximum ampacity at 90
o
C. The remaining
data are physical constants, which are common to all cable and tray sizes and thus do not change
from one case to another.

The solution technique is iterative and starts by guessing the steady state temperature of the
bundle and entering it in the proper cell. The results based on this guess are shown in two rows
in the spreadsheet. Since the equations are non-linear, a slight change in the initial guess makes a
large change in the results. Hence, the temperature in the last row could be very large or very
small. If it is lower than the initial temperature, the initial temperature must be increased and if it
is higher than the initial temperature, the initial temperature must be decreased. The size of the
change in initial temperature from one iteration to the next should be gradually reduced to obtain
convergence. This process can be stopped once the temperature in the first row is very close to
the initial temperature. The results in the first row are then accepted as the final results. Note
that the results on the second row are not used. They are used only to guide the iteration process.
Losses per meter for the cable tray are then converted to watts per foot. All the calculations prior
to this are performed in the SI units. During the computation it is important to keep a watch on
the column Rayleigh Number. The formula used in the spreadsheet is for Rayleigh Number
between 10
7
and 10
10
. If this number goes below 10
7
then the worksheet ‘Alternate Calc’ must be
used. In all the cases tried for this report, except a few for 6-inch tray, this modification was not needed.


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 12
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants






Figure 2: Snap Shot of Spreadsheet for Calculation of Losses in Cable Trays

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 13
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Examples and Results
Computations for numerous cases of cables trays with 6-inch, 12-inch and 30-inch dimensions
with different cable sizes of different voltages were performed using the spreadsheet. These
cables and respective data were obtained from a leading manufacturer of cables in the USA.
These data areonly representative sample of different cable types. Data for cables of different
types but of the same size from the same manufacturer or from different manufacturer could
have some variations. Although, the size of the copper conductor used for a specific size cable is
the same in all cases, the difference is mainly due to insulation thick, presence of shield, and
other construction related detailed. An examination of the available data shows a variation of up
to 20% in the overall dimension of the same size cable. Since the conductors sizes are the same,
the heat generated within two cable trays with same size cables but different insulation thickness
would be the same. The primary difference would be in heat dissipation since thicker cable will
have higher thermal insulation. This effect can be accounted for by changing the thermal
resistivity of the cable bundle in the trays. The cable arrangements for the trays were
determined based on standard industry practice and engineering judgment. However, actual cable
arrangement for a specific application could be very different from the arrangements considered
for these calculations. Specific factors considered are


1. A cable tray can have cables of only one voltage level at a time.
2. All the cables in a tray are considered to be three-phase cables and are of the same size
for a specific case.
3. Total height of the cable bundle does not exceed 3 inches.
4. Only single layers are considered for 5 kV and 15 kV cables for all sizes because the
height of the bundle even for the smallest size would exceed 3 inches. Multiple layers
are considered for 600 V cables,
5. Sheath loss factor of 0 for 600 V cables, 0.05 for 5 kV cables and 0.1 for 15 kV cables is
considered. As per cable literature, this factor varies between 0 and 0.2 and it increases
with voltage.
6. A packing or fill factor of 40% is considered for the trays. In other words, the total area
occupied by the cables in a layer does not exceed 40% of the total cross-sectional area of
the layer.
7. The cables are assumed to be stacked one top of the other with air space in between each
stack.
8. The cables are sized such that normal full load current is 80% of the ampacity at 90
o
C.
9. A diversity factor of 60% is considered. This implies that the average current in a cable
over a period of time is 60% of the full load current.
10. Sheath and armor loss factor of 0 for 600 V cables, 5% for 5 kV cables, and 10% for 15 kV
cables is considered.
11. Cable dimensions and other cable data were obtained from web site of Southwire, a cable
manufacturing company. Many different types of cables are available for each voltage
class with slight difference in the insulation and armor. A sample type from each voltage
class was considered for the calculations. The change in losses from one type to the other
in a voltage class would not be very significant.


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 14
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
The results obtained are shown in Tables 11to13 for 600 V, 5kV and 15 kV cables. The number
of cables and the steady-state temperatures for different cable sizes are also included in this table.
The average losses per foot for 600 V trays are 10.4 Watts, 23.16 Watts, and 60.79 Watts for 6-
inch tray, 12-inch tray, and 30-inch tray, respectively. These losses are roughly in proportion of
the size of the trays. However, there is large variation in the losses generated by trays with small
cables and those with large cables. There appear to be three groups of cables based on losses;
the first from # 8 to # 2 (very small cables) with very high losses, the second from # 1 to 4/0
(medium cables) with medium losses, and the third from 250 kCM to 750 kCM (large cables)
with low losses. One of the reasons for this is that a very large number of small cables in several
layers can be placed in the trays. They also seem to operate at higher temperatures. In fact, the
uncorrected temperature for # 8 cable with packing factor of 0.4 for all the tray sizes turned out
to be higher than 90
o
C, which is the maximum temperature allowed for the cables. Hence, we
had to reduce the number of cables to keep the temperature below the maximum allowed.
However, in a realistic scenario it would be unusual to find a cable tray filled with very large
number of very small cables. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider that is most cases the losses
would be in the midrange that is close to the computed average value.

Cable
Size
6-inch
Tray
12-inch
Tray
30-inch
Tray

AWG or
kCM
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C
8 20 29.56 46.13 45 67.15 48.87 125 187.08 49.70
6 16 27.43 43.92 36 62.25 46.35 92 159.49 47.07
4 9 15.10 35.96 21 35.45 37.69 54 91.31 38.16
2 9 18.13 38.81 18 36.28 38.94 45 90.75 39.11
1 4 8.28 31.62 10 20.80 32.91 26 54.14 33.27
1/0 4 8.53 31.94 10 21.44 33.30 24 51.42 33.11
2/0 4 9.03 32.44 8 18.06 32.41 22 49.79 33.10
3/0 4 9.64 33.09 8 19.28 33.03 22 53.17 33.80
4/0 4 10.35 33.84 8 20.69 33.76 20 51.73 33.85
250 1 2.72 30.83 3 8.16 31.00 9 24.47 31.00
300 1 2.79 31.00 3 8.37 31.00 8 22.31 31.00
350 1 2.88 31.00 3 8.64 31.00 7 20.17 31.00
400 1 3.02 31.00 3 9.07 31.00 7 21.17 31.00
500 1 3.19 31.00 2 6.39 31.00 6 19.16 31.00
750 1 3.52 31.00 2 7.04 31.00 5 17.61 31.00
Average
10.28 23.27 60.92
Std.Dev

8.77 8.77

51.78

Table 11: Losses in Cable Trays for 600 V Cables




Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 15
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants





Cable
Size
6-inch
Tray
12-inch
Tray
30-inch
Tray

AWG
or kCM
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C

2
2 4.77 31.00 3 7.15 31.00 9 21.45 31.00

1
1 2.46 30.43 3 7.40 31.00 9 22.20 31.00

1/0
1 2.64 30.79 3 7.93 31.00 8 21.14 31.00

2/0
1 2.87 31.00 3 8.60 31.00 8 22.93 31.00

4/0
1 3.23 31.00 2 6.46 31.00 7 22.60 31.00

250
1 3.48 31.00 2 6.95 31.00 6 20.86 31.00

350
1 3.85 31.00 2 7.71 31.00 6 23.12 31.00

500
1 4.27 31.00 2 8.53 31.00 5 21.33 31.00

750
1 4.89 31.00 2 9.77 31.00 4 19.54 31.00
Average 3.60 7.83 21.69
Std.Dev 0.90 1.01 1.14

Table 12. Losses in cable trays for 5 kV cables















Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 16
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants



Cable
Size
6-inch
Tray
12-inch
Tray
30-inch
Tray

AWG
or kCM
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C
No. of
Cables
Losses
Watts/ft
Temp.
o
C

2
1 2.68 30.98 3 8.03 31.00 7 18.75 31.00

1
1 2.75 31.00 3 8.24 31.00 7 19.24 31.00

1/0
1 3.08 31.00 2 6.15 31.00 7 21.53 31.00

2/0
1 3.14 31.00 2 6.29 31.00 6 18.86 31.00

3/0
1 3.25 31.00 2 6.50 31.00 6 19.49 31.00

4/0
1 3.50 31.00 2 7.00 31.00 6 21.01 31.00

250
1 3.53 31.00 2 7.06 31.00 5 17.64 31.00

350
1 3.83 31.00 2 7.67 31.00 5 19.17 31.00

500
1 4.20 31.00 1 4.19 30.70 4 16.79 30.70

750
4.40 31.00 1 4.40 31.00 4 17.59 31.00
Average 3.44 6.55 19.01
Std.Dev 0.57 1.38 1.48

Table 13. Losses in cable trays for 15 kV cables


The results for the 5 kV and 15 kV cable trays are quite different. Since only one layer of cables
was considered for all sizes, the variation in losses with size is extremely small. Also, the steady-
state temperatures in all cases are very close to one another. The losses for the 5 kV trays are
lower than the 600 V trays of the same size. Further, the losses for 15 kV trays are lower than
the 5 kV trays of the same size. This is expected since higher voltage cables have thicker
insulation around them. Thus a smaller number of higher voltage cables of the same conductor
size can be accommodated in the tray. The higher voltage cables have higher sheath and armor
losses, but the decrease in losses due to lower number of cables is higher that the slight increase
in sheath and armor losses.

If a cable tray has cables of different sizes, an estimate of losses can be obtained by prorating the
losses of the tray for each type of cable by the number of cables of that type in the tray and then
adding the losses. For example, if a 600 V12-inch tray has five 1 AWG, four 1/0, and one 2/0
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 17
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
cables, the total approximate losses for this tray would be
20 . 22 )
8
1
( 82 . 18 )
10
4
( 5 . 22 )
10
5
( 70 . 21 = + + Watts. If this is done for cables that result in very
close steady state temperatures, the error will be extremely small.

Uncertainty in Results
The main uncertainty in the results is related to the value of the thermal resistivity of the cable
bundle. We have used 400 cm-
o
C/Watt in our calculations as suggested by Harshe and Black
(1994). However, they also mention that the values of temperatures of the cable bundles
measured by them were lower than those computed using their model. They attributed this
difference to the value of thermal resistivity of the bundle and speculated that it is as low as 100
cm-
o
C/Watt or 50 cm-
o
C/Watt. To check this effect, we computed losses for a few sample cases
of 12-inch trays at thermal resistivity of 100 cm-
o
C/Watt. The temperature of the bundle reduced
slightly in all the cases. The losses reduced by 2% reduction for 3/0 600 V cable, 0.57% for 250
kCM 5 kVcable, and 0.70% for 25 kCM 15 kV cable. Similar values are expected for the other
cable sizes. Thus we can conclude that the value of thermal resistivity of the bundle does not
have very significant impact on the results. Hence, variation in cable dimension due to thickness
of insulation will not have significant effect on the results.


The other uncertainty is associated with the sheath and armor factor used in the calculation,
which affects the losses in 5kV and 15 kV cable trays. For the 5 kV 12-inch tray with 250 kCM
cables and sheath and armor factor of 0.1 instead of 0.05, increased by 4.86%. Similarly, for the
15 kV 12-inch tray with 250 kCM cables and sheath and armor factor of 0.2 instead of 0.1, the
losses increased by 9.28 %.

Limits on Losses
To find the extreme values of losses for the base cases, we determined losses at extreme values
of possible temperatures. The lower extreme of temperature considered is the room temperature
(26
o
C) and the upper extreme of temperature considered are 90
o
C for 600 V cables and 40
o
C
for 5 kV and 15 kV cables. These values were chosen based on the calculations performed for
different cases as discussed above. The results of the extreme cases with the computed cases for
12-inch trays are shown in Fig. 3, Fig. 4, and Fig. 5 for 600 V, 5 kV, and 15 kV cables,
respectively. Due to a wider range of temperatures for 600 V cables the average difference in the
highest to the lowest loss, as a percentage of the lowest loss is 9.21%. Since the temperature
range is smaller for 5 kV and 15 kV cables, this difference is 5.38% both for 5 kV and 15 kV.


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 18
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
2 1 1/0 2/0 4/0 250 350 500 750
Cable Sizes
L
o
s
s
e
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
/
f
t
)
26 C Computed 40 C
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 19
Figure 3: Extreme Range of Losses for 600V Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60%
Diversity Factor
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
8 6 4 2 1

1
/
0

2
/
0

3
/
0

4
/
0
2
5
0
3
0
0
3
5
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
7
5
0
Cable Size
L
o
s
s
e
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
/
f
t
)
26 C Computed 90 C

Figure 4: Extreme Range of Losses for 5 kV Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60%
Diversity Factor.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants



0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 350 500 750
Cable Sizes
L
o
s
s
e
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
/
f
t
)
26 C Computed 40 C
Figure 5: Extreme Range of Losses for 15 kV Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60%
Diversity Factor.


Motor Control Centers
The estimation of power dissipation from motor control centers was approached from two
different directions. The first was to measure the power loss of motor starters. The starters were
of size 0, 1, 2, and 3. The NEMA 1 and 3 starters were combination starters with disconnect
switches without fuses. The NEMA 0 starter tested had neither a fuse nor a disconnect switch.
The second approach to estimating losses consisted of compiling manufacturer data regarding the
motor control center losses.

Motor Starters

The tests on the motor starters were carried out through the use of the circuit shown in Figure 6.
The temperature-controlled chamber was used for controlling the environmental temperature of
the device being measured. The NEMA 1, 2, and 3 starters had a relay that was excited by a 120
V 60 Hz. supply. The power required to excite the relay was measured with a wattmeter while
the light bulbs, used in the process of controlling the chamber temper, were removed from the
circuit. The NEMA 0 starter required a 480 volts supply to energize the relay. The power loss
for the relay was measured with a wattmeter separately from the power loss of the remainder of
the motor starter. The relay was energized and a glass and tube thermometer was placed by the
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 20
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Extech True
RMS Power Analzer
Model 380801
shunt
N
L
~
Current
Transformer
ABB Type CLE
S#7524A63G06
5:1000/2000
General Radio Co.
25 Amp
Variac
Autotransformer
(W50HG3BBM)
Disconnect
Switch
Breaker
And Relay
Motor
Starter
Valhalla 2101
Digital Power
Analyzer
shunt
L
N
~
120 Volt
60 Hz.
Fluke
8010A
Digital Multimeter
Relay
Excitation
80I-600
Current
Transformer
Phase
Leads
Starter # of Turns # of CTs
NEMA 0 24 2 (in parallel)
NEMA 1
*
2 3 (in parallel)
NEMA 2
*
5 (each) 2 (in series)
NEMA 3
*
9 3 (in parallel)
*
combination starters with disconnects
Heating
Lamps
Temperature Controlled Chamber
Extech True
RMS Power Analzer
Model 380801
shunt
N
L
~
Current
Transformer
ABB Type CLE
S#7524A63G06
5:1000/2000
General Radio Co.
25 Amp
Variac
Autotransformer
(W50HG3BBM)
Disconnect
Switch
Breaker
And Relay
Motor
Starter
Valhalla 2101
Digital Power
Analyzer
shunt
L
N
~
120 Volt
60 Hz.
Valhalla 2101
Digital Power
Analyzer
shunt
L
N
Valhalla 2101
Digital Power
Analyzer
shunt
L
N
~
120 Volt
60 Hz.
Fluke
8010A
Digital Multimeter
Fluke
8010A
Digital Multimeter
Relay
Excitation
80I-600
Current
Transformer
Phase
Leads
Starter # of Turns # of CTs
NEMA 0 24 2 (in parallel)
NEMA 1
*
2 3 (in parallel)
NEMA 2
*
5 (each) 2 (in series)
NEMA 3
*
9 3 (in parallel)
*
combination starters with disconnects
Heating
Lamps
Temperature Controlled Chamber

Figure 6: Circuit for Measuring Heat Loss of Combination Motor Starters
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 21
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
relay. A towel was placed over the relay and thermometer. As the thermometer rose in
temperature up to 50
o
C, it was noted that the relay power loss remained at a steady 6 watts.
The NEMA 0 starter was tested with and without an enclosure while the NEMA 1 and 3 starters
were tested only with an enclosure since the disconnect switch was built into the enclosure and
was an integral part of the device. All of the tests were conducted by running a single phase
current up and down adjacent phases. The rated voltage of the NEMA 1, 2, and 3 starters was
480 volts.

The procedure for conducting the tests consisted of determining the losses of the circuit without
the starter connected to the test circuit. This was done by removing the starter from the circuit
and connecting the jumper wires together to complete the circuit. This loss measurement
without the starter in place was called the “baseline” measurement. The starter was then
connected in place and the measurement process was repeated. The difference between the loss
measurements with the starter in place and the baseline measurements is the starter power loss.
The power loss measurements were made at room temperature, 30
o
C, 40
o
C, and 50
o
C. The
current limit was determined by using the relay heater that allowed the greatest current to flow in
the starter.

The results of the measurements are shown in Figures 7 through 10a. Figure 7 shows the NEMA
0 power loss with enclosure. Figure 8 shows the NEMA 0 results without the enclosure. The
curves in both figures were obtained by fitting the data with a function that consisted of a
constant plus a factor time the square of the current. Since the two curve fits of Figure 6 and
Figure 7 differ by less a watt, it is seen that the enclosure is not a strong influence on the losses.
NEMA 0 with Enclosure
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp (25 C) 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit
Figure 7: NEMA 0 Power Losses with Enclosure

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 22
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


NEMA 0 without Enclosure
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp (25 C) 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit
Figure 8: NEMA 0 Power Losses without Enclosure

Figure 9 shows the results of testing the NEMA 1 starter while Figure 10 shows the results of the
NEMA 3 starter tests. Figure 10a shows the losses of the NEMA 2 starter.
NEMA 1 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp (25 C) 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit (25 C) Curve Fit (30 C) Curve Fit (40 C) Curve Fit (50 C)
Figure 9: Power Losses of NEMA 1 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 23
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 24
NEMA 3 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp (25 C) 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit (25 C) Curve Fit (30 C) Curve Fit (40 C) Curve Fit (50 C)
Figure 10: Power Losses of NEMA 3 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure

Figure 10a: Power Losses of NEMA 2 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
The experimental error of the measurements is estimated as ± 5% of full scale. This number is
arrived at by doubling the uncertainty of the wattmeter used in measuring the motor starter
power losses and this is a figure which is half the uncertainty goal cited in the Phase I document.
Tables containing the raw data from the measurements are included in the appendix.

Table 14 provides expressions for describing the power loss of the starters as a function of
current.

NEMA
SIZE
Condition of Test Watts
(maximum)
Expression
(Watts)
0 With and Without
Enclosure
27 6 + 0.5*I
2
1 With Enclosure 40 7+0.033*I
2

2 With Enclosure 51.5 8.7 + 0.018*I
2

3 With Enclosure 95 15.5+0.004I
2












Table 14: Starter Watts Loss

Motor Starter Data

In examining the manufacturer data obtained from catalogs and websites, heat losses for motor
starters were obtained from four different sources. This information is listed in Table 15 together
with information derived from the testing performed in this investigation. Three of the
manufacturers (A, B, and D) have listed only combination motor starters (either fused or with
breaker) while one manufacturer (C) has included some bus losses with the motor starter losses.
One column of Table 15 shows an average of the data from those manufacturers who did not
include bus losses with the motor starter losses. Company A manufactured the NEMA 0, 1 and 3
motor starters tested in this work. Company O manufactured the NEMA 2 starteer.

NEMA
Size
Company
C
Watts
Company
D
Watts
Company
A
Watts
Company
B
Watts
Average of
Companies
A, B, and D
Measured
Losses
Watts
1 79 27 39 40 35 40
2 106 57 56 60 58 52
3 210 99 92 125 105 95
4 420 165 124 140 143 -----
5 700 280 244 280 268 -----
Table 15: Comparison of Motor Starter Losses

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 25
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Table 16 presents motor starter coil loss data. The coil loss represents a constant loss for the
starter and is not a function of current.

NEMA
Starter
Size

Measured
Company
A
Watts
Data
Company
D
Watts
Average

Watts
Loss
Equation
Watts

1 7 6

6.5

6.5+ 0.0342 I
2


2

----- 12.9

12.9

12.9 + 0.00865 I
2


3

15.5

18.4

17

17 + 0.00453 I
2


4

-----

18.8

18.8

18.8 + 0.00149 I
2


5

-----

38.8

38.8

38.8 + 0.000687 I
2


6 ----- 44 44 ----------
Table 16: Motor Starter Coil Losses and Overall Losses

The measured data in Table 15 seem to compare favorably with the average reported loss from
three manufacturers. If a comparison is made between the largest currents used to test the motor
starters and the current value corresponding to the rated horsepower for a 480 volt starter it is
seen that the maximum current used in the tests is approximately 2.5 times greater. That the
measurements agree indicates that the manufacturers tested the starters in the same way, i.e. the
maximum current was determined by the heaters and not rated load. The motivation for using
the greatest possible current is this work was to discover how the losses vary with load. The
motivation of the manufacturers was to provide a worst-case value of dissipated heat. The
comparison between maximum values is only to verify the test results. Note that since the losses
are presented as a function of current, the loss can be determined at any load level.

It is assumed that the factor of 2.5 also holds for the other NEMA sizes. Using this idea, loss
equations as a function of current were determined and are listed in Table 16. Although coil loss
data was found for a NEMA 6 starter, no loss data for the starter itself was found.

Low voltage bus loss information from Company B was found. This information is contained in
Table 17. The distance measurements shown in Table 17 correspond to the nominal height and
width of a motor control center panel.






Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 26
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


Bus Description Three Phase Loss
Vertical 600 Amp 100 Watts / 72 “ high section
Vertical 300 Amp 50 Watts / 72” high section
Horizontal 600 Amp 30 Watts/ 20” wide section
Horizontal 800 Amp 40 Watts/ 20” wide section
Horizontal 1200 Amp 60 Watts/ 20” wide section
Horizontal 1600 Amp 80 Watts/ 20” wide section
Horizontal 2000 Amp 110 Watts/ 20” wide section
Table 17: Motor Control Center Bus Losses


Inverters

Information from three different manufacturers was found regarding the efficiency and heat
losses of inverters. All three manufacturers report inverter efficiency at full load. The
conclusion drawn from reporting efficiency at this particular load is that the peak efficiency also
occurs at this point. To bolster this conclusion, information was obtained from Company I
regarding the variation of heat loss with load. Table 18 shows the loss data obtained and Figure
11 shows a plot of the losses.
kVA
Losses
BTU/Hr
Losses
Watts % losses
Efficiency
%
0.5 1140 334 66.80 33.20
1 1475 432 43.22 56.78
2 2525 740 36.99 63.01
3 3415 1001 33.35 66.65
5 5690 1667 33.34 66.66
7.5 6400 1875 25.00 75.00
10 8530 2499 24.99 75.01
15 12795 3749 24.99 75.01
20 14980 4389 21.95 78.05
25 18725 5486 21.95 78.05
30 22470 6584 21.95 78.05
40 24085 7057 17.64 82.36
50 30110 8822 17.64 82.36
60 36130 10586 17.64 82.36
75 45160 13232 17.64 82.36
100 55550 16276 16.28 83.72
150 83320 24413 16.28 83.72
200 111100 32552 16.28 83.72


Table 18: Inverter Losses as a Function of Load






Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 27
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants




Inverter Efficiency
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
KVA
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

%
Efficiency %












Figure 11: Inverter Losses as a Function of Load

The conclusions drawn from the data in Table 18 is that the peak efficiency does occur at full
load and that the efficiency does not change significantly in the range of 40 to 100% of full load.

The quality of the manufacturers’ data cannot be determined since no inverters were available for
testing and, as stated in the Phase I document, standards for testing losses do not exist.

The appendix contains the manufacturers’ data collected in this work. Based on the information
available, the conclusion drawn from a comparison of the data is that Company I has presented
not only efficiency values, but also heat losses. Companies G and H provide either nominal
values or lower limits for their efficiencies and no loss information. The efficiency information,
presented by Companies G and H, is very close to the Company I information. Company K
states that the efficiency of their products exceeds 90% but provide no other information. Also,
Company I produces inverters having capacities in the range specified by the RP 1104 work
statement. The data included in the Part B report is the Company I information.


Battery Chargers

Five battery charger manufacturers were identified. Companies G, H, and K only provided
ranges of efficiencies. Companies I and J provided heat loss data as well as efficiencies. The
battery chargers produced by companies I and J cover different voltage ranges, one is less than
50 volts while the other is greater than 100 volts of DC output.

Company I has presented information regarding no load losses which is an important quantity
since the no load loss represents a constant loss independent of the charger load. Figures 12 and
13 show the difference between full load and no load losses for two different classes of battery
chargers. The losses are shown as a function of the rated DC output current of the units in the
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 28
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
particular voltage class. In examining the two figures, it is seen that full load losses are 2.5
larger than the no load losses. The no load losses represent the power needed to run the rectifier
/ converter in the absence of any load.


















3


130 Volt DC Battery Charger
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
0 100 200 00 400 500 600
DC Current - Amps
P
o
w
e
r

L
o
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
No Load Watts Full Load Watts
Figure 12: 130 Volt DC Battery Charger Load and No Load Losses

260 Volt DC Battery Charger
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
0 100 200 300 400 500
DC Current - Amps
P
w
o
e
r

L
o
s
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
No Load Watts Full Load Watts















Figure 13: 260 Volt DC Battery Charger Load and No Load Losses




Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 29
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

The appendix contains tables of the loss information obtained from companies I and J.


Low Voltage Breakers

Published information on low voltage circuit breaker power losses is sparse. Company C has
published some information regarding power losses of low voltage breakers. The information
included in the company literature is intended for field-testing circuit breakers. In this particular
case, the information provided represents upper bounds on breaker power losses since if the
electrical resistance of the breaker pole is such that the single pole watts loss is higher than the
published value for the in service current then the breaker should be replaced. Some
manufacturers include some bus losses with the loss figures they publish regarding low voltage
breakers. Table 19 lists the reported heat loss of low voltage breakers from four manufacturers.
Several values were available for different breakers from Company C. As can be seen from the
numbers in the table, there is not a significant amount of agreement as to what is the breaker heat
loss.

Low Voltage Breaker Power Loss in Watts at Rated Current
Equation – Curve Fit Frame
Size -
Amps
Company
E
Company
D
Company
A
Company C Predicted
Peak Value
without /
with
enclosure
without
enclosure
with
enclosure
60 6.3/9.2 0.001752 I
2
0.002562 I
2
100 28.2 / 39 20.2/20.7 0.002016 I
2
0.002071 I
2
225 60 54 / 140
250 46.5 / 78 71.1/73.6 0.001138 I
2
0.001178 I
2
400 81/147/116

600 215 183
800 328 400 150 / 156 330/440 0.000511 I
2
0.000684 I
2
1200 231 / 243 865/1080 0.000601 I
2
0.000749 I
2

1600 597 460 1000
2000 750 1500 378
3000 673 1080
3200 765 2400
4000 1067 3000
5000 4700

Table 19: Circuit Breaker Heat Loss at Rated Frame Current

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 30
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Loss tests were conducted on 60, 100, 250, 800, and 1200 frame breakers. Most of the breakers
were fitted with a trip plug equal in size to the breaker frame. The same facility used to test the
motor starters was used for determining circuit breaker heat loss. The major difference between
the motor starters and the circuit breakers was the current transformer (CT) circuit used to
produce the load current. The details of the CT circuits used to test the breakers are listed in
Table 20. The tests performed on the 800 and 1200 amp breaker used 4/0 cable while the testes
on the other breakers used 1 gauge cable. Data derived from the tests are listed in the Appendix.
The 60 amp breaker is from Company D, the 100 amp breaker is from Company N, and the 200
amp breaker is from Company C. The 200 amp breaker was from a 250 amp frame. The 800
and 1200 amp breakers were from Company A. The last two columns of Table 19 are based on
least squares quadratic curve fits to the test measurements. The expressions in the last column
are the results obtained from fitting all the measured data from a single breaker and enclosure
circumstance with a single equation.

Breaker
amps
Test Circuit Details
60 17 uf capacitor in series with one CT having three turns
100 Seven turns around 2 CTs wired in parallel
250 Seven turns around 2 CTs wired in parallel
800 Three CTs wired in series, each CT having 11 turns
1200 Four CTs wired in series, each CT having 11 turns









Table 20: CT Circuits Used to Test Low Voltage Breakers

Figures 14 and 15 show the 60 amp frame breaker heat loss with and without an enclosure. The
tests were conducted in environments of room temperature, 30
o
C, 40
o
C, and 50
o
C.


60 Amp Circuit Breaker with Enclosure
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 7
Current(Amps)
B
r
e
a
k
e
r

L
o
s
s
(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp. 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit
0
















Figure 14: 60 Amp Frame Circuit Breaker Losses
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 31
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Figures 16 and 17 show the test results for a 100 amp frame breaker with and without enclosure,
respectively under the same environmental conditions. Figures 18 and 19 show the results for a
250 amp frame breaker. Figures 20 to 23 show the test results of the 800 and 1200 amp
breakers.

60 Amp Breaker Loss vs. Current
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 7
Current (Amps)
B
r
e
a
k
e
r

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
0
Room Temp (26 C) 35 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit


Figure 15: 60 Amp Frame Breaker Losses Without Enclosure
Figure 16: 100 Amp Breaker Power Losses in Enclosure
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 32
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

100 Breaker Without Enclosure
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp. (25 C) Data 30 C Data 40 C Data 50 C Data
Room Temp. Curve Fit 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Curve Fit
Figure 17: 100 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure

200 Amp Breaker in Enclosure
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp Data. (25 C) 30 C Data 40 C Data 50 C Data
Room Temp Curve Fit 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Curve Fit
Figure 18: 200 Amp Breaker Power Loss With Enclosure (250 Amp Frame)
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 33
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

200 Amp Breaker Without Enclosure
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp. Data (25 C) 30 C Data 40 C Data 50 C Data
Room Temp Curve FIt 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Curve Fit
Figure 19: 200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure (250 Amp Frame)
800 Amp Company A Breaker - No Enclosure
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp. (25 C) Data 30 C Data 40 C Data 50 C Data
Room Temp. Curve Fit 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Curve Fit
Figure 20: 800 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 34
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

800 Amp Company A Breaker in Enclosure
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp. Data(25 C) 30 C Data 40 C Data 50 C Data
Room Temp. Curve Fit 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Curve Fit
Figure 21: 800 Amp Breaker Heat Loss With Enclosure
1200 Amp Company A Breaker - No Enclosure
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp. (25 C) Data 30 C Data 40 C Data 50 C Data
Room Temp. Curve Fit 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Curve Fit

Figure 22: 1200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 35
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

1200 Amp Company A Breaker in Enclosure
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Room Temp. (25 C) Data 30 C Data 40 C Data 50 C Data
Room Temp. Curve Fit 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Curve Fit
Figure 23: 1200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss With Enclosure

Given the results presented in Table 19, it is difficult to deduce any clear trends. It appears that
the losses from the smaller measured frames (60, 100, 250 amp) are close to the data obtained
from Company C. The data obtained from the 800 and 1200 amp Company A breakers appear to
be reasonably close to the information obtained from Company A. Figure 24 shows a
comparison of the measured breaker loss data with and without the enclosure together with the
information from Company A and Company C. Also shown in the figure is a straight line that
serves as an upper bound for any of the losses. This line has a slope of unity and the line
represents the maximum breaker losses as one watt per amp. This upper bound line is shown
merely for interest since what is represents is that the greatest breaker loss is about one watt per
frame amp. The line is used as a point of comparison and the conclusion is that the Company A
data essentially varies linearly with frame current as opposed to a parabolic or quadratic
variation. Only the data used to create Figure 24 is used for loss predictions.

It is recommended that the loss values and equations shown in Table 21 be used to represent the
low voltage breaker losses. Table 21 shows losses both with and without the enclosure. For
those situations where loss measurements are available, the measured values are reflected in the
table. In those situations where only manufacturer data is available, it is assumed that the
available information represents losses without the enclosure. In order to account for the
enclosure losses, a factor of 1.5 is applied to the “without enclosure “ figure. The factor of 1.5 is
smaller that the factor of 2 used by some manufacturers but slightly larger than the factor
observed in the measured data which was as large as 1.33 in the 800 amp case or 1.46 for the 60
amp case. In Table 21, coefficients are presented for determining the breaker loss as a function
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 36
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
of current. The breaker loss for a given frame is the coefficient times the square of the current.
Depending upon the breaker environment (with or without enclosure), one or the other
coefficient presented for each frame is used in the loss calculation.

Low Voltage Breaker Losses
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Current - Amps
L
o
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
Company Data No Enclosure Measured Data Enclosure Measured Data Upper Bound

Figure 24: Comparison of Measured and Reported Breaker Losses

Frame
Current
Amps
Watts
Loss -
Without
Enclosure
Watts
Loss -
With
Enclosure
Coefficient
- Without
enclosure
Coefficient -
With
enclosure
60 6.3 9.2 0.001752 0.002562
100 20.2 20.7 0.002016 0.002071
225 60 90 0.0011852 0.0017778
250 71.1 73.6 0.0011376 0.0011776
400 147 220.5 0.0009188 0.0013781
600 215 322.5 0.0005972 0.0008958
800 330 440 0.0005156 0.0006875
1200 865 1080 0.0006007 0.00075
1600 1000 1500 0.0003906 0.0005859
2000 1500 2250 0.000375 0.0005625
3000 2250 3375 0.00025 0.000375
3200 2400 3600 0.0002344 0.0003516
4000 3000 4500 0.0001875 0.0002813
5000 4700 7050 0.000188 0.000282

Table 21: Coefficients for Breaker Loss Calculation
(Values for 3000 Amp Frame Based on Interpolation)
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 37
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Motors

In searching for data related to motor power losses, four manufacturers were found who either
have information on the company’s web site or publish catalogs containing motor performance
information. These companies are Company D, Company L, Company M, and Company O.

According to the Energy Policy Act of 1992, general-purpose electric motors in the range of 1 to
200 hp manufactured after October 24, 1997 must satisfy certain minimum values of efficiency.
These minimum efficiency values vary according to horsepower, number of poles, and whether
the motor case is open or closed. Motors satisfying the EPACT efficiencies are called “high
efficiency” motors. In compiling the information specified in the work-statement, which
requires that any loss information be categorized by horsepower and standard motor frame sizes,
no distinction was made to the number of poles or to the motor construction. Table 22 shows the
nominal efficiency values to be satisfied by the general-purpose motors. The Table also lists the
efficiency values that were used to distinguish a high efficiency motor from other motors. The
designation of “1104 η” in the Table is used to indicate the efficiency value used. The 1104 η
value was needed only for motors rated for 10 hp or greater.

Electric Motor Efficiency Levels Prescribed in the
Energy Policy Act of 1992
Nominal Full-Load Efficiency
Open Motors 1104 Enclosed Motors
Number of
Poles
6 4 2 η 6 4 2
Motor Horsepower
1 80.0 82.5 -- 80.0 82.5 75.5
1.5 84.0 84.0 82.5 85.5 84.0 82.5
2 85.5 84.0 84.0 86.5 84.0 84.0
3 86.5 86.5 84.0 87.5 87.5 85.5
5 87.5 87.5 85.5 87.5 87.5 87.5
7.5 88.5 88.5 87.5 89.5 89.5 88.5
10 90.2 89.5 88.5 88.5 89.5 89.5 89.5
15 90.2 91.0 89.5 89.5 90.2 91.0 90.2
20 91.0 91.0 90.2 90.2 90.2 91.0 90.2
25 91.7 91.7 91.0 91.0 91.7 92.4 91.0
30 92.4 92.4 91.0 91.0 91.7 92.4 91.0
40 93.0 93.0 91.7 91.7 93.0 93.0 91.7
50 93.0 93.0 92.4 92.4 93.0 93.0 92.4
60 93.6 93.6 93.0 93.0 93.6 93.6 93.0
75 93.6 94.1 93.0 93.0 93.6 94.1 93.0
100 94.1 94.1 93.0 93.0 94.1 94.5 93.6
125 94.1 94.5 93.6 93.6 94.1 94.5 94.5
150 94.5 95.0 93.6 93.6 95.0 95.0 94.5
200 94.5 95.0 94.5 94.5 95.0 95.0 95.0



























Table 22: Nominal Efficiencies for General Purpose Motors
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 38
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
The procedure followed in this work for collecting data was that, if for a given horsepower
rating, the efficiency exceeded or equaled the corresponding value shown in Table 22, then the
data was included with other motor data that satisfied the same criterion. If the efficiency was
less, then this motor was added together with the other non-high efficiency motors. This
distinction was only made for motors in the 10 to 200 hp range. For each manufacturer,
efficiency and power factor information was collected for each frame and horsepower level. For
a given frame and hp level, an average of the high efficiency hp and power factor was calculated
along with an average of the regular efficiency and power factor. Table 23 shows how the data
is arranged.

HP
Reg. η
average
Reg. η - pf
average Frame
Designation
High η
average
High η - pf
average








Table 23: Arrangement of Motor Averages in Appendix Tables


Once an average was computed for each manufacturer, the results of all manufacturers were then
averaged. For motors having a power rating greater than 200 hp, the efficiency is considered as
“high” and no information appears in the “Reg. η” lines of the spreadsheets contained in the
Appendix.

The power factor information was collected since it can be used to calculate the motor current
that is useful in determining motor starter losses or series reactor heat dissipation. The Appendix
includes the data collected from the four manufacturers.


Unit Substations

The unit substation can be thought of as low voltage switchgear that might include (in addition to
a transformer) circuit breakers, current transformers, control power transformers, auxiliary
compartment, space heaters, circuit breakers, and high current buses all arranged in a series of
cabinets. To closely determine the power losses of such a device requires detailed knowledge of
the construction such as length of buses, losses of individual components, and loading
information. Although manufacturing standards exist, construction details will vary from
manufacturer to manufacturer.

The easiest conclusion to draw from the foregoing is that the most realistic way to estimate
losses is to construct a model of the unit substation. Such a model was obtained from Company
E for one line of their low voltage switchgear. This loss model is in the form of a spreadsheet.
For the circuit breakers, the loss models were replaced by those presented in an earlier section.
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 39
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
The way in which losses from all other unit substation components are calculated are unchanged
from the original way included in the spread sheet. Figure 25 shows the spreadsheet.

It was observed that several manufacturers offered some means of estimating unit substation heat
loss. Of the several manufacturers, this spreadsheet of Company E appears to be the most
complete calculation and it allows for partial loads and includes enclosure effects. Excluding the
circuit breaker, no uncertainty information regarding the component losses is available.

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 40
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Figure 25: Unit Substation Power Loss Calculation Spreadsheet
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 41
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Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Reactors

Series and line reactors power loss information was obtained from four different manufacturers.
Three of these manufacturers (Companies D, O, and R) market the same product on which they
apply their company logos, but the reactors are manufactured by only one company. It appears
that the reactors marketed by these three companies constitute a significant market share. Data
on reactor power losses was also obtained from Company P, however these reactors are of
different construction. The manufacturer data obtained in this work is shown in Table 24.

The tested reactors from Company D were rated at 4 amps, 200 amps, and 750 amps. The tested
reactors from Company Q were rated at 200 amps and 750 amps. From Company O, an 18 amp
reactor was available for test.

Companies D, R, and O
amps
240 Volt
3%
Impedance
240 Volt
5%
Impedance
480 Volt
3%
Impedance
480 Volt
5%
Impedance
600 Volt
3%
Impedance
600 Volt
5%
Impedance
2 7.5 11.3 11.3 16
4 14.5 20 20 20 20
8 19.5 29 29 25.3 29
12 26 31 31 41 31 41
18 36 43 43 43 43 43
25 48 52 52 61 52 61
35 49 54 54 54 54 54
45 54 62 62 65 62 65
55 64 67 67 71 67 71
80 82 86 86 96 86 96
100 94 84 84 108 84 108
130 108 180 180 128 180 128
160 116 149 149 138 149 138
200 124 168 168 146 168 146
250 154 231 231 219 231 219
320 224 264 264 351 264 351
400 231 333 333 293 333 293
500 266 340 340 422 340 422
600 307 414 414 406 414 406
750 427 630 630 552 630 552
Company P
amps
240 Volt
1.5%
Impedance
240 Volt
3%
Impedance
240 Volt
5%
Impedance
480 Volt
1.5%
Impedance
480 Volt
3%
Impedance
480 Volt
5%
Impedance
600 Volt
3%
Impedance
600 Volt
5%
Impedance
2 9 11 10 12
4 5 8 13 5 13 15 15 24
8 9 12 17 9 17 23 26 42
12 11 16 28 11 28 37 30 42
18 14 22 35 14 35 52 43 64
25 16 24 48 16 48 64 45 77
35 21 37 52 21 52 80 73 93
45 25 44 54 25 54 91 82 105
55 29 48 61 29 61 97 86 121
80 33 67 102 33 102 140 100 171
100 41 78 112 41 112 149 113 187
130 49 85 141 49 141 165 142 239
160 54 94 151 54 151 194 170 257
200 57 104 180 57 180 194 199 286
250 76 118 181 76 181 273 203 394
320 138 256 256 333 245 425
400 165 333 333 442 289 467
500 183 360 360 491 334 594
600 430 541
750
21
28

Table 24: Reactor Power Losses at Rated Current

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 42
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
No information was found that the manufacturers reporting power loss data follow the
appropriate standard specifying the procedures for testing reactors.

The test circuit for the reactors is explained in the Phase I report. Using the test circuit, it was
possible to test the 4, 18, and 200 amp reactors in a three phase circuit. It was discovered that to
test the 750 amp reactors would require 12 additional CTs. In order to test the 750 amp reactors,
three phase and single phase tests were conducted on the 200 amp reactors. The goal was to
determine the single phase fraction of the total three phase loss. Since the two 200 amp reactors
are of different construction, the fractions are different as the tests verified. However, since the
200 amp and 750 amp reactors of Company D were very similar and the 200 amp and 750 amp
reactors of Company Q were similar, it was believed that the fraction determined for the 200
amp reactor would be valid for the 750 amp reactor. These fractions were used to determine the
total power loss of the 750 amp reactors from the measurement of the power loss from a single
phase. Single phase tests were performed on both middle and outer legs to see if the single phase
loss would be different. The test showed that the single phase losses were the same and did not
depend upon the choice of leg. The fraction for the Company D reactor was 0.284 and the
fraction for the Company Q reactor was 0.317.

In analyzing the test data, several conclusions were drawn. First, the data for the 4 amp reactor
was discarded. In using the two wattmeter method to measure the power loss, the two
wattmeters provided nearly equal reading of opposite sign. When the two meter readings were
combined, subtractive cancellation rendered the data very uncertain. The test provided a
maximum heat loss of 7 watts as compared to a value of 14.5 watts provided by the
manufacturer. Second, the data provided the manufacturer has been temperature corrected. It
appears that the values have been referenced to room temperature. That temperature correction
was performed at all could not be ascertained from any manufacturer literature. From
information discussed in the Phase I report, the losses vary linearly with winding absolute
temperature according to the relation
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
k m
k
T
C
T T
T
Loss Loss
m
o
25
25

where T
k
is 234.5
o
C for copper and 225
o
C for aluminum and T
m
winding temperature. That the
winding temperature had greatly increased had been demonstrated for the 200 amp Company D
reactor. A thermocouple placed in an air space between two layers of epoxy insulated reactor
conductors indicated a temperature of 66
o
C. The conductor temperature would be much higher.
The gap between the layers was subject to free convective airflow. The conductor temperature
rise is rated for the Company D products as 115
o
C. The manufacturer data for the 200 amp
Company D reactor shows a heat loss of 124 watts and the measured heat loss was 180 watts.
Using the equation just presented to predict the winding temperature rise ( T
m
– 25) provides a
value of 117
o
C.

The heat losses for the Company Q products could not be compared to any information available
from the manufacturer. The 750 amp Company D reactor produced a predicted heat loss in
excess of the reported value, even if temperature correction is taken into account. There is not
enough information to draw a valid conclusion as to the discrepancy in the predicted heat loss
value.

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 43
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Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants



240 Volt 5% Impedance
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Current - Amps
L
o
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
Company D Company P















50



240 Volt 3% Impedance
0
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Current - Amps
L
o
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
Company D Company P

Figure 26: Reactor Losses - 240 Volt Applications


480 Volt 5%Impedance
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Current - Amps
L
o
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
Company D Company P








W
a
t
t
s

o
s
s
e
s

-


L








480 VOlt 3% Impedance
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Current - Amps
Company D Company P
Figure 27: Reactor Losses - 480 Volt Applications


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 44
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Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
600 Volt 3% Impedance
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Current - amps
L
O
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
Company D Compnay P

600 Volt 5% Impedance
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Current - Amps
L
o
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
Company D Company P


















0
0

Figure 28: Reactor Losses - 600 Volt Applications

Figures 26 through 28 shows a comparison of the loss data provided by previously cited
manufacturers. In comparing the data of the reactors produced by Companies D, R, and O with
that of Company P two trends can be observed. The first trend is that the comparisons can be
considered favorable. The second trend is that an average of the two curves in each plot would
not differ too far from either curve.

The conclusion to be drawn from this presentation is that an average of the two loss tables
presented earlier should be used for the reactor loss prediction provided that the loss figures are
temperature corrected to a more realistic temperature. The suggestion here is to use a 115
o
C
rise. If a reactor manufacturer builds a reactor with a different temperature rise, then the
appropriate loss number could be corrected to this temperature.

The Appendix contains additional information regarding the testing of the reactors.


Adjustable Speed Drives

Adjustable speed drives (ASD), as they are referred to in manufacturing standards, are also
known as variable frequency drives (VFD), and variable speed drives (VSD). The particular
name used is a function of the industry or application using the devices. Four companies were
found to list power losses of adjustable speed drives. These are Companies O, B, C, and D. The
data collected from the different manufacturers is listed in the Appendix.

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 45
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Significant factors influencing losses are voltage level and inverter frequency. Achieving the
same horsepower at 230 volts requires twice the current necessary for 460 volts. With the
increased current, the losses are higher. With higher inverter switching frequencies, the greater
is the dissipated heat. In fact, Company C presents some “worst case” results for drive losses for
HVAC load calculations where both the highest frequency and current is used.

By collecting the loss data from the four manufacturers for the voltage levels of 230, 460, and
600 volts and plotting these values as a function of rated horsepower, very clear trends are
observed. Figure 29 shows the 230 volt drive losses as a function of rated horsepower. Figures
30 and 31 show similar results for 460 and 600 volt drives, respectively. The dots in each figure
represent manufacturer loss numbers and the solid line is a linear curve fit. The larger spread of
the data in Figure 30 is an illustration of the influence of the switching frequency. While all four
manufacturers had information concerning 230 volt and 460 volt drives, only Company O
provided any information concerning 600 volt drives.




















230 / 240 Volt Losses
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
0 50 100 150 200 250
Rating - HP
L
o
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
230 / 240 Volt Losses Fit

Figure 29: 230 Volt Drive Losses










Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 46
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants






460 Volt Losses
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Rating - Hp
L
o
s
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
460 Volt Loss Fit


















Figure 30: 460 Volt Drive Losses


600 Volt Losses
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Rating - Hp
L
o
s
s
e
s

-

W
a
t
t
s
600 Volt Losses Fit
















Figure 31: 600 Volt Drive Losses

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 47
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


Table 25 shows the curve fit parameters for each of the voltage levels. These curve fits are valid
for horsepower range of 25 to 800 Hp. That the slope of the 230 volt curve is approximately
twice that of the 460 volt curve suggests that the losses are proportional to current.
Voltage Slope Intercept
240 25.6234 276.073
460 13.45435 363.7949
600 14.55851 -201.038
Table 25: Regression Constants for Drive Losses

That the losses are proportional to current is further supported by some data obtained from
Company D. Figure 32 presents this information.


Watts Loss as a Function of Current
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Current - amps
P
o
w
e
r

L
o
s
s

W
a
t
t
s
Watts Loss Fit






















Figure 32: Drive Losses as a Function of Current

In order to test the adjustable speed drive losses, a thermal chamber was constructed
(calorimeter) for measuring the rejected heat. The thermal chamber was calibrated by
introducing a known power input to the chamber (through light bulbs) and measuring the inlet
and outlet air temperature together with the airflow rate. By knowing the temperature rise and
the flow rate, the heat loss can be determined. The thermal calibration is shown in Figure 33.


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 48
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Thermal Chamber Calibration
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Input Watts
I
n
d
i
c
a
t
e
d

W
a
t
t
s
Measured Watts Curve Fit





















Figure 33: Thermal Chamber Calibration

A 25 Hp. and a 60 Hp. adjustable speed drives were tested with the thermal chamber. The
results of the tests are summarized in Table 26. The drives were loaded through resistive heating
elements. Both drives were 460 volt units. The 60 Hp drive was operated at 100 and 50 % load.
The 100 % load loss corresponded to the curve fit value provided by the coefficients in Table 25.
The losses at 50 % load is approximately half the full load loss. Since the 25 Hp. drive was a
constant torque device, it was difficult to vary the load with the resistive load. Two values of
load were tested on the 25 Hp. drive which were 100% and 80%. The losses varied according to
the load as expected. The full load losses were bracketed by the manufacturer data obtained
through the literature search.



Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 49
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60 Hp Drive
Load - HP Loss - watts % Comparison
60 1289 100 1171 Watts – curve fit
30 578 45
25 Hp Drive
% Freq. Loss - watts % Comparison
100 % 385 100 Data Range: 300 – 970 Watts
80% 307 80











Table 26: Adjustable Speed Drive Losses – Tested values


Medium Voltage Breakers

A 1200 amp, medium voltage breaker from company A was tested using the circuit shown in
Figure 6. The phases of the breaker were wired in the same manner as the motor starter shown in
that figure. The 1200 amps was produced by 4 CTs in series, each CT had the same number of
turns used to test the 1200 amp low voltage breaker. The breaker was tested at room temperature
since it was too large and heavy to fit in the thermal chamber. The breaker was contained in a
housing which allowed free convective air flow and since this housing was constructed in such a
way that the free convection could occur without restriction, it was concluded that any loss
reading should be considered as being “without enclosure.”

Figure 34 shows the loss values. The main difference between the losses with this breaker and
the losses of the other equipment tested in this work is that the other equipment followed an I
2
R
loss variation. The losses of the 1200 amp, medium voltage breaker were fitted with a curve fit
of the form KI
x
where K is a constant, I is the current, and x is an exponent. Using this
expression, the losses are

watts I Losses
54 . 2 5
10 08 . 1

× = .

The different exponent is thought to be caused by the ohmic heating as well as eddy and
hysteresis losses occurring in the surrounding structure when the magnetic fields created by the
current carrying conductors become large. The maximum value for the losses is 730 watts. This
number compares favorably with 600 watt figure of Table 8, the 675 watt figure of Table 9, and
the 865 watt value of Figure 25.

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 50
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
1200 Amp Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker
0.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
800.0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Current (Amps)
H
e
a
t

L
o
s
s

(
W
a
t
t
s
)
Breaker Curve Fit

Figure 34: 1200 Amp, Medium Voltage Breaker Losses





















Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 51
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

References

B.L. Harshe and W.Z. Black, “Ampacity of Cables in Single Open-Top Cable Trays”, IEEE
Transactions on Power Delivery, October 1994, pp. 1733-1740.

G.J. Anders, Rating of Electric Power Cables, IEEE Press, New York, 1997.

IEEE Std. 112-1996 IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and
Generators.

IEEE Std. 115-1995 IEEE Guide: Test Procedures for Synchronous Machines.

IEEE Std 835-1994 IEEE Standard Power Cable, Ampacity Tables.

IEEE Std. C57.12-00-1993 IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed
Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers.

IEEE Std. C57.12-01-1998 IEEE Standard Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and Power
Transformers Including Those with Solid-Cast and/or Resin-Encapsulated Windings.

IEEE Std. C57.12.90-1999 IEEE Standard Test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power,
and Regulating Transformers.

IEEE Std. C57.12.91-1995 IEEE Standard Test Code for Dry-Type Distribution and Power
Transformers

NEMA Standards Publication TP 1-1996 Guide for Determining Energy Efficiency for
Distribution Transformers.

NEMA Standards Publication TP 2-1998 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Energy
Consumption of Distribution Transformers.

NEMA WC-3-1980 Rubber-insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of
Electrical Energy.

NEMA WC-51-1986 Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays.

NEMA WC-8-1988 Ethylene-propylene-rubber-insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission
and Distribution of Electrical Energy.





Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 52
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Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Appendix 1 – Raw Data

Transformers

Dry Type Units
General Purpose






Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 53
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Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 54
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Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 55
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Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 56
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Nonlinear Units






Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 57
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Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 58
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Liquid Immersed Units


Medium Voltage Switchgear


Equipment Watts Loss
1200 Amp Breaker 600
2000 Amp Breaker 1400
3000 Amp Breaker 2000
600 Amp Unfused Switch 500
1200 Amp Unfused Switch 750
100 Amp CL Fuse 840
Manufacturer A Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 59
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Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants



Equipment Watts Loss
1200 Amp Breaker 675
2000 Amp Breaker 1335
3000 Amp Breaker 2030
3500/4000 Amp Breaker 2765
2-1200 Amp Beakers - Stacked 1220
1-1200 Amp & 1-2000 Amp Breker - Stacked 1880
Each Vertical Section with Simple Relaying & Control 150
Each Vertical Section with Simple Relaying & Control 330
Each PT Rollout 50
Each CPT rollout up to 15kVA 600
Equipment Heaters if Supplied 300
Manufacturer D Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses

























Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 60
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Equipment Watts Loss
Breakers
1200 Amp Breaker 413
2000 Amp Breaker 845
CTs – Sets of three
600:5 – Turns Ratio 23
1200:5 – Turns Ratio 45
2000:5 – Turns Ratio 75
3000:5 – Turns Ratio 113
4000:5 – Turns Ratio 150
Auxiliary Frames
Each Frame
150
Main Bus Per Frame
1200 Amp 108
2000 Amp 180
3000 Amp 115
4000 Amp 204
Control Power Transformers
CPT – 5 kVA, 1 Phase 60
CPT – 105 kVA, 1 Phase 115
CPT – 15 kVA, 1 Phase 175
CPT – 25 kVA, 1 Phase 295
CPT – 50 kVA, 1 phase 450
CPT – 45 kVA, 3 Phase 520
CPT – 75 kVA, 3 Phase 885
Heaters
150 Watt 150
300 Watt heater at 75 Watts 75
Manufacturer E Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses
According to manufacturer E, the influence of the enclosure is to double the heat losses.
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 61
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Motor Starters

Company D NEMA 0 Motor Starter with Enclosure





Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 62
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Starter+Wire(W) Relay Loss(@480V,W) Starter Total(W) Curve Fit
25 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 6 6.503984652
25 2.0 0.1 0.5 6 6.4 6.701598074
25 4.0 0.4 1.6 6 7.2 7.29443834
25 6.0 0.9 3.2 6 8.3 8.282505451
25 8.0 1.6 5.5 6 9.9 9.665799406
25 10.0 3 9 6 12 11.44432021
25 12.0 4 12 6 14 13.61806785
25 14.0 5 16 6 17 16.18704234
25 16.0 7 21 6 20 19.15124367
25 18.0 9 26 6 23 22.51067185
25 20.0 11 31 6 26 26.26532687
30 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 6 6.503984652
30 2.0 0.1 0.4 6 6.3 6.701598074
30 4.0 0.4 1.6 6 7.2 7.29443834
30 6.0 0.9 3.2 6 8.3 8.282505451
30 8.0 1.7 5.4 6 9.7 9.665799406
30 10.0 3 9 6 12 11.44432021
30 12.0 4 12 6 14 13.61806785
30 14.0 5 16 6 17 16.18704234
30 16.0 7 20 6 19 19.15124367
30 18.0 9 25 6 22 22.51067185
30 20.0 11 30 6 25 26.26532687
40 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 6 6.503984652
40 2.0 0.1 0.4 6 6.3 6.701598074
40 4.0 0.4 1.5 6 7.1 7.29443834
40 6.0 1.0 3.1 6 8.1 8.282505451
40 8.0 1.7 5.3 6 9.6 9.665799406
40 10.0 3 9 6 12 11.44432021
40 12.0 4 12 6 14 13.61806785
40 14.0 5 16 6 17 16.18704234
40 16.0 7 20 6 19 19.15124367
40 18.0 9 25 6 22 22.51067185
40 20.0 11 31 6 26 26.26532687
50 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 6 6.503984652
50 2.0 0.1 0.4 6 6.3 6.701598074
50 4.0 0.4 1.5 6 7.1 7.29443834
50 6.0 1.0 3.1 6 8.1 8.282505451
50 8.0 1.7 5.3 6 9.6 9.665799406
50 10.0 3 9 6 12 11.44432021
50 12.0 4 12 6 14 13.61806785
50 14.0 5 16 6 17 16.18704234
50 16.0 7 20 6 19 19.15124367
50 18.0 9 25 6 22 22.51067185
50 20.0 11 31 6 26 26.26532687



Company D NEMA 0 Motor Starter with Enclosure







Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 63
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Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Starter+Wire(W) Relay Loss(@120V,W) Starter Net Total(W) Curve Fit
25 0 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.0 6.873689
25 3 0.0 0.3 7.0 7.3 7.17772
25 6 0.5 1.9 7.0 8.4 8.089813
25 9 1.5 4.2 7.0 9.7 9.609969
25 12 2.8 7.5 7.0 11.7 11.73819
25 15 4.4 11.8 7.0 14.4 14.47447
25 18 6.5 17.1 7.0 17.6 17.81881
25 21 8.8 23.3 7.0 21.5 21.77121
25 24 11.6 30.4 7.0 25.8 26.33168
25 27 14.8 39.1 7.0 31.3 31.50021
25 30 18.3 48.8 7.0 37.5 37.2768
25 31 19.6 52.4 7.0 39.8 39.33745
30 0 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.0 6.832703
30 3 0.0 0.3 7.0 7.3 7.134481
30 6 0.6 1.8 7.0 8.2 8.039814
30 9 1.5 4.2 7.0 9.7 9.548702
30 12 2.9 7.5 7.0 11.6 11.66115
30 15 4.6 11.9 7.0 14.3 14.37715
30 18 6.7 17.2 7.0 17.5 17.6967
30 21 9.0 23.3 7.0 21.3 21.61981
30 24 11.8 30.5 7.0 25.7 26.14647
30 27 15.0 39.1 7.0 31.1 31.2767
30 30 18.6 48.8 7.0 37.2 37.01047
30 31 19.9 52.4 7.0 39.5 39.05585
40 0 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.0 6.800417
40 3 0.0 0.3 7.0 7.3 7.101762
40 6 0.6 1.8 7.0 8.2 8.005799
40 9 1.5 4.2 7.0 9.7 9.512526
40 12 2.9 7.5 7.0 11.6 11.62194
40 15 4.6 11.8 7.0 14.2 14.33405
40 18 6.7 17.1 7.0 17.4 17.64885
40 21 9.1 23.2 7.0 21.1 21.56634
40 24 11.9 30.5 7.0 25.6 26.08653
40 27 15.1 39.1 7.0 31.0 31.2094
40 30 18.5 48.9 7.0 37.4 36.93496
40 31 20.1 52.4 7.0 39.3 38.97741
50 0 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.0 6.768281
50 3 0.0 0.3 7.0 7.3 7.07102
50 6 0.6 1.8 7.0 8.2 7.979239
50 9 1.6 4.2 7.0 9.6 9.492938
50 12 2.9 7.5 7.0 11.6 11.61212
50 15 4.7 11.9 7.0 14.2 14.33677
50 18 6.8 17.3 7.0 17.5 17.66691
50 21 9.2 23.3 7.0 21.1 21.60252
50 24 12.1 30.7 7.0 25.6 26.14362
50 27 15.4 39.4 7.0 31.0 31.29019
50 30 19.1 49.4 7.0 37.3 37.04225
50 31 20.6 53.3 7.0 39.7 39.09415
Company A NEMA 1 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect


Company O NEMA 2 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect



Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 64
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Starter+Wire(W) Relay Loss(@120V,W) Starter Net Total(W) Curve Fit
25 0 0.0 0.0 15.5 15.5 15.67709
25 10 1.1 1.5 15.5 15.9 16.09457
25 20 5.1 6.8 15.5 17.2 17.34701
25 30 12.0 15.6 15.5 19.1 19.43442
25 40 21.5 28.0 15.5 22.0 22.35678
25 50 33.9 44.4 15.5 26.0 26.11411
25 60 49.0 64.5 15.5 31.0 30.70641
25 70 67.0 87.8 15.5 36.3 36.13366
25 80 87.6 115.0 15.5 42.9 42.39588
25 90 110.8 144.4 15.5 49.1 49.49306
25 100 136.8 178.7 15.5 57.4 57.4252
25 110 165.4 218 15.5 68.1 66.1923
25 120 197.1 257 15.5 75.4 75.79437
25 130 228 300 15.5 87.5 86.2314
25 140 263 343 15.5 95.5 97.50339
30 0 0.0 0.0 15.5 15.5 16.22792
30 10 1.2 1.6 15.5 15.9 16.66401
30 20 5.2 7.1 15.5 17.4 17.97226
30 30 12.1 16.4 15.5 19.8 20.15269
30 40 21.7 30.0 15.5 23.8 23.20528
30 50 34.1 46.8 15.5 28.2 27.13004
30 60 49.3 67.0 15.5 33.2 31.92698
30 70 67.2 89.6 15.5 37.9 37.59608
30 80 88.0 117.0 15.5 44.5 44.13735
30 90 111.4 147.2 15.5 51.3 51.5508
30 100 137.6 181.0 15.5 58.9 59.83641
30 110 165.6 218 15.5 67.9 68.99419
30 120 197.2 259 15.5 77.3 79.02414
30 130 228 302 15.5 89.5 89.92626
30 140 263 344 15.5 96.5 101.7006
40 0 0.0 0.0 15.5 15.5 15.46228
40 10 1.1 1.5 15.5 15.9 15.88777
40 20 5.2 6.9 15.5 17.2 17.16425
40 30 12.1 15.7 15.5 19.1 19.29171
40 40 21.8 28.4 15.5 22.1 22.27016
40 50 34.1 44.8 15.5 26.2 26.0996
40 60 49.4 65.0 15.5 31.1 30.78002
40 70 67.3 88.3 15.5 36.5 36.31143
40 80 88.4 115.0 15.5 42.1 42.69382
40 90 111.8 146.6 15.5 50.3 49.9272
40 100 138.1 180.5 15.5 57.9 58.01156
40 110 165.5 217 15.5 67.0 66.94691
40 120 197.2 256 15.5 74.3 76.73325
40 130 229 300 15.5 86.5 87.37057
40 140 264 343 15.5 94.5 98.85888
50 0 0.0 0.0 15.5 15.5 15.5049
50 10 1.1 1.5 15.5 15.9 15.92476
50 20 5.2 6.9 15.5 17.2 17.18434
50 30 12.1 15.8 15.5 19.2 19.28364
50 40 21.8 28.2 15.5 21.9 22.22265
50 50 34.2 44.6 15.5 25.9 26.00139
50 60 49.7 65.0 15.5 30.8 30.61984
50 70 67.8 88.6 15.5 36.3 36.07802
50 80 88.7 115.9 15.5 42.7 42.37591
50 90 112.2 146.7 15.5 50.0 49.51352
50 100 139.3 180.6 15.5 56.8 57.49085
50 110 165.6 217 15.5 66.9 66.3079
50 120 197.2 256 15.5 74.3 75.96467
50 130 230 299 15.5 84.5 86.46116
50 140 265 344 15.5 94.5 97.79737

Company A NEMA 3 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 65
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Inverters
Company G
Input: 240 VDC
Output: 120 Volt - 60 Hz. Single Phase
Sizes: 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 KVA
Efficiency: 88%
Input: 240 VDC
Output: 220 Volt - 50 Hz Single Phase
Sizes: 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 KVA
Efficiency: 88%
Input: 600 VDC
Output: 120 Volt - 60 Hz. Single Phase
Sizes: 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20 KVA
Efficiency: 90%
Input: 240 VDC
Output: 220 Volt - 50 Hz Single Phase
Sizes: 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20 KVA
Efficiency: 90%
For three phase units - multiply single phase losses by three

Company G Inverter Loss Information


Company H
Input: 24, 48, 130 VDC
Output: 120 - 60 Hz.
Sizes: 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 KVA
Efficiency 85%
Input: 24, 48, 130 VDC
Output: 220 V- 50 Hz.
Sizes: 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 KVA
Efficiency 85%

Company H Inverter Loss Information





Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 66
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Single Phase
kVA
DC Bus
Volts
Efficiency %
Full Load
Loss -
BTU/Hr
Full Load
Loss -
Watts
3
130
83
2096 614
3
260
83
1952 572
5
130
85
3010 882
5
260
85
2550 747
7.5
130
85
4519 1324
7.5
260
85
3491 1023
10
130
85
5788 1696
10
260
85
4655 1364
15
130
86
8335 2442
15
260
86
6980 2045
20
130
86
10652 3121
20
260
86
9307 2727
30
130
87
15300 4483
30
260
87
13959 4090
40
130
88
18618 5455
40
260
88
18618 5455
50
130
88
23270 6818
50
260
88
23270 6818
60 130 84 31214 9146
75 260 86 33346 9770
100 260 87 40815 11959
Three Phase
kVA
DC Bus
Volts
Efficiency %
Full Load
Loss -
BTU/Hr
Full Load
Loss -
Watts
10 130 80 6850 2007
15 130 81 9600 2813
20 130 82 12000 3516
30 130 82 17985 5270
40 130 83 22375 6556
50 130 84 26010 7621
60 130 85 28920 8473
75 260 87 30600 8966
100 260 87 40800 11954


Company I Inverter Loss Information





Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 67
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Battery Chargers

Company J
Company J 60 Hz.
Input (Single Phase) Output (DC) Power Losses Efficiency
Volts Amps Volts Amps BTU/Hr W atts η
120 2.4 12 15 429 126 85
120 3.2 12 20 388 114 85
120 4 12 25 347 102 85
120 5 12 30 674 197 85
120 8.4 12 50 695 204 85
120 12.6 12 75 1043 306 85
120 16.8 12 100 1227 360 85
120 25.2 12 150 3068 899 85
120 33.6 12 200 3272 959 85
208 4.8 12 50 695 204 85
208 7.3 12 75 1043 306 85
208 9.7 12 100 1227 360 85
208 14.5 12 150 3068 899 85
208 19.4 12 200 3272 959 85
240 4.2 12 50 695 204 85
240 6.3 12 75 1043 306 85
240 8.4 12 100 1227 360 85
240 12.6 12 150 3068 899 85
240 16.8 12 200 3272 959 85
120 3.3 24 10 150 44 85
120 4 24 12 191 56 85
120 5 24 15 241 71 85
120 6.7 24 20 321 94 85
120 8.4 24 25 402 118 85
120 10 24 30 482 141 85
120 16.8 24 50 803 235 85
120 25.2 24 75 1205 353 85
120 33.6 24 100 1606 471 85
120 50.5 24 150 2410 706 85
120 67 24 200 3213 941 85
208 4.8 24 25 402 118 85
208 5.8 24 30 482 141 85
208 9.7 24 50 803 235 85
208 14.5 24 75 1205 353 85
208 19.4 24 100 1606 471 85
208 29.1 24 150 2410 706 85
208 38.8 24 200 3213 941 85
240 4.2 24 25 402 118 85
240 5 24 30 482 141 85
240 8.4 24 50 803 235 85
240 12.6 24 75 1205 353 85
240 16.8 24 100 1606 471 85
240 25.2 24 150 2410 706 85
240 33.6 24 200 3213 941 85
120 6.7 48 10 312 91 85
120 8 48 12 383 112 85
120 10 48 15 382 112 85
120 13.4 48 20 643 188 85
120 16.8 48 25 803 235 85
120 20 48 30 964 282 85
120 33.6 48 50 1606 471 85
120 50.4 48 75 2410 706 85
120 67.2 48 100 3213 941 85
208 7.7 48 20 643 188 85
208 9.7 48 25 803 235 85
208 11.6 48 30 964 282 85
208 19.4 48 50 1606 471 85
208 29.1 48 75 2410 706 85
208 38.8 48 100 3213 941 85
240 6.7 48 20 643 188 85
240 8.4 48 25 803 235 85
240 10 48 30 964 282 85
240 16.8 48 50 1606 471 85
240 25.2 48 75 2410 706 85
240 33.6 48 100 3213 941 85
208 58.2 48 150 4819 1412 85
Company J 60 Hz. Single Phase Units


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 68
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
50 Hz.
Input (Single Phase) Output (DC) Power Losses Efficiency
Volts Amps Volts Amps BTU/Hr Watts η
220 4.6 12 50 695 204 85
220 6.9 12 75 1043 306 85
220 9.2 12 100 1227 360 85
220 13.8 12 150 3068 899 85
220 18.3 12 200 3272 959 85
240 4.2 12 50 695 204 85
240 6.3 12 75 1043 306 85
240 8.4 12 100 1227 360 85
240 12.6 12 150 3068 899 85
240 16.8 12 200 3272 959 85
220 4.6 24 25 402 118 85
220 5.5 24 30 482 141 85
220 9.2 24 50 803 235 85
220 13.8 24 75 1205 353 85
220 18.3 24 100 1606 471 85
220 27.5 24 150 2410 706 85
220 36.7 24 200 3213 941 85
240 4.2 24 25 402 118 85
240 5 24 30 482 141 85
240 8.4 24 50 803 235 85
240 12.6 24 75 1205 353 85
240 16.8 24 100 1606 471 85
240 25.2 24 150 2410 706 85
240 33.6 24 200 3213 941 85
220 7.3 48 20 643 188 85
220 9.2 48 25 803 235 85
220 11 48 30 964 282 85
220 18.3 48 50 1606 471 85
220 27.5 48 75 2410 706 85
220 36.7 48 100 3213 941 85
220 55 48 150 4819 1412 85
220 73.4 48 200 6426 1883 85
240 6.7 48 20 643 188 85
240 8.4 48 25 803 235 85
240 10.1 48 30 964 282 85
240 16.8 48 50 1606 471 85
240 25.2 48 75 2410 706 85
240 33.6 48 100 3213 941 85
240 50.5 48 150 4819 1412 85
240 67.3 48 200 6426 1883 85

Company J 50 Hz. Single Phase Units


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 69
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
60 Hz.
Input (Three Phase) Output (DC) Power Losses Efficiency
Volts Amps Volts Amps BTU/Hr Watts η
208 19.5 24 200 2514 737 88
208 29.3 24 300 3772 1105 88
208 39.1 24 400 5029 1473 88
240 16.9 24 200 2514 737 88
240 25.4 24 300 3772 1105 88
240 33.9 24 400 5029 1473 88
480 8.5 24 200 2514 737 88
480 12.7 24 300 3772 1105 88
480 16.9 24 400 5029 1473 88
208 39.1 48 200 5029 1473 88
208 58.6 48 300 7543 2210 88
208 78.1 48 400 10057 2947 88
240 33.9 48 200 5029 1473 88
240 50.8 48 300 7543 2210 88
240 67.7 48 400 10057 2947 88
480 16.9 48 200 5029 1473 88
480 25.4 48 300 7543 2210 88
480 33.9 48 400 10057 2947 88
50 Hz.
Input (Three Phase) Output (DC) Power Losses Efficiency
Volts Amps Volts Amps BTU/Hr Watts η
380 10.7 24 200 2514 737 88
380 16 24 300 3772 1105 88
380 21.4 24 400 5029 1473 88
380 21.4 48 200 5029 1473 88
380 32.1 48 300 7543 2210 88
380 42.8 48 400 10057 2947 88

Company J 50 and 60 Hz. Three Phase Units














Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 70
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
60 Hz. - Float Chargers
Input (Three Phase) Output (DC) Power Losses
Volts Amps Volts Amps BTU/Hr Watts
208 20 24 200 6100 1787
208 28 24 300 9400 2754
208 40 24 400 12300 3604
240 18 24 200 6100 1787
240 24 24 300 9400 2754
240 38 24 400 12300 3604
480 10 24 200 6100 1787
480 12 24 300 9400 2754
480 18 24 400 12300 3604
208 20 48 100 3700 1084
208 43 48 200 6100 1787
208 63 48 300 9400 2754
208 74 48 400 12300 3604
240 17 48 100 3700 1084
240 37 48 200 6100 1787
240 55 48 300 9400 2754
240 65 48 400 12300 3604
480 10 48 100 3700 1084
480 18 48 200 6100 1787
480 28 48 300 9400 2754
480 38 48 400 12300 3604

Company J 60 Hz. Three Phase Float Chargers





















Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 71
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 72
Company I 60 Hz.
Input (Three Phase) Output (DC) Power Losses Efficiency
Volts Amps Volts Amps BTU/Hr Watts η
208 28 110 50 1857 544 91
208 42 110 75 2785 816 91
208 56 110 100 3266 957 92
208 82 110 150 4239 1242 93
208 110 110 200 5652 1656 93
208 163 110 300 7188 2106 94
208 215 110 400 7905 2316 95
208 269 110 500 9881 2895 95
208 323 110 600 11857 3474 95
480 12 110 50 1857 544 91
480 18 110 75 2785 816 91
480 24 110 100 3266 957 92
480 36 110 150 4239 1242 93
480 48 110 200 5652 1656 93
480 71 110 300 7188 2106 94
480 93 110 400 7905 2316 95
480 117 110 500 9881 2895 95
480 140 110 600 11857 3474 95
208 33 130 50 2191 642 91
208 49 130 75 3290 964 91
208 65 130 100 3857 1130 92
208 96 130 150 5010 1468 93
208 128 130 200 6679 1957 93
208 190 130 300 8495 2489 94
208 251 130 400 9341 2737 95
208 314 130 500 11676 3421 95
208 376 130 600 14010 4105 95
480 14 130 50 2191 642 91
480 21 130 75 3290 964 91
480 28 130 100 3857 1130 92
480 42 130 150 5010 1468 93
480 56 130 200 6679 1957 93
480 82 130 300 8495 2489 94
480 109 130 400 9341 2737 95
480 136 130 500 11676 3421 95
480 163 130 600 14010 4105 95
208 56 220 50 3713 1088 91
208 84 220 75 5570 1632 91
208 111 220 100 6529 1913 92
208 165 220 150 8478 2484 93
208 220 220 200 11304 3312 93
208 326 220 300 14379 4213 94
208 431 220 400 15809 4632 95
208 538 220 500 19758 5789 95
480 24 220 50 3713 1088 91
480 36 220 75 5570 1632 91
480 48 220 100 6529 1913 92
480 71 220 150 8478 2484 93
480 95 220 200 11304 3312 93
480 141 220 300 14379 4213 94
480 187 220 400 15809 4632 95
480 233 220 500 19758 5789 95
208 65 260 50 4389 1286 91
208 98 260 75 6584 1929 91
208 130 260 100 7717 2261 92
208 192 260 150 10017 2935 93
208 256 260 200 13358 3914 93
208 380 260 300 16993 4979 94
208 502 260 400 18683 5474 95
208 627 260 500 23352 6842 95
480 28 260 50 4389 1286 91
480 43 260 75 6584 1929 91
480 56 260 100 7717 2261 92
480 83 260 150 10017 2935 93
480 111 260 200 13358 3914 93
480 165 260 300 16993 4979 94
Company I Three Phase 60 Hz. Battery Chargers
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 73
50 Hz.
Input (Three Phase) Output (DC) Power Losses Efficiency
Volts Amps Volts Amps BTU/Hr Watts η
380 15 110 50 1857 544 91
380 23 110 75 2785 816 91
380 30 110 100 3266 957 92
380 45 110 150 4239 1242 93
380 60 110 200 5652 1656 93
380 89 110 300 7188 2106 94
380 118 110 400 7905 2316 95
380 147 110 500 9881 2895 95
380 177 110 600 11857 3474 95
415 14 110 50 1857 544 91
415 21 110 75 2785 816 91
415 28 110 100 3266 957 92
415 41 110 150 4239 1242 93
415 55 110 200 5652 1656 93
415 82 110 300 7188 2106 94
415 108 110 400 7905 2316 95
415 135 110 500 9881 2895 95
415 162 110 600 11857 3474 95
380 18 130 50 2191 642 91
380 27 130 75 3290 964 91
380 35 130 100 3857 1130 92
380 53 130 150 5010 1468 93
380 70 130 200 6679 1957 93
380 104 130 300 8495 2489 94
380 137 130 400 9341 2737 95
380 172 130 500 11676 3421 95
380 206 130 600 14010 4105 95
415 16 130 50 2191 642 91
415 25 130 75 3290 964 91
415 32 130 100 3857 1130 92
415 48 130 150 5010 1468 93
415 64 130 200 6679 1957 93
415 95 130 300 8495 2489 94
415 126 130 400 9341 2737 95
415 157 130 500 11676 3421 95
415 189 130 600 14010 4105 95
380 31 220 50 3713 1088 91
380 46 220 75 5570 1632 91
380 61 220 100 6529 1913 92
380 90 220 150 8478 2484 93
380 120 220 200 11304 3312 93
380 179 220 300 14379 4213 94
380 236 220 400 15809 4632 95
380 295 220 500 19758 5789 95
415 28 220 50 3713 1088 91
415 42 220 75 5570 1632 91
415 56 220 100 6529 1913 92
415 83 220 150 8478 2484 93
415 110 220 200 11304 3312 93
415 164 220 300 14379 4213 94
415 216 220 400 15809 4632 95
415 270 220 500 19758 5789 95
380 36 260 50 4389 1286 91
380 54 260 75 6584 1929 91
380 71 260 100 7717 2261 92
380 105 260 150 10017 2935 93
380 140 260 200 13358 3914 93
380 208 260 300 16993 4979 94
380 275 260 400 18683 5474 95
380 343 260 500 23352 6842 95
415 33 260 50 4389 1286 91
415 49 260 75 6584 1929 91
415 65 260 100 7717 2261 92
415 96 260 150 10017 2935 93
415 128 260 200 13358 3914 93
415 191 260 300 16993 4979 94
Company I Three Phase 50 Hz. Battery Chargers
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
130 Volt
Amps No Load No Load Full Load Full Load
BTU/Hr Watts BTU/Hr Watts
50 785 230 1960 574
75 1175 344 2950 864
100 1565 459 3925 1150
150 2350 689 5875 1721
200 3135 919 7830 2294
250 3925 1150 9785 2867
300 4700 1377 11750 3443
350 5480 1606 13700 4014
400 6265 1836 15660 4588
500 7830 2294 19570 5734
600 9400 2754 23500 6885
260 Volt
Amps No Load No Load Full Load Full Load
BTU/Hr Watts BTU/Hr Watts
50 1545 453 3860 1131
75 3215 942 5785 1695
100 3085 904 7710 2259
150 4625 1355 11570 3390
200 6170 1808 15420 4518
250 7710 2259 19300 5655
300 9255 2712 23130 6777
350 10800 3164 26990 7908
400 12335 3614 30840 9036
500 15420 4518 38550 11295
Company I Load and No Load Loss Information


















Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 74
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Low Voltage Circuit Breakers

Company C Company C Company C Company D Company C Company D
600
Amp
Frame
800/1000
Amp
Frame
1200 Amp
Frame
1600
Amp
Frame
2500
Amp
Frame
3000
Amp
Frame
DC
Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss
DC
Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss DC Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss
AC
Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss
DC
Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss
AC
Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss
300 43 129 125 25 75 600 38.5 115.5 200 60 2500 168 504 2000 480
350 51 153 175 28 84 700 49 147 225 75 2500 750
400 40 120 200 29 87 800 52 156 250 55 3000 1080
450 51 153 225 30 90 1000 63 189 300 40
500 58 174 250 30.5 91.5 1200 77 231 350 55
600 61 183 300 31 93 400 60
350 32 96 500 90
400 32 96 600 120
500 36.5 109.5 800 195
600 41 123 1000 180
700 46 138 1200 260
800 50 150 1600 460
900 55 165
1000 55 165
Company D Company C Company C
600
Amp
Frame
800 Amp
Frame
1200 Amp
Frame
AC
Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss
DC
Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss DC Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss
50 60 700 49 147 600 40.5 121.5
70 70 800 52 156 700 52 156
90 70 800 54.5 163.5
100 65 900 66.5 199.5
125 105 1000 68.5 205.5
150 80 1200 81 243
175 110
200 110
225 140
250 95
300 119
350 150
400 165
500 225
600 215
Company C
1200/2000
Amp
Frame
DC Amps
1 Pole
DC
Watts
Loss
Three
Pole
Watts
Loss
600 38.5 115.5
700 49 147
800 52 156
900 58 174
1000 63 189
1200 77 231
1400 97 291
1600 105 315
1800 115 345
2000 126 378



Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 75
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 76
60 amp Circuit Breaker w/o Enclosure Test
0.001752
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Trans.(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 1.877253
35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
35 10 0.25 0.9 1.3 0.4 0.175165 0.050551
35 20 0.5 3.3 4.3 1 0.700659 0.089605
35 30 0.75 7.5 9.3 1.8 1.576484 0.04996
35 40 1 13.3 16.4 3.1 2.802637 0.088425
35 50 1.25 20.8 25.4 4.6 4.379121 0.048788
35 60 1.5 30.1 36.4 6.3 6.305934 3.52E-05
40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 10 0.25 0.9 1.3 0.4 0.175165 0.050551
40 20 0.5 3.3 4.3 1 0.700659 0.089605
40 30 0.75 7.5 9.3 1.8 1.576484 0.04996
40 40 1 13.3 16.3 3 2.802637 0.038952
40 50 1.25 20.8 25.3 4.5 4.379121 0.014612
40 60 1.5 30.1 36.3 6.2 6.305934 0.011222
50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 10 0.25 0.9 1.3 0.4 0.175165 0.050551
50 20 0.5 3.4 4.3 0.9 0.700659 0.039737
50 30 0.75 7.5 9.4 1.9 1.576484 0.104663
50 40 1 13.4 16.5 3.1 2.802637 0.088425
50 50 1.25 20.9 25.5 4.6 4.379121 0.048788
50 60 1.5 30.1 36.6 6.5 6.305934 0.037662
26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 10 0.25 0.9 1.3 0.4 0.175165 0.050551
26 20 0.5 3.3 4.2 0.9 0.700659 0.039737
26 30 0.75 7.5 9.1 1.6 1.576484 0.000553
26 40 1 13.3 15.9 2.6 2.802637 0.041062
26 50 1.25 20.8 24.8 4 4.379121 0.143733
26 60 1.5 30.1 35.6 5.5 6.305934 0.64953


60 Amp Circuit Breaker Test with Enclosure
0.002562
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Trans.(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 2.03796
26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 10 0.25 0.9 1.5 0.6 0.25622 0.118185
26 20 0.5 3.3 4.8 1.5 1.024879 0.22574
26 30 0.75 7.5 10.3 2.8 2.305978 0.244058
26 40 1 13.3 17.8 4.5 4.099516 0.160387
26 50 1.25 20.8 27.1 6.3 6.405495 0.011129
26 60 1.5 30.1 38.7 8.6 9.223912 0.389266
30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
30 10 0.25 0.9 1.4 0.5 0.25622 0.059429
30 20 0.5 3.3 4.6 1.3 1.024879 0.075691
30 30 0.75 7.5 10.1 2.6 2.305978 0.086449
30 40 1 13.3 17.7 4.4 4.099516 0.09029
30 50 1.25 20.8 27.3 6.5 6.405495 0.008931
30 60 1.5 30.1 39 8.9 9.223912 0.104919
40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 10 0.25 0.9 1.4 0.5 0.25622 0.059429
40 20 0.5 3.3 4.6 1.3 1.024879 0.075691
40 30 0.75 7.5 10 2.5 2.305978 0.037645
40 40 1 13.3 17.6 4.3 4.099516 0.040194
40 50 1.25 20.8 27.3 6.5 6.405495 0.008931
40 60 1.5 30.1 39.2 9.1 9.223912 0.015354
50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 10 0.25 0.9 1.4 0.5 0.25622 0.059429
50 20 0.5 3.4 4.6 1.2 1.024879 0.030667
50 30 0.75 7.5 10.1 2.6 2.305978 0.086449
50 40 1 13.4 17.7 4.3 4.099516 0.040194
50 50 1.25 20.9 27.4 6.5 6.405495 0.008931
50 60 1.5 30.1 39.3 9.2 9.223912 0.000572

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


100 Amp Circuit Breaker no Enclosure Test
(7 Turns on two CT's wired in parallel.) Constant Sum
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 0.001955 1.00158
25 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
25 10.0 2 2 0 0.195476 0.038211
25 20.0 6 7 1 0.781905 0.047565
25 30.0 14 16 2 1.759286 0.057943
25 40.0 24 27 3 3.12762 0.016287
25 50.0 38 43 5 4.886906 0.01279
25 60.0 54 61 7 7.037145 0.00138
25 70.0 73 82 9 9.578337 0.334473
25 80.0 95 107 12 12.51048 0.26059
25 90.0 120 136 16 15.83358 0.027697 Constant Sum
25 100.0 149 169 20 19.54763 0.204643 0.001955 1.00158
30 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
30 10.0 2 2 0 0.195476 0.038211
30 20.0 6 7 1 0.781905 0.047565
30 30.0 14 16 2 1.759286 0.057943
30 40.0 24 27 3 3.12762 0.016287
30 50.0 38 43 5 4.886906 0.01279
30 60.0 54 61 7 7.037145 0.00138
30 70.0 73 82 9 9.578337 0.334473
30 80.0 95 107 12 12.51048 0.26059
30 90.0 120 136 16 15.83358 0.027697 Constant Sum
30 100.0 149 169 20 19.54763 0.204643 0.002077 1.01283
40 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
40 10.0 2 2 0 0.207713 0.043145
40 20.0 6 7 1 0.830853 0.028611
40 30.0 14 16 2 1.869419 0.017051
40 40.0 24 28 4 3.323412 0.457771
40 50.0 38 43 5 5.192831 0.037184
40 60.0 54 61 7 7.477677 0.228176
40 70.0 73 83 10 10.17795 0.031666
40 80.0 95 108 13 13.29365 0.08623
40 90.0 120 137 17 16.82477 0.030704 Constant Sum
40 100.0 149 170 21 20.77133 0.052292 0.002077 1.01283
50 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
50 10.0 2 2 0 0.207713 0.043145
50 20.0 6 7 1 0.830853 0.028611
50 30.0 14 16 2 1.869419 0.017051
50 40.0 24 28 4 3.323412 0.457771
50 50.0 38 43 5 5.192831 0.037184
50 60.0 54 61 7 7.477677 0.228176
50 70.0 73 83 10 10.17795 0.031666
50 80.0 96 109 13 13.29365 0.08623
50 90.0 121 138 17 16.82477 0.030704
50 100.0 150 171 21 20.77133 0.052292










Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 77
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
100 Amp Circuit Breaker in Enclosure Test
(7 Turns on two CT's wired in parallel.) Constant Sum
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 0.001954763 1.001578968
25 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
25 10.0 2 2 0 0.195476256 0.038210967
25 20.0 6 7 1 0.781905025 0.047565418
25 30.0 14 16 2 1.759286306 0.057943083
25 40.0 24 27 3 3.127620099 0.01628689
25 50.0 38 43 5 4.886906404 0.012790161
25 60.0 54 61 7 7.037145222 0.001379768
25 70.0 73 82 9 9.578336552 0.334473168
25 80.0 95 107 12 12.51048039 0.260590234
25 90.0 120 136 16 15.83357675 0.027696698 Constant Sum
25 100.0 149 169 20 19.54762562 0.204642582 0.001954763 1.001578968
30 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
30 10.0 2 2 0 0.195476256 0.038210967
30 20.0 6 7 1 0.781905025 0.047565418
30 30.0 14 16 2 1.759286306 0.057943083
30 40.0 24 27 3 3.127620099 0.01628689
30 50.0 38 43 5 4.886906404 0.012790161
30 60.0 54 61 7 7.037145222 0.001379768
30 70.0 73 82 9 9.578336552 0.334473168
30 80.0 95 107 12 12.51048039 0.260590234
30 90.0 120 136 16 15.83357675 0.027696698 Constant Sum
30 100.0 149 169 20 19.54762562 0.204642582 0.002167923 1.376544428
40 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
40 10.0 2 2 0 0.216792326 0.046998913
40 20.0 6 7 1 0.867169304 0.017643994
40 30.0 14 16 2 1.951130935 0.002388186
40 40.0 24 28 4 3.468677217 0.2823039
40 50.0 38 43 5 5.419808152 0.176238884
40 60.0 54 62 8 7.804523739 0.038210969
40 70.0 73 84 11 10.62282398 0.142261752
40 80.0 95 109 14 13.87470887 0.015697868
40 90.0 120 138 18 17.56017841 0.193443029 Constant Sum
40 100.0 149 170 21 21.67923261 0.461356935 0.002207397 0.623337149
50 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
50 10.0 2 2 0 0.220739747 0.048726036
50 20.0 6 7 1 0.882958986 0.013698599
50 30.0 14 16 2 1.986657719 0.000178016
50 40.0 24 28 4 3.531835945 0.219177582
50 50.0 38 43 5 5.518493664 0.26883568
50 60.0 54 62 8 7.946630877 0.002848263
50 70.0 73 84 11 10.81624758 0.033764951
50 80.0 96 110 14 14.12734378 0.016216439
50 90.0 121 139 18 17.87991947 0.014419333
50 100.0 150 172 22 22.07397466 0.00547225















Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 78
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


200 Amp Circuit Breaker w/o Enclosure Test
Constant Sum
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 0.001071 3.99806576
25 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
25 20.0 7 7 0 0.428295 0.183437
25 40.0 24 26 2 1.71318 0.082265
25 60.0 54 58 4 3.854656 0.021125
25 80.0 95 101 6 6.852722 0.727134
25 100.0 148 158 10 10.70738 0.500383
25 120.0 213 227 14 15.41862 2.012494
25 140.0 292 313 21 20.98646 0.000183
25 160.0 383 411 28 27.41089 0.347054
25 180.0 488 523 35 34.6919 0.094923 Constant Sum
25 200.0 610 653 43 42.82951 0.029067 0.001056 2.37370229
30 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
30 20.0 7 7 0 0.422571 0.178567
30 40.0 24 26 2 1.690285 0.095923
30 60.0 54 58 4 3.803142 0.038753
30 80.0 95 101 6 6.761142 0.579337
30 100.0 148 158 10 10.56428 0.318416
30 120.0 213 228 15 15.21257 0.045185
30 140.0 292 313 21 20.706 0.086438
30 160.0 383 411 28 27.04457 0.912853
30 180.0 489 523 34 34.22828 0.052111 Constant Sum
30 200.0 611 653 42 42.25713 0.066118 0.001226 3.83195832
40 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
40 20.0 7 7 0 0.49023 0.240326
40 40.0 24 26 2 1.960921 0.001527
40 60.0 54 58 4 4.412071 0.169803
40 80.0 95 102 7 7.843682 0.7118
40 100.0 148 160 12 12.25575 0.06541
40 120.0 213 230 17 17.64828 0.420273
40 140.0 292 315 23 24.02128 1.043006
40 160.0 384 415 31 31.37473 0.140422
40 180.0 490 530 40 39.70864 0.08489 Constant Sum
40 200.0 613 663 50 49.02301 0.954503 0.001199 3.88185371
50 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
50 20.0 7 7 0 0.479769 0.230179
50 40.0 24 26 2 1.919078 0.006548
50 60.0 54 58 4 4.317925 0.101076
50 80.0 95 103 8 7.676312 0.104774
50 100.0 148 160 12 11.99424 3.32E-05
50 120.0 214 230 16 17.2717 1.617223
50 140.0 293 316 23 23.5087 0.25878
50 160.0 385 415 30 30.70525 0.497372
50 180.0 491 530 39 38.86133 0.01923
50 200.0 613 662 49 47.97695 1.046637








Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 79
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants






200 Amp Circuit Breaker in Enclosure Test
Constant Sum
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 0.001099 4.26712194
25 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
25 20.0 7 7 0 0.439743 0.193374
25 40.0 24 26 2 1.758971 0.058095
25 60.0 54 58 4 3.957684 0.001791
25 80.0 95 103 8 7.035882 0.929523
25 100.0 148 160 12 10.99357 1.01291
25 120.0 213 230 17 15.83073 1.367182
25 140.0 292 313 21 21.54739 0.299634
25 160.0 383 411 28 28.14353 0.0206
25 180.0 488 523 35 35.61915 0.38335 Constant Sum
25 200.0 610 654 44 43.97426 0.000662 0.001099 4.26712194
30 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
30 20.0 7 7 0 0.439743 0.193374
30 40.0 24 26 2 1.758971 0.058095
30 60.0 54 58 4 3.957684 0.001791
30 80.0 95 103 8 7.035882 0.929523
30 100.0 148 160 12 10.99357 1.01291
30 120.0 213 230 17 15.83073 1.367182
30 140.0 292 313 21 21.54739 0.299634
30 160.0 383 411 28 28.14353 0.0206
30 180.0 489 524 35 35.61915 0.38335 Constant Sum
30 200.0 611 655 44 43.97426 0.000662 0.001235 3.35589942
40 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
40 20.0 7 7 0 0.494059 0.244094
40 40.0 24 26 2 1.976237 0.000565
40 60.0 54 58 4 4.446532 0.199391
40 80.0 95 103 8 7.904946 0.009035
40 100.0 148 160 12 12.35148 0.123537
40 120.0 213 231 18 17.78613 0.045741
40 140.0 292 315 23 24.2089 1.461433
40 160.0 384 416 32 31.61978 0.144564
40 180.0 490 531 41 40.01879 0.962774 Constant Sum
40 200.0 613 662 49 49.40591 0.164766 0.001276 7.40421584
50 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
50 20.0 7 7 0 0.510599 0.260711
50 40.0 24 27 3 2.042395 0.917007
50 60.0 54 59 5 4.595389 0.16371
50 80.0 95 103 8 8.169581 0.028758
50 100.0 148 161 13 12.76497 0.055239
50 120.0 214 232 18 18.38156 0.145586
50 140.0 293 316 23 25.01934 4.077744
50 160.0 385 417 32 32.67832 0.460124
50 180.0 491 533 42 41.3585 0.411516
50 200.0 613 665 52 51.05988 0.883821





Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 80
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants



800 Amp Company A Circuit Breaker no Enclosure Test
Constant Sum
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 0.000505427 249.5686
25 0 0 0 0 0 0
25 75 5 8 3 2.843026184 0.024640779
25 150 21 33 12 11.37210474 0.394252463
25 225 47 76 29 25.58723566 11.64696047
25 300 86 136 50 45.48841894 20.35436363
25 375 133 211 78 71.0756546 47.94655923
25 450 193 304 111 102.3489426 74.84079374
25 525 262 407 145 139.308283 32.39564224
25 600 343 528 185 181.9536758 9.280091289
25 675 439 666 227 230.2851209 10.79201934 Constant Sum
25 750 541 819 278 284.3026184 39.72299866 0.000507148 289.9832
25 800 620 942 322 323.4732014 2.170322295
30 0 0 0 0 0 0
30 75 5 8 3 2.85270673 0.021695307
30 150 21 33 12 11.41082692 0.347124917
30 225 48 76 28 25.67436057 5.408598745
30 300 86 136 50 45.64330769 18.98076793
30 375 133 213 80 71.31766826 75.38288448
30 450 193 305 112 102.6974423 86.53757992
30 525 263 409 146 139.7826298 38.65569238
30 600 346 530 184 182.5732307 2.035670519
30 675 440 668 228 231.0692452 9.420265829 Constant Sum
30 750 545 823 278 285.270673 52.86268634 0.000515774 243.0075
30 800 623 947 324 324.5746324 0.330202427
40 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 75 5 8 3 2.90122846 0.009755817
40 150 21 33 12 11.60491384 0.156093074
40 225 49 77 28 26.11105614 3.568108911
40 300 87 139 52 46.41965536 31.14024633
40 375 135 216 81 72.5307115 71.72884775
40 450 195 307 112 104.4442246 57.08974257
40 525 267 415 148 142.1601945 34.10332789
40 600 349 537 188 185.6786214 5.38879846
40 675 443 676 233 234.9995052 3.99802124 Constant Sum
40 750 548 833 285 290.122846 26.243551 0.000517229 323.3395
40 800 628 955 327 330.095327 9.581049168
50 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 75 5 8 3 2.909414107 0.008205804
50 150 21 34 13 11.63765643 1.855980008
50 225 49 78 29 26.18472696 7.925762274
50 300 87 140 53 46.55062571 41.59442871
50 375 137 217 80 72.73535267 52.77510076
50 450 197 311 114 104.7389079 85.76782778
50 525 269 418 149 142.5612912 41.45697047
50 600 351 541 190 186.2025028 14.42098463
50 675 447 679 232 235.6625427 13.41421878
50 750 554 837 283 290.9414107 63.06600388
50 800 634 964 330 331.0266717 1.054054837







Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 81
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
800 Amp Company A Circuit Breaker in Enclosure Test
Constant Sum
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 0.000675447 266.0543252
25 0 0 0 0 0 0
25 75 5 8 3 3.799388428 0.639021859
25 150 21 35 14 15.19755371 1.434134895
25 225 47 81 34 34.19449585 0.037828637
25 300 86 148 62 60.79021485 1.463580106
25 375 133 235 102 94.98471071 49.21428389
25 450 193 338 145 136.7779834 67.60155672
25 525 262 456 194 186.170033 61.3083835
25 600 343 591 248 243.1608594 23.4172817
25 675 439 744 305 307.7504627 7.56504498 Constant Sum
25 750 541 914 373 379.9388428 48.14753969 0.000679647 353.862087
25 800 620 1050 430 432.2859723 5.225669246
30 0 0 0 0 0 0
30 75 5 8 3 3.823013602 0.677351389
30 150 21 35 14 15.29205441 1.669404591
30 225 48 82 34 34.40712242 0.165748662
30 300 86 150 64 61.16821763 8.018991399
30 375 133 237 104 95.57534004 70.97489536
30 450 193 340 147 137.6284897 87.82520597
30 525 263 460 197 187.3276665 93.55403558
30 600 346 594 248 244.6728705 11.06979062
30 675 440 747 307 309.6641017 7.097438105 Constant Sum
30 750 545 919 374 382.3013602 68.91258081 0.000687347 344.9339327
30 800 623 1056 433 434.973992 3.896644516
40 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 75 5 8 3 3.866327864 0.750523968
40 150 21 36 15 15.46531146 0.21651475
40 225 49 84 35 34.79695077 0.041228988
40 300 87 152 65 61.86124582 9.8517778
40 375 135 239 104 96.65819659 53.90207725
40 450 195 344 149 139.1878031 96.27920809
40 525 267 466 199 189.4500653 91.2012523
40 600 349 600 251 247.4449833 12.63814387
40 675 443 757 314 313.172557 0.684661976 Constant Sum
40 750 548 929 381 386.6327864 31.72828237 0.000691921 410.7863862
40 800 628 1061 433 439.9021925 47.64026131
50 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 75 5 8 3 3.892057503 0.795766589
50 150 21 36 15 15.56823001 0.322885348
50 225 49 85 36 35.02851753 0.943778189
50 300 87 154 67 62.27292005 22.34528482
50 375 137 241 104 97.30143758 44.87073844
50 450 197 347 150 140.1140701 97.73160957
50 525 269 471 202 190.7108177 127.4456378
50 600 351 605 254 249.0916802 24.09160311
50 675 447 761 314 315.2566578 1.579188757
50 750 554 935 381 389.2057503 67.33433858
50 800 634 1072 438 442.8296537 23.32555502









Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 82
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
1200 Amp Company A Circuit Breaker no Enclosure Test
Constant Sum
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 0.000594 5190.372
25 0 0 0 0 0 0
25 100 8 14 6 5.944704332 0.003057611
25 200 29 58 29 23.77881733 27.26074849
25 300 65 132 67 53.50233899 182.1868528
25 400 117 235 118 95.11526931 523.7108986
25 500 183 362 179 148.6176083 923.0897253
25 600 263 510 247 214.009356 1088.382595
25 700 360 682 322 291.2905123 943.0726365
25 800 467 872 405 380.4610773 602.1587296
25 900 588 1077 489 481.5210509 55.93467967 Constant Sum
25 1000 726 1307 581 594.4704332 181.4525708 0.000594 6093.127
25 1100 884 1584 700 719.3092242 372.8461385
25 1200 1060 1899 839 856.0374238 290.2738104
30 0 0 0 0 0 0
30 100 8 14 6 5.941064073 0.003473444
30 200 29 58 29 23.76425629 27.41301219
30 300 65 134 69 53.46957665 241.1940493
30 400 117 239 122 95.05702516 725.923893
30 500 184 368 184 148.5266018 1258.361979
30 600 264 512 248 213.8783066 1164.289959
30 700 360 684 324 291.1121396 1081.611364
30 800 470 874 404 380.2281007 565.1031985
30 900 593 1082 489 481.2261899 60.43212361 Constant Sum
30 1000 731 1308 577 594.1064073 292.6291698 0.000604 6857.102
30 1100 887 1585 698 718.8687528 435.5048434
30 1200 1060 1900 840 855.5132265 240.6601956
40 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 100 8 14 6 6.043880745 0.00192552
40 200 29 60 31 24.17552298 46.57348662
40 300 66 139 73 54.3949267 346.1487525
40 400 118 244 126 96.70209191 858.3674183
40 500 186 371 185 151.0970186 1149.412147
40 600 267 522 255 217.5797068 1400.278343
40 700 363 694 331 296.1501565 1214.511593
40 800 473 885 412 386.8083676 634.6183405
40 900 595 1092 497 489.5543403 55.43784827 Constant Sum
40 1000 732 1328 596 604.3880745 70.35979302 0.00061 8574.158
40 1100 892 1596 704 731.3095701 745.8126184
40 1200 1061 1913 852 870.3188272 335.5794304
50 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 100 8 15 7 6.101531867 0.807244985
50 200 29 61 32 24.40612747 57.66690001
50 300 67 140 73 54.91378681 327.1111077
50 400 121 248 127 97.62450988 862.9194199
50 500 188 381 193 152.5382967 1637.149435
50 600 269 534 265 219.6551472 2056.155673
50 700 365 704 339 298.9750615 1601.995702
50 800 477 890 413 390.4980395 506.3382257
50 900 598 1104 506 494.2240813 138.6722621
50 1000 742 1338 596 610.1531867 200.312695
50 1100 900 1610 710 738.285356 800.0613617
50 1200 1071 1930 859 878.6205889 384.9675091









Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 83
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
1200 Amp Company A Circuit Breaker in Enclosure Test
Constant Sum
Temp.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) Curve Fit 0.000744566 3836.231329
25 0 0 0 0 0 0
25 100 8 14 6 7.445659694 2.08993195
25 200 29 59 30 29.78263877 0.047245902
25 300 65 139 74 67.01093724 48.84699823
25 400 117 248 131 119.1305551 140.8837223
25 500 183 389 206 186.1414923 394.3603265
25 600 263 549 286 268.043749 322.426951
25 700 360 752 392 364.837325 737.8109138
25 800 467 965 498 476.5222204 461.2950169
25 900 588 1213 625 603.0984352 479.6785414 Constant Sum
25 1000 726 1475 749 744.5659694 19.66062769 0.000749773 9202.186312
25 1100 884 1771 887 900.9248229 193.9006936
25 1200 1060 2100 1040 1072.174996 1035.23036
30 0 0 0 0 0 0
30 100 8 14 6 7.49772689 2.243185837
30 200 29 60 31 29.99090756 1.018267552
30 300 65 143 78 67.47954201 110.6800363
30 400 117 259 142 119.9636302 485.6015922
30 500 184 400 216 187.4431723 815.4924111
30 600 264 574 310 269.918168 1606.553253
30 700 360 777 417 367.3886176 2461.289262
30 800 470 985 515 479.854521 1235.204697
30 900 593 1220 627 607.3158781 387.4646553 Constant Sum
30 1000 731 1475 744 749.772689 33.32393833 0.000752084 13725.22649
30 1100 887 1774 887 907.2249537 409.0487519
30 1200 1060 2099 1039 1079.672672 1654.266261
40 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 100 8 15 7 7.520836765 0.271270936
40 200 29 64 35 30.08334706 24.17347613
40 300 66 149 83 67.68753088 234.4717104
40 400 118 270 152 120.3333882 1002.7743
40 500 186 420 234 188.0209191 2114.075878
40 600 267 596 329 270.7501235 3393.048108
40 700 363 785 422 368.5210015 2860.003282
40 800 473 989 516 481.333553 1201.762551
40 900 595 1220 625 609.187778 250.0263658 Constant Sum
40 1000 732 1475 743 752.0836765 82.51317866 0.000751451 14818.71527
40 1100 892 1777 885 910.0212486 626.0628794
40 1200 1061 2100 1039 1083.000494 1936.043486
50 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 100 8 15 7 7.514511608 0.264722195
50 200 29 66 37 30.05804643 48.19071935
50 300 67 157 90 67.63060447 500.3898564
50 400 121 281 160 120.2321857 1581.479052
50 500 188 427 239 187.8627902 2615.014227
50 600 269 598 329 270.5224179 3419.62761
50 700 365 786 421 368.2110688 2786.671259
50 800 477 990 513 480.9287429 1028.565532
50 900 598 1222 624 608.6754402 234.842132
50 1000 742 1485 743 751.4511608 71.42211856
50 1100 900 1785 885 909.2559045 588.3489053
50 1200 1071 2109 1038 1082.089672 1943.899135








MOTORS
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 84
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Motors Company L
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
184TZ 84.0 0.920
184TZ 86.5 0.940
213JM 82.5 0.900
213JM 85.5 0.910
213JM 91.7 0.900
213JP 82.5 0.900
213LP 85.5 0.910
213LP 87.5 0.770
213T 88.5 0.910
213T 89.5 0.730
213T 89.5 0.910
213T 91.7 0.900
213T 91.7 0.920
213TC 88.5 0.910
213TCZ 82.5 0.900
215JM 85.5 0.760 85.5 0.920
215JM 85.5 0.910 86.5 0.950
215JM 86.5 0.910 90.2 0.900
215JM 87.5 0.820 91.7 0.920
215JM 91.7 0.830
215JP 85.5 0.760 85.5 0.920
215JP 85.5 0.910 86.5 0.950
215JP 87.5 0.820
215T 85.5 0.760 85.5 0.920
215T 85.5 0.840 89.5 0.900
215T 85.5 0.910 90.2 0.910
215T 87.5 0.820 91.7 0.920
215T 87.5 0.830
215T 89.5 0.730
215T 89.5 0.740
215T 89.5 0.760
215T 89.5 0.780
215T 89.5 0.900
215T 89.5 0.910
215T 91.0 0.930
215T 91.0 0.930
215T 91.7 0.800
215T 91.7 0.830
215T 91.7 0.920
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
B215TC
215TC 85.5 0.760 86.5 0.950
215TC 85.5 0.910 89.5 0.900
215TC 87.5 0.770 90.2 0.910
215TC 87.5 0.820
215TC 89.5 0.730
215TC 89.5 0.730
215TC 89.5 0.740
215TC 89.5 0.760
215TC 89.5 0.880
215TC 89.5 0.900
215TC 89.5 0.910
215TC 91.0 0.930
215TC 91.7 0.830
215TC 91.7 0.920
B215TC




Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 85
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


Motors Company L
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
215TCZ 85.5 0.910 85.5 0.920
215TCZ 87.5 0.820 86.5 0.950
215TZ 89.5 0.740
215Z 85.5 0.890
254JM 86.5 0.910 88.5 0.860
254JM 87.5 0.810 92.4 0.900
254JM 88.5 0.780
254JP 86.5 0.910 88.5 0.860
254JP 87.5 0.810
254JP 88.5 0.780
254LP 86.5 0.910
254LP 90.2 0.820
254T 90.2 0.890 86.5 0.830 88.5 0.850
254T 91.0 0.840 87.5 0.770 90.2 0.880
254T 92.4 0.840 87.5 0.800 92.4 0.890
254T 87.5 0.810 92.4 0.900
254T 87.5 0.860
254T 87.5 0.860
254T 90.2 0.820
254T 90.2 0.910
254T 91.0 0.750
254T 91.0 0.750
254T 91.0 0.750
254T 91.0 0.790
254T 91.0 0.800
254T 91.0 0.840
254T 91.7 0.890
254T 92.4 0.820
254T 92.4 0.820
254T 93.0 0.850
254T 93.0 0.860
254T
254T
254T
254T
254TC 90.2 0.890 87.5 0.810 87.5 0.910 91.0 0.870
254TC 91.0 0.840 88.5 0.770 90.2 0.880
254TC 91.7 0.850 90.2 0.910
254TC 92.4 0.800 91.0 0.750
254TC 91.0 0.790
254TC 91.0 0.800
254TC 91.0 0.840
254TC 91.0 0.890
254TC 91.7 0.890
254TC 92.4 0.820
254TC 92.4 0.840
254TC 94.1 0.800
254TZ 91.0 0.750 91.0 0.820
254U 85.5 0.910
256JM 88.5 0.810 88.5 0.880
256JM 88.5 0.920 93.0 0.910
256JM 89.5 0.810
256JM 91.0 0.860
256JP 88.5 0.810 88.5 0.880
256JP 88.5 0.920
256JP 89.5 0.810
256LP 89.5 0.810
256LP 89.5 0.890
256T 82.5 0.710 90.2 0.900 88.5 0.800 91.0 0.870
256T 84.0 0.720 91.0 0.840 88.5 0.820 92.4 0.910
256T 89.5 0.730 93.0 0.840 89.5 0.780 93.0 0.910
256T 90.2 0.720 93.0 0.850 89.5 0.810 93.0 0.920
256T 91.7 0.710 90.2 0.900
256T 91.7 0.720 91.0 0.820
256T 91.0 0.840
256T 91.0 0.860
256T 92.4 0.900
256T 93.0 0.840
256T 93.0 0.850
256T 93.0 0.860
256T 93.0 0.860


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 86
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 87
256TC 91.7 0.720 90.2 0.900 88.5 0.810 91.0 0.870
256TC 92.4 0.780 91.0 0.840 88.5 0.920
256TC 92.4 0.800 92.4 0.820 89.5 0.810
256TC 92.4 0.870 90.2 0.900
256TC 91.0 0.820
256TC 91.0 0.840
256TC 91.0 0.860
256TC 91.0 0.900
256TC 91.7 0.890
256TC 92.4 0.900
256TC 93.0 0.840
256TC 93.0 0.850
256U 87.5 0.820 86.5 0.910
256U 90.2 0.760
256U 90.2 0.870
256UC 90.2 0.870
284JM 87.5 0.870 91.0 0.890
284JM 88.5 0.820 93.6 0.890
284JM 89.5 0.820 93.6 0.900
284JP 87.5 0.870 91.0 0.890
284JP 88.5 0.820
284JP 89.5 0.820
284LP 91.0 0.910
284T 84.0 0.740 84.0 0.760 92.4 0.840 88.5 0.820
284T 90.2 0.800 90.2 0.730 93.6 0.820 89.5 0.790
284T 90.2 0.790 89.5 0.820
284T 92.4 0.770 91.7 0.830
284T 92.4 0..81 91.7 0.850
284T 91.7 0.860
284T 92.4 0.820
284T 92.4 0.840
284T 93.6 0.820
284T 93.6 0.840
284T 94.1 0.820
284T 94.1 0.830
284T
284T
284T
284T
284TC 92.4 0.810 90.2 0.860 89.5 0.820
284TC 92.4 0.840 91.7 0.830
284TC 94.5 0.780 92.4 0.820
284TC 92.4 0.840
284TC 93.6 0.820
284TC 93.6 0.840
284TS 91.0 0.900 91.0 0.900 91.0 0.870
284TS 92.4 0.900 91.0 0.900
284TS 93.0 0.870 93.6 0.890
284TS 93.6 0.890
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TSC 87.5 0.870 91.0 0.900
284TSC 91.0 0.900 93.0 0.890
284TSC 93.0 0.870
284TZ 91.7 0.830 92.4 0.840
284U 86.5 0.790 87.5 0.830
284U 88.5 0.800 89.5 0.830
286JM 88.5 0.880 91.7 0.910
286JM 90.2 0.820 94.1 0.900
286JM 92.4 0.840
286JP 88.5 0.880
286JP 90.2 0.820
286JP 92.4 0.840 91.7 0.910

Motors Company L
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Motors Company L
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
286T 86.5 0.740 84.0 0.790 92.4 0.840 94.1 0.830
286T 90.2 0.820 90.2 0.800 94.1 0.840 90.2 0.820
286T 92.4 0.810 91.0 0.720 90.2 0.830
286T 92.4 0.790 92.4 0.830
286T 92.4 0.810 92.4 0.840
286T 92.4 0.860
286T 94.1 0.850
286T
286T
286T
286T
286T
286TC 92.4 0.810 92.4 0.840 90.2 0.820
286TC 92.4 0.830
286TC 92.4 0.840
286TC 94.1 0.830
286TC 94.1 0.840
286TS 91.0 0.890 91.0 0.890 90.2 0.830
286TS 93.0 0.890 91.7 0.910
286TS 94.1 0.900
286TS 94.1 0.910
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TSC 91.0 0.910 91.0 0.890
286U 88.5 0.850
286U 89.5 0.840
286U 90.2 0.860
286U 90.2 0.900
324JM 90.2 0.820 89.5 0.890
324JM 90.2 0.840 93.6 0.890
324JM 91.7 0.900
324JP 89.5 0.900 89.5 0.890
324JP 90.2 0.820
324JP 90.2 0.840
324LP 91.7 0.900
324LP 93.0 0.850
324T 88.5 0.730 85.5 0.780 93.0 0.860 90.2 0.840 93.0 0.840
324T 91.7 0.810 94.5 0.860 90.2 0.850
324T 91.7 0.820 91.7 0.870
324T 91.7 0.830 93.0 0.830
324T 93.0 0.800 93.0 0.840
324T 93.6 0.800 93.0 0.850
324T 93.0 0.860
324T 94.5 0.850
324T 94.5 0.860
324TC 91.7 0.850 93.0 0.860 93.0 0.830
324TC 93.0 0.800 93.0 0.850
324TC 94.1 0.850
324TC 94.5 0.850
324TC 94.5 0.860
324TS 91.7 0.900 91.7 0.900 91.0 0.840
324TS 93.6 0.900 92.4 0.890
324TS 93.6 0.890
324TS 93.6 0.900
324TS
324TS
324TS
324TSC 91.7 0.900
324TSC 93.6 0.900
324U 89.5 0.830 88.5 0.890
324U 92.4 0.870
326JM 91.0 0.860 91.7 0.870
326JM 91.7 0.840
326JM 92.4 0.900
326JP 90.2 0.900
326JP 91.0 0.860
326JP 91.7 0.840



Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 88
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Motors Com pany L
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Fram e
326TC 93.0 0.800 93.0 0.860 93.0 0.810
326TC 94.5 0.860 93.0 0.850
326TC 93.0 0.860
326TC 94.5 0.870
326TS 92.4 0.900 92.4 0.900 93.0 0.890
326TS 93.0 0.850 94.5 0.920
326TS 93.0 0.920
326TS 94.1 0.910
326TS 94.1 0.920
326TS
326TS
326TS
326TS
326TSC 92.4 0.900
326TSC 94.1 0.920
326U 89.0 0.830 91.7 0.820 91.7 0.850
326U 91.7 0.830 92.4 0.820
326U 92.4 0.860
326VP 90.2 0.900
326VP 91.0 0.860
364JP 93.6 0.830
364JP 93.6 0.860
364T 89.5 0.720 93.0 0.820 93.6 0.860 92.4 0.850
364T 93.0 0.820 93.0 0.830 94.5 0.860 93.6 0.830
364T 93.6 0.830 93.6 0.840
364T 94.1 0.800 93.6 0.850
364T 94.1 0.810 93.6 0.860
364T 95.0 0.860
364T 95.0 0.860
364T 95.0 0.870
364T
364T
364TC 93.6 0.870 93.6 0.830
364TC 94.1 0.810 93.6 0.850
364TC 95.0 0.860
364TS 93.0 0.900 93.0 0.900
364TS 93.6 0.850 94.5 0.910
364TS 94.1 0.890
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TSC 93.0 0.900
364TSC 94.1 0.890
364U 93.6 0.870
364VP 90.2 0.910
364VP 93.6 0.860
365JP 94.1 0.850
365JP 94.1 0.870
365T 87.5 0.790 93.0 0.830 94.1 0.850
365T 88.5 0.780 93.6 0.840 94.1 0.860
365T 90.2 0.730 94.1 0.800 94.1 0.870
365T 93.0 0.830 94.1 0.810 94.1 0.880
365T 95.0 0.860
365T 95.4 0.870
365T
365T
365T
365TC 93.6 0.830 94.1 0.860
365TC 94.1 0.810 94.1 0.870
365TC 95.4 0.870
365TS 93.0 0.900 93.0 0.900
365TS 94.1 0.870 94.5 0.910
365TS 94.5 0.910





Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 89
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Motors Com pany L
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Fram e
365TSC 93.0 0.900
365TSC 94.5 0.910
365VP 91.0 0.920
365VP 94.1 0.870
365U 91.7 0.830 91.7 0.830 91.7 0.820
365U 93.6 0.870
404T 87.5 0.840 87.5 0.860 88.5 0.870 94.1 0.850
404T 91.0 0.780 93.6 0.810 95.4 0.850
404T 93.6 0.860 93.6 0.860
404T 94.5 0.820
404T 95.0 0.830
404T
404T
404T
404TC 94.5 0.820 94.1 0.850
404TC 95.4 0.820
404TCZ 94.1 0.850
404TCZ 94.5 0.860
404TS 93.6 0.890
404TS 95.0 0.910
404TS
404TS
404U 92.5 0.870
405T 91.7 0.820 93.6 0.810 93.0 0.870 94.5 0.850
405T 93.6 0.880 93.6 0.850 94.5 0.870 95.4 0.860
405T 94.1 0.870 94.5 0.910
405T 94.5 0.870 95.4 0.900
405T 95.0 0.840
405T 95.0 0.840
405T
405T
405TC 95.0 0.840 94.5 0.910
405TC 95.4 0.900
405TCZ 94.5 0.850
405TS 93.6 0.910 93.6 0.900
405TS 94.5 0.910 95.4 0.910
405TS 95.0 0.890
405TS
405TS
405TS
405TS
405TS
405TS
405U 93.0 0.880 92.5 0.890
444T 94.1 0.810 94.5 0.860 95.0 0.850
444T 94.1 0.820 94.5 0.870 95.8 0.860
444T 94.1 0.830 95.4 0.880
444T 94.5 0.860
444T 95.0 0.800
444T 95.4 0.820
444T
444T
444T
444T
444T
444TC 95.4 0.820 95.4 0.880
444TC 95.4 0.900
444TS 94.5 0.870 95.4 0.900
444TS 94.5 0.890
444TS 95.4 0.900
444TS
444TS
444TS
444TS
444TS
444TS
444TS
444U 93.0 0.850 94.5 0.870
445T 87.5 0.860 94.1 0.820 94.5 0.830 94.5 0.830 95.0 0.850
445T 94.1 0.830 95.0 0.860 95.0 0.850 95.8 0.870
445T 95.0 0.820 95.0 0.880 95.0 0.880
445T 95.0 0.880 95.8 0.830 95.8 0.870

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 90
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


M ot o r s C o m p a n y L
H P 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 30 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 5 1 0 0 1 2 5 1 5 0 2 00 2 5 0
η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f η p f
F r a m e
445TC 95.8 0.850 96.2 0.870
445TS 94.5 0.890 95.0 0.880 94.5 0.910
445TS 95.0 0.880 95.0 0.900
445TS 95.4 0.900
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445U 93.0 0.880
445U 94.1 0.850 93.0 0.860
447T 95.0 0.820 95.0 0.830 95.0 0.880
447T 95.8 0.850 96.2 0.870
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447TS 95.8 0.890 95.0 0.880
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
449
449T 95.0 0.860 95.8 0.830
449T 95.8 0.810 95.8 0.900
449T 95.8 0.850
449T
449T
449TC 95.8 0.900
449TM
449TM
449TS 95.2 0.930
449TS 95.4 0.930
449TS
449TY 93.6 0.810 94.1 0.810
449TY 95.8 0.810 94.5 0.880
449TY 95.0 0.830
449TY 95.8 0.830
449TY 95.8 0.900
5004
5004G
5004G
5007L 95.0 0.890
5007S 95.0 0.910
5008G
5008S
5009L 94.5 0.860
5009L
5009L
5009L
5009S
5009S
5009S
5009S
5010S
5010S
5010SS
5010SS
5011L
5011L
5011L
5012MS
5012MS
5012S
5012SS
5012SS

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 91
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Company L Motors
300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 HP
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
95.0 0.850 445T
95.8 0.880 445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445TC
94.5 0.900 94.5 0.910 445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445U
445U
94.1 0.810 94.5 0.890 447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
94.1 0.920 95.8 0.890 95.8 0.890 447TS
95.8 0.880 447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
449
95.8 0.880 95.8 0.890 94.5 0.880 94.5 0.880 449T
95.8 0.890 449T
449T
449T
449T
95.8 0.880 95.8 0.890 449TC
449TM
449TM
95.0 0.910 95.4 0.930 93.6 0.910 94.1 0.920 449TS
95.4 0.930 95.8 0.930 449TS
449TS
95.8 0.880 95.8 0.890 95.8 0.890 449TY
95.4 0.800 449TY
95.0 0.830 449TY
449TY
449TY
5004
5004G
5004G
96.2 0.910 96.5 0.910 5007L
95.4 0.910 95.4 0.910 5007S
5008G
5008S
94.5 0.890 95.8 0.880 95.0 0.860 95.0 0.870 95.4 0.880 5009L
95.4 0.900 95.8 0.880 96.2 0.900 5009L
95.8 0.890 5009L
96.8 0.900 5009L
95.0 0.900 95.4 0.900 95.8 0.890 5009S
95.8 0.900 95.8 0.900 5009S
95.8 0.920 5009S
96.2 0.920 5009S

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 92
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants




Motors Company D
η η η η η η η η η η η η η
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200
Frame
213T 88.5
215T 89.5 89.5
254T 91.0 90.2
254T 90.2
256T 90.2 90.2 91.0
256T 89.5 91.0
284T 90.2 91.7
284T 92.4
284TS 91.0 91.0
286T 90.2 92.4
286T 91.0
286TS 91.7
324T 91.7 93.0
324TS 91.7 92.4
326T 91.7 93.0
326T 92.4
326TS 92.4 93.0
364T 93.0 93.6
364TS 93.0 93.0
365T 93.0 94.1
365TS 93.0 93.0
404T 93.6 94.1
404TS 93.6
405T 93.6 94.5 94.5
405TS 93.6 93.6
444T 94.1 94.5 95.0
444TS 94.5 94.5
445T 94.1 95.0 95.0
445TS 94.5
447T 94.5 95.0
447T 95.0
447TS 95.0
449T 95.0

















Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 93
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Motors Company M
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
213T 88.5 0.831
213T 88.5 0.835
213T 88.5 0.837
213T 90.2 0.854
213T 90.2 0.856
213TC 88.5 0.837
215T 89.5 0.739 89.5 0.864
215T 89.5 0.740 89.5 0.865
215T 89.5 0.746 90.2 0.855
215T 89.5 0.837 91.0 0.857
215T 89.5 0.839
215T 89.5 0.847
215T 89.5 0.848
215T 89.5 0.849
215T 89.5 0.851
215T 89.5 0.852
215T 89.5 0.861
215T 89.5 0.864
215T 89.5 0.880
215T 89.5 0.881
215T 89.5 0.894
215T 91.0 0.835
215T 91.0 0.850
215T 91.7 0.828
215T 91.7 0.835
215T 91.7 0.843
215T 91.7 0.850
215T 91.7 0.858
215T 91.7 0.860
215T 91.7 0.865
215T 91.7 0.875
B215TC 90.2 0.882
215TC 85.5 0.852 89.5 0.865
215TC 87.5 0.785
215TC 87.5 0.811
215TC 89.5 0.811
215TC 89.5 0.839
215TC 89.5 0.848
215TC 89.5 0.849
215TC 89.5 0.880
215TC 89.5 0.881
254T 90.2 0.831 90.2 0.878
254T 90.2 0.882 90.2 0.879
254T 90.2 0.890 91.0 0.879
254T 91.0 0.811 92.4 0.866
254T 91.0 0.813
254T 91.0 0.820
254T 91.0 0.825
254T 91.0 0.833
254T 91.0 0.834
254T 91.0 0.835
254T 91.0 0.839
254T 91.0 0.840
254T 91.0 0.880
254T 91.0 0.885
254T 91.7 0.875
254T 92.4 0.820
254T 93.0 0.816
254T 93.0 0.820
254T 93.0 0.821
254T 93.0 0.822
254T 93.0 0.825
254T 93.0 0.830
254T 93.0 0.835
254TC 87.5 0.837 90.2 0.879
254TC 88.5 0.839
254TC 90.2 0.882
254TC 91.0 0.813
254TC 91.0 0.835

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 94
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 95
256T 89.5 0.821 90.2 0.887 91.0 0.888
256T 89.5 0.851 90.2 0.888 91.7 0.863
256T 89.5 0.860 90.2 0.894 93.0 0.874
256T 90.2 0.853 91.0 0.819
256T 91.0 0.819 91.0 0.821
256T 91.0 0.821 91.0 0.826
256T 91.7 0.787 91.0 0.837
256T 91.7 0.801 91.0 0.838
256T 91.7 0.814 91.0 0.840
256T 91.7 0.817 91.0 0.842
256T 91.0 0.890
256T 91.0 0.895
256T 91.7 0.838
256T 91.7 0.887
256T 92.4 0.885
256T 93.0 0.840
256T 93.0 0.845
256T 93.0 0.849
256T 93.6 0.827
256T 93.6 0.830
256T 93.6 0.845
256T 93.6 0.850
256TC 89.5 0.839 80.0 0.738 91.0 0.888
256TC 90.2 0.880
256TC 90.2 0.888
256TC 91.0 0.826
256TC 91.0 0.840
256TC 91.0 0.893
284T 86.5 0.733 90.2 0.828 91.0 0.856
284T 89.5 0.716 90.2 0.829 91.0 0.895
284T 89.5 0.721 90.2 0.831 91.0 0.898
284T 89.5 0.730 91.7 0.810 91.7 0.837
284T 91.7 0.820 91.7 0.838
284T 92.4 0.805 92.4 0.848
284T 92.4 0.822 92.4 0.850
284T 92.4 0.855
284T 92.4 0.856
284T 92.4 0.857
284T 92.4 0.858
284T 93.6 0.855
284T 93.6 0.860
284T 94.1 0.852
284T 94.1 0.860
284T 94.1 0.861
284TC 90.2 0.843
284TC 91.0 0.898
284TC 91.0 0.900
284TC 91.7 0.837
284TC 92.4 0.840
284TC 92.4 0.857
284TS 91.0 0.871 91.0 0.833
284TS 91.0 0.875 91.0 0.886
284TS 91.0 0.876 93.0 0.882
284TS 91.0 0.895 93.6 0.895
284TS 91.0 0.897
284TS 91.0 0.898
284TS 91.7 0.837
284TS 91.7 0.838
284TS 91.7 0.860
284TS 91.7 0.870
284TS 92.4 0.848
284TS 92.4 0.850
284TS 92.4 0.855
284TS 92.4 0.858
284TS 94.1 0.852
284TSC 91.0 0.886
286T 88.5 0.724 90.2 0.833 89.5 0.87
286T 88.5 0.728 90.2 0.839 92.4 0.848
286T 88.5 0.732 90.2 0.841 92.4 0.85
286T 89.5 0.730 91.0 0.820 92.4 0.852
286T 89.5 0.733 91.0 0.822 92.4 0.854
286T 89.5 0.740 91.0 0.829 92.4 0.86
286T 91.7 0.830 92.4 0.857

Motors Company M
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 96
286TC 90.2 0.843
286TC 92.4 0.840
286TC 92.4 0.843
286TC 92.4 0.857
286TS 91.0 0.876 91.7 0.906
286TS 91.0 0.877 91.7 0.907
286TS 91.0 0.878 93.0 0.893
286TS 92.4 0.848 94.1 0.884
286TS 92.4 0.850
286TS 92.4 0.852
286TS 92.4 0.854
286TS 92.4 0.856
286TS 92.4 0.857
286TS 92.4 0.890
286TS 94.1 0.853
286TSC 91.7 0.906
324T 87.5 0.761 91.7 0.856 91.0 0.832
324T 89.5 0.766 91.7 0.857 93.0 0.875
324T 89.5 0.770 91.7 0.858 93.0 0.876
324T 89.5 0.771 93.0 0.842 93.0 0.877
324T 90.2 0.769 93.0 0.845 94.1 0.865
324T 90.2 0.770 93.0 0.850 94.5 0.857
324T 90.2 0.771 93.0 0.855 94.5 0.862
324T 93.6 0.851
324TC 93.0 0.875
324TS 91.7 0.886 92.4 0.875
324TS 92.4 0.890 92.4 0.878
324TS 93.0 0.875 93.6 0.848
324TS 93.0 0.876 93.6 0.851
324TS 93.0 0.877
324TS 93.6 0.870
324TS 93.6 0.875
324TSC 92.4 0.875
326T 89.5 0.764 91.7 0.861 93.0 0.875
326T 89.5 0.773 91.7 0.862 93.0 0.876
326T 89.5 0.785 92.4 0.859 93.0 0.882
326T 90.2 0.749 92.4 0.860 93.6 0.882
326T 90.2 0.768 93.6 0.825 94.1 0.885
326T 90.2 0.769 93.6 0.854 94.5 0.862
326T 90.2 0.770 93.6 0.857 94.5 0.872
326T 93.6 0.860 94.5 0.880
326T 94.5 0.883
326T 94.5 0.885
326TC 93.0 0.875
326TS 92.4 0.900 93.0 0.887
326TS 92.4 0.902 93.0 0.888
326TS 92.4 0.906 94.1 0.878
326TS 92.4 0.920 94.1 0.884
326TS 93.0 0.875
326TS 93.0 0.876
326TS 93.0 0.882
326TS 93.0 0.899
326TS 93.0 0.900
326TSC 93.0 0.887
364T 91.0 0.780 93.0 0.862 93.6 0.856
364T 91.0 0.806 93.0 0.864 93.6 0.857
364T 91.0 0.814 93.0 0.879 93.6 0.858
364T 91.0 0.818 93.0 0.880 93.6 0.862
364T 94.1 0.866 93.6 0.864
364T 94.5 0.860 95.0 0.840
364T 94.5 0.862 95.0 0.855
364T 95.0 0.858
364T 95.0 0.859
364T 95.0 0.865

Motors Company M
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
364TS 93.0 0.881 93.0 0.875
364TS 93.0 0.882 93.0 0.878
364TS 93.0 0.883 93.6 0.870
364TS 93.0 0.887 94.1 0.875
364TS 93.6 0.857
364TS 93.6 0.858
364TS 93.6 0.862
364TS 93.6 0.864
364TS 93.6 0.885
364TS 93.6 0.890
364TS 93.6 0.895
364TS 95.0 0.840
364TS 95.0 0.870
365T 91.0 0.777 93.0 0.881 94.1 0.850
365T 91.0 0.784 93.0 0.884 94.1 0.854
365T 91.0 0.808 93.6 0.864 94.1 0.863
365T 91.0 0.810 93.6 0.866 94.1 0.864
365T 91.0 0.819 94.5 0.860 94.1 0.872
365T 94.5 0.862 94.1 0.875
365T 95.0 0.857
365T 95.0 0.860
365T 95.4 0.875
365TS 93.0 0.889 93.0 0.890
365TS 93.0 0.891 93.0 0.892
365TS 93.0 0.904 93.6 0.889
365TS 93.6 0.900 94.5 0.885
365TS 94.1 0.850
365TS 94.1 0.854
365TS 94.1 0.863
365TS 94.1 0.864
365TS 94.1 0.872
365TS 94.1 0.895
365TS 94.1 0.900
365TS 95.4 0.875
404T 91.0 0.769 93.6 0.852 94.1 0.875
404T 91.0 0.770 93.6 0.853 94.1 0.878
404T 91.7 0.801 93.6 0.860 95.4 0.874
404T 91.7 0.807 93.6 0.867
404T 91.7 0.809 94.5 0.850
404T 94.5 0.855
404T 95.0 0.857
404T
404TS 94.1 0.876 93.6 0.908
404TS 94.1 0.878 93.6 0.910
404TS 95.4 0.874 94.1 0.918
404TS 95.0 0.906
405T 91.7 0.803 93.6 0.838 94.5 0.853 94.5 0.877
405T 91.7 0.804 93.6 0.846 94.5 0.855 94.5 0.878
405T 91.7 0.807 93.6 0.849 94.5 0.874 95.4 0.877
405T 92.4 0.769 93.6 0.859 95.4 0.855 95.4 0.878
405T 92.4 0.779 93.6 0.868 95.4 0.865
405T 95.0 0.850
405T 95.0 0.855
405T 95.0 0.869
405TS 93.6 0.899 94.5 0.877 93.0 0.915
405TS 93.6 0.905 94.5 0.878 93.6 0.910
405TS 94.1 0.910 94.5 0.908
405TS 94.1 0.911
405TS 94.5 0.853
405TS 94.5 0.855
405TS 94.5 0.874
405TS 95.4 0.855
405TS 95.4 0.865
444T 93.0 0.782 94.1 0.778 94.5 0.836 94.5 0.866
444T 93.0 0.797 94.1 0.795 94.5 0.849 95.0 0.880
444T 93.6 0.797 94.1 0.803 95.4 0.830 95.0 0.885
444T 93.6 0.804 94.1 0.817 95.4 0.832 96.2 0.864
444T 95.4 0.757 95.4 0.838
444T 95.4 0.791 95.4 0.839
444T 95.4 0.793 95.4 0.850
444T 95.4 0.795
444T 95.4 0.797
444T 95.4 0.811

Motors Company M
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame



Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 97
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
445T 93.0 0.763 93.6 0.804 94.5 0.787 94.5 0.851 95.4 0.884
445T 93.0 0.799 93.6 0.807 94.5 0.794 94.5 0.853 95.4 0.889
445T 93.6 0.814 94.1 0.809 95.0 0.851 95.0 0.852
445T 94.1 0.815 95.0 0.855 95.0 0.859
445T 94.1 0.824 95.8 0.772 95.8 0.836
445T 94.1 0.831 95.8 0.850 96.2 0.843
445T 95.4 0.810 95.8 0.854
445T 95.4 0.815 95.8 0.855
445T 95.8 0.795 95.8 0.856
445T 95.8 0.798
445T 95.8 0.800
445T 95.8 0.818
445TS 94.5 0.840 95.0 0.852 94.5 0.882
445TS 94.5 0.884 95.0 0.859 95.0 0.877
445TS 95.0 0.850 95.4 0.865
445TS 95.0 0.851 95.4 0.870
445TS 95.0 0.855 95.4 0.954
445TS 95.0 0.885
445TS 95.8 0.854
445TS 95.8 0.855
447T 93.6 0.804 93.6 0.818 95.0 0.861 95.4 0.858
447T 93.6 0.806 95.0 0.818 95.0 0.862 95.4 0.864
447T 95.0 0.820 95.4 0.785 96.2 0.851
447T 95.8 0.811 96.2 0.860
447T 96.0 0.825 96.2 0.860
447T 96.2 0.805 96.2 0.870
447T 96.2 0.810 96.2 0.871
447T 96.2 0.872
447TS 95.0 0.861
447TS 95.0 0.862
447TS 95.0 0.894
447TS 95.0 0.895
447TS 95.4 0.895
447TS 95.4 0.896
447TS 96.2 0.860
447TS 96.2 0.870
447TS 96.2 0.871
449
449T 93.0 0.789 93.6 0.785 93.6 0.862
449T 93.0 0.869 93.6 0.792 93.6 0.872
449T 93.6 0.835 94.1 0.878
449T 93.6 0.885 95.0 0.872
449T 95.0 0.862
449TM
449TM
449TS 92.4 0.974 93.0 0.821 93.6 0.899
449TS 93.0 0.891 93.6 0.900
5004 94.5 0.880
5004G 94.5 0.853 94.1 0.885 94.5 0.877
5004G 94.5 0.857
5008G 95.0 0.891
5008S
5010S
5010S
5010SS
5010SS
5012MS
5012MS
5012S
5012SS
5012SS
5807
5807ML 94.5 0.814 94.1 0.817
5807ML 94.1 0.867

Motors Company M
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame








Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 98
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 99
95.4 0.902 445TS
95.4 0.918 445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
95.4 0.895 95.4 0.896 447T
95.8 0.893 447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
95.4 0.895 95.4 0.896 95.4 0.916 447TS
95.4 0.911 95.4 0.917 447TS
95.4 0.924 447TS
95.8 0.893 447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
95.4 0.899 449
95.0 0.887 95.0 0.892 449T
95.4 0.876 449T
449T
449T
449T
95.0 0.845 95.8 0.886 449TM
95.8 0.897 449TM
94.5 0.910 94.5 0.915 449TS
449TS
5004
5004G
5004G
95.4 0.891 5008G
95.0 0.873 94.5 0.875 94.1 0.874 5008S
95.0 0.880 95.0 0.884 94.5 0.885 95.0 0.895 94.5 0.895 5010S
95.4 0.880 95.4 0.893 95.0 0.896 5010S
94.5 0.873 94.5 0.876 94.1 0.876 94.5 0.883 93.6 0.876 5010SS
94.5 0.883 5010SS
95.0 0.899 95.0 0.902 94.5 0.901 5012MS
95.4 0.902 5012MS
95.4 0.893 95.0 0.896 94.5 0.895 5012S
95.4 0.887 95.0 0.890 95.0 0.889 5012SS
95.4 0.890 5012SS
95.8 0.802 95.8 0.896 5807
94.5 0.834 95.4 0.877 5807ML
95.4 0.868 5807ML
93.6 0.885 5807SS
95.8 0.880 5809
95.0 0.826 95.0 0.824 95.0 0.891 5809ML
95.0 0.888 95.4 0.833 5809ML
95.4 0.891 5809ML
93.6 0.895 94.1 0.897 94.5 0.900 5809SS
93.6 0.770 94.1 0.754 94.5 0.913 94.5 0.922 94.1 0.867 93.6 0.911 95.0 0.845 95.0 0.861 5811
95.4 0.830 5811ML
95.4 0.837 5811ML
95.4 0.895 5811ML
94.5 0.904 5811SS
94.1 0.750 93.6 0.819 93.6 0.821 94.1 0.912 94.5 0.916 5812
94.1 0.762 94.1 0.747 94.5 0.809 94.1 0.872 94.1 0.873 94.5 0.861 94.5 0.920 94.5 0.921 95.0 0.919 95.8 0.9095813

Frame
Company M Motors
300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 HP
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Motors Company O
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
210LP 91.0
213T 88.5
213T
213T
213T
213T
213TC
215T 89.5 90.2
215T 91.0
215T 91.7
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
215T
B215TC
L215T 90.2
L215TC 90.2
215TC 89.5
215TC 90.2
215TC 90.5
215TC
215TC
215TC
215TC
215TC
215TC
254LP 91.7
254T 90.2 90.2 90.4
254T 91.0
254T 91.7
254T 92.0
254T 92.4
254T 92.5
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254T
254TC 90.2



Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 100
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 101
256LP 91.7
256T 90.2 90.7 91.5
256T 90.5 91.2
256T 91.0 91.4
256T 92.0
256T 92.4
256T 92.6
256T 93.0
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256T
256TC 90.2 91.0 90.7
256TC 90.5 91.7 91.0
256TC 91.2
256TC 91.7
256TC 92.6
256TC
284LPH 93.1
284T 90.3 90.5 91.7
284T 91.5 91.9
284T 92.4 92.5
284T 93.6
284T
284T
284T
284T
284T
284T
284T
284T
284T
284T
284T
284T
284TC 90.5 92.5
284TC 90.7 93.6
284TC
284TC
284TC
284TC
284TS 91.0 91.1
284TS 93.2
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TS
284TSC 91.0
284TSC 92.5
286LPH 93.0
286T 90.7 91.0 92.4
286T 91.1 92.4
286T 92.4 93.6

Motors Company O
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 102
286TC 91.0 92.4
286TC 93.6
286TC
286TC
286TS 91.9 92.4
286TS 93.2
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TS
286TSC 91.9
286TSC 92.4
324T 91.6 91.7 93.0
324T 92.4 94.1
324T 93.0 94.2
324T 93.1
324T
324T
324T
324T
324TC 93.2
324TC 94.2
324TS 94.1 92.4
324TS
324TS
324TS
324TS
324TS
324TS
324TSC
326LP 94.3
326T 91.7 93.6
326T 93.0 94.5
326T 93.6
326T
326T
326T
326T
326T
326T
326T
326TC 93.1
326TS 94.1 93.3
326TS 94.3
326TS
326TS
326TS
326TS
326TS
326TS
326TS
326TSC
364T 93.6 93.6
364T 94.1 95.0
364T 94.2
364T
364T
364T
364T
364T
364T
364T
364TS 93.0 93.1
364TS 95.0
364TS
364TS
364TS
364TS

Motors Company O
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame

ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 103
365TS 95.0 93.3
365TS 95.1
365TS
365TS
365TS
365TS
365TS
365TS
365TS
365TS
365TS
365TS
404T 93.6 94.1
404T 94.0
404T 95.0
404T
404T
404T
404T
404T
404TS 93.8
404TS
404TS
404TS
405T 94.1 95.4 94.5
405T 95.0
405T
405T
405T
405T
405T
405T
405TS 95.0 93.7
405TS
405TS
405TS
405TS
405TS
405TS
405TS
405TS
444T 94.4 94.6
444T 95.0 95.8
444T 95.1
444T
444T
444T
444T
444T
444T
444T
444T
444TS 94.6 95.2 94.6
444TS 95.4 95.1
444TS 95.8
444TS
444TS
444TS
444TS
444TS
444TS
444TS
445T 94.3 94.9 94.9
445T 94.8 95.1 95.3
445T 95.4 96.2
445T 95.5
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T
445T

Motors Company O
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
447T 96.2 95.0 95.4
447T 96.2 95.5
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447TS 96.2 95.2
447TS 95.4
447TS 96.2
447TS 96.3
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
449
449T 96.2 95.5
449T 96.4
449T
449T
449T
449TM
449TM
449TS 96.4

Motors Company O
HP 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame

Company O Motors
300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 HP
η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf η pf
Frame
95.0 95.3 445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
445TS
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
447T
95.5 95.6 95.8 447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
447TS
449
96.5 449T
449T
449T
449T
449T
449TM
449TM
95.5 95.9 449TS
96.5 449TS



Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 104
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
Reactors
4 amp Company D Reactor without Enclosure
Powered straight off of variac with 25 micro-farad capacitors in series Constant Sum
Temp (°C)
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net Loss
(Watts)
Curve Fit
(Watts) 0.56849 1.285896
27 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0
27 0.25 0.1 -1.0 1.1 0.0 0.035531 0.001262
27 0.50 0.2 -4.3 4.6 0.1 0.142122 0.001774
27 0.75 0.4 -9.2 9.9 0.3 0.319775 0.000391
27 1.00 0.7 -16.0 18.0 1.3 0.56849 0.535108
27 1.25 1.0 -27.2 29.0 0.8 0.888265 0.007791
27 1.50 1.3 -40.5 43.0 1.2 1.279101 0.006257
27 1.75 2.0 -56.9 60.1 1.2 1.740999 0.29268
27 2.00 2.4 -76.9 81.1 1.8 2.273958 0.224636
27 2.25 3.7 -98.5 105 2.8 2.877978 0.006081
27 2.50 4.0 -123.0 131 4.0 3.553059 0.199756
27 2.75 5.5 -147.1 157 4.4 4.299202 0.01016
27 3.00 9.0 -174.8 186 2.2 5.116406 8.505422
27 3.25 11.0 -198.0 213 4.0 6.004671 4.018704
27 3.50 12.0 -224 241 5.0 6.963997 3.857283
27 3.75 13.0 -249 267 5.0 7.994384 8.966335
27 4.00 15.0 -274 295 6.0 9.095832 9.584178
30 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 Constant Sum
30 0.25 0.1 -0.9 1.0 0.0 0.024366 0.000594 0.389863 10.87211
30 0.50 0.2 -3.3 3.8 0.3 0.097466 0.04102
30 0.75 0.4 -8.3 9.0 0.3 0.219298 0.006513
30 1.00 0.7 -14.7 16.2 0.8 0.389863 0.168213
30 1.25 1.0 -24.0 26.0 1.0 0.60916 0.152756
30 1.50 1.3 -38.1 40.6 1.2 0.877191 0.104206
30 1.75 2.0 -53.6 57.0 1.4 1.193954 0.042455
30 2.00 2.4 -72.4 76.8 2.0 1.55945 0.194084
30 2.25 3.7 -94.3 101 3.0 1.973679 1.053335
30 2.50 4.0 -118.7 126 3.3 2.436641 0.745389
30 2.75 5.5 -142.0 152 4.5 2.948335 2.407663
30 3.00 9.0 -168.0 179 2.0 3.508763 2.276365
30 3.25 11.0 -194.7 208 2.3 4.117923 3.304844
30 3.50 12.0 -219 236 5.0 4.775816 0.050258
30 3.75 13.0 -242 261 6.0 5.482442 0.267866
30 4.00 15.0 -267 288 6.0 6.237801 0.056549
40 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 Constant Sum
40 0.25 0.1 -0.7 0.9 0.1 0.023923 0.005788 0.382763 12.12699
40 0.50 0.2 -3.5 4.0 0.3 0.095691 0.041742
40 0.75 0.4 -7.9 8.9 0.6 0.215304 0.147991
40 1.00 0.7 -14.6 16.0 0.7 0.382763 0.100639
40 1.25 1.0 -24.3 26.3 1.0 0.598067 0.16155
40 1.50 1.3 -36.9 39.7 1.5 0.861217 0.408044
40 1.75 2.0 -53.1 56.7 1.6 1.172212 0.183003
40 2.00 2.4 -71.5 76.0 2.1 1.531052 0.323702
40 2.25 3.7 -94.4 101 2.9 1.937738 0.925948
40 2.50 4.0 -115.8 123 3.2 2.392269 0.652429
40 2.75 5.5 -140.3 150 4.2 2.894645 1.703951
40 3.00 9.0 -166.1 177 1.9 3.444867 2.386615
40 3.25 11.0 -192.1 205 1.9 4.042935 4.592168
40 3.50 12.0 -215 232 5.0 4.688847 0.096816
40 3.75 13.0 -238 257 6.0 5.382605 0.381176
40 4.00 15.0 -260 281 6.0 6.124209 0.015428
50 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 Constant Sum
50 0.25 0.1 -0.9 1.0 0.0 0.024024 0.000577 0.384377 8.907513
50 0.50 0.2 -3.5 3.9 0.2 0.096094 0.010796
50 0.75 0.4 -7.7 8.5 0.4 0.216212 0.033778
50 1.00 0.7 -14.1 15.3 0.5 0.384377 0.013369
50 1.25 1.0 -23.6 25.5 0.9 0.600589 0.089647
50 1.50 1.3 -36.0 38.6 1.3 0.864849 0.189357
50 1.75 2.0 -52.5 56.0 1.5 1.177155 0.104229
50 2.00 2.4 -70.8 75.2 2.0 1.537509 0.213898
50 2.25 3.7 -91.8 98 2.5 1.945909 0.307016
50 2.50 4.0 -115.0 122 3.0 2.402357 0.357177
50 2.75 5.5 -139.2 149 4.3 2.906852 1.940861
50 3.00 9.0 -164.7 176 2.3 3.459394 1.344195
50 3.25 11.0 -189.9 203 2.1 4.059984 3.841536
50 3.50 12.0 -208 225 5.0 4.70862 0.084902
50 3.75 13.0 -232 251 6.0 5.405304 0.353664
50 4.00 15.0 -254 275 6.0 6.150034 0.02251


Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 105
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
4 amp Company D Reactor with Enclosure
Powered straight off of variac with 25 micro-farad capacitors in series Constant Sum
Temp (°C)
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net Loss
(Watts)
Curve Fit
(Watts) 0.404777 32.41289
27 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0
27 0.25 0.1 -1.1 1.2 0.0 0.035531 0.001262
27 0.50 0.2 -4.1 4.4 0.1 0.142122 0.001774
27 0.75 0.4 -9.1 9.7 0.2 0.319775 0.014346
27 1.00 0.7 -16.7 18.0 0.6 0.56849 0.000993
27 1.25 1.0 -27.5 29.3 0.8 0.888265 0.007791
27 1.50 1.3 -40.2 42.6 1.1 1.279101 0.032077
27 1.75 2.0 -56.4 59.7 1.3 1.740999 0.19448
27 2.00 2.4 -76.2 80.5 1.9 2.273958 0.139845
27 2.25 3.7 -97.7 104.0 2.6 2.877978 0.077272
27 2.50 4.0 -120.1 128.0 3.9 3.553059 0.120368
27 2.75 5.5 -147.4 157.0 4.1 4.299202 0.039681
27 3.00 9.0 -175.1 186.0 1.9 5.116406 10.34527
27 3.25 11.0 -199 214 4.0 6.004671 4.018704
27 3.50 12.0 -223 240 5.0 6.963997 3.857283
27 3.75 13.0 -249 268 6.0 7.994384 3.977567
27 4.00 15.0 -272 293 6.0 9.095832 9.584178
30 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 Constant Sum
30 0.25 0.1 -0.9 1.0 0.0 0.024366 0.000594 0.38563 10.98538
30 0.50 0.2 -3.6 4.0 0.2 0.097466 0.010513
30 0.75 0.4 -7.9 8.7 0.4 0.219298 0.032653
30 1.00 0.7 -14.7 15.9 0.5 0.389863 0.01213
30 1.25 1.0 -23.6 25.5 0.9 0.60916 0.084588
30 1.50 1.3 -37.8 40.3 1.2 0.877191 0.104206
30 1.75 2.0 -53.4 56.9 1.5 1.193954 0.093664
30 2.00 2.4 -73.1 77.5 2.0 1.55945 0.194084
30 2.25 3.7 -93.5 100 2.8 1.973679 0.682806
30 2.50 4.0 -117.1 125 3.9 2.436641 2.14142
30 2.75 5.5 -141.6 151 3.9 2.948335 0.905665
30 3.00 9.0 -168.0 179 2.0 3.508763 2.276365
30 3.25 11.0 -194.9 208 2.1 4.117923 4.072013
30 3.50 12.0 -215 232 5.0 4.775816 0.050258
30 3.75 13.0 -241 260 6.0 5.482442 0.267866
30 4.00 15.0 -260 281 6.0 6.237801 0.056549
40 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 Constant Sum
40 0.25 0.1 -0.8 1.0 0.1 0.023923 0.005788 0.388491 10.58009
40 0.50 0.2 -3.4 3.9 0.3 0.095691 0.041742
40 0.75 0.4 -7.8 8.7 0.5 0.215304 0.081052
40 1.00 0.7 -13.7 15.1 0.7 0.382763 0.100639
40 1.25 1.0 -23.9 26.0 1.1 0.598067 0.251936
40 1.50 1.3 -36.7 39.4 1.4 0.861217 0.290287
40 1.75 2.0 -53.3 56.9 1.6 1.172212 0.183003
40 2.00 2.4 -72.7 77.3 2.2 1.531052 0.447491
40 2.25 3.7 -92.8 99.0 2.5 1.937738 0.316139
40 2.50 4.0 -116.4 124.0 3.6 2.392269 1.458614
40 2.75 5.5 -139.5 149.0 4.0 2.894645 1.221809
40 3.00 9.0 -169.7 180.0 1.3 3.444867 4.600456
40 3.25 11.0 -194.0 208.0 3.0 4.042935 1.087712
40 3.50 12.0 -221.0 238.0 5.0 4.688847 0.096816
40 3.75 13.0 -244.0 263.0 6.0 5.382605 0.381176
40 4.00 15.0 -266.0 287.0 6.0 6.124209 0.015428
50 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 Constant Sum
50 0.25 0.1 -1.0 1.1 0.0 0.024024 0.000577 0.415748 11.50617
50 0.50 0.2 -3.6 4.0 0.2 0.096094 0.010796
50 0.75 0.4 -7.9 8.7 0.4 0.216212 0.033778
50 1.00 0.7 -14.4 15.9 0.8 0.384377 0.172742
50 1.25 1.0 -23.1 25.1 1.0 0.600589 0.159529
50 1.50 1.3 -37.7 40.5 1.5 0.864849 0.403417
50 1.75 2.0 -54.6 58.2 1.6 1.177155 0.178798
50 2.00 2.4 -73.9 78.2 1.9 1.537509 0.1314
50 2.25 3.7 -95.2 102.0 3.1 1.945909 1.331925
50 2.50 4.0 -118.0 126.0 4.0 2.402357 2.552462
50 2.75 5.5 -142.3 152.0 4.2 2.906852 1.672231
50 3.00 9.0 -168.9 180.0 2.1 3.459394 1.847953
50 3.25 11.0 -194.3 208.0 2.7 4.059984 1.849556
50 3.50 12.0 -214.0 231.0 5.0 4.70862 0.084902
50 3.75 13.0 -240.0 259.0 6.0 5.405304 0.353664
50 4.00 15.0 -261.0 283.0 7.0 6.150034 0.722441



Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 106
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants
4 amp Company D without Enclosure
Powered straight off of variac with 25 micro-farad capacitors in series
Phase 1
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 2
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 3
Curr.
(Amps)
Ave.
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net Wire
Loss
(Watts)
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.249 0.248 0.252 0.250 -1.5 1.6 0.1
0.496 0.496 0.504 0.499 -5.8 6.0 0.2
0.749 0.750 0.752 0.750 -12.7 13.1 0.4
0.997 0.995 1.005 0.999 -22.4 23.1 0.7
1.252 1.243 1.254 1.250 -34.6 35.6 1.0
1.503 1.491 1.511 1.502 -50.0 51.3 1.3
1.751 1.739 1.757 1.749 -66.7 68.7 2.0
2.00 1.98 2.02 2.00 -87.0 89.4 2.4
2.25 2.24 2.26 2.25 -110.3 114 3.7
2.50 2.48 2.51 2.50 -138.0 142 4.0
2.76 2.73 2.76 2.75 -167.5 173 5.5
3.00 2.99 3.01 3.00 -197.0 206 9.0
3.27 3.27 3.22 3.25 -232.0 243 11.0
3.51 3.47 3.52 3.50 -271.0 283 12.0
3.74 3.72 3.77 3.74 -312.0 325 13.0
4.01 3.98 4.03 4.01 -358.0 373 15.0


























Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 107
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

18 Amp Company O Reactor Baseline
75,60,and 75 turns of the 14 gauge wire wrapped around each of the CTs Constant Sum
Temp.
(°C)
Phase 1
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 2
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 3
Curr.
(Amps)
Ave.
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Curve Fit
(Watts) 0.735843 104.9905
25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
25 1.00 0.97 1.05 1.006667 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.745687 0.060362
25 2.03 1.96 2.00 1.996667 2.2 0.3 2.5 2.933568 0.187981
25 2.99 2.97 3.04 3 5.0 0.8 5.8 6.622585 0.676645
25 3.98 3.95 4.07 4 9.2 1.5 10.7 11.77348 1.152367
25 4.92 4.98 5.09 4.996667 14.3 2.4 16.7 18.37155 2.794075
25 6.00 5.99 6.02 6.003333 21.4 4 25.4 26.51978 1.253908
25 6.77 7.13 7.12 7.006667 28.2 6 34.2 36.12501 3.705646
25 7.78 8.30 7.92 8 38.0 7 45 47.09394 4.384565
25 8.72 9.26 9.02 9 47.7 9 56.7 59.60326 8.428929
25 9.90 10.04 10.05 9.996667 60.1 10 70.1 73.53523 11.80078
25 10.86 11.12 11.01 10.99667 73.4 13 86.4 88.98302 6.67198
25 11.85 12.15 11.98 11.99333 88.2 15 103.2 105.8437 6.988897
25 12.86 13.21 12.96 13.01 104.5 17 121.5 124.5488 9.295276
25 13.76 14.26 14.01 14.01 120.3 22 142.3 144.4313 4.542381
25 14.77 15.27 14.96 15 139.3 25 164.3 165.5646 1.599254
25 15.66 16.49 15.85 16 159.5 29 188.5 188.3757 0.01544
25 16.60 17.55 16.90 17.01667 181.5 36 217.5 213.0757 19.57414
25 17.61 18.50 17.88 17.99667 202 41 243 238.3248 21.85792 Constant Sum
30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.74409 74.22389
30 1.00 1.04 0.97 1.003333 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.749059 0.06203
30 1.98 2.01 2.02 2.003333 2.2 0.5 2.7 2.986289 0.081962
30 2.97 3.05 2.99 3.003333 5.5 0.9 6.4 6.7117 0.097157
30 3.86 4.10 4.04 4 9.3 1.9 11.2 11.90544 0.497646
30 5.00 4.86 5.15 5.003333 14.8 2.7 17.5 18.62706 1.270267
30 6.00 5.96 6.06 6.006667 21.8 4 25.8 26.8468 1.095791
30 6.99 7.06 6.96 7.003333 30.1 5 35.1 36.49514 1.946422
30 7.88 8.26 7.86 8 39.3 6 45.3 47.62176 5.390569
30 8.82 9.18 9.02 9.006667 48.9 9 57.9 60.36061 6.05462
30 9.95 9.98 10.04 9.99 60.4 11 71.4 74.26026 8.181066
30 10.95 10.99 11.04 10.99333 74.1 13 87.1 89.92579 7.985087
30 11.96 11.98 11.97 11.97 89.1 15 104.1 106.6139 6.319616
30 12.86 13.17 13.00 13.01 104.9 19 123.9 125.9447 4.180992
30 13.86 14.18 13.97 14.00333 122.0 22 144 145.9111 3.652289
30 14.78 15.22 15.00 15 139.3 27 166.3 167.4202 1.254959
30 15.70 16.40 15.93 16.01 160.9 31 191.9 190.7252 1.380102
30 16.65 17.41 16.95 17.00333 181.2 37 218.2 215.1263 9.447337
30 17.55 18.55 17.90 18 202 43 245 241.0852 15.32598 Constant Sum
40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.745912 138.0864
40 0.98 1.06 0.96 1 0.6 0.1 0.7 0.745912 0.002108
40 1.92 2.01 2.08 2.003333 2.2 0.6 2.8 2.993602 0.037482
40 2.86 3.10 3.04 3 5.1 1.1 6.2 6.71321 0.263384
40 3.89 4.04 4.08 4.003333 9.2 1.7 10.9 11.95449 1.111958
40 4.95 4.92 5.13 5 14.5 2.6 17.1 18.6478 2.395698
40 5.86 6.02 6.13 6.003333 21.2 4 25.2 26.88268 2.831422
40 6.65 7.22 7.12 6.996667 28.0 6 34 36.5149 6.324699
40 7.76 8.28 7.96 8 38.3 7 45.3 47.73838 5.945692
40 8.76 9.16 9.06 8.993333 48.2 9 57.2 60.32941 9.793204
40 9.85 10.09 10.07 10.00333 60.1 11 71.1 74.64095 12.53835
40 10.83 11.15 11.01 10.99667 73.7 13 86.7 90.20068 12.25477
40 11.81 12.12 12.06 11.99667 87.5 16 103.5 107.3517 14.8355
40 12.79 13.24 12.97 13 104.2 19 123.2 126.0592 8.174779
40 13.75 14.35 13.89 13.99667 121.5 22 143.5 146.1292 6.912564
40 14.79 15.30 14.89 14.99333 140.5 25 165.5 167.6811 4.757151
40 15.65 16.40 15.98 16.01 160.4 33 193.4 191.1923 4.874017
40 16.60 17.46 16.80 16.95333 182.9 36 218.9 214.3867 20.36962
40 17.58 18.56 17.90 18.01333 203 44 247 242.0337 24.664 Constant Sum
50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.748695 78.31428
50 0.98 1.00 1.02 1 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.748695 0.002632
50 1.96 1.97 2.06 1.996667 2.3 0.5 2.8 2.984806 0.034153
50 2.90 3.04 3.05 2.996667 5.2 1.1 6.3 6.723291 0.179175
50 3.93 4.13 3.94 4 9.8 1.4 11.2 11.97912 0.607032
50 4.97 4.92 5.11 5 14.7 2.6 17.3 18.71738 2.008964
50 5.82 6.18 6.01 6.003333 21.5 4 25.5 26.98298 2.199237
50 6.74 7.19 7.05 6.993333 28.5 6 34.5 36.61622 4.478381
50 7.74 8.26 8.00 8 38.3 7 45.3 47.91649 6.846025
50 8.75 9.27 8.99 9.003333 48.7 9 57.7 60.68924 8.935549
50 9.76 10.19 10.04 9.996667 60.4 12 72.4 74.81961 5.854525

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 108
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants


18 Amp Company O Reactor without Enclosure
75,60,and 75 turns of the 14 gauge wire wrapped around each of the CT's Constant Sum
Temp.
(°C)
Phase 1
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 2
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 3
Curr.
(Amps)
Ave.
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net
Reactor
Loss
(Watts)
Curve Fit
(Watts) 0.106352 52.97326
25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
25 1.04 0.98 0.98 1 0.5 1.1 -0.4 0.2 0.106352 0.00877
25 2.07 1.99 1.94 2 2.5 5.1 -2.0 0.6 0.42541 0.030482
25 3.12 2.96 2.90 2.993333 5.8 11.8 -4.6 1.4 0.952923 0.199878
25 4.09 4.00 3.91 4 10.7 21.1 -8.1 2.3 1.701639 0.358036
25 5.16 5.00 4.85 5.003333 16.7 33.4 -12.9 3.8 2.662357 1.294231
25 6.20 5.92 5.87 5.996667 25.4 47.7 -18 4.3 3.824435 0.226162
25 7.13 7.00 6.87 7 34.2 64.6 -24 6.4 5.21127 1.413079
25 8.11 8.08 7.78 7.99 45 85.1 -32 8.1 6.789551 1.717277
25 9.17 9.02 8.82 9.003333 56.7 108.0 -40 11.3 8.62093 7.177414
25 10.16 10.11 9.71 9.993333 70.1 133.3 -50 13.2 10.62107 6.650885
25 11.17 11.07 10.77 11.00333 86.4 161.6 -60 15.2 12.87645 5.398902
25 12.16 12.08 11.78 12.00667 103.2 192.6 -71 18.4 15.33177 9.414015
25 13.16 13.09 12.77 13.00667 121.5 222 -83 17.5 17.992 0.242066
25 14.16 14.12 13.72 14 142.3 259 -96 20.7 20.84508 0.021048
25 15.15 15.17 14.69 15.00333 164.3 298 -110 23.7 23.93994 0.05757
25 16.19 16.07 15.74 16 188.5 338 -123 26.5 27.22623 0.527404
25 17.14 17.14 16.72 17 217.5 383 -139 26.5 30.73586 17.94248
25 18.15 18.12 17.73 18 243 431 -153 35 34.45819 0.293556 Constant Sum
30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0.11097 36.1121
30 1.04 0.94 1.01 0.996667 0.5 1.3 -0.3 0.5 0.110231 0.15192
30 2.04 1.96 2.01 2.003333 2.7 5.3 -1.9 0.7 0.445361 0.064841
30 3.08 2.94 2.97 2.996667 6.4 11.9 -4.4 1.1 0.996512 0.01071
30 4.08 3.99 3.93 4 11.2 21.2 -8.0 2 1.77552 0.050391
30 5.15 4.98 4.85 4.993333 17.5 33.4 -12.8 3.1 2.766856 0.110985
30 6.15 5.95 5.90 6 25.8 47.8 -17 5 3.994919 1.010187
30 7.13 7.02 6.85 7 35.1 65.3 -24 6.2 5.437529 0.581362
30 8.16 8.05 7.80 8.003333 45.3 85.7 -32 8.4 7.107998 1.669268
30 9.16 9.03 8.79 8.993333 57.9 107.9 -40 10 8.975257 1.050099
30 10.14 10.10 9.76 10 71.4 133.4 -49 13 11.097 3.621417
30 11.15 11.14 10.73 11.00667 87.1 161.7 -60 14.6 13.44365 1.33715
30 12.12 12.21 11.68 12.00333 104.1 193.1 -70 19 15.98856 9.068796
30 13.16 13.15 12.69 13 123.9 223 -82 17.1 18.75393 2.735473
30 14.09 14.19 13.74 14.00667 144 259 -94 21 21.77084 0.594187
30 15.15 15.08 14.77 15 166.3 298 -108 23.7 24.96825 1.608446
30 16.15 16.14 15.70 15.99667 191.9 340 -123 25.1 28.39648 10.86677
30 17.14 17.17 16.70 17.00333 218.2 387 -136 32.8 32.0829 0.51423
30 18.15 18.15 17.71 18.00333 245 434 -152 37 35.96759 1.065869 Constant Sum
40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0.119997 40.28096
40 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.003333 0.7 1.3 -0.3 0.3 0.120798 0.032113
40 2.04 2.01 1.94 1.996667 2.8 5.3 -1.9 0.6 0.478388 0.01479
40 3.08 2.97 2.95 3 6.2 12.0 -4.4 1.4 1.079969 0.10242
40 4.07 4.02 3.92 4.003333 10.9 21.3 -7.8 2.6 1.923146 0.458131
40 5.13 5.03 4.82 4.993333 17.1 33.6 -12.6 3.9 2.99192 0.82461
40 6.15 5.95 5.90 6 25.2 48.2 -17 6 4.319876 2.822815
40 7.12 7.02 6.87 7.003333 34 65.6 -23 8.6 5.885433 7.368874
40 8.13 8.05 7.80 7.993333 45.3 85.4 -31 9.1 7.666986 2.053529
40 9.16 9.01 8.81 8.993333 57.2 108.0 -39 11.8 9.705328 4.387652
40 10.13 10.10 9.76 9.996667 71.1 133.6 -49 13.5 11.99166 2.275094
40 11.19 11.09 10.74 11.00667 86.7 162.6 -59 16.9 14.53719 5.582873
40 12.17 12.07 11.75 11.99667 103.5 193.2 -70 19.7 17.26991 5.90535
40 13.17 13.18 12.66 13.00333 123.2 225 -82 19.8 20.28982 0.239925
40 14.13 14.16 13.72 14.00333 143.5 260 -93 23.5 23.53053 0.000932
40 15.12 15.19 14.68 14.99667 165.5 300 -107 27.5 26.98723 0.262933
40 16.17 16.17 15.67 16.00333 193.4 343 -121 28.6 30.73192 4.545094
40 17.16 17.16 16.70 17.00667 218.9 388 -136 33.1 34.70621 2.57992
40 18.17 18.15 17.70 18.00667 247 436 -151 38 38.90769 0.823906 Constant Sum
50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0.116803 28.31313
50 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.003333 0.8 1.3 -0.3 0.2 0.117583 0.006793
50 2.04 2.01 1.94 1.996667 2.8 5.3 -1.9 0.6 0.465656 0.018048
50 3.08 2.97 2.95 3 6.3 12.0 -4.4 1.3 1.051228 0.061887
50 4.07 4.02 3.92 4.003333 11.2 21.3 -7.8 2.3 1.871966 0.183213
50 5.13 5.03 4.82 4.993333 17.3 33.6 -12.6 3.7 2.912296 0.620477
50 6.15 5.95 5.90 6 25.5 48.2 -17 5.7 4.204912 2.235287
50 7.12 7.02 6.87 7.003333 34.5 65.6 -23 8.1 5.728805 5.622565
50 8.13 8.05 7.80 7.993333 45.3 85.4 -31 9.1 7.462946 2.679946
50 9.16 9.01 8.81 8.993333 57.7 108.0 -39 11.3 9.447042 3.433454
50 10.13 10.10 9.76 9.996667 72.4 133.6 -49 12.2 11.67253 0.278228





Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 109
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants




18 Amp Company O Reactor with Enclosure
75,60,and 75 turns of the 14 gauge wire wrapped around each of the CT's Constant Sum
Temp.
(°C)
Phase 1
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 2
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 3
Curr.
(Amps)
Ave.
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net
Reactor
Loss
(Watts)
Curve Fit
(Watts) 0.113053 25.01595 0.114538 140.9184
25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0
25 1.04 1.00 0.97 1.003333 0.5 1.2 -0.4 0.3 0.113808 0.034668 0.115303 0.034113
25 2.03 2.00 1.96 1.996667 2.5 5.2 -1.9 0.8 0.450705 0.122007 0.456626 0.117906
25 3.06 2.98 2.98 3.006667 5.8 11.9 -4.5 1.6 1.022003 0.334081 1.035429 0.318741
25 4.03 4.02 3.94 3.996667 10.7 21.0 -7.9 2.4 1.805832 0.353036 1.829555 0.325407
25 5.08 5.03 4.87 4.993333 16.7 33.1 -12.7 3.7 2.818789 0.776533 2.85582 0.71264
25 6.12 6.02 5.86 6 25.4 48.0 -17 5.6 4.069902 2.3412 4.123369 2.18044
25 7.13 7.00 6.85 6.993333 34.2 64.9 -24 6.7 5.529042 1.371142 5.601678 1.206312
25 8.11 8.13 7.84 8.026667 45 85.5 -32 8.5 7.283698 1.479392 7.379384 1.25578
25 9.15 9.02 8.83 9 56.7 107.7 -40 11 9.157279 3.395619 9.27758 2.966732
25 10.13 10.12 9.76 10.00333 70.1 133.0 -50 12.9 11.31282 2.519136 11.46144 2.069458
25 11.13 11.10 10.78 11.00333 86.4 161.3 -60 14.9 13.68768 1.469709 13.8675 1.066054
25 12.14 12.08 11.76 11.99333 103.2 191.5 -71 17.3 16.26152 1.078431 16.47515 0.680371
25 13.12 13.13 12.74 12.99667 121.5 222 -82 18.5 19.09613 0.355373 19.347 0.717409
25 14.09 14.14 13.77 14 142.3 258 -95 20.7 22.15836 2.1268 22.44945 3.060582
25 15.11 15.16 14.74 15.00333 164.3 298 -109 24.7 25.44819 0.559794 25.78251 1.171827
25 16.14 16.09 15.75 15.99333 188.5 339 -122 28.5 28.91741 0.174233 29.2973 0.635692
25 17.13 17.11 16.74 16.99333 217.5 385 -137 30.5 32.64665 4.608099 33.07553 6.633358
25 18.16 18.10 17.73 17.99667 243 434 -153 38 36.61555 1.916694 Constant Sum 37.09657 0.816177
30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0.111359 16.59359 0 0
30 1.03 0.95 1.02 1 0.5 1.3 -0.3 0.5 0.111359 0.151042 0.114538 0.148581
30 2.06 2.00 1.92 1.993333 2.7 5.4 -2.0 0.7 0.44247 0.066322 0.455103 0.059975
30 3.05 3.02 2.95 3.006667 6.4 12.1 -4.5 1.2 1.006687 0.03737 1.035429 0.027084
30 4.01 4.06 3.92 3.996667 11.2 21.1 -7.9 2 1.77877 0.048943 1.829555 0.029051
30 5.13 4.99 4.86 4.993333 17.5 33.5 -12.8 3.2 2.776547 0.179312 2.85582 0.11846
30 6.14 5.99 5.87 6 25.8 48.1 -17 5.3 4.008911 1.666911 4.123369 1.384461
30 7.09 7.05 6.87 7.003333 35.1 65.5 -24 6.4 5.461771 0.880273 5.617709 0.611979
30 8.12 8.06 7.81 7.996667 45.3 85.4 -32 8.1 7.121015 0.958412 7.324326 0.60167
30 9.14 9.01 8.85 9 57.9 108.0 -40 10.1 9.02005 1.166292 9.27758 0.676375
30 10.12 10.12 9.76 10 71.4 133.8 -50 12.4 11.13586 1.59804 11.4538 0.895291
30 11.15 11.12 10.74 11.00333 87.1 162.2 -60 15.1 13.48256 2.616103 13.8675 1.519054
30 12.11 12.19 11.71 12.00333 104.1 193.1 -71 18 16.04455 3.823769 16.50264 2.24209
30 13.13 13.14 12.73 13 123.9 224 -82 18.1 18.81961 0.517839 19.35693 1.579861
30 14.09 14.19 13.71 13.99667 144 260 -95 21 21.8159 0.665695 22.43876 2.070038
30 15.10 15.14 14.76 15 166.3 298 -107 24.7 25.05569 0.126518 25.77105 1.147157
30 16.13 16.14 15.71 15.99333 191.9 341 -122 27.1 28.48406 1.915622 29.2973 4.828142
30 17.14 17.13 16.75 17.00667 218.2 387 -137 31.8 32.20789 0.166377 33.12745 1.762136
30 18.13 18.10 17.78 18.00333 245 434 -153 36 36.09356 0.008754 Constant Sum 37.12406 1.26352
40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0.114088 43.21468 0 0
40 1.03 1.00 0.98 1.003333 0.7 1.3 -0.4 0.2 0.11485 0.007251 0.115303 0.007174
40 2.04 2.03 1.93 2 2.8 5.4 -2.0 0.6 0.456351 0.020635 0.458152 0.020121
40 3.08 2.94 2.96 2.993333 6.2 12.0 -4.4 1.4 1.022231 0.14271 1.026266 0.139677
40 4.05 4.02 3.93 4 10.9 21.3 -7.8 2.6 1.825403 0.600001 1.832608 0.58889
40 5.18 4.98 4.86 5.006667 17.1 33.9 -12.7 4.1 2.859803 1.538089 2.871091 1.510216
40 6.15 5.99 5.88 6.006667 25.2 48.4 -17 6.2 4.116288 4.341855 4.132537 4.274404
40 7.12 7.00 6.87 6.996667 34 65.2 -24 7.2 5.584973 2.608312 5.607019 2.537588
40 8.13 8.06 7.81 8 45.3 85.9 -31 9.6 7.301611 5.282592 7.330433 5.150933
40 9.14 9.00 8.85 8.996667 57.2 107.8 -39 11.6 9.234257 5.596738 9.270709 5.425599
40 10.15 10.05 9.78 9.993333 71.1 133.6 -49 13.5 11.39356 4.437088 11.43854 4.249637
40 11.15 11.05 10.80 11 86.7 161.4 -59 15.7 13.80461 3.59251 13.8591 3.388912
40 12.18 12.06 11.76 12 103.5 192.7 -70 19.2 16.42862 7.680522 16.49347 7.325279
40 13.14 13.12 12.74 13 123.2 224 -82 18.8 19.28082 0.231184 19.35693 0.310166
40 14.13 14.14 13.75 14.00667 143.5 260 -94 22.5 22.38248 0.01381 22.47084 0.00085
40 15.11 15.17 14.72 15 165.5 298 -107 25.5 25.66973 0.028807 25.77105 0.07347
40 16.14 16.17 15.70 16.00333 193.4 342 -121 27.6 29.21861 2.619912 29.33395 3.006588
40 17.11 17.10 16.77 16.99333 218.9 383 -133 31.1 32.94548 3.405804 33.07553 3.902722
40 18.14 18.14 17.77 18.01667 247 434 -151 36 37.03289 1.066861 Constant Sum 37.17907 1.390213
50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0.119653 39.37152 0 0
50 1.04 0.95 1.00 0.996667 0.8 1.1 -0.3 0 0.118856 0.014127 0.113776 0.012945
50 2.05 1.96 1.98 1.996667 2.8 5.2 -1.8 0.6 0.477016 0.015125 0.456626 0.020556
50 3.08 2.96 2.96 3 6.3 12.1 -4.4 1.4 1.076873 0.104411 1.030842 0.136278
50 4.08 3.99 3.94 4.003333 11.2 21.5 -7.9 2.4 1.917632 0.232679 1.835664 0.318475
50 5.14 5.00 4.87 5.003333 17.3 33.8 -12.5 4 2.995303 1.009417 2.86727 1.283078
50 6.11 6.06 5.83 6 25.5 48.4 -17 5.9 4.307491 2.536086 4.123369 3.156419
50 7.14 7.02 6.83 6.996667 34.5 66.0 -24 7.5 5.857391 2.698165 5.607019 3.583377
50 8.13 8.04 7.84 8.003333 45.3 85.9 -31 9.6 7.664144 3.74754 7.336543 5.123237
50 9.17 8.98 8.84 8.996667 57.7 108.2 -39 11.5 9.684676 3.295402 9.270709 4.96974
50 10.21 10.04 9.75 10 72.4 135.0 -49 13.6 11.96525 2.672403 11.4538 4.606166






Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 110
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants







200 Amp Company D Reactor with 11 turns on CT
Phase 1
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 2
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 3
Curr.
(Amps)
Ave.
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net
Reactor
Loss
(Watts)
Curve Fit
(Watts) Constant Sum
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0.00449496 1204.66886
19.8 19.2 21.1 20.0 6.3 14.4 -7 1.1 1.803982 0.495591
39.6 38.7 42.0 40.1 20.7 59.4 -31 7.7 7.22794 0.22284
59.5 57.7 62.5 59.9 47.2 131.7 -71 13.5 16.12796 6.906179
79.0 77.2 83.3 79.8 82.4 232 -128 21.6 28.648 49.67434
99.0 97.0 104.2 100.1 126.4 366 -202 37.6 45.00955 54.90145
118.8 116.3 124.2 119.8 181.0 527 -292 54.0 64.47595 109.7455
138.4 135.5 146.1 140.0 248.0 718 -398 72.0 88.10121 259.2491
158.2 154.1 167.3 159.9 319.0 946 -525 102.0 114.8793 165.8755
178.0 172.2 190.0 180.1 399.0 1233 -689 145.0 145.7446 0.554428
198 190 213 200.3 499.0 1612 -909 204.0 180.3982 557.0439
1-Phase 3-Phase 1-Ph to 3-Ph
Curve Fit Curve Fit Curve Fit
0 0 -0.10022899
0.511428 1.803982 1.701119605
2.045711 7.22794 7.105165384
4.60285 16.12796 16.11190835
8.182845 28.648 28.7213485
12.78569 45.00955 44.93348583
18.4114 64.47595 64.74832035
25.05996 88.10121 88.16585206
32.73138 114.8793 115.186081
41.42565 145.7446 145.809007
51.14278 180.3982 180.0346303
200 Amp Company O Reactor
Phase 1
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 2
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 3
Curr.
(Amps)
Ave.
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net Wire
Loss
(Watts)
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0
17.6 21.3 21.1 20.0 6.3 0 6.3
35.2 40.0 44.2 39.8 24.7 -4 20.7
66.3 60.2 54.0 60.2 57.2 -10 47.2
71.6 80.0 88.4 80.0 101.4 -19 82.4
90.1 99.5 110.1 99.9 156.4 -30 126.4
108.5 119.8 132.1 120.1 225 -44 181.0
126.9 140.1 154.5 140.5 308 -60 248.0
144.3 160.0 175.3 159.9 398 -79 319.0
160.0 180.0 199.0 179.7 497 -98 399.0
179 201 221 200.3 622 -123 499.0








Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 111
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants







200 Amp Company Q Reactor with 15 turns on CT's
Phase 1
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 2
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 3
Curr.
(Amps)
Ave.
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net
Reactor
Loss
(Watts)
Curve Fit
(Watts) Constant Sum
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0 0.009000027 263.867236
20.6 19.5 20.1 20.1 6.7 21.3 -11 3.6 3.6240508 0.000578
41.1 38.5 40.5 40.0 25.6 85.7 -46 14.1 14.424053 0.10501
61.5 57.5 61.0 60.0 57.2 192.7 -103 32.5 32.400096 0.009981
81.8 76.9 81.1 79.9 101.7 338.0 -183 53.3 57.504211 17.67539
102.9 96.0 101.4 100.1 158.4 531 -287 85.6 90.180358 20.97968
123.2 114.9 121.7 119.9 227.0 761 -411 123.0 129.45642 41.68542
143.5 133.8 142.2 139.8 310.0 1037 -560 167.0 175.98077 80.65428
164.5 152.8 162.5 159.9 404.0 1365 -735 226.0 230.20872 17.71336
185.8 171.5 183.0 180.1 513.0 1752 -940 299.0 291.92496 50.05623
199 184 195 192.7 584.0 1991 -1067 340.0 334.08499 34.98731
Extrapolating to get 200 amps: 200 360.0011
(From Curve Fit)
1-Phase 3-Phase 1-Ph to 3-Ph
Curve Fit Curve Fit Curve Fit
0 0 -0.03247657
1.1405676 3.624051 3.567684363
4.5622706 14.42405 14.36816717
10.265109 32.4001 32.36897185
18.249082 57.50421 57.5700984
28.514191 90.18036 89.97154682
41.060435 129.4564 129.5733171
55.887814 175.9808 176.3754093
72.996329 230.2087 230.3778233
92.385979 291.925 291.5805592
114.05676 360.0011 359.983617
200 Amp Company Q Reactor
Phase 1
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 2
Curr.
(Amps)
Phase 3
Curr.
(Amps)
Ave.
Phase
Curr.
(Amps)
Extech
Loss
(Watts)
Valhalla
Loss
(Watts)
Net Wire
Loss
(Watts)
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0
21.0 20 18.6 19.9 5.7 1 6.7
42.0 39.2 39.5 40.2 23.6 2 25.6
63.2 57.7 58.9 59.9 54.2 3 57.2
84.1 77.0 78.8 80.0 96.7 5 101.7
104.6 96.1 99.4 100.0 151.4 7 158.4
125.3 116.7 118.0 120.0 219.0 8 227.0
146.8 134.5 138.7 140.0 295 15 310.0
167.2 154.0 158.4 159.9 386 18 404.0
187.8 176.6 175.7 180.0 496 17 513.0
202 187 191 193.3 557 27 584.0







Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 112
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants



750 Amp Company Q Reactor
Single Phase watt loss testing for outer leg.
CT on wattmeter has 10 to 5 ratio.
Current
(Amps)
Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Total
Loss
(Watts)
Net 1-
Phase
Loss
(Watts)
1-Phase
Curve Fit Constant Sum
1-Phase
Curve Fit
1-Ph to 3-Ph
Prediction
0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0.000889 938.83584 0 -0.03247657
50.0 8 10 2 2.222621 0.04956 2.222621 6.983147149
100.0 26 34 8 8.890484 0.792962 8.890484 28.03001831
150.0 56 74 18 20.00359 4.01437 20.00359 63.10813692
200.0 96 130 34 35.56194 2.439645 Constant 35.56194 112.217503
250.0 150 202 52 55.56553 12.71297 3.1564642 55.56553 175.3581165
300.0 216 290 74 80.01436 36.17249 Intercept 80.01436 252.5299774
350.0 296 396 100 108.9084 79.36013 -0.032477 108.9084 343.7330858
400.0 388 522 134 142.2477 68.02531 142.2477 448.9674416
450.0 494 660 166 180.0323 196.9055 180.0323 568.2330449
500.0 610 822 212 222.2621 105.3107 222.2621 701.5298956
550.0 742 1008 266 268.9371 8.626814 268.9371 848.8579937
600.0 880 1190 310 320.0574 101.1518 320.0574 1010.217339
650.0 1042 1418 376 375.623 0.142164 375.623 1185.607932
700.0 1214 1658 444 435.6337 69.99463 435.6337 1375.029773
750.0 1416 1932 516 500.0897 253.1367 500.0897 1578.482861





750 Amp Company D Reactor
Single Phase watt loss testing for outer leg.
CT on wattmeter has 10 to 5 ratio.
Current
(Amps)
Wire
Loss
(Watts)
Total
Loss
(Watts)
Net 1-
Phase
Loss
(Watts)
1-Phase
Curve Fit Constant Sum
1-Phase
Curve Fit
1-Ph to 3-Ph
Prediction
0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0004 335.8340886 0 -0.100228987
50.0 8 8 0 0.999035 0.998072 0.999035 3.418568917
100.0 26 30 4 3.996142 1.49E-05 3.996142 13.97496263
150.0 56 64 8 8.991319 0.982713 8.991319 31.56895215
200.0 96 112 16 15.98457 0.000238 Constant 15.98457 56.20053748
250.0 150 174 24 24.97588 0.952351 3.522195423 24.97588 87.86971862
300.0 216 252 36 35.96527 0.001206 Intercept 35.96527 126.5764956
350.0 296 342 46 48.95273 8.718641 -0.100228987 48.95273 172.3208683
400.0 388 448 60 63.93827 15.50993 63.93827 225.1028369
450.0 494 568 74 80.92187 47.91225 80.92187 284.9224013
500.0 610 706 96 99.90354 15.23762 99.90354 351.7795615
550.0 742 860 118 120.8833 8.313321 120.8833 425.6743174
600.0 880 1016 136 143.8611 61.79685 143.8611 506.6066692
650.0 1042 1206 164 168.837 23.3964 168.837 594.5766169
700.0 1214 1418 204 195.8109 67.06074 195.8109 689.5841603
750.0 1416 1650 234 224.783 84.95374 224.783 791.6292995


CTs each had 15 turns. For 200 amp reactors, each phase was driven by a pair of CTs connected
in series with 15 turns of 4/0 cable wrapped around the two CTs. For 750 amp reactors, the CT
circuit shown in the figure was used to drive one phase of the reactor. Each CT provided 250
amps.
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 113
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

750 Amp Reactor Wiring
Phase 1 Phase 2
15 Turns
15 Turns 15 Turns

Adjustable Speed Drives


Adjustable Speed Drives
Company O
240 V Drive 460 V Drive 600 V Drive
Amps HP Loss - Watts Fit Amps HP Loss - Watts Fit Amps HP Loss-Watts Fit
48 27 1024 969.8863 22.5 24 300 696.1345 19 26 338 184.4571
55 31 1143 1069.485 24 26 420 717.038 24 33 418 285.9031
77 43 1325 1382.511 27 29 462 758.845 30 42 633 407.6382
80 45 1330 1425.196 27 29 603 758.845 35 49 667 509.0842
129 72 2069 2122.39 34 36 766 856.3947 45 63 853 711.9762
150 84 2370 2421.187 42 45 861 967.88 57 79 1092 955.4465
180 100 3186 2848.04 48 51 961 1051.494 62 86 1174 1056.892
240 134 3375 3701.746 59 63 1108 1204.786 85 118 1894 1523.544
291 162 4455 4427.396 65 69 1108 1288.4 109 152 2404 2010.485
325 181 5002 4911.163 77 82 1305 1455.628 138 192 2683 2598.871
96 103 2089 1720.406 168 234 2921 3207.547
120 128 2089 2054.862 252 351 3620 4911.839
150 160 2370 2472.932 284 396 4515 5561.094
160 171 3185 2612.289 300 418 4930 5885.721
180 192 3375 2891.002 300 418 5941 5885.721
240 256 3375 3727.142 350 488 6705 6900.181
292 312 4455 4451.797 350 488 6835 6900.181
321 343 6772 4855.931 400 557 7711 7914.64
322 344 5149 4869.867 400 557 8550 7914.64
325 347 5002 4911.674 450 627 9485 8929.1
357 381 5861 5357.615 500 697 10425 9943.56
360 385 5002 5399.422 600 836 12377 11972.48
425 454 5810 6305.241
471 503 7122 6946.281
475 508 6510 7002.024
525 561 7470 7698.807
527 563 7991 7726.679
590 630 8210 8604.626
670 716 8820 9719.479
670 716 10252 9719.479

Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 114
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Company B
230 V Drive 460 V Drive
kW HP Loss - Watts kW HP Loss - Watts
18.5 25 840 18.5 25 710
22 30 980 22 30 840
30 40 980
37 50 1200




Company C
230 V Drive Constant Torque 230 V Drive Variable Torque (4 kHz) 230 V Drive Variable Torque(10 kHz)
HP Loss - Watts HP Loss - Watts HP Loss - Watts
30 1052 25 831 30 1127
40 1439 40 1260 40 1332
50 1528
460 V Drive Constant Torque 460 V Drive Variable Torque
HP Loss - Watts HP Loss - Watts
30 655 25 560
40 880 40 800
50 885 50 910
60 1055 60 960
75 1270 75 1150
100 1605 100 1400
125 1952 125 2271
150 2251 150 2596
200 3067 200 3246
250 4483 300 5246
300 5246 350 5966
350 5966 400 6624
Worst Case
HP Loss - Watts
25 850 882.3096
30 970 955.3299
40 1140 1101.371
50 1270 1247.411
60 1300 1393.452
75 1680 1612.513
100 1960 1977.614





Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 115
ASHRAE TRP – 1104
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Company D
230 V Drive Constant Torque Var. Torque 460 V Drive
HP Efficiency Watts Loss Watts Loss Fit amps Watts Loss
Constant Trq. Var. Trq. 2 Khz 15 kHz 2 kHz 15 kHz 15 kHz 62 3.4 45
25 890 72 4.2 72
25 30 96.3 95.2 690 890 1160 101 6.4 96
30 96.5 94.7 780 1160 118 7.7 127
460 V Drive 153 10.4 164
25 97.6 95.8 970 208 14.7 216
25 30 97.7 95.6 510 970 290 21 301
2 Khz 10 kHz 2 kHz 10 kHz 360 26.4 340
40 97.1 96.2 650 850 466 34.6 468
40 50 97.2 96.3 850 1100 1050
50 60 97.6 96.8 900 1200 1150
60 75 97.8 97.1 1000 1300 1250
75 100 98 97.2 1150 1550 1500
2 Khz 6 kHz 2 Khz 6 kHz
100 125 98 97.9 1500 1600 1850
125 150 98.1 97.9 1750 2000 2000
150 200 98.2 97.9 2050 2350 2300
200 250 98.1 97.8 2850 3250 3150
250 300 98.1 97.9 3500 4000 3800
300 350 98.3 98 3850 4450 4300




Medium Voltage Breakers


Company A 1200 Amp, Medium Voltage Breaker
Phase II – Part A 06/06/03 116

WATTS LOSS DATA
600 V Switchgear
INDIVIDUAL DEVICE WATT LOSS TOTALS ITEM TOTALS
WATTS ITEM ITEM
DEVICE EFFECT OF QUANTITIES WATTS LOSS
AMPS MARGIN OR CB ENCLOSURE TOTALS
BREAKERS WITH BUS WORK
800 Amp Breaker 800 330 165 495
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
1200 A Breaker 1200 865 433 1298
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
1600 A Breaker 1600 1000 500 1500
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
2000 Amp Breaker 2000 1500 750 2250
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3000 Amp Breaker 3000 2250 1125 3375
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3200 Amp Breaker 3200 2400 1200 3600
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
4000 Amp Breaker 4000 3000 1500 4500
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
5000 Amp Breaker 5000 4700 2350 7050
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
CURRENT TRANSFORMERS (SETS OF 3)
800:5 800 30 15 45
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
1600:5 1600 60 30 90
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
2000:5 2000 75 38 113
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3000:5 3000 113 56 169
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3200:5 3200 129 65 194
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
4000:5 4000 150 75 225
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
MAIN BUS PER FRAME
800 A 800 200 100 300
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
1600 A 1600 228 114 342
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
2000 A 2000 250 125 375
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3000 A 3000 437 219 656
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3200 A 3200 500 250 750
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
4000 A 4000 550 275 825
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
AUXILIARY COMPARTMENT 75 38 113
CONTROL POWER TRANSFORMER
SINGLE PHASE - 1 KVA 12 6 18
SINGLE PHASE - 3 KVA 36 18 54
SINGLE PHASE - 5 KVA 60 30 90
SINGLE PHASE - 7.5 KVA 90 45 135
SINGLE PHASE - 10 KVA 120 60 180
SINGLE PHASE - 15 KVA 150 75 225
HEATERS - 150 WATT 150 150
HEATERS - 300 WATT HEATER AT 75 WATTS 75 75
TOTAL WATTS:

Height Relay LossResistance 3 Phase Horizontal Bus Loss
MCC Size ft. * watts ohms 3 Phase Vertical Bus Loss Amps Loss
Margin - % NEMA 1 1 6.5 0.034154 Amps Loss 600 30 Watts/ 20" wide sect.
80 NEMA 2 1 12.9 0.008648 300 50 Watts/ 72" high sect. 800 40 Watts/ 20" wide sect.
NEMA 3 2 17 0.004525 600 100 Watts/ 72" high sect. 1200 60 Watts/ 20" wide sect.
kW / hp NEMA 4 2.5 18.8 0.001488 1600 80 Watts/ 20" wide sect.
0.7457 NEMA 5 3 38.8 0.000687 * Height may vary with different manufacturers. 2000 110 Watts/ 20" wide sect.
AMPS
Motor Power AMPS Diversity Riser Compartment Bus Bus Starter Starter Losses
HP NEMA Size Efficiency Factor KW Current Factor Current Height - ft. Size - Amp Loss - Watts Loss - Watts Margin - % Watts
First
Cabinet 3 1 0.85 0.9 2.63 3.52 1.0 87.67 1.0 300 0.71 6.92 100
15 2 0.9 0.9 12.43 16.61 0.8 84.16 1.0 300 0.66 14.43 100
80 4 0.9 0.9 66.28 88.59 0.8 70.87 2.5 300 1.16 26.27 100
SUM 1.82 40.70
Total 40.70
Second
Cabinet 4 1 0.88 0.9 3.39 4.53 1.0 129.72 1.0 300 1.56 7.20 100
20 2 0.9 0.9 16.57 22.15 0.8 125.19 1.0 300 1.45 15.61 100
35 3 0.85 0.9 30.71 41.04 1.0 107.48 2.0 300 2.14 24.62 100
75 4 0.9 0.9 62.14 83.05 0.8 66.44 2.5 300 1.02 25.37 100
SUM 6.17 72.80
Total 113.50
Third
Cabinet 5 1 0.85 0.9 4.39 5.86 0.8 215.99 1.0 300 4.32 7.25 100
40 3 0.9 0.9 33.14 44.29 0.8 211.30 2.0 300 8.27 22.68 100
150 5 0.85 0.9 131.59 175.87 1.0 175.87 3.0 300 8.59 60.05 100
SUM 21.18 89.98
Total 203.49
Fourth
Cabinet 45 3 0.9 0.9 37.28 49.83 0.8 217.04 2.5 300 10.90 24.19 100
200 5 0.9 0.9 165.71 221.47 0.8 177.17 3.0 300 8.72 60.37 100
SUM 19.62 84.56
Panel Current Bus Bus Bus Total 288.04
Horizontal Bus Current Size Losses
1 87.67 87.67 800 0.48
2 129.72 217.40 800 2.95
3 215.99 433.39 800 11.74
4 217.04 650.43 800 26.44 Horiz. Bus Total 68.06
Fifth
Cabinet SUM 650 800 26.44
AMPS AMPS Watts
Breaker Breaker 274.99
Total Loss Watts 631

WATTS LOSS DATA
MEDIUM VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR
Enter the item
quantity in this
column
Watt loss for
items appears in
this column
INDIVIDUAL DEVICE WATT LOSS TOTALS ITEM TOTALS
AMPS Margin
DEVICE OR
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
EFFECT OF
ENCLOSURE TOTALS ITEM ITEM
QUANTITIES WATTS LOSS
5 & 15 KV CIRCUIT BREAKERS WITH BUS WORK
1200 Amp Breaker 1200 663 663 1325
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
2000 Amp Breaker 2000 1418 1418 2837
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3000 Amp Breaker 3000 2015 2015 4030
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3500/4000 Amp Breaker 3500 2765 2765 5530
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS (SETS OF 3)
TURNS RATIO 600:5 600 23 23 45
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
TURNS RATIO 1200:5 1200 45 45 90
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
TURNS RATIO 2000:5 2000 75 75 150
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
TURNS RATIO 3000:5 3000 113 113 225
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
TURNS RATIO 4000:5 4000 150 150 300
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
RELAYING AND CONTROL PER VERTICAL SECTION
SIMPLE 150 150 300
COMPLEX 330 330 660
MAIN BUS PER FRAME
1200 A 1200 108 108 216
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
2000 A 2000 180 180 360
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
3000 A 3000 115 115 230
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
4000 A 4000 204 204 409
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
LOAD CURRENT 0.8
CONTROL POWER TRANSFORMERS
SINGLE PHASE - 5 kVA 60 60 120
SINGLE PHASE - 10 kVA 115 115 230
SINGLE PHASE - 15 kVA 175 175 350
SINGLE PHASE - 25 kVA 295 295 590
SINGLE PHASE - 50 kVA 450 450 900
THREE PHASE - 45 kVA 520 520 1040
THREE PHASE - 75 kVA 885 885 1770


POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS
50 50 100
HEATERS
150 WATT 150 150
300 WATT 300 300
OTHER - ENTER VALUE IN DEVICE COLUMN
TOTAL WATTS: ITEM

ASHRAE

TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Table of Contents
Page List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix List of Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction and Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x 1

Heat Loss and Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Assessment Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Conclusions and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Phase I Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

The Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 First Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Standards . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Heat Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Liquid Immersed Units . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Dry Type Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Ambient Temperature Influence . . . . . . . . . . 19 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2

i

06/10/01

ASHRAE

TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Second Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Cables and Cable Trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Equipment Heat Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Heat Loss in Cable Trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Adjustable Speed Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2

ii

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ASHRAE

TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Battery Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Phase I - Report – Rev. 4.2

iii

06/10/01

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . 44 Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Information Deficiencies . . . . . 51 Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Motor Control Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . 53 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Test Plan. . . . 44 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . 51 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Manufacturers . . . .Report – Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Circuit Breakers . . . . 43 Standards . . 58 Phase I . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 References . . . . 50 Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Composite Equipment . . .2 iv 06/10/01 . . . . . . . 51 Standards . . . . 53 Manufacturers . . 41 Test Plan. . . . . . . . .

60 Space Heaters . . . . . . . . 58 Equipment Heat Losses . . 59 Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Adjustable Speed Drives. 63 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 References . . . . . 64 Phase I . . . . . . . . . . . .Report – Rev. . . 61 Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear . 59 Motor Starters . . . . . . . . . 61 Auxiliary Compartments. . . . . . . 58 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . 63 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 v 06/10/01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Manufacturers . 61 Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Low Voltage Circuit Breakers. . . . . . . . . . . 63 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . 59 Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Information Deficiencies . . 59 Disconnect Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Review of Environmental Heat Gains .

. . 65 Panelboards . . . . . . . . . . 66 Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Test Plan. . . 64 Auxiliary Compartments. . . 64 Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Manufacturers . 66 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . 66 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Medium Voltage and DC Breakers . . . . . . 67 Unit Substation . . . . . . . . . . 64 Control Power Transformers . . . . . . . 64 Potential Transformers . . . . . . . . 64 Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Report – Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Test Plan. . 66 Low Voltage Circuit Breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 References . . . 64 Space Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . 66 Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Phase I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 vi 06/10/01 . . . . . . . . . 66 Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Current Transformers . . . . . 66 Standards . . 4. .

. . 68 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . 68 Equipment Heat Losses . . . . . . . . . 68 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Phase I . . . . . . . . . . 69 Third Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Measurement Uncertainty . . . 68 Low Voltage Circuit Breakers. . . . 68 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . 70 Review of Environmental Heat Gains . . . . . . . . . . 70 Standards . . . 4. . 71 Test Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . 70 Transfer Switches .Report – Rev. . . . . . . . 69 References . 69 Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Unit Substation Transformers . . . . . . 70 Equipment Heat Losses . . . . 70 Information Deficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Space Heaters . . . . 68 Test Plan. . . . . . . .2 vii 06/10/01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Bus Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Auxiliary Compartments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Uncertainty of Test Results . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Equipment Donation from General Electric.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 viii 06/10/01 . . . . 71 Summary of Phase II Information . . . . . . . . . . 87 Phase I . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Breakers . .Report – Rev. . 76 Appendix . . . . 82 E-Mail . . . . . . . . 83 E-Mail on Two Matched 15 kV ABB Med. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 E-Mail Regarding Battery Chargers from TVA . . . . 79 Letter of Contact Example . . . . . . . . . . .Western Resources Concerning Med. .TVA . . . . . 73 Phase II Budget . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants List of Figures FIGURES Figure 1: ASD Test Apparatus . . . . .2 ix 06/10/01 . . . . . . . . . . . 35 46 54 60 Phase I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 2: Apparatus for Testing Losses in Circuit Breakers . . .Report – Rev. . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 4: Apparatus for Testing Motor Starters . Figure 3: Apparatus for Testing Losses in Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Table 6: Components of Composite Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Phase I . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3: Equipment Table Summary . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Report – Rev. . . . . . . . . . . Table 3a: Equipment Table Summary (continued) . . . . . . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants List of Tables TABLES Table 1: Equipment to be Investigated . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Table 9: Phase II Time Schedule for Completion of Work . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 7 8 Table 4: Limits for Temperature Rises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Table 7: Electric Power Equipment to be Tested . . . . . 19 Table 5: Influence of 20 oC Change in Ambient Temperature on Load Loses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Table 10: Summary of Equipment Testing . . . . . . . . . .2 x 06/10/01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Table 8: Budget for Testing for ASHRAE TRP 1104. . . . . . . . . . Table 2: Equipment Categories . . . . . .

A sink could consist of outside doors and windows in winter or a basement floor or wall that remains at an essentially constant temperature throughout the year. All of this electrical equipment contributes to the total heat load. Hickok’s motivation in his paper was to aid the factory engineer in identifying plant locations where efficiency could be improved. HVAC. who worked for GE at the publication time of his paper. many electrical equipment manufacturers have taken pains to increase the efficiency of their products. A recent addition to the published information regarding motor heat gains is contained in Chapter 11 of the 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook which provides a table of “Heat Phase I . motors. were presented in tables for a range of equipment sizes common to indoor equipment. Heat could be added from several sources such as the presence of many people in a classroom or office. states. and power cables. The primary source of information available to the design engineer for estimating the electrical equipment rejected heat is the paper by Rubin (1979). Rubin’s motivation for publishing the data was to aid the HVAC design engineer. the rejected heat values for transformers. The information provided by these papers is dated. buildings. “The data are on General Electric products …” At no point in either Hickok’s paper or in Rubin’s paper is there a discussion of measurement procedure or measurement uncertainty. power distribution equipment. At the same time. Another change that has occurred since Rubin published his work is that the manufacturing standards that apply to the various items of power equipment have been re-issued and updated several times. unspecified manufacturers. 4. to name a few.2 1 06/10/01 . By closely estimating the heat gain or loss. perhaps. driving motorized devices. In this well used document. switchgear. Thus. solar radiation through windows. Also. the HVAC design engineer must be able to estimate with certainty the amount of energy added from various heat sources and lost through various heat sinks located in a room. and incandescent room lighting. McDonald and Hickok (1985) later co-authored an update of Hickok’s 1978 paper with much of the same data.Report – Rev. Building and industrial plants make use of electrical power for many uses such as lighting. originally none existed. Hickok. Estimating the total amount of rejected heat is a necessary part of sizing the heating and refrigeration equipment required for the building. The data presented by Rubin was obtained from the paper presented by Hickok (1978) and from other. the HVAC equipment will not be undersized with insufficient capacity or oversized with costly unutilized excess capability. These standards could provide details for measuring the power loss in the equipment where. and factories the first choice in reducing the costs of production. there is a need to update the 20 years old information presented by Rubin.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Introduction and Executive Summary In order to size the required equipment. advances in power electronics and computer control have made much of the technology reflected in the 1970 equipment obsolete. Hickok’s motivation is easy to appreciate since the energy price shocks provided by two oil embargoes made increasing efficiency of existing plants. and energy transmission and distribution throughout the structure. the standards might specify a maximum level of uncertainty for performing the measurements and any data reported by a manufacturer claiming to follow the standard could be deemed reliable. Since the oil embargoes of the 1970’s.

Thus. all heat loss occurring in a device is additional heat added to the surroundings. and a discussion supporting the conclusions reached in the assessment. The assessment part (Part A) requires a review of the heat loss measurement procedures included in the manufacturing standards for each type of power equipment included in this study along with a survey of the measurement procedures used by manufacturers when the standards do not cover this type of measurement. is a description of the method or strategy used in the assessment.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Gains from Typical Electric Motors” for fractional horsepower AC motors up to 250 horsepower three phase motors. Any thermal radiation is assumed to be absorbed by the surrounding structures (perhaps after several absorptions and re-emissions) and the eventual manifestation of the radiant energy is an increase in room temperature in the absence of any environmental control. and more than one power equipment manufacturer. 4.Report – Rev. Heat convection to the surroundings and conduction to surrounding structures is not hard to appreciate as viable transfer mechanisms. The manner in which the heat transfer takes place is not of a concern. Based on the results of this assessment. The organization of the material to be presented includes a summary of the Phase I conclusions and the recommendations concerning the Phase II work. Heat Loss and Heat Transfer The equipment rate of heat losses to be determined in this work represent constant values from steady operation. The first category consists of equipment for which either well defined methods for loss determination are specified in the manufacturing standards . the work is divided into phases consisting of an assessment of the availability of reliable data and a testing phase for providing a reference for those data deemed uncertain.planning phase of the investigation. The purpose of this work is to provide a means of estimating the rejected heat of specific electrical equipment by a means similar to Rubin. but which accounts for updated data.2 2 06/10/01 . Phase II consists of the execution of the data gathering and testing program. a testing program is planned (Part B of Phase I) to verify loss information supplied by manufacturers. The results of the assessment will then be presented followed by a recommendation for those types of equipment to be included in the testing phase. The remainder of the report contains an examination of each type of equipment. To accomplish this goal. level of use. Assessment Results The scope of the equipment specified in ASHRAE TRP – 1104 is listed in Table 1. The second Phase I . The third category includes equipment for which there is no standard either requiring or describing any heat loss tests and for which no heat loss data could be found. current testing standards. The equipment review is divided into three categories. This document describes the assessment and test . The device rejecting heat is assumed to have reached thermal equilibrium with the surroundings and no thermal transient process is taking place. Also included. the manufacturing standards relevant to the assessment. Phase I of this project consists of an assessment part and a test planning part.

single phase 150 kV – three phase 125 VDC for 100 to 1500 amp 0. 4. 5. and high efficiency) 5 kV. and 100 kV . bus losses. auxiliary relay compartments. and 4000 amp frame sizes 300 – 2500 kVA and 120/208/600 V units below 300 kVA Standard Sizes Standard Sizes for 120. and auxiliary compartments) Unit Substation Components (including breakers. 125. 1600. an 1000 amp Standard NEMA sizes Motor Control Centers (starters.6 kV for 150.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants category includes all equipment satisfying neither of the first and third category descriptions. 50. heaters.6. bus losses. heaters.Report – Rev. bus losses. 75. The manufacturing standards covering rate of heat loss Equipment Electric Motors Medium Voltage Switchgear (breakers. 400. and auxiliary compartments) Transformers Reactors Panelboards Cable and Cable Trays Battery Chargers Inverters DC Switchgear Manual Transfer Switches Size Range 10 – 4000 hp (reg. 2000. 7. breakers. and 13.2 3 Category 3 Transfer Switches 06/10/01 . 3200. The best description for this category is that information is available on equipment heat losses however the measurement quality is unknown. Items in the second category represent a wide range of different conditions. and auxiliary compartments) Panelboards Motor Control Centers Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear Table 2: Equipment Categories Phase I . 800. 2000. 30. 260.2 kV. and 600 V 0. and 3000 amp breakers 800.8 kV with 1200. 600. and space heaters) Variable (adjustable) Speed Drives 25 to 500 hp – three phase Table 1: Equipment to be Investigated Category 1 Transformers Motors Category 2 Cable and Cable Trays Adjustable Speed Drives Battery Chargers Inverters Reactors Circuit Breakers Substation Components (heaters. and 15 kV of widths 12” – 30” 100 to 600 amp 20.

The leftmost column of the table contains subject headings regarding the standards search. Any list of manufacturers for a particular equipment item would include both OEMs and equipment service companies. the results of the manufacturer survey. the manufacturers survey. The source of manufacturer names for a given equipment item was the NEMA web site which has a search engine for such purposes. For each equipment piece. The details of the survey are included in the body of the report. In some cases. the results of finding and examining the relevant manufacturing standards. The organization of Table 3 reflects the equipment classification. The immediate task once a group of names is obtained from NEMA is to eliminate all companies that are not OEMs. the loss testing procedures are spread over many articles. the article number which addresses rate of heat loss and/or efficiency is listed. the deficiencies of the available data. such as NEMA MG 1. catalogs. The next few lines of the table summarize the results of the manufacturer survey. The justification for the equipment classification is contained in the report sections to follow the Executive summary where the each device is discussed. Table 3 is a summary of the results of the equipment under consideration including relevant standard numbers and overall results from the manufacturer surveys regarding losses. and finally the number of manufacturers reporting data through either their web pages. The word approximate is used since the names of manufacturers obtained from NEMA for a specific equipment piece would consist of only NEMA members and this may exclude some foreign manufacturers. The devices that fall into this distinction will be treated in a different way when the heat losses are discussed in the report. In the case where the standards for equipment in the second category provide good information regarding heat loss measurements.Report – Rev.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants measurement of the second category equipment are in some cases excellent and in other cases poor or nonexistent. Also shown for some of the equipment categories together with the number of NEMA listed manufacturers is the number of Phase I . the relevant standard describing the power loss or efficiency determination is listed. and finally the details of the test plan. The third category equipment item is contained in the rightmost column of the table. the category the equipment item is placed into. The lower part of the table contains space where additional manufacturing standard information is provided. Where possible. Whether the standard is commonly used by manufacturers or not is also indicated in the table. there is more than one standard and in others cases there are no standards that address power loss. The three columns of the second category equipment labeled as Composite Devices consist of those devices which are made up of several different pieces of equipment. or though their responses to the survey. then the type of company might not be easy to determined. In some cases. The discussion in the sections to follow will support and expand the information shown in Table 3. The first category equipment is contained in the two equipment columns toward the left of the table. The approximate number of manufacturers is listed in the table.2 4 06/10/01 . The columns of Table 3 are arranged in the same order in which the equipment items are covered in the text of this report. the following of the standards by the manufacturing community is not commonplace. some of which are contained in the other columns of the table. 4. If a company did not have extensive information on their web site and if they did not respond to the survey.

Deficiencies in the data are next listed in the table. The number of identical items to be tested is listed on the next line of the table. the number of manufacturers reporting heat gains is listed. this is listed as “Test. this is listed as “Manufacturers” while for Category II equipment. If the available loss data is measured in a way consistent with a standard. and test” for Manufacturer and Test meaning that the data is coming from both sources. For Category III equipment. For the Category I equipment. In order to best utilize the financial resources and the generosity of manufacturers. This is the number of different manufacturers providing information through either a web site and/or a response to the manufacturer survey. On the line of the table designating the number of test sizes. First the source of the data to be used in completing or building the loss tables is listed. in many circumstances. There is money in the original project budget for building the test apparatus for measuring heat losses. If the significant standard applying to the manufacture and testing of the device does not address heat loss or efficiency. 4. Some responded that they were not an OEM or did not make products in the range under question. If the composite device component is not already listed in the TRP 1104 Work Statement then some testing will need to be done but the testing of the component is mentioned in the table only once. then the box on the line of “Standard not germane to heat loss” is checked.Report – Rev. is the web site and/or catalog. If the opposite is true then the box corresponding to “Data available but not consistent” is marked. The number of manufacturers contacted in the survey is listed. the quality is listed as N/A. The use of one device for testing is especially viable when there exists manufacturer data to which a comparison can be made. When no data are available. This number might be smaller than the approximation number of manufacturers for the reasons just cited. In those cases where there is not a large amount of data. this is listed as “Man. then the box titled “Data available and consistent” is marked. Usually the data was classified as good or uncertain. Finally. Not all manufacturers who responded to the survey supplied data. Some of these different components are already listed in the table and no additional tests for these devices are needed.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants OEMs of this particular equipment type and size found (number following slash). it is recommended that at least two identical items be tested. there are some notes for the equipment classified as “Composite Devices.2 5 06/10/01 . If no data is available. The source of the data is next listed in the table which. The number of manufacturers who responded to the survey is also listed. The source of the equipment for the testing is specified as either loan or donation.” the action to be taken with each device is listed. Some of the components of the composite devices are found in more than one composite device. The number of different sizes of each device to be tested is provided on the next line of the table. then the “Data not available” cell is marked. All of the five situations that apply are checked with an “X” in the table. In order to provide some estimation of the variation of the power losses of identical pieces of equipment. If a standard detailing how heat loss and/or efficiency is available but not used by industry then the line titled “Standard but not used” receives a check.” The composite devices or equipment are Category II items which can be characterized as consisting of a collection of many different components. it is recommended that we test one device of a given size and manufacturer and then estimate the repeatability of the measurement through a knowledge of the manufacturer’s quality control. however there are not Phase I . The assessed quality of the data next follows in the table. In the section of the table titled “Recommended Testing.” The purposes of the test are listed in the next line. it would be beneficial to test more than one device of a given size and manufacturer.

the number of different manufacturers from which to obtain equipment is listed on the next line of the table.Report – Rev. it is recommended that equipment be obtained from at least 2 different manufacturers.2 6 06/10/01 . Phase I . 4.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants sufficient financial resources for purchasing all the equipment to be tested. In order to appreciate how the losses of the same size equipment might vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The lower portion of Table 3 contains additional standard information that did not fit in the upper area of the table. In all cases where testing is warranted.

11.6/1995 8.12. auxiliary com partm ents.get m anufacturer data LV CB. C at.4 / 1995 IEEE 113 NEM A TP 2-19981985 NEM A M G -1 4. and enclosures tested elsewhere .Report – Rev.0. Auxiliary com partm ents M V and D C C B. and enclosures investigated elsewhere LV CB. control power. unit substation transform ers. U ncertain X X W eb U ncertain X 4 4 1 3 N one N one N /A N /A 18/4 8 0 3 IEEE C 57.Potential.2 sizes.14 / 1999 Yes None N/A N/A N/A W eb W eb U ncertain U ncertain X X 17/5 26 17 28 4 2 2 2 W eb. 9. U sed by Industry? M anufacturers Approxim ate N um ber N um ber C ontacted N um ber of R eplied # R eporting Values for Heat G ains H ow is data reported? W eb. and test Verify See N ote 1 N /A Purchase. and test M an.4 No 33/5 0 0 1 IEEE C 37. Cat. auxiliary com partm ents. 5/ 1987 8. space heaters.0 / 1998 IEEE 835 IEEE 995 IEEE C 57. G ood IEEE 835 Yes Intro pp. 5/ 1987 8. D onation.2 sizes. and Loan 2 M an. 1-45 N /A 36 0 0 0 Form ula G ood IEEE 995 N EM A PE-5 Yes Yes Sect.1-4.0.8 No No 21 21 5 7 W eb.16 Yes 7.test with m otor starters. C atalog. bus bars. Bus bars .16 1996 1994 Sect.8 / 1996 N ote N ote N ote N ote 1: 2: 3: 4: LV CB. and test Verify Verify 2 > 2 Loan or Donation 3 3 >1 M an. and test Verify 2 > 1 Purchase. 4. space heaters .D issconnect switches . C at. and test M an. bus bars. Bus bars. Donation. C at.4 / 1999 IEEE C 57./Section/D ate IEEE C 57. m otor starters .1.90 IEEE 115 4.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants First C ategory C ables & C able Trays Adjustable Battery Speed D rives C hargers S econd C ategory C ircuit Breakers MCC Com ponents Equipm ent T ype: R eview T ype R eview Subcategory R elevant Standards Standard/D ate Is Standard Specific to H eat G ains? H eat G ain Article N o.12. Q uality of data D eficiencies in Data Standard but not used Standards not germ ane to heat loss D ata availible and consistent D ata availible but not consistent D ata not available R ecom m ended T esting Transform ers M otors Inverters R eactors See Below Yes See Below Yes 30 20 5 2 See Below G ood See Below Yes See Below Yes 27 0 N /A N /A W eb. 9. space heaters. and enclosures tested elsewhere .09 No 5. and current transform ers .2 7 06/10/01 .91 IEEE 112 5. and test Verify Verify 2 >2 Loan or D onation 3 3 > 2 Loan or Donation 3 N EM A PE-5. 1985 M an. and enclosurers tested elsewhere TA B LE 3: EQ U IPM EN T SU M M A R Y Phase I . W eb. U ncertain Uncertain X X X X X X X X X X D ata Source Purpose of T est N um ber of T est Sizes N um ber of T ypes within each size M anufacturers M anufacturers C alculation M an. ASD.calculation. Stand.6 / 1996 8. Equipm ent to test Purchase 2 Add. and Loan 2 of each item Equipm ent Source # of different M an.

Transformers Motors Cables and Cable Trays Bus Bars Reactors Sufficient Published Data Sufficient Published Data Sufficient Calculations Sufficient Calculations Fair 2/5 2/5 2 1/5 1/5 3 2 2 3 3 6 2 4 3 3 3 3 12 12 17K 430K 2 2 12 8 20K Published Data /Measurements Motor Starters Fair Published Data /Measurements Space Heaters Sufficient Published Data /Measurements Low Voltage Fair/ Not Published Data Circuit Breakers Certain /Measurements Medium Fair/ Not Published Data Voltage Circuit Certain /Measurements Breakers Adjustable Fair/ Not Published Data Speed Drives Certain /Measurements Battery Fair/ Not Published Data Chargers Certain /Measurements Inverters Not Published Data Certain Auxiliary Not Published Data Compartments Certain Manual Not Not Available Transfer Available Switches 2 Wait 1 Size 2 each 3 3 6 41K 410K 2 3 6 320K TABLE 3a: EQUIPMENT SUMMARY (continued) Table 3a lists different equipment categories. Funds Req.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Equipment Accuracy Data Source No. 4. Sizes Testing Total Add. Total tests Man. of of Man.Report – Rev. the total number of tests required to have a “Sufficient” accuracy designation. the additional manufacturers necessary to test to change the accuracy designation. the source of the equipment heat loss data. In the “Number of Phase I . an assessment of the accuracy of the study results.2 8 06/10/01 . to Test Add. No. the number of different manufacturers from which test equipment will be obtained. Req. No. the number of test sizes. and the additional funds required to accomplish this. the total number of items to be tested with the TRP – 1104 budget.

Thus. and “Not Certain. The next level of accuracy designation is “Fair” which is used in those situations where the subset of the different manufacturer products to be tested is deemed too small to warrant a “Sufficient” designation. This figure refers to the number of other company manufactured equipment items that need to be tested in order to change the accuracy designation from “Fair” to “Sufficient. this additional equipment expense is totaled together. 4. every additional dollar for equipment purchase goes exclusively to that purpose. only 40% of the manufacturers found in this study can be tested using the equipment obtained through purchases and donations. The third testing option would bring the total project budget up to $175K.” The criterion for making this accuracy transition is to test 75% or more of the manufacturers. Based on Table 3a. The last column of the table presents the expense of additional equipment to purchase so as to change the accuracy designation from that listed to “Sufficient. Note that the increase in expense for testing is exclusively for equipment purchase. and battery chargers.” The 37K include to 20K from the second testing option. The last designation of accuracy is “Not Certain” which is used for those situations where the only information available is manufacturer published data having neither documented test methods nor uncertainty.” This figure includes the 37K from the third testing option. The assessment of accuracy is divided into three designations being “Sufficient.” For reactors and combination motor starters.Report – Rev. purchases by Kansas State University are not subject to sales tax. found in this study. The “Fair/Not Certain” designation has been applied to low and medium voltage circuit breakers. Funding for equipment purchase does not incur university overhead. The seventh column of Table 3a lists the number of additional manufacturers required. The total budget for TRP – 1104 is $138K. These testing options are: 1) No additional expense – Accuracy per column of Table 3a. The “Not Certain” designation is used for auxiliary compartments and inverters since manufacturer loss data is available. In the case of reactors and combination motor starters. the table entry of “i / j’ denotes “i” manufacturers out of a total of “j” manufacturers found in this work.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Manufacturers” column.” 3) 37K – Accuracy of transformers to low voltage breakers in Table 3a is “Sufficient. 2) 20K – Accuracy of transformers to combination motor starters in Table 3a is “Sufficient. adjustable speed drives. The accuracy of some equipment items in Table 3a have been classified as “Fair/Not Certain” which has been applied in those situations where the sample of equipment to test is too small to draw conclusions.2 9 06/10/01 . of a particular equipment item and size. Phase I . there are several testing options available each with an additional expense for equipment purchase. The second option listed above would bring the total project budget up to $158K. 4) 1240K – Accuracy of transformers to inverters in Table 3a is “Sufficient. Also.” “Fair”. however no test articles are available.” The designation of “sufficient” is applied to that equipment for which the results will be a realistic representation of the heat losses of this particular device and size.

The limiting factor for testing the NEMA 4 and NEMA 5 starters is expense.2 10 06/10/01 . Owing to expense. the priority for using these funds would be: • Purchase additional reactors and combination motor starters to change the accuracy designation for these two equipment items from “Fair” to “Sufficient. A design guide for using the accumulated heat loss information will be a product of the Phase II efforts. The purchase of adjustable speed drives. this would allow the additional testing of the reactors and the combination motor starters and possibly low voltage circuit breakers. The priority established in the above list is dictated by what additional testes are possible given a limited amount of additional funds. The Phase II information will consist of test data and recently collected information from manufacturers.” Thus. only small to medium frame sizes are being tested in this work. An examination of Table 3a shows that 50% of the items listed have received an accuracy designation of either “Sufficient” or “Fair.” While the selected reactor test items completely bracket the available equipment. The tests and test methods will be documented so that the test procedures can be repeated and/or applied to new equipment. the project as budgeted provides approximately half of the information desired. advantage still exists in continuing with the Phase II investigation. • If $20K or $37K were available for equipment purchase. As stated earlier. In addition to the updated loss information. • • • Phase I . The benefits of the Phase II work can be summarized as: • This is the first update to the tables originally presented by Rubin in the late 70’s. it is evident that not all of the equipment listed in the TRP – 1104 work statement will be able to be tested. there is advantage in continuing with the Phase II investigation.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Conclusions and Recommendations From the foregoing. battery chargers. 4. methods of predicting losses for fractions of full load capacity and variations of room temperature will also be provided in the Phase II work. If additional funds were available for equipment purchase. and inverters for testing purposes is very expensive owing to the great expense of these power electronic devices.Report – Rev. only small to medium size combination motor starters are to be tested. A significant feature of the results to be presented is that Phase II marks the start of being able to attach significance to the quality of estimated heat loads. Purchase additional low voltage breakers. Even so.

There is a significant need for the information to be developed in this study. Chapter 28. May – June 1985. Sep-Oct 1978. “Electrical Energy Losses in Power Systems. 1979. “Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations. The scope of this project is very larger. 11491152. and Air-Conditioning Engineers. So that no testing opportunity is lost. 4. 4. 373-387. I. These conclusions are: • The Phase II work should continue since this allows the opportunity to begin the updating of Rubin’s work.. calibrated heat loss information for approximately half of the items listed in Table 3a can be developed in Phase II. Refrigeration. 803-819. Herbert N. vol IA-14.” ASHRAE. vol. Phase I . manufacturer published data has been gathered – even for some equipment devices for which testing will involve significant additional expense. no. pp.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.2 11 06/10/01 . 1997. 5. pp. M. vol. Serious consideration should be given to updating and refining the heat loss information through continued testing and future projects. • • • • • References American Society of Heating. Rubin. July-Aug.Report – Rev. IA-21. pp. Hickok. “Electrical Energy Losses in Power Systems. In addition to the tested data.. and Hickok. “Heat Losses from Electrical Equipment in Generating Stations. no. As stated earlier. William J. Herbert N. recruitment of equipment will continue throughout the testing portion of Phase II. several conclusions are drawn on the basis of the Phase I work.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook. PAS-98. 3. The current study goes a long way in providing the necessary information and establishing a firm foundation for any future work and investigations in this area. McDonald.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants In addition to the above recommendations..” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. no.

any future inquiry would have to start from scratch as this study did. Standards were acquired through Inter-Library Loan at the Hale Library at Kansas State University. The number of standards to be examined is so large that the purchase of these documents was not an option.g. The identification process began by creating a list of manufacturing standards relevant to the type of equipment. The advantage offered by this search is the ability to receive titles of standards that are applicable to the product of interest from many standard organizations.2 12 06/10/01 . NEMA or ANSI standards. for example C57. many standard titles from ANSI and IEEE related to transformers could be found. the manufacturing standards for the equipment under study relevant to heat loss were identified. This search provided the starting point for any contact with equipment manufacturers. recording the web site address together with e-mail address provides a means for making contacts and the location of information relevant to specific equipment. Also. This was first attempted by searching manufacturer web sites for the specific standards that were followed in the equipment production. Phase I . Together with the manufacturer name.ihs. 3) The relevant standards for each product were acquired. This gives one the capability of searching for standard documents having a particular phrase or word in the title. by doing a search on a partial standard number. A problem of searching other libraries for the standards is that many libraries do not list individual standards by number in their holdings.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Phase I –Results The Method The method or strategy behind the assessment is described here. The strategy consists of a sequential process through which the conclusions regarding a specific type of equipment were reached. The list of relevant standards were refined by excluding those standards that did not address equipment heat loss or efficiency. Manufacturers of a particular equipment item were located through a search of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association web site located at the URL (http://www. 2) In parallel to the effort of identifying equipment manufacturers. The steps of the assessment process consist of: 1) One very important source of information is equipment manufacturers. An improved method of accumulating this information was through the Global Engineering Documents web site (http://global.org/standards/) which has a manufacturers and product search capability. they only list that they have e.Report – Rev. Without this information.com) by clicking on the link to Document Search. This is important information since this documents the approach taken and future inquiries along these lines can make use of this strategy and/or improve the strategy through modification. and UL were included in the review.nema. standards from ANSI. 4. The specific types of equipment are listed in Table 1. NEMA. In addition to the standards specified in the TRP-1104 work statement.

the manufacturer is requested to supply loss numbers for their products or to specify the web pages and/or public company documents where loss figures are presented. Based upon the results of the standard review. This step was not done for every piece of equipment under study.nema. The home web page address of the companies contained on the product manufacturer lists can also be found on the NEMA web site at the address (http://www.g. information not only relevant to the classification was sought but also information useful to other parts of the study. One class consisted of those devices for which clear power loss measurement information was present while the other class consisted of those devices for which no power loss information was presented in the standard. For each type of power equipment involved in the survey. they were not used exclusively in the final equipment classification required by the TRP-1104 work statement. Also the e-mail address to which the letter of contact is sent was recorded.Report – Rev. While the standards helped in the eventual classification of the equipment. An example where no heat loss standards were found is the transfer switch. The motivation behind this step was to acquire information useful to the eventual classification of the equipment. Phase I . measurement uncertainty. measurement methods. 5) Contact though e-mail was made to the companies included on the NEMA obtained manufacturer lists to inquire about dissipated heat from their products.org/membership/members. The requested information consists of the name and number of the standards followed in determining the loss numbers or the procedures used to determine the losses in the case where no loss determination procedures are specified in the standards. we are able to put together an e-mail distribution list for the various products so that if we need to seek additional information at some time in the future. In doing this company contact. An example of the contact letter is included in the Appendix. this can be quickly done. a contact letter was written which explained the nature of the project and requested information relevant to this study. The process of reviewing standards is best summarized as the determination of the heat gain measurement requirements. Heat loss information was found for battery chargers in the standard NEMA PE 5 covering utility type battery chargers. e.html).2 13 06/10/01 . Since a contact was being made with equipment manufacturers. since it was not expected that power losses would vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and excellent cable loss models are available. Also. and measurement reporting.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 4) Each of the acquired standards were reviewed to determine if the standard requires power loss measurements to be made and if so how are the measurements to be performed and what are the uncertainty levels of the test procedures. 4. however. In contrast to the transfer switch example just cited. the web address of that part of the company’s web site which best corresponds to the product of interest was noted. no manufacturer was found that claimed to follow this relevant standard that specifies how battery charger efficiency is to be determined. the specific equipment item was placed into one of two broad classes. In this fashion. the availability of a document requiring and describing the measurement of heat loss does not necessarily mean that manufacturers will use the standard. cables.

motor control centers. Both the steps of the test plan and the necessary experimental apparatus are described for each of the required equipment items. circuit breakers. This first category includes transformers and motors. battery chargers. For the equipment in the second and third categories. loss measurement methods.2 14 06/10/01 . adjustable speed drives. The second category included those devices where there was some information that could be used to help in the loss determination but verification of the information was needed. the information will be gathered from manufacturer web sites and through personal contacts. The remainder of the power equipment constitutes the third category that includes transfer switches. The devices in this category are reactors. a test plan is devised to provide the information necessary to complete this study for each of the equipment items listed in the ASHRAE TRP 1104 work statement. Phase I . the test plan involves experimental procedures for building and/or verifying the information necessary to complete this study. the equipment is classified into one of three categories as specifies by the TRP-1104 work statement. The first category consisted of those products for which the standards require specific tests for loss determination.Report – Rev. From the accumulated data. and results of the manufacturer survey. In case of the first category equipment. The overall results of the assessment are summarized in the Introduction and Executive Summary section. DC and medium voltage switchgear. 4. The third category is characterized by the situation where there is both an absence of loss data and the standards do not require the rate of heat losses to be measured. inverters.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 6) Each of the equipment types is documented regarding applicable standards. 7) From the assessment determined in the previous steps. The manufacturer lists are not included in this document. plus cables and cable trays. panelboards. Included in this first category are devices that have very well documented information regarding the power loss mechanisms and test procedures from which loss information can be accumulated and reported. The justification behind the classification is presented in each of the equipment sections of the report to follow.

01 since these documents specify what is to be measured and also specify measurement uncertainty and IEEE Std. the table in the standard makes a distinction between low voltage and medium voltage transformers. Transformers Of all the equipment studied in this work. NEMA TP 1 and NEMA TP 2 observe the test codes presented in IEEE Std. C57. it is assumed that the transformer has been operated in the current condition for a sufficient period of time that all thermal transients have decayed to the point that they can no longer be detected. C57.91. any energy loss is in the form of heat that travels to the local environment.00 and Std. According to the insulating medium. 4. the state of the art for transformer losses is among the best defined. Equipment Heat Losses As stated earlier. C57. Also relevant to the loss determination are IEEE Std.90 for liquid immersed windings and IEEE Std. The “Class 1” efficiency essentially defines an upper limit for rejected heat.12.91 for dry type windings.91.12.01 and C57. it is assumed that the device under discussion is operating in a “steady state” capacity.3 to 2.12. Heat convection to the surroundings and conduction to surrounding structures is not hard to Phase I .12. The table lists the minimum efficiency necessary for “Class 1” designation for both single and three phase units as a function of rated KVA. There is a table for dry type units and another table for liquid immersed units.Report – Rev. The testing and manufacturing standards are written according to this insulating distinction. Dry type power and lighting transformers are covered in NEMA ST 20 which observes IEEE Std.12.5 MVA plus power and lighting transformers 300 KVA and below.12. C57.90 and C57. The manner in which the heat transfer takes place is not of a concern. For dry type units. The sizes of the transformers covered in this study range up to 2. C57.2 15 06/10/01 . Specifically.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants First Category The first category consists of transformers and motors.12. Each of the first category equipment types will be examined here. Two other useful documents related to losses are NEMA TP 1 and NEMA TP 2 for distribution transformers.5 MVA. transformers are divided into two categories which are liquid immersed units and dry-type units. C57. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards The method of testing to determine the total power losses for both dry and liquid immersed core and coils are specified in IEEE Std. the types of transformers under consideration are unit sub-station transformers from 0. Thus.80 which defines many terms used in the other cited documents. NEMA TP 1 defines a “Class 1” efficiency for distribution transformers which is presented in the form of a table.12. C57.12. Under these conditions.

To be presented in the following text is a discussion of no load and load losses for both dry and liquid immersed windings. forced air cooling is an option available on some larger unit substation transformers. Before discussing the different transformer types. 4.5 oC for copper windings or 225 oC for aluminum windings. Rs is the resistance corresponding to some other average winding temperature Ts in oC. The use of the time span is to assure that the unit is in thermal equilibrium with the environment and. Liquid Immersed Units: The total losses are defined as the sum of the load losses and the no load losses.5 MVA or less. It should be noted that for both dry and liquid immersed type windings.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants appreciate as viable transfer mechanisms. the measurement of the winding resistance will be covered first since this is common to both transformer insulation types.00 and C57. Since the transformer is excited at a reduced voltage. It will be shown that the variable to which the losses are the most sensitive is the load current while the ambient temperature does not play a significant role in determining the total losses.2 16 06/10/01 . For units of 2. thus. To conduct the load test. one winding is short circuited while the other winding is excited to the point where rated current flows in the windings. Any thermal radiation is assumed to be absorbed by the surrounding structures (perhaps after several absorptions and re-emissions) and the eventual manifestation of the radiant energy is an increase in room temperature in the absence of any environmental control.Report – Rev.01 state that transformers conforming to those standards are suitable for operation at rated KVA so long as the ambient temperature does not exceed 40 oC and the average ambient temperature does not exceed 30 oC in a 24 hour period. The rating and efficiency of the fan motor determines the environmental heat gain created by a forced air fan. The power consumed by the fan must be included in any loss figures. the winding temperature is known. oil pumps.12. the no Phase I . self cooled or forced air. or any other ancillary equipment. however. and Tk is 234. The influence of the ambient temperature on losses will also be discussed. Not included in the loss figure is any power required for cooling fans. The definitions of total losses as defined by the standards are slightly different for liquid – immersed units and for dry type units. Each of these two cases will be treated separately. C57. Once the base resistance value is measured. this is not an issue since the primary cooling means is free convection. The losses occurring in this situation are the load losses.12. The winding resistance is measured after the unit has remained de-energized for a specific time (three to eight hours for liquid immersed units and 24 to 72 hours for dry type units) in a draft free area. both IEEE Std. i. The fan heat loss is small compared to that of the transformer. The variation of resistance with temperature is determined by T + Tk Rs = Rm s Tm + Tk where Rm is the measured cold resistance at temperature Tm in oC. Units having a forced air cooling option will have different capacities and heat losses for each cooling mode. the winding resistance is used as a means of measuring the average winding temperature. The load losses are determined at rated frequency and current then corrected to the reference temperature.e.

hysteresis losses. In general. the losses are a very mild function of core temperature which influences core steel resistivity.e. P(Tr) is the no load losses at the reference temperature Tr (20oC). Should the test conditions differ from those presented by the standards. and stress caused by magnetostriction (the 120 Hz. eddy-current. transformer losses vary with core and coil temperature. Notice that the losses decrease as the temperature Tm increases. i. The core and insulating liquid would be at lower temperatures.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants load losses are small and the measured losses attributable only to load losses. Thus. The no load losses occur when the unit is excited at rated voltage and frequency in the absence of any load current. To illustrate how insensitive the no load loss is to core temperature variation. 4. matched units may have different loss variations with core temperature change. Given the no load loss value at the reference temperature.2 17 06/10/01 . The no load losses are determined at rated frequency and voltage and are reported at the no load loss standard reference temperature.e. evaluate the expression just presented with the suggested constant and a temperature difference of 65 oC (i. a correction is applied to the measured data through the calculation of P(Tr ) = P(Tm )[1 + (Tm − Tr )K T ] where P(Tm) is the no load losses at the measurement temperature Tm in oC.Report – Rev. The transformer core contributes the greatest portion of the no load losses. Also.00065 (o C)-1 as stated in IEEE Std. how the losses vary with core temperature is determined by core design and by the way an individual unit is constructed. 85 oC – 20 oC).90. the actual difference between the no load losses at the no load reference temperature and the no Phase I . dielectric or insulation losses. and winding I2R created by the no load excitation current and the circulating current which might be present in parallel windings. No load losses are made up of core losses (hysteresis. Under load. C57.12. Also consider that the 85oC number used in this calculation is the standard load loss winding reference temperature. The use of the reference temperature is to express these measurements on a basis that allows comparison with other units. not the core temperature. the decrease in no load losses is a factor of 4%. however. The constraints under which the no load loss measurements are made is that rated sinusoidal voltage is applied to a unit where the average insulating liquid temperature is within ± 10oC of the 20oC reference temperature and the difference between the top and bottom liquid temperature does not exceed 5oC. the no load loss value at some temperature can be determined from this last result by turning the last equation around to produce P(Tm ) = P(Tr ) 1 + (Tm − Tr )K T where P(Tm) is now the no load losses at some other temperature Tm. KT is an empirically derived constant having units of oC-1. the winding is the hottest part of the transformer. The following discussion illustrates how transformer losses are reported using the reference temperatures. A suggested value for KT in the absence of other information is 0. The no load losses are essentially a constant value. hum one hears from an energized unit). The standard reference temperature for load losses of liquid immersed transformers is 85o C. and magneto-striction). The standard reference temperature for no load losses is 20o C.

limits the induced currents causing stray loss) while the I2R loss increases with winding temperature. In performing the load tests. the stray losses are determined.01. It should also be appreciated that little change would occur in overall heat load if the no load losses at the reference temperature of 20oC were used. 4. The highest average Phase I . Tm. one suggestion is to evaluate the loss at the temperature value of 55oC for Tm. C57. The winding resistance determines the average winding measurement temperature. This would compensate for some of the reduction in loss with core temperature increase.90 states that no ambient temperature correction need be applied to the data provided the ambient temperature is within the range of 10 to 40 oC. in turn. The highest rated temperature rise is determined by the insulation class and is shown in Table 4. Load losses are measured when rated current flows in both the excited and the unexcited windings. it is seen that the omission of the temperature correction provides a slightly conservative figure for the no load losses should the transformer core temperature increase. By calculating the I2R loss and subtracting this from the load losses.Report – Rev. Variation of load losses with winding temperature for a transformer is described by  Tk + T   T + Tm  P(T) = Ps (Tm ) K     T + T  + Pr (Tm ) T + T  m   K   K where P(T) is the power loss at the desired temperature T specified in o C. and TK is the same as defined previously.12. Also. a figure close to the average of the 20oC and the 85oC reference temperatures. C57. The standard reference temperature for load losses is the highest rated winding temperature rise plus 20 oC. The change in no load losses is then on the same order as the loss measurement uncertainty (to be presented in a later section). Ps(Tm ) is the stray loss at the measured temperature Tm specified in o C. Pr(Tm) is the winding I2R loss at the measurement temperature. IEEE Std.2 18 06/10/01 . To account fo the increase in core temperature. stray magnetic field losses in the transformer structures or tank. and tank surfaces) and the winding I2R losses. The load losses are determined by wattmeter measurements. Dry Type Units: The total losses of a transformer are the sum of the no load losses at room temperature (25 oC ) and the load losses at the standard reference temperature. The stay loss decreases with temperature (resistivity increases with temperature that. the unit is de-energized and the winding resistance is measured. The recommendation of this work is to treat the no load loss as a constant.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants load losses under load conditions will be smaller than 4%. The information for Table 4 is taken from IEEE Std. Note that this calculation applies to both liquid immersed and dry type units as well with the exception that the standard reference temperature for liquid immersed load losses differs from that for dry type load losses. A temperature rise is defined as a measured temperature less the ambient temperature. Once the load losses are determined. The highest average winding temperature rise under full load is a transformer nameplate item. The load losses are broken into two parts being the stray losses (caused by eddy currents induced in transformer structures such as core clamps. From this brief argument. and losses associated with circulating currents in parallel connected windings or strands.12. shields. the inference that the no load losses are an even weaker function of ambient temperature than with core temperature is a valid conclusion. The load losses include winding I2R and eddy-current losses.

4. The reversed temperature correction takes the form  T + Tk + Ta  Tcr = Tr  r   Tr + Tk + Tra  where Tr is the load loss reference temperature rise. the load loss formula can be evaluated to find the new load losses corresponding to the new ambient temperature. The recommendation for this work is to treat the no load losses as constant. 1.91 supplies a formula for correcting the measured average winding temperature occurring at the current ambient temperature to the average winding temperature which would occur if the ambient were 30oC. Highest Average Winding Temperature Rise (oC) 130 75 150 90 180 115 200 130 220 150 Table 4: Limits for Temperature Rises (assuming 40oC maximum ambient temperature and 30 oC average ambient temperature) Insulation System Temperature Class (oC) The standards do not specify the necessity for temperature correction of the no load losses for dry type windings.90 does not specify a temperature correction. Through this means. and Ta is the new ambient temperature.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants temperature rise is dependent on the type of winding insulation and can range from 75o C to 150o C.0 for ventilated units with forced air. IEEE Std. This expression applies to dry type units.7 for sealed units. the Phase I . Tcr is the corrected average winding temperature rise. then C57. Ambient Temperature Influence When the ambient conditions differ from those assumed by the standards (30 oC). and 0.2 19 06/10/01 . The suggested value for the exponent n is 0. Any loss figure or efficiency reported for a unit would incorporate this temperature value.91 does acknowledge that the no load losses are a function of core temperature. since liquid immersed units are also sealed this expression can be used for those units. Tra is the standard ambient temperature (30oC). C57. however it does state that an appropriate temperature correction can be used. The standards are concerned with determining the average winding temperature which would occur when the ambient temperature differs from the expected 30oC.12. IEEE Std.12. For liquid immersed units.12.8 for ventilated. The concern of this work is just the opposite in that the average winding temperature occurring at an ambient temperature other than 30oC is of interest given that the reference temperature rise occurs at an ambient of 30oC. If the ambient temperature differs from this figure. C57. self cooled units. The recommendation is to take this correction and use it in reverse.Report – Rev. Tk is as defined previously. IEEE Std. C57.91 specifies a correction for the average winding temperature for dry type windings. n By knowing the new average winding temperature.12. However.

07 Smallest 150 234.oC Standard Reference Temperature .C Tk . The correction of load losses based on ambient temperature variations requires the knowledge of both portions of the load loss.oC n Tcr . If the I2R loses were three times larger than the stray loss. consider that the ambient temperature is changed by 67% and found that the load losses changed by less the 7%. the same as the loss measurement uncertainty. The calculations are summarized in Table 5. the increase in load losses for a 20 oC increase in ambient temperature would be 3%.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants influence of the environment on transformer load losses can be determined.oC Tm = Tcr + standard rise o  TK + Tm   T +T r  K     0.2 20 06/10/01 . Should the ambient temperature fall by 20 oC. one to provide the largest possible factor for temperature rise increase and another to provide the smallest possible factor given a 20oC increase in the ambient temperature.06 factor for I2R loss Notes Reference Rise . Depending on the size of the stray loss relative to the I2R loss. To put this in perspective. namely the I2R loss and the stray loss. it is seen that the load losses would be unchanged. Also. As an example of this calculation.94 factor for stray loss  Tk + Tr    T +T  m   K Table 5: Influence of 20 oC Change in Ambient Temperature on Load Losses The information in Table 5 shows the factor of how the losses will change with an increase of 20 o C in the ambient temperature. Now consider if the winding current were to increase from 100% to 110%. the numbers in the last two lines of Table 5 are swapped. the new load losses are within ± 7% of the losses at the standard reference temperature. A 10% change in current will produce at least a 21% increase in load loss (the “at least” stems from the possibility that the winding resistance could increase).7 57. It will be seen that the change in losses produced by this calculation will be small and the recommendation in this work is to ignore the influence of ambient temperature on load losses. The I2R loss can be determined from the winding resistance at the load loss reference temperature and the rated current.Report – Rev.7 155 180 205 1. The winding resistance is not a nameplate item and must obtained from the manufacturer. 4.93 0. From the numbers in Table 5. consider the case where the I2R loss is the same size as the stray loss.5 85 107 1.oC Tra .5 50 30 0. consider two separate evaluations of the last expression. Phase I . Largest 55 225 50 30 0.oC Ta .

The information supplied by these manufacturers is believable since it is known how the tests were made and the uncertainty of the results. the standards require the manufacturer to either test a representative sample of a specific transformer size or to make direct measurements on the unit in order to determine the loss values. The three manufacturers who supplied the loss data are well known within the power and utility industry. then the overall uncertainty of the load loss figure at the reference temperature would be slightly larger then ± 7%. transformers are placed in Category I. Of the thirty manufacturer names obtained from the NEMA web site. the following tasks will be accomplished: 1) The loss data will be separated into that for dry type and liquid immersed units. It is then seen that the ± 3% is an upper limit for loss uncertainty.12. TP2 and ST20) to determine losses must have a measurement uncertainty of ± 3% or less.90 and C57. C57. Five manufacturers replied. Losses presented by manufacturers were interpreted as being the average of a test batch. Information Deficiencies All of the manufacturers examined in this work state that they follow IEEE Std.12. Units tested in accordance with IEEE Std. twenty manufacturers were sent email requests for loss data and testing methods. The only information deficiency regarding transformer losses is the construction of the heat gain tables to present the results of this work Test Plan In order to complete the loss tables required in this work.90 or C57.91.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants If the changes in losses with ambient temperature were ignored.91 (observed by NEMA TP1. it will be necessary to ascertain that the manufacturer follows these standards before using that information.12. 4.12. C57.Report – Rev. For all of the sizes of transformers included in this study. three manufacturers reported loss data. In making any table related to transformer losses. Of the five. Owing to the clear standards used by industry and the availability of good loss data. Measurement Uncertainty Any manufacturer citing that they follow the standards specified previously would be providing believable data.2 21 06/10/01 . Manufacturers A table of manufacturers was assembled using the method described earlier in this report. The uncertainty of the average losses of a test batch would be smaller than ± 3% and the specific value would depend upon the number of units in the test batch being averaged. Phase I .

and PL is the full load loss.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 2) For each transformer size required by the TRP 1104 work statement.x. C57. PNL is the no load loss.C57. C57. NEMA TP 2 – 1998 Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers.12. and Regulating Transformers. References IEEE Std. and Regulating Transformers. If any new information is obtained. Power.12. This expression provides an interpolation of the power loss as a function of load current. IEEE Std. say x.00 – 1999 General Requirements for Liquid – Immersed Distribution.12.12.1999 Test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution.2 22 06/10/01 . NEMA ST 20 – 1992 (R1997) Dry-Type Transformers for General Applications. The reporting of load and no load data allows for diversity since the loss at some fractional current load level. Phase I . the average and standard deviation of the manufacturer data for both no load and full load losses will be reported.Report – Rev.90 . this new data will be included with the other information.01 – 1998 Standard General Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers Including Those with Solid Cast and/or Resin-Encapsulated Windings. IEEE Std. IEEE Std.1995 Test Code for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers. 4. NEMA TP 1 – 1996 Guide for Determining Energy Efficiency for Distribution Transformers. 3) Additional contacts with larger (having significant market share/reputation) manufacturers of transformers will be made through a telephone survey to acquire more data points for the loss tables.12.91 . C57. These tasks are to be completed in Phase II of this project. Power. can be determined by P(x) = PNL + PL x2 where P(x) is the power loss at a given per unit current load . IEEE Std. C57.80 – 1978 (R1992) Terminology for Power and Distribution Transformers. No additional resources or equipment will be needed for the execution of the steps just listed.

are not available. there are two types of losses that are affected by ambient temperature. The various frame assignments for integral hp. 115 for synchronous motors. The value of the winding resistance increases linearly as the ambient temperature increases. and 113. 113 describes the determination of efficiency of DC machines. This increase in resistance changes the I2R losses. 113 has been withdrawn and has not been superseded. core loss. and IEEE Std. Warming the equipment and thermal transients are not considered. It should be noted that IEEE Std. 113 for DC motors. The losses for a motor are determined by first selecting a representative sample of a given size motor. however. the stray-load loss will decrease. 115.2 23 06/10/01 . IEEE Std. measurement methods for polyphase induction motors is covered in Sections 5 and 6 of IEEE Std. For synchronous. definition of losses. Measurement Uncertainty For power measurements associated with the determination of the efficiency of an induction motors using Test Method B specified by the standard (IEEE Std. stray field or eddy loss. The stray-load losses have an inverse relationship with ambient temperature. For all other general measurements the instrument uncertainty is to be no greater than ±0. the nominal efficiency can be observed on manufacturer web pages or catalogs.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Motors Since the size range under consideration as specified by the TRP-1104 work statement is from 10 horsepower to 4000 horsepower. polyphase synchronous motors. Phase I . etc. 112 for induction motors. IEEE Std. These are I2R losses and stray-load losses. 112). friction and windage. The motors under consideration in the ASHRAE Handbook are both single and polyphase AC motors. Efficiency determination for synchronous motors is covered in Section 4 of IEEE Std. NEMA MG 1 states that the procedures specified in IEEE Std. All of the efficiency measurements are at steady state therefore.2 % of full scale. the devices examined in this work include polyphase induction motors. Chapter 28 of the ASHRAE FUNDAMENTALS Handbook contains a table of heat gains from typical electric motors.Report – Rev. induction. respectively are to be followed. 115.5 % of full scale. any heat loss must go to the environment. 112. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards The significant standards for motors regarding heat loss consist of NEMA MG 1 together with IEEE Std. 4. are added together and used in an efficiency calculation. The losses which can be divided into quantities such as winding I2R loss. The nominal efficiency is determined from the mean of the sample efficiencies. the uncertainty of the instruments is specified by the standards to be no greater than ±0. AC induction motors is contained in NEMA MG 1. Equipment Heat Losses The determination of the efficiency. So as the ambient temperature increases. Heat loss values in BTU’s/hr. and DC motors. in the same manner as with transformers. The ambient temperature does have an effect on the heat loss of all three types of motors considered. Specifically. 112. and DC machinery.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants IEEE Std. A significant item to extract from the manufacturer contacts is an estimate of the portion of the total power losses contributed by I2R and stray losses. The determination of efficiency is a process involving many steps and separate tests. 115 for synchronous machines does not specify instrument uncertainty values other than to state that instruments of high accuracy are to be used in the testing. the portion of the losses attributable to I2R heating needs to be estimated. and synchronous motors consists of several steps. 4. This list is not presented here. These steps are: 1) Tables of heat loss information are to be built from the data acquired regarding motor efficiency. Phase I . an overall uncertainty is hard to quantify at this time. The results of these tests are combined together in the efficiency calculation. induction. while the uncertainty of the instruments used in the test procedures specified by the standards are themselves specified in the same documents. These are: 1) What is the size of the contribution of the I2R and stray-load losses to the overall heat loss of the motor? 2) What is the overall uncertainty of the efficiency numbers found on manufacturers web sites and catalogs? In order to determine the influence of the ambient temperature on the power losses. There are five to six different types of tests for different types of losses depending on the type of motor being tested (synchronous. Information Deficiencies There are two primary deficiencies in the information related to power losses of electric motors. Since the overall efficiency is calculated from the sum of several different types of losses. Manufacturers In compiling the information related to electrical machinery. The overall uncertainty is a function of the uncertainty of the individual tests. Also. Since many variables go into this. or DC). Test Plan The test plan for DC. no overall uncertainty estimate has so far been found. no manufacturers were contacted owing to the easy availability of information regarding motor efficiencies. Given the tests and the instrument uncertainty.Report – Rev. the overall uncertainty depends on the combination of the uncertainties of each individual test. the overall uncertainty of the efficiency figures is not immediately obvious. A list of manufacturers has been compiled for use in Phase II.2 24 06/10/01 . induction. This may require phone calls to the manufacturers in addition to the data found on their web sites and catalogs.

NEMA MG 1 – 1998. two approaches are to be tried.Report – Rev. this information is then used to provide an estimate of the influence of the ambient temperature on the power losses. The uncertainties of individual tests are then to be combined into an overall uncertainty. The second approach is to attempt to segregate the losses into those that remain constant with load such as friction and windage and those that vary with load such as I2R. 112 – 1996. IEEE Std. This will be accomplished by determining the uncertainty of individual tests that contribute to the overall efficiency reported by the manufacturers. Phase I . Part I – Acceptance and Performance Testing. Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 2) An estimate of the efficiency uncertainty cap is to be determined through calculations. References IEEE Std. Which approach is feasible will be determined in this step of the test plan. 115 – 1995.2 25 06/10/01 . IEEE Std. Part II – Test Procedures and Parameter Determination for Dynamic Analysis. 4) In order to address diversity in power losses based upon equipment loading. 4. 3) Once the contribution of I2R and stray losses to the overall efficiency can be estimated. The first is based on the overall efficiency where reduced loads entail proportionally reduced heat losses. Guide: Test Procedures for Direct-Current Machines. Motors and Generators. 113 – 1985.

Report – Rev.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Second Category The equipment falling into the second category is reviewed in the following sections with an explanation regarding the information found from investigating the standards and conducting manufacturer surveys. in other cases. The test procedure to be used with each type of equipment is. The tests are necessary to draw a conclusion as to the trend between the published data and the measured data. Phase I . then the test setup or apparatus will not be presented again. measurements of environmental heat gains are necessary.2 26 06/10/01 . similar to that required for other equipment types. unique and. To remedy this lack of certainty. Measurements Equipment placed in this category has been designated as those devices for which loss information is known. 4. All those devices classified as Category II (or second category) can be determined from entries in Table 3. Also presented are the test plans for each of the second category equipment. in certain cases. however the quality of the loss numbers is uncertain. If the procedure to test one item is the same as that specified for another item.

copper or aluminum. however. IEEE Standard Power Cable. The most significant standard is IEEE Std 835-1994. Ampacity Tables and NEMA WC-51. Other significant losses take place in the sheath of the cable. Expressions to account for these effects are available in the literature and can be very easily included in any loss calculations. or concentric copper or aluminum. Sheath losses consist of two parts.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Cables and Cable Trays Characteristics of electrical cables have been studied by different investigators for well over one hundred years. 5 kV. The power cables also have dielectric losses in the insulating material and they are dependent upon the electric field across the dielectric. the current level. These heat losses depend upon the cable material. Circulating currents are induced in the sheath due to magnetic interaction of main conductors with the sheath. and methods to compute capacity of cables under different conditions. These losses however are influenced by the skin effect and proximity effect. The range of consideration of cable trays is from 12 to 30 inch widths in increments of 6 inches. Also.g. or 15 kV. Phase I . either AC or DC. This book provides details on construction of cables. The limiting factor for the cable heat loss is the temperature rise of the conductor. e. The most valuable reference. is a recently published book by Anders. 835.Report – Rev. 1997 (see references at the end of the section). and issues related to testing of physical characteristics of cables. Eddy current losses are much smaller than circulating current losses and are generally neglected. is the subject of the cited standards and references. 4. The most significant are the resistive losses in the main conductor. and the current type. The bibliography presented by Anders. Various standards governing cables are available and the literature on cables is well documented as seen in IEEE Std. one is due to eddy currents and the other due to circulating currents. Ampacities of Cables in Open-top Cable Trays. The sheath is usually made of solid lead or aluminum. Also significant to cable trays is NEMA WC-51-1986. IEEE Standard Power Cable Ampacity Tables. since too high a temperature rise will damage the electrical insulation. Losses take place in different parts of the cable. Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays. Circulating current in sheaths exist only if sheaths of two or more cables are bonded together at least at two locations. 1957. The book by Anders is the most comprehensive on the subjects and it includes all the issues discussed in the IEEE and NEMA standards. the AC voltage level of the cables in the tray is either 600 V.2 27 06/10/01 . Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards IEEE and NEMA standards available for cables address constructional details. losses in cables. the maximum ability to safely conduct electric current. ampacity issues. Equipment Heat Losses Cable heat losses are caused by I2R losses in the conductor. 1997 adequately demonstrates this point. The ampacity of the cable. The original approach to developing cable ampacities was presented in the pioneering paper by Neher and McGrath. losses. These losses are significant only at transmission voltages (above 69 kV).

and THWN-2. 75. Moreover. if sheaths are not connected. The second includes types TW. the bulk of the cable losses are the resistive losses in the main conductors. are neglected. such as nuclear plants.2 28 06/10/01 . but its insulation is only specified to temperatures such as 60. THHW. his results are not of much use since different cable sizes and arrangement could be used in a specific tray size. Based upon this discussion. cables are routed through conduits. insulation and sheath type. mainly for safety. The third includes THHN. This is prescribed in Article 318. thus. The following looks only at the maximum possible heat loss that meets the NEC as an illustration of the calculation. from which the maximum possible heat loss can be calculated. To follow is a discussion and some calculations to demonstrate that there is essentially an upper limit to the amount of heat that can be produced by a full cable tray of a given width. loading. he has neither specified the cable sizes and arrangement of cables in the trays nor the method used to calculate the values. THW. Only copper will be used in the following discussion. which makes a difference in how many conductors fit in a tray. Heat Loss in Cable Trays The National Electrical Code specifies the maximum number of conductors and their ampacities in cable trays. and RHW-2. Many of the insulation types cover only a few wire sizes. this table can be used to find the diameter of the cable (conductor plus insulation). (The Table appears after Article 830 and before Appendix A of the NEC). The next step is to find out how many cables can be placed in a cable tray. It is recognized that trays will rarely be filled with the maximum number of conductors and that these conductors will rarely be operated at maximum current. but they are extremely small and. Rubin. A given insulation may be put on a conductor in different thicknesses. Thus.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants In power plants. 4. Copper wire maintains its integrity to very high temperatures. There are four families of insulation that cover a range of conductor size from 1 gauge or smaller to 1000 kcmil or larger. and 2000 volts or less versus greater than 2000 volts. XHHW-2. and THW-2. and ambient temperature. In special situations. Trays and conduits will have some eddy current losses. and XHH. 1979 assumed typical cable arrangements in trays of different sizes to obtain a rough approximation of losses. Then there are Phase I . THWN. The sizes of conductor plus insulation are given in NEC Table 5. RHH. Conductors may be either copper or aluminum.Report – Rev. Cable Trays. power cables are routed in cable trays. if the number of cables and their physical arrangement in the trays are known. it is impossible to duplicate his results just so that his assumptions could be identified. total losses per foot of that specific cable tray can be computed. Hence. There are four main combinations: multi-conductor cables versus single conductor cables. Thus. number of cables. However. which come in 12 to 30 inch widths in 6 inch increments. RHW. so substantial discount factors will need to be used. and 90 oC. And the fourth includes XHHW. a test plan is presented which accounts for tray width. cable size. The first includes types RH. Once the conductor size and insulation type is selected.

4.09827 ohms per 1000 ft at 20 oC.00393 ohm/ohm/degree C at 20 oC.2223 in2. they would not remain at that temperature for long. This was done solely for the purpose of this discussion. Consider a 6 inch uncovered tray with single conductor cables of 1/0 copper and THHW insulation. Table 5 gives the diameter of this cable as 0. It is obvious that conductor temperature is an important parameter in determining the heat losses to the surrounding space. A second problem with this computation is that skin effect is ignored. the resistance R2 of a conductor at temperature T2 in terms of the resistance R1 at temperature T1 is given by R2 = R1( 1 +α (T2 .86 W/ft. This figure is multiplied by 0. so any combination should not result in vastly different losses. The power loss to the environment under these conditions would be Ω P = (11 conductors)(0. It also makes a difference if the cable tray is covered or not. The temperature coefficient of annealed copper is 0. The worst case heating loss is when all 11 cables are carrying 150 A.T1)) where α is positive number specifying the fractional change in electrical resistance per change in conductor temperature. This calculation is similar to the one carried out for transformer winding electrical resistance. the power loss would increase by 24. If the temperature of the copper increased to 50 oC.09827 )(150)2 = 24.65)(230) = 150 A. Type THHW is listed in the second column of Table 310-17.Report – Rev.00393)(50-20) = 2. kft One problem with this computation is that resistance increases with temperature.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants other constraints based on wire size. If the conductors started at 20 oC. the resistance with alternating currents is always Phase I . Article 318-10(a)(4) states “Where any of the single conductor cables are Nos. And there is a separate calculation for the case where the cables are spaced apart at least one diameter as opposed to the case where they can touch each other.3(0.3 W/ft.3 so the maximum number of cables is 11. The dc resistance of 1/0 copper is 0.300 W/kft = 24. rated at 600 V. 1/0 through 500 kcmil single conductor cables in uncovered cable trays shall not exceed 65 percent of the allowable ampacities in Tables 310-17 and 317-19.” Table 310-17 is for insulation ratings up to 90 oC while Table 310-19 covers the range 150 oC through 250 oC.532 = 11.65 to get the allowable ampacity for each cable in the tray. the sum of the diameters of all single conductor tables shall not exceed the cable tray width. All of the rules were developed with heating effects in mind. Article 318-11(b)(2) contains the statement “Where installed according to the requirements of Section 318-10. which is (0.” The ratio 6/0.532 in and the area as 0. In general. The allowable ampacity is given as 230 A for a single cable in free air at 30 oC. the ampacities for No. 1/0 through 4/0.2 29 06/10/01 . In general.

4.12)(150)2 = 29. The maximum power loss in the tray is now P = (6)(0. the loss would be P = (11)(0.75)(785) = 589 A. The National Electrical Code attempts to deal with all these effects in Table 9. If the tray contains conductors.218 in and the area is 1." Table 318-10 specifies a maximum cable area of 6. the diameter is 1. This article states: “Where single conductors are installed in a single layer in uncovered cable trays.” This reduces the allowable number of cables in a 6 inch tray from 11 to 6.Report – Rev. if the conductor temperature is known to be less than 75 oC. 1/0 and larger cables shall not exceed the allowable ampacities in Tables 31017 and 310-19. The result is (0.000 W/kft = 38 W/ft. The lack of consideration of the surrounding materials was done simply to demonstrate the influence of these materials on the heat gains for the purposes of the current discussion. If the cable is resting on an aluminum surface. all of the same size. with a maintained space of not less than one cable diameter between individual conductors. What happens if another option is chosen? Suppose Article 318-11(b)(3) is used. Consider a new example. using 750 kcmil copper wire and THHW insulation. it would be good practice to use Table 9.1652 = 5.2 30 06/10/01 . so skin effect does not affect the tabulated value. For larger sizes. and 0. The ratio 6/1. However. the tabulated ac resistance is 19% higher than the dc resistance of the same cable. there will be both eddy current and hysteresis losses.1195 Ω /kft. The power loss is Phase I . skin effect does make a difference in the table. the ampacity of Nos.12 Ω /kft for PVC conduit.1652 in 2. for the appropriate cable tray width. This Table lists resistance values of 0. The effect is negligible for small diameters.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants higher than with direct currents.13Ω /kft for aluminum conduit. up to this size.7 W/ft. A third problem with this calculation is that interactions with surrounding materials are ignored.5 in2 for a 6 inch tray. Article 318-11(b)(1) specifies that the ampacity of this size cable can not exceed 75% of the number shown in Table 310-17. 3-Phase. the values given in Table 9 can be reduced by using the equation shown above. 75 oC. then Article 318-10(a)(2) applies which states: “Where are all of the cables from 250 kcmil. rather the dc resistance. From Table 5. 0. the magnetic fields will induce eddy currents in the aluminum. 60 Hz. given to two significant digits.12)(230)2 = 38.7000 W/kft = 29. The dc resistance of 1/0 copper at 75 oC is 0. Using the 75 oC AC resistance for 1/0 cable.12 w/kft for steel conduit. the sum of the cross-sectional areas of all single conductor cables shall not exceed the maximum allowable cable fill area in Column 1 of Table 318-10. which is 785 A. For AC conductors. but should be considered for larger diameters. so the maximum number of cables is 5. How the cable is installed must be accounted for in finding the overall heat gain. PVC is non-conducting so the listed values are just the resistance of the copper. Table 9 gives an ac resistance of 0. in a 6 inch tray. “Alternating-Current Resistance and Reactance for 600 –Volt Cables.58. but increases the allowable ampacity from 65% of 230 A to the full 230 A.019 Ω/kft. If the material is steel. -Three Single Conductors in Conduit”. At 1000 kcmil.

Likewise. If this energy is being extracted by air conditioning. this represents an additional cost. multi-conductor cables and single conductor cables. one would expect to see the wire size increase. which results in (3)(8760) = 26.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants P = (5)(0. Uncertainty related to the loss calculations themselves is small. For example. Information Deficiencies Of concern here is the loss produced by a single conductor and the power dissipated by an array of conductors in a cable tray. to find a typical maximum power loss per foot. By efficiency.280 kWh / year. then the obvious choice is to install a larger wire. 4. we mean using the optimum wire size to minimize the sum of capital and operating costs. This is multiplied by the cost of kWh to get an annual payment. In such a case. An appropriate interest rate and time period can be used to find a present worth of energy loss. At the present time. Based on the above examples. suppose a building is designed with 100 ft of tray that dissipates 30 W/ ft continuously. Manufacturers No manufacturers were contacted during Part A of Phase I concerning cable power losses owing to the quality of the loss models. the NEC may not even be a good starting place for determining losses. i. no manufacturer list was created. It would not be unrealistic for the actual losses to be in the range of 1 to 3 W /ft. Measurement Uncertainty Calculations similar to the above could be performed for several wire sizes. both situations must be considered. rather than the 30 W/ft calculated above. If the incremental cost of a larger wire diameter is less than the present worth of electricity saved. if all of the many factors cited above were known then the heat losses produced by the calculations would be close to the actual conductor power losses. these tables do not exist. In order to construct tables for use by HVAC engineers. and not all cables will be carrying a maximum current.e.2 31 06/10/01 . If the voltage drop is used as a determining criterion rather than maximum ampacity. Calculations are necessary to produce these tables.000 W/kft = 33 W / ft. Phase I .019)(589)2 = 33.Report – Rev. a “thick” and a “thin” insulation. In these days of relatively cheap copper and relatively expensive electricity. the losses might decrease by a factor of ten. Not all trays will have the maximum number of cables. If efficiency is used instead of voltage drop. the economic optimum could easily be several wire sizes larger than the minimum specified by the NEC. The ability to calculate the cable tray power losses is readily available. and different tray widths. The total dissipation is 3 kW. this number is probably in the range of 30 to 35 W/ft for 6 inch tray. with a resulting drop in losses of at lease a factor or two.

each time selecting a new batch of factors. ISBN: 0877654379.J. 2) As illustrated by the discussion. IEEE Press. 8th Ed. Should any of the factors mentioned above be found not to be a significant influence on the results. It should be appreciated that the test plan to be used here consists exclusively of a numerical calculation. 76. New York. it will then be removed from consideration. These losses will depend on the load current and the tables are to be constructed with that fact well represented. John M. “The Calculation of the Temperature Rise and Load Capability of Cable Systems. 1957. 4. Ampacity Tables. The test plan for cable trays consists of randomly choosing the many cited factors for a given tray width. These tasks are to be completed in Phase II of this project. Anders. Earley (Editor). Vol.” Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. it was seen that the maximum losses produced by a given size cable tray was not heavily dependent upon the conductor size. Neher.H. and M. The mathematical loss models for cables are of sufficient quality that the needed results can be obtained through the evaluation of these models. References G. Caloggero.H. Rating of Electric Power Cables. IEEE Std. the intent is to arrive at a statistical mean loss for the given cable tray width.. 1997. McGrath. Natl. Fire Protection Assn. NEMA WC-51-1986 Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays.2 32 06/10/01 . size. Mark W.Report – Rev. National Electrical Code Handbook 1999 (National Electrical Code Handbook. 835-1994 IEEE Standard Power Cable. J. insulation and sheathing. Phase I . and ambient temperature. By repeating this calculation many times.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Test Plan The test plan for cables and cable trays is divided into the following steps: 1) Construct tables for single conductor power loss which include factors of conductor material. 1999. Joseph V. No additional resources or equipment will be needed for the execution of the steps just listed. Sheehan (Editor).

Some technologies are more efficient than others. and Air Conditioning SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Handbook.2 33 06/10/01 . or metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) for the electronics circuits in the drives. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards There are many standards which treat adjustable speed drives yet only one treats the determination of losses. insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT).Report – Rev. 995 . thermal switches and detectors. No information was discovered from which the quality of the data can be inferred nor has any published presentation of manufacturer power loss measurement methods for adjustable speed drives been located. air blowers. and vibration sensors). not all adjustable speed drives work on the same principles. it has been found that for a given horsepower rating. However. motor. no loss information is presented. Phase I . A comparison of data from one manufacturer with another is not straight forward since different manufacturers use different techniques for design of variable frequency drives. This standard is the withdrawn ANSI/IEEE Std. Testing is done primarily to verify ratings and to assure safety considerations. A useful discussion of adjustable speed drives is found in Chapter 40 of the ASHRAE Heating. Ventilating. the loss figures from different manufacturers vary widely. Moreover. tachometers. 4. Equipment Heat Losses It is quite common to find power loss figures for adjustable speed drives listed on manufacturer web sites. This common situation occurs despite the lack of clear. Despite the absence of a standard. The conclusion regarding the reason for the difference in loss figures is one of technology.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Adjustable Speed Drives The standard NEMA ICS 7 – 1993 defines a “drive” as a combination of the power converter. heaters. The concern of this work are three phase adjustable speed drives in sizes ranging from 25 to 500 hp in 50 hp increments. These drives are either pulse width modulated (PWM) or pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) and their internal operating frequency varies from 2 kHz to 15 kHz. widely used standard covering equipment heat loss. these drives are designed sometimes for constant torque operation while others are designed for variable torque operation. it is expected that the losses reported by different manufacturers will span a wide range and that is indeed reflected by the data found in this study. Thus.” Most of the other standards are issued by NEMA and UL and cover construction and manufacturing details. In examining the reported rate of heat losses. A drive system is an interconnected combination of equipment that provides a means of adjusting the speed of a mechanical load coupled to a motor.1987 titled “IEEE Recommended Practice for Efficiency Determination of Alternating-Current Adjustable-Speed Drives. data on heat losses is plentiful. motor mounted auxiliary devices (encoders. Some examples are: different manufacturers use either silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR).

This is a Phase II activity. however.2 34 06/10/01 . Information Deficiencies Owing to the good quantity of uncertain power loss data. The output power of the AC motor is determined through the measurement of shaft torque (through moment arm and scale) and shaft speed. five manufacturers replied. There is a sizable amount of data available on adjustable speed drive heat losses.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Measurement Uncertainty No uncertainty numbers are available with the loss figures available from manufacturer web sites and catalogs. All of these identified manufacturers were contacted through e-mail concerning equipment heat losses and/or efficiencies. supplying this information appears to be a competitive issue. By knowing the efficiency of the motor and the motor output power. A thermally insulated box will be constructed. Of those not replying. The fan speed will be controlled by the computer to maintain the interior temperature at a desired level. The AC motor can be loaded by a DC generator tied to a resistor bank or to an eddy current brake (not shown in the figure). Since so many manufacturers supply loss information for adjustable speed drives. Inlet and outlet power lines will be available as well as cooling air for maintaining the environmental temperature. The air flow rate is measured by means of a turbine flow meter. Of the 21 contacted. We were able to identify 21 manufacturers associated with adjustable speed drives trough the NEMA web site. the load level of the ASD can be determined. Test Plan The test plan is divided into the following steps: 1) The construction of the test apparatus shown in Figure 1 is the first step of the test plan.Report – Rev. adjustable speed drives are placed in the second category. then the loss numbers are concluded to be on the low side or the efficiency was determined at the most favorable load level. some quantification of the loss figure uncertainty and validity must be made. The data acquisition will be accomplished by a laptop computer. 4. The rejected heat is determined by D Q = mC p ∆T Phase I . The results of this survey were used in completing Table 3. This allows testing at different power levels. Manufacturers A list of adjustable speed drive manufacturers was compiled and these manufacturers were contacted through e-mail concerning losses and loss test methods. loss data were found on two web sites bringing to seven the total number of manufacturers having available loss data. It is desirable to have a confidence interval to attach to the loss figures presented by manufacturers. Assuming that this is a competitive issue. The temperature of the environmental air in addition to the inlet and outlet air will be measured by means of thermocouples. the quality of this data has not been ascertained. Before a table of losses can be completed.

and power dissipation can be measured externally through other instruments of known uncertainty would provide the necessary information for calibrating the test device. Cp is the specific heat of air at an average inlet and outlet temperature. A resistive bank whose current. only two sizes of drives can be tested with the given apparatus. The calorimeter was chosen to measure the dissipated heat over other methods since it is simple and accurate. computing a difference in input and output power is a process that can introduce its own significant error.2 35 06/10/01 .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants D where Q is the heat gain. Exhaust Air Flowmeter Thermocouple 50 HP AC Motor Insulated Box AC Supply Adjustable Speed Drive DC Generator Fan Variable DC Supply Resistor Bank Ambient Air Thermocouples Figure 1: ASD Test Apparatus 2) Once the test apparatus is constructed. and ∆T is the temperature difference between the ambient air and the heated air. these are 25 and 50 hp. The calibration process will consist of introducing a known heat source into the calorimeter and recording the output. Phase I . 3) Given the range of ASDs to be covered by ASHRAE TRP 1104. m the mass flow rate of the air. Even if it were possible to separately measure the voltage and current (and then compute the power). a process rich in noise and voltage spikes. the device will be calibrated so that the uncertainty of any test results will be known. Rejected heat could be determined by measuring the input and output power.Report – Rev. The goal of the calibration process will be to achieve a measurement uncertainty of ±10%. The variable frequency supply is accomplished though electronic switching of the power. The intent is to vary the load and the environmental temperature to determine the power loss. Also. This is not as easy as it sounds. voltage. 4. the measuring instruments must have a flat frequency response over a very wide band of frequencies since the frequency content of the current and voltage signals would be so different.

purchasing these devices for measurement purposes is expensive. These are: A) Is the published information higher or lower than the measured data? B) Is it possible to infer the quality of the published information for the equipment sizes not tested? C) How can diversity be determined for those devices not tested? D) Will tests at higher power levels be necessary? 5) Based on the test results and the data available from manufacturers. the goal is to draw conclusions concerning the quality of the published loss information. Chapter 40. and Air-Conditioning Engineers. ANSI/IEEE Std. turbine flow meter. 2000. specifically the correctness of the published heat loss figure and the variation of heat loss with room temperature and load. In order to assemble the test apparatus. and speed transducer 6) DC power supply. miscellaneous equipment TOTAL The items listed here are covered by the project budget. amp. Motor Controls. “Motors. Ventilating. 4.Report – Rev. In addition. It is necessary to rely on equipment donations and/or loans in order to accomplish this task. Refrigeration. $ 500 $2000 $1000 $ 500 $1000 $1000 $ 500 $6500 References American Society of Heating. several pieces of equipment need to be purchased. 2000 ASHRAE Heating. Phase I . and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment Handbook.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 4) For the two sizes tested. Industrial Control and Adjustable Speed Drives. and Variable-Speed Drives. 995 – 1987.” ASHRAE. and fan 7) Insulating board. three phase induction motor 2) Laptop computer 3) Data acquisition equipment 4) Shop time 5) Load cell. NEMA ICS 7 – 1993. Additional resources necessary for the tests are the adjustable speed drive units themselves. IEEE Recommended Practice for Efficiency Determination of Alternating-Current Adjustable-Speed Drives. TC wire. These are: 1) 50 hp.2 36 06/10/01 . tables will be constructed showing the loss information and confidence intervals. Owing to the price of adjustable speed drives. there are a number of other concerns to be addressed.

four have been found.2 37 06/10/01 .Report – Rev.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Battery Chargers A battery charger is classified as a converter since it converts AC power to DC power. The three UL documents. Utility Type Battery Chargers is not aimed at a specific application. NEMA PE 5. Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land Vehicles and Marine Crafts. no manufacturer of battery chargers was found to use the standard. There are three UL standards and one NEMA standard. The NEMA document is the only one specifying a test for the measurement of efficiency. UL 458. The range of battery charger sizes to be studied in this work is 100 to 600 amp in 100 amp increments. Battery chargers can be used to replenish power supplies of mobile units such as fork lifts or backup emergency devices such as IC engine starters for generators. The NEMA standard. the efficiency of the device generally appears to peak near 50% of load. These losses are presented in the form of BTU/hr values and efficiencies. Design tests consist of measurements made on the device to assure its performance with the NEMA PE 5 standard and to determine the device performance characteristics. While the NEMA PE 5 standard appears to provide exactly the information needed by this study. Some manufacturers have presented curves of charger efficiency as a function of load current. Phase I . Generally. “Instruction manuals and test reports shall be made available for all chargers. Equipment Heat Losses Information on battery charger heat loss was found on some manufacturer web sites.” The tests performed on battery chargers are divided into two classes designated as “design tests” and “production tests. and UL 1564 Industrial Battery Chargers are written for chargers for mobile vehicles. Design tests are usually performed when design changes occur or for new products. 4. In examining the tables of published efficiency. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards In searching for standards for battery chargers. The efficiency is then the ratio of the DC volt-amp output divided by the input watts and the fraction is expressed in per cent. The input power includes the power delivered to accessories such as panel lights and fans which also adds entirely to the environmental heat gain. it appears that the peak value is reported as opposed to an average value.” The efficiency test is part of the design test sequence. The power not delivered to the load is lost to the surrounding space. Design tests are not performed on each production unit. the efficiency curves are concave downward with the greatest difference between the minimum and maximum efficiency less than 10 %. In examining these battery charger efficiency curves. UL 508C Power Conversion Equipment. NEMA PE 5 also states in the documentation section. The efficiency is determined by measuring the total power supplied to the charger through the AC connection with a wattmeter and by determining the charger output power by measurements of the output voltage and current.

whereas the heat losses at a fractional load will probably be closer. Test Plan In order to acquire the information necessary to complete this study. No manufacturer has provided any information regarding the uncertainty of their published loss numbers. The battery charger is placed in the insulated box. while the other two manufacturers present power loss numbers for only part of the range. 24. The output of the battery charger is delivered to either a resistive load. battery chargers are placed in Category II. the conclusion drawn as to the quality of the loss data is that the heat losses at rated load will be greater than reported.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants No information has been found on the way these losses are measured. Battery chargers come in different voltage levels. such as 12. a DC motor and eddy-current brake. a test plan will be initiated. Only one manufacturer supplies the data for the entire range required by ASHRAE TRP 1104. Information Deficiencies Since loss information has been found. Measurement Uncertainty No measurement uncertainty for charger heat loss or efficiency is specified by the standards. another used 92%. One manufacturer has data for the complete range of equipment specified in the work statement. This test plan consists of using a modified version of the apparatus shown in Figure 1 to provide the measurement data. or the DC motor driving the AC induction machine as a generator connected to a resistive load.2 38 06/10/01 . No conclusions can be drawn as to the correctness of the loss measurements. 4. The Phase I .Report – Rev. One battery charger manufacturer used the efficiency value of 85% for calculating the power loss numbers for all of its products. The information needed to complete this work is to ascertain the quality of the loss information. The test plan consists of: 1) The test setup of Figure 1 is to be modified for the battery charger. The voltage levels need to be reflected in the tabulated data to be produced by this study if the different voltage levels are significant to the power losses. It is necessary to test equipment from the other manufacturers to determine brackets on the losses of a unit of a particular size. In addition to the tables to be produced by this study. or 48 volts for smaller current ratings and 24 or 48 volts for the higher current ratings. The results of the survey were used in completing Table 3. no conclusion can be drawn as to the validity of the data since no information on testing procedure has been found. However. Information from all three manufacturers is available. Manufacturers Only three manufacturers of chargers have been found A list of battery charger manufacturers was created and these manufacturers were contacted by e-mail and by telephone to ask about heat loss and test methods. Based on this information. other information deficiencies consist of insufficient data at certain current levels and a complete lack of power loss measurement uncertainty.

UL 508C – 1996. A transducer will be necessary to measure the DC current. In order to conduct the tests themselves.Report – Rev. As stated earlier. the device of Figure 1 will be calibrated so that the uncertainty is no larger than ±10%. then the tests can be accomplished. Phase I . The resource necessary to construct the test apparatus is a DC current transducer.2 39 06/10/01 . If these items could be loaned or donated. and 600 A capacity will be tested. Testing one of these devices from two different manufacturers will provide the information necessary for this study. The voltage measurement will be made with the data acquisition equipment which is part of the test setup shown in Figure 1. then an extremely good collection of data will be had on which to base diversity information. Power Conversion Equipment. 3) The goal of the testing will be to verify published heat loss values. UL 1564. 4. In order to test the complete range of battery chargers. Industrial Battery Chargers. The measurement of output voltage and current is necessary to determining the load with which the battery charger is being operated.1993. References NEMA PE 5 – 1996. Since the test setup will be slightly changed for these measurements. the calibration procedure will again be performed to check the validity of the measurements performed in the evaluation. UL 458 – 1993. battery chargers need to be obtained. It is necessary to rely on equipment donations and/or loans in order to conduct these tests.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants charger output voltage and current will be measured. which will require $500 to purchase. chargers of 100 A. If these curves could be verified. One manufacturer supplies curves of battery charger efficiency as a function of load. The laboratory kVA constraints discussed in the section on adjustable speed drives do not limit out ability to make tests anywhere in the range of battery charger ratings. Utility Type Battery Chargers. 400 A. The steps described in this test plan are to be completed during Phase II. Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land Vehicles and Marine Crafts. 4) The final step of the test plan is to use the measured information to construct the tables necessary for the HVAC design engineer. 2) The price of battery chargers is large compared to the total project budget.

From the NEMA web page 18 manufacturers of inverters were identified. the company only manufactures products related to inverters.Report – Rev. 10 manufacturers were eliminated owing to the size of the manufactured inverters. The results of this survey were used in completing Table 3. no conclusion can be reached as to the uncertainty of the measured test data since neither the test method is known nor is the uncertainty of the instruments used in conducting the test provided. This process of power inversion could be carried out with a DC motor and AC generator. These losses are presented in the form of efficiencies. The devices under consideration accomplish the inversion with solid state electronics. e-mail contacts were made and no manufacturers responded. No information has been found on the way that the efficiency or BTU’s/hr were measured. 50. The only standard found in the database searches addressing inverter manufacturing and testing was UL 458 titled “Standard for Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land Vehicles and Marine Crafts.2 40 06/10/01 . and 100 kVA and a three phase unit of 150 kVA. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards No standards were found which treat inverter efficiency or heat dissipation. or the company is no longer an inverter manufacturer. Manufacturers A list of manufacturers of inverters was created and these manufacturers were surveyed through e-mail contacts and by examination of company web sites. Phase I . 75. while two other manufacturers only have partial data. Likewise. One company faxed a data sheet that contained heat loss in BTU’s/hr. Of the remaining eight companies. Measurement Uncertainty Given the data presented by some of the manufacturers. Loss information has been found on two web sites and another manufacturer faxed a sheet containing losses after a phone contact was made. 30. no procedures or requirements are specified which treat power loss or efficiency. After some visits were made to web sites.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Inverters An inverter is a device used for converting DC power to variable or constant frequency AC power for applications such as motor speed control or an uninterruptible power supply.” Of the testing covered by this standard. no uncertainty information is presented with the power loss values or efficiencies. The range of inverters under consideration consists of single phase units of ratings 20. 4. Equipment Heat Losses Information on inverter heat loss was found on some manufacturer web sites. One manufacturer has data for the complete range of equipment.

The testing of a 20 and a 30 kVA units at different input voltage levels will supply the information necessary for this study. No additional resources will be necessary to construct the test apparatus. is necessary to run the inverter.Report – Rev. as stated previously. how uniform the loss information is for different manufacturers of the same size of equipment. the purchase of these devices is expensive. A DC power source. is ±10%. Owing to this fact. The load of the inverter will be determined through computing the time average of the power delivered to the resistance bank. Test Plan In order to determine the information required in this study. The major difference between the test apparatus for inverters and adjustable speed drives is the power source. The testing of the inverters is broken into the following steps: 1) The inverters will also be placed into an insulated box as indicated in Figure 1. Owing to the price of inverters. testing of inverters must be performed.2 41 06/10/01 . 2) The questions to be answered by the tests are: A) How well do the measured results agree with the published data? B) Does uniformity exist in similar size inverter losses from different manufacturers? C) What role does the input voltage levels play in the determination of power losses? D) Can any conclusions be drawn concerning the loss information from inverter sizes not tested? E) What is the influence of load level (diversity) and ambient temperature on heat loss values? F) Are measurements at higher power levels necessary? 3) The final step of the test process is to arrange the loss information is tables for the purposes of this project. The output of the inverter will be delivered to a resistive load. the power source was a three phase supply. the task remains to verify this information. This table will present the loss data together with uncertainty information. It is necessary to rely on equipment donations and/or loans in order to conduct these tests. The same power limitation applies to the inverter test apparatus. thus it will only be possible to test single phase inverters of 20 and 30 kVA sizes. and how the power losses vary with load. this equipment is placed in Category II. For adjustable speed drives. Ideally. at least two matched inverters of the 20 and 30 kVA sizes are necessary. The uncertainty goal of this test apparatus. which is available in the laboratory. Also Phase I .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Information Deficiency Since efficiency values have been found for inverters. 4. how the ambient temperature influences the rejected heat. in order to conduct the tests. That which is not known is the uncertainty of the loss numbers.

2 42 06/10/01 . Phase I . having inverters from at least three different manufacturers will provide answers regarding uniformity of losses. Standard for Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land Vehicles and Marine Crafts. Reference UL 458 – 1993. 4.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants ideally. The test plan describes activities to be performed during Phase II of this project.Report – Rev.

Report – Rev. as a result. C37. thus. A discussion on how the breaker heat losses can be modeled is now presented. The influence of a conducting enclosure around the breaker can increase the losses of AC breakers through stray loss created by eddy-currents in the enclosure material. The ranges of devices under consideration consist of DC breakers from 100 to 1500 amp. take place in the absence of excessive current then nuisance tripping of the breaker occurs. caused by excessive current. can also increase the heat loss of the breaker compared to a single pole. Also.2 43 06/10/01 . tripping the breaker.09. and medium voltage breakers from 1200 to 3000 amp. mounted close to one another. This information provides an upper limit for the breaker conductor temperature and. 4. These are over a hundred standards in the IEEE/ANSI C37 series and C37. the DC resistance is measured by passing 100 amps through the breaker and then determining the voltage drop. The motivation for testing the DC resistance is simply to determine the continuity of the conducting path. This overheating. Overheating. The actuator of the breaker does not contribute a significant portion of the overall device rate of heat loss. the spring pressing against the breaker switch all the while it is energized is free to move the breaker to the “off” position. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards There is only one standard which comes close to treating breaker power loss and this standard is IEEE Std. Increases in conductor resistance above the DC value caused by skin effect might Phase I . conductor temperature plays a roll in determining resistance. The thermal performance of the breaker is of concern to the electrical design engineer.09 is the only standard which provides a test procedure for the breaker DC resistance. The DC resistance provides only part of the picture for AC devices since skin effect tends to increase the resistance value.09. Should overheating. Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis. Equipment Heat Losses The circuit breaker dissipates heat through I2R losses. the power loss. Once the latch changes shape. especially in those breakers that are thermally activated is to be avoided. Proximity effect of the individual breaker poles. alters the shape (through thermal expansion) of the latch holding the breaker in the “on” or energized position. All of the items mentioned here have some influence on the total breaker heat loss. caused by other factors such as the environment. C37. The environmental temperature could also play a roll in influencing the conductor temperature and the breaker resistance. The power loss of the circuit breaker comes from I2R ohmic heating.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Circuit Breakers The circuit breakers in this study consist of both low and medium voltage AC devices and DC breakers. According to IEEE Std. No information has been found in this work that accounts for all of the various influencing conditions cited above. No breaker standard reviewed in this work was found to address circuit breaker heat loss. low voltage breakers up to 4000 amp.

The purpose of the DC power loss values. Likewise. might provide a way to model the power loss should this be a significant factor. the breaker conductor temperature approaches the maximum temperature rise specified by the standards. no breaker manufacturer measurement uncertainty information has been found. a catalog containing the DC power loss values was obtained while from another a spreadsheet providing loss as a function of load current for breakers of several frame sizes was obtained. Measurement Uncertainty The standard C37. is to provide information useful to field maintenance and testing of breakers. This brief discussion highlights a strategy that might provide a means of predicting the breaker heat loss. the determination of the sensitivity of the heat losses to ambient temperature. with and without an enclosure.09 does not address instrument uncertainty in the measurement of the DC resistance. From one manufacturer. the DC resistance can be found. The DC power loss of an AC breaker is measured by passing a DC current through the breaker equal in value to the rated RMS current. the plan has as a first Phase I . This information was used in completing Table 3. load created conductor temperature increase. The influence of AC skin effect. the DC resistance could be measured at room temperature using a current much smaller than the device rating which could be several thousand amps.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants possibly be estimated through analytical or empirical corrections. 4. If the DC resistance is to provide a possible means to model the heat losses. at the rated current. the quality of the resistance value must be known. In this case. and ambient temperature has to be determined in order to adequately account for all the contributing factors of breaker heat loss. If the heat loss is to be based upon the DC ohms to which empirical factors are applied. Test Plan The goal of the test plan is to provide a means of predicting the heat loss of a circuit breaker which accounts for the various factors mentioned. Manufacturers A list of circuit breaker manufacturers was assembled and the manufacturers were contacted by e-mail concerning breaker losses and loss test methods. As stated earlier. then the quality of the base resistance value must be known. The study of the increase in breaker heat losses with an enclosure might provide another empirical means to estimate the enclosure influence. If the DC resistance was measured at reduced current and at room temperature. Likewise. the I2R calculation at rated current might provide a useful estimate of the overall device losses. provided by one manufacturer. By using a resistance corrected for both skin effect and temperature. To achieve this end. then the temperature rise caused by the rated AC current increases the electrical resistance above the measured DC value corrected for skin effect. Information Deficiencies Starting with the DC power loss value. No information on the measurement uncertainty of the manufacturer supplied data was found. enclosures. None of this information on influences is currently available. The uncertainty of the DC resistance must be determined.Report – Rev.2 44 06/10/01 .

The power is 3 (300 )(480) = 250. The philosophy of breaker usage is that if the breaker performs its desired task. 480 V CB operated at the rated voltage and current supplying a unity power factor load. subtractive cancellation would render the result useless. Connections need to be bolted.Report – Rev. To determine the load losses. then tables of loss information must be developed.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants sub-goal to determine the uncertainty of the power loss information that is publicly available. enclosure. Before the steps of the test plan are enumerated. then whatever the losses happen to be are just accepted as part of the cost of doing business. The initial approach is to study the loss influence factors for several breakers in order to build a body of information for determining the empirical factors or to construct tables to satisfy the needs of this study. This brief test demonstrates that only the load losses need to be measured. then it becomes possible to test a CB on the bench with a modest amount of test equipment. One reason for this situation is that circuit breaker (CB) power losses are difficult to measure. a modern wattmeter could not measure a loss (less than 0. a discussion of the measurement of breaker power loss will be presented. such sources are not readily available from equipment manufacturers. This activity would be conducted during Phase II of this work. Even heavy cables will have significant voltage drops at these current levels. To illustrate this point. One obvious way to measure the losses would be to place wattmeters on both the line side and the load side of the breaker and simply subtract the two readings. Since the readings would be so close. A wattmeter could be used to measure the loss at rated voltage and no current to determine the dielectric losses. a decision on whether the breaker power losses can be approached through empirical factors or not has to be made. Based upon the measured data. The second sub-goal is to quantify the influence of all of the other factors. Even the best plug and socket will probably dissipate a similar amount of power as each pole of Phase I . After a source is located. As a confirmation of small dielectric losses. The sum of the two wattmeter readings would be the CB power loss. and if the dc resistance is below some specified value. 4. Based on the tests of a CB removed from service. This is one part in 2500. there is still a problem with test leads. virtually impossible to measure. consider the example of the three-pole. In order to test CB load losses. 300 A. If empirical factors can be used then the treatment of breaker losses would be a fast and simple calculation since once the breaker DC resistance is corrected for skin effect. Several breakers will have to be tested to assemble this information and to provide a basis of deciding how to model the breaker losses. This discussion will lead to the construction of an additional test apparatus.1 W) when the middle pole of a 300 A CB was energized at rated voltage and the outer poles were grounded. The dielectric loss can usually be neglected without significant error (a reasonable assumption for medium voltage levels and below). Unfortunately. If the empirical approach is not practical.2 45 06/10/01 . a source is needed that will deliver hundreds of amperes at a fraction of a volt. and ambient temperature then the heat loss of the breaker can be estimated given the load current. the power loss is probably no more than 100 W. If it is assumed that dielectric losses are independent of ohmic losses.000 W. temperature. rated current could be passed through the breaker at low voltage and these power losses could be measured by a wattmeter.

the winding voltage is zero and the winding current is inversely proportional to excited winding current through the turns Phase I . Usually a conductor carrying a large current is passed through the CT opening and the low current winding are used to measure a proportional output current. rated at 120VAC and 8 A. so a word of explanation is in order. For example. easy to use. A capacitance of 150 µF will allow 5A to flow at a voltage of about 90 VAC. volts. The power loss in the capacitor and leads is measured by moving the lead from one terminal of the load (high current) side of the current transformer to the opposite terminal (thus forming a short) and applying power. (larger ratings would obviously work but are not essential). In the no load configuration. The recommendation is to use a wattmeter that provides a visual and a digital readout (data acquisition system compatible) of watts. a 400:5 CT would produce an output of 5 A when 400 A passed through the opening.5 W at 5 A was measured in a preliminary test. 4. The desired qualities of the breaker test apparatus include that it is inexpensive.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants the CB would dissipate. The power source is a single-phase autotransformer. If the unexcited winding is short . iron core transformer will act like an ideal transformer under no load conditions.2 46 06/10/01 . constructed of readily available components. The capacitor limits the current to the very low impedance to be tested and allows the use of the full range of the variable autotransformer without damage to the instruments. power factor or VA. provided the voltage is not excessive.Report – Rev. the unexcited winding is left as an open circuit and the current in this winding is zero while the voltage is proportional to the excitation voltage through the turns ratio. Variable Autotransformer C1 120 VAC 150 µF Wattmeter 5:400 Turns Ratio Breaker Load Current Transformer Figure 2: Apparatus for Testing Losses in Circuit Breakers High currents are obtained with a current transformer (CT) operated backwards from the normal application. It is unusual to operate a CT in this reverse mode. low uncertainty (say ± 5% ). One method of driving rated current through a CB and measuring the power is shown in Figure 2.circuited. An inductive reactor could also be used in series. Any 60 Hz. The wattmeter should have a convenient means of excitation and must be compatible with the autotranformer. a figure of 7. Next is a modern single-phase wattmeter. and portable. and amps. but a motor run capacitor is more efficient. On the prototype of this apparatus. A wide variety is commercially available.

Report – Rev. the test lead termination is unbolted and the CB now takes the place of the short circuit. with and without the breaker. The total loss (maximum) in three-phase operation would be 3(30) = 90 W. specifying the maximum load for which the CT maintains its rated accuracy. Therefore a CT can supply rated current to a resistive load (such as the resistance of one pole of a circuit breaker) if the resistance is not too large. The first is that the ohmic loss varies as the square of the current. the measured losses increased to about 78 W. When a 400 A CB was inserted.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants ratio. or by using lower resistance test leads. The CT is still useful for loads beyond the specified burden. There will be a large magnetizing current and the output tends to decrease from the expected value without saturation. Two such cables in parallel would have a resistance of about 250 µΩ. wear. Second. the low current leads. Actual measurement of the power loss in a CB at room temperature requires a two step process. For example. It is not difficult to measure power and the true rms voltage and current on the low current side of the CT to within 1%. a GE JCW – O 400:5 CT goes into saturation at about 22 V on the 5A winding. the test leads are inserted through the opening of the CT. Two are obvious since they apply to most types of electrical equipment. This is generally consistent with its weight of about five pounds.2 47 06/10/01 . Power measurements are made at several convenient current levels.25 V. The maximum impedance would be 0. It would be called a 100 VA transformer. so the actual loss would be less than the maximum. Likewise a used CB was tested where pitting. The second is that ohmic loss increases with temperature and the actual conductor temperature is Phase I . for a number of reasons. First. circuit losses for a 400:5 CT with two test leads were measured at 48 W for rated current. 4. there will be saturation of the magnetic path. is the power loss in one pole or phase of the CB. As the load resistance increases from zero. The difference in the wattmeter readings. By way of reference. It is probably not realistic to expect the actual power losses in a given CB to be known to this level of uncertainty. Each pole of this particular CB is dissipating78 – 48 = 30 W when rated current is flowing. and the high current leads. The only number published is something called the burden. the CT. New breakers may have lower losses than the particular device that was used to test the prototype apparatus. and the actual current is usually not known. A larger resistance could be measured by putting two or three CTs in parallel. The current in the high current side can be measured to within 1% with a second CT operated in the conventional fashion. Neither the voltage rating nor the VA rating of a CT is published. A CT is just like any other transformer in that it can be operated in either direction (5 A in or 5A out) as long as the iron does not saturate. The actual rating would have to be determined experimentally. and the terminations are securely bolted together creating a short circuit. For example. a CB is operated at no more than about 80% of its rated current.25/400 = 625 µΩ. so a resistance of up to 625 – 250 = 375 µΩ could be measured with this circuit. and oxidation of the breaker contacts could have taken place. If the excitation voltage is too high. the corresponding magnetic flux causes the iron to saturate. When the voltage gets to the voltage rating of the transformer. The rated voltage on the high current side would be 100/400 = 0. Normally. a 30-inch length of 2 gauge welding cable with heavy copper lugs soldered at each end has a resistance of about 500 µΩ. There is now a shorted turn through the CT. the output (and input) voltages rises. Power measurements are repeated at the same current levels. The wattmeter would measure the losses in the capacitor.

2 48 06/10/01 . The intended limit on the test currents is 2000 amp. A less expensive relay class CT will be adequate.8 W.Report – Rev. Metering class CTs (0. thus. A demonstration of the influence of an enclosure where hysteresis and eddy current losses in the metals located near the current carrying conductors was performed. grease. Two CTs are required for either test setup where one CT supplies the load and the other CT is used to measure the load current. two at the terminals of the CT. hard to control factor is the variability of the contact resistance. respectively. The measured and calculated powers look plausible for the first two poles. there is little need to measure power to an uncertainty of less than 1%. The wattmeter needs to be purchased as well as large diameter cable and copper lugs for attaching leads to the breaker. A variable Phase I . A higher DC current would yield a lower resistance. The same laptop computer used with the apparatus of Figure 1 will be used with the test setup of Figure 2.1 and 31. This idea will have to be examined. The measured power loss of the same phases was 27. There are three contact surfaces involved in this testing. the 400 A CB mentioned above and used with the prototype apparatus tests had measured resistances of 140.4 W.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants usually not known. and 200 µΩ of its three phases. The steps of the test plan are: 1) The apparatus of Figure 2 needs to be constructed. the breaker electrical resistance and associated power losses. and 31. The AC resistance is always higher than the DC resistance and the percentage difference between AC and DC resistance increases as the circuit breaker rating increases. pitting) can make a substantial difference in measured power loss. Both methods indicate that the third pole has higher losses. Since the breaker transfers heat to the surroundings via free convection. It would be possible to visit a manufacturer or equipment distributor and measure breaker AC resistance. The second two CTs provide 2000 amp test capability.4. The history of the surfaces (dust. If this is true. Another. using 20 A DC. Values may change when a CB is opened and reclosed. A good engineer might get within 5% or 10% with these estimates.1% uncertainty) are not needed for this work. 4. and one at the pole inside the breaker. Required for this testing will be two CTs of the 400:5 turns ratio size and two CTs of the 1000/2000:5 rating. The apparatus of Figure 2 and the laptop computer provide a portable testing device.4. 22. If the CB could be disassembled and all surfaces polished. There are several steps in the test plan. 140. it is unclear at this time if the enclosure alters or hinders the free convective air flow (especially when the enclosure is ventilated) and. But reasonable estimates can be made for load diversity and for ambient temperature. For example. corrosion. Laying a CB on a steel sheet increased the measured power losses by 2% above the value obtained by mounting the CB on wood or some other non-conducting surface.8 W. the readings would probably be closer. For the third pole it appears that 20 A was not enough to thoroughly wet the surfaces. The influence of the enclosure created stray loss on the overall breaker power loss needs to be examined for AC devices. presumably due to surface conditions. giving a calculated loss closer to 25 W than 31. Calculated loses at the 400 amp AC current using the DC resistance measured at 20 A DC were 22.

and 3000 amps for voltage levels of 5. In order to complete these tests. Breakers having ratings greater than 2000 amp cannot be tested with the apparatus of Figure 2. 2000. The plan is to purchase two breakers. several equipment items need to be purchased. Medium voltage AC circuit breakers have a current rating of 1200.2 49 06/10/01 . 4. The plan is to test the 5 and 15 kV breakers having ratings of 1200 Phase I . An estimate of the equipment expenses is provided at the end of this section. The low voltage AC breakers then serve a dual purpose. 800 and 2000 amp. The redundancy is beneficial since it provides confirmation of the other test results. In order to perform these tests. The goal of the apparatus and experiment design is to predict the device losses with an uncertainty no larger than ±10%. Since data are available for low voltage AC breakers. and 15 kV. It was learned that all the breakers within a frame are the same breaker with the exception that the breaker is set to trip at different current levels. the breaker will be placed in the insulated box of Figure 1. it is only necessary to purchase one breaker per frame with the current rating being the same as the frame size. This uncertainty will be obtained through proper calibration. Low voltage AC breakers can also be used as DC breakers at voltage levels of 125 or 250 volts. only the 800 and 2000 amp frames need to be tested. Thus. These are: 1) 2) 3) Current Transformers Wattmeter Shipping. lugs TOTAL $ 400 $ 600 $ 200 $1200 The equipment items to be purchased fit within the project budget. 10.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants autotransformer is already available. This one breaker will then provide heat loss information for any breaker in the frame. from two different manufacturers in order to perform the tests. 2) In order to provide control of the ambient temperature. conductors. DC circuit breakers and both low and medium voltage circuit breakers must be obtained. 3) The testing will investigate the following questions: A) What is the uncertainty of the power loss values provided by manufacturers? B) How do the losses vary with load current? C) By what factor does the AC resistance increase over the DC resistance? Does this factor depend upon rating of the breaker? D) By what factor does the AC resistance increase when the breaker is placed in an enclosure? E) What is the influence of ambient temperature on the breaker losses (with and without an enclosure)? 4) Based on the results of the testing program.Report – Rev. This is easily appreciated since all the breakers within a frame have the same price. a decision will be made regarding the modeling of the circuit breaker power loses. The test data is to be organized into a form suitable for use by HVAC engineers. The insulated box provides some redundancy to the power loss measurements.

Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis.Report – Rev. Owing to the price of the medium voltage breakers. Reference IEEE Std. All TRP 1104 listed equipment that will be purchased in order to perform the Phase II tests is listed in a later section. A loan of two identical 15 kV medium voltage breakers from ABB (through TVA) has been secured. The Appendix contains a copy of the communications regarding this equipment. Phase I .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants and 2000 amps. Other than the test equipment listed for purchase and the test pieces.2 50 06/10/01 . 4.09 – 1999. the purchase of these devices is expensive. C37. no other resources are necessary. The activity described in the test plan is to be performed during Phase II of this project. Western Resources has agreed to allow us into one of their generation facilities to test a 15 kV medium voltage breaker.

Should a fault occur on the line. The limiting of the fault current is only temporary.16-1996 is titled Standard Requirements. such as a breaker. since the current in an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Another. Given the similarity of reactors to transformers. Equipment Heat Losses Reactor heat losses are divided into those produced through load current created I2R heating and conductor skin effect (including conductor eddy losses). the increase in line current caused by the fault is limited by the inductor. Another application of series reactors consists of using the reactor to filter voltage spikes and/or fast voltage rise times for electric motor.Report – Rev. to operate. there is only a resistive voltage drop across the reactor for DC applications or a small voltage drop in AC applications. Terminology and Test Code for Dry-Type Air Core Series-Connected Reactors. During normal operation. Even though a clear standard exists for loss determination. C57. Rectifiers are used on both the input (DC) and output (AC) sides of an inverter.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Reactors Series reactors are used in situations involving limiting current on feeder lines under fault conditions and in motor starting. the reactor appears similar to a transformer. among other applications. 4. The air gaps reduce the winding inductance and prevent saturation. no secondary. The limiting of the fault current protects the surrounding equipment. UL 506 does not call for the determination of heat losses. a visit to reactor manufacturer web sites have demonstrated that the standard followed by manufacturers is not C57. it is not surprising that the same standards committee within IEEE that produced the transformer standards has produced the standard for series reactors. however.16-1996 was issued. those produced by current circulating in Phase I . C57. the line current would tend to increase rapidly. Saturation of the magnetic path is undesirable since saturation could greatly reduce the inductance during high voltage spikes which is exactly when the reactor is most needed to counteract or filter the voltage harmonics or disturbances. Specialty Transformers. Reactors of interest in this study are of the air or gapped core. more common name for a reactor is an inductor. but this provides sufficient time for any fault remediation device. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards The definitive standards for reactors begin with ANSI C57.2 51 06/10/01 . The series reactor is usually found in both DC and AC applications where the reactor is connected in series with the power line for filtering and/or current limiting purposes. dry-type and are cooled exclusively by natural convection. The main distinction between transformer cores and reactor cores is that reactor cores have sizable air gaps in the magnetic circuit. with the exception that there is only one winding. The concern of this work is the power loss of standard size series and load reactors. By construction. The same core steel used in transformer cores is used in reactors.16 but rather UL 506 – 2000. and rectifier protection and prevention of voltage spike produced nuisance tripping. DC bus capacitors.16-1958 that covered both dry-type and oil filled reactors. This standard was withdrawn (although it is reported to be still used by the industry) when IEEE Std.

the same relation holds with reactors as it would hold with transformers. In order that the winding not change temperature while the measurements are taking place. the power loss varies with temperature by the same factor as the resistance. The place in the windings where the magnetic field strength is greatest is the space between the two windings. Owing to the one winding. In a reactor. The reported losses of a reactor are corrected to 75 oC. Rm is the resistance measured at the known temperature. While the application of this standard is clear for single phase units. The major difference between the two devices is the magnetic field in the vicinity of the winding. Since gapped core reactors do not saturate. the winding resistance (either AC or DC) is a linear function of the winding temperature. i. the current is specified by the standard not to exceed 15% of the rated continuous current.Report – Rev.e. Since the power loss is produced by I2R heating. the expectation is that the stray loss of a reactor is a bigger portion of the power losses than for a transformer. Suggested methods for loss determination include wattmeter. As with transformers. θm is the temperature in oC corresponding to the known resistance. Since the stray Phase I . While under load. there is no secondary winding to provide balancing ampere-turns. The winding AC resistance of the reactor is obtained by dividing the sum total of the losses by the square of the rated current. and bridge methods. It should be noted that stray field induced losses in surrounding equipment or apparatus is an application issue and not part of the reported reactor losses. A significant result of this situation is that the losses of the reactor can be predicted closely for any current level. and Tk is 234.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants parallel windings. According to C57. Variations of the winding resistance for temperature is accounted for by (θ + Tk ) Rs = Rm s (θ m + Tk ) where Rs is the winding resistance at the temperature of interest. In a transformer. As a result. the loss figure of any individual reactor is not to exceed the average unit power losses by more than 6%. the net ampere-turns of the winding are sufficient to drive the magnetic flux in the core necessary for rated voltage.2 52 06/10/01 . the transformer winding currents differ in sign and vary by a factor of approximately the turns ratio (the slight difference producing the net ampere-turns to drive the magnetizing flux). the winding power loss increases with temperature increase while the stray losses decrease with temperature increase.5 for copper and 225 for aluminum. The opposite and almost proportional winding currents create “load” magnetic flux essentially confined to the space around the turns of the windings in addition to the magnetizing flux that is confined to the highly permeable core steel. the reactor magnetic field in the vicinity of the winding is free to flow through the path of least reluctance such as steel core clamps or tank walls. for three units the average loss of a particular phase is used for the basis of comparison for the losses of the same phase of a given unit. and finally eddy losses induced in metallic parts via stray magnetic fields. the loss test can be determined at any current level and then corrected for rated current.16. θs is the temperature of interest in oC. The physics of operation for a reactor is the same as a transformer. This expression just presented assumes that the environmental temperature is not changing. 4. In regard to the influence of temperature on power losses. The net ampere-turns are small and would be zero in an ideal transformer having an infinitely permeable magnetic path. voltage drop.

there is little expectation for any information to be available on loss measurement uncertainty or loss measurement test methods.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants loss is a larger fraction of the overall power losses. Measurement Uncertainty According to IEEE Std. Steady state operation is assumed and any heat lost by the reactor is heat added to the environment containing the reactor. then the uncertainty of any power loss data presented by that manufacturer is not known and there is no information concerning the method by which the losses were measured. The only observed standard. Examination of company web sites disclosed that some of these companies were only indirectly related to the manufacture of reactors. These are: 1) The circuit of Figure 3 will be used to excite the reactor with AC voltage and to measure the power loss. which specifically deals with reactors. reactors have been placed in category II. UL 506 does not require power loss measurements. A total of 34 reactor manufacturers were found from the NEMA web site. 240V AC. the expectation is that the reactor rejected heat is even more insensitive to ambient temperature than the transformer.16. The web sites of the reactor manufacturers were studied to observe the standards claimed to be followed in the production process. Also. The quality of the published loss information is not known. 4. Information Deficiencies The extensive table of reactor losses provided by one manufacturer serves as a starting point for constructing the tables required in this work. The insulated box of Figure 1 will be used for power loss verification and for controlling the ambient temperature of the reactor. C57. The series inductor is used to limit test circuit current. If a manufacturer does not follow C57. The circuit of Figure 3 will supply in excess of 600 amp AC at 16 volts AC with the 15:1.16.Report – Rev. Phase I . Since a large number of manufacturers do not follow IEEE Std. listed on the web sites studied was UL 506 – 2000.16. Manufacturers A list of reactor manufacturers was created. Ten companies were contacted by e-mail in the survey and no responses were received. the influence of the environmental temperature on power losses cannot be determined from the loss information found. the uncertainty for power loss values is that the losses on any individual unit may not differ by more than 6 % from the average loss of all units of the same design. For these reasons.2 53 06/10/01 . Specialty Transformers. 10kVA transformer. C57. The web site investigation has turned up extensive tables of loss figures for series/load reactors on one manufacturer’s web site. The wattmeter is used to measure the power delivered to the test leads and the reactor. Test Plan The test plan for reactors involves several steps.

Likewise. 4) The final step of the test plan involves the organization of the data into tables to provide power loss information. the current sensor of the wattmeter will be supplied through a CT. The AC motor of the motor-generator set will be supplied at rated voltage and the field winding of the DC generator will be adjusted to supply DC current levels of up to 100 amps DC. In order to conduct the reactor tests. In order to perform these test procedures. three different sizes Phase I . In order to measure the power loss. Transformer Current Limiting Inductor 240 VAC 10 kVA 15:1 Wattmeter CT Reactor Load Test Leads Figure 3: Apparatus for Testing Losses in Reactors 2) In order to measure the power loss of a reactor being used in a DC application. The addition of a second wattmeter will require additional expense. The expense of the test circuit is listed at the end of this section. the “two wattmeter” method will be used. 4. a decision will be made regarding the necessity of additional tests to provide the amount of information required to complete the goal of this study. No other additional resources are needed for completion of the two test setups. The goal of the design of the experimental apparatus is to achieve a measurement uncertainty of no larger than ±10%.2 54 06/10/01 . The test apparatus allows the determination of power loss uncertainty in the manufacturer supplied loss data. the wattmeter will require an additional $600 bringing the total to $1600. It is anticipated that the transformer expense is $1000.Report – Rev. The expenses are included at the end of this section. It should be appreciated that Figure 3 is a three phase circuit although it is drawn as a single phase circuit for conceptual purposes. the motor – generator set of Figure 1 will be used. The apparatus of Figure 1 will be used to control the ambient temperature and to measure the power loss 3) Based upon the results of the first two steps.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Owing to the high current. a 10 kVA transformer must be purchased.

Requirements.16 – 1996. and Test Code for Dry-Type Air-Core Series-Connected Reactors. and 750 amps AC) from two different manufacturers are required. UL 506 – 2000. 200. C57. Specialty Transformers. References IEEE Std.Report – Rev. and large or 2. medium. The purchase of the transformer offers the opportunity to test this device. The funds for the 10 kVA transformer are available from the project budget.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants (small. 4. Phase I .2 55 06/10/01 . If these units will be purchased and are listed in an equipment table contained in a later section of this report. Terminology.

2 56 06/10/01 . Low and medium voltage circuit breakers are addressed within this study. attention will be devoted to the individual items. This information has been found from one manufacturer and it is anticipated that it will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Some of the items that these devices have in common are busses.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Composite Equipment Three of the equipment items placed in Category II involve a construction of smaller. 4. panelboards. This is a quantity that depends upon the construction of a particular device and is by no means a quantity that depends only upon the size or rating of a particular device. circuit breakers. The losses of the various transformers can be obtained through manufacturers and has been addressed elsewhere in this study. The enclosure losses arise by passing current carrying conductors near a conducting surface. The approach to be taken toward quantifying the heat loss from these devices is to be determined from the heat loss of the components that make up each of these devices. Table 6 contains a list of the composite equipment and the components into which they are divided. Space heater losses are easy to predict through nameplate values. Some of the components are already treated in this study such as circuit breakers and adjustable speed drives. The only items appearing in Phase I .Report – Rev. The unit substation is added to these three items since it can be found as a part of switchgrear and motor control centers. and space heaters. and motor control centers. The losses of bus bars can be calculated through analytical means. Motor Control Centers LV Circuit Breakers Disconnect Switches Motor Starters Bus Bars Space Heaters Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear MV Circuit Breakers Bus Bars Potential Transformers Control Power Transformers Current Transformers Auxiliary Compartments for Relays Auxiliary Compartments for Relays and Instruments and Instruments Adjustable Speed Drives Space Heaters Enclosure Enclosure Unit Substations Panelboards LV Circuit Breakers LV Circuit Breakers Bus Bars Bus Bars Auxiliary Compartments for Relays Enclosure and Instruments Space Heaters Unit Substation Transformers Enclosure Table 6: Components of Composite Equipment To determine the losses of these devices. standard items that might be common to more than one device. These three items are medium voltage and DC switchgear.

reference will be made to that part.2 57 06/10/01 . and unit substations will be covered in the same fashion as the other equipment items. Adjustable speed drives are covered in this study. each of the composite equipment items will be covered. switchgear. If the individual component has already been treated in a previous part of the report. For some of the composite equipment components. 4.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Table 4 once are adjustable speed drives. motor starters. and disconnect switches. It will be seen that there exists published manufacturer loss values for motor control centers. Information is lacking on motor starters and disconnect switches. Phase I . If the individual item has not been treated. panelboards. and panelboards. switchgear. The individual components of each composite item will be discussed. loss values are available from manufacturer web sites or catalogs. In the sections to follow here. then whatever test or measurement method needing application is discussed.Report – Rev. Motor control centers.

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Motor Control Centers
Motor control centers provide the capability of combining electric motor control devices and other related components. The motor control center consists of free standing, floor-mounted, vertical sections that are bolted together and consist of totally enclosed, dead front structures. The vertical sections are linked together by a common, horizontal, electric power bus. The vertical section themselves are used to house motor controllers mounted one above the other. The controllers are normally linked together within the vertical section by vertical power busses tied to the common power bus. The motor control center is essentially a shell or closet into which a variety of equipment can be installed. This equipment can consist of combination motor-control units, adjustable speed drives, and lighting panelboards. NEMA Std. ICS 3 contains a more extensive list of the equipment possibilities that can be included in a motor control center.

Review of Environmental Heat Gains
Standards
In addition to NEMA Std. ICS 3, other standards relevant to motor control centers are NEMA Std. ICS 1; 2; and 2.3 in addition to UL 845. Owing to the variety of ways a motor control center can be utilized, the choice of equipment included with the motor control center establishes the level of losses. The bare motor control center consists of empty enclosures and a power bus. Of itself, the bare motor control center produces no losses. When equipment is added, there is a loss associated with the added equipment and electric current flowing in the power bus. The bus losses are usually reported with the device losses. NEMA Std. ICS 3 outlines the method of measuring the electrical resistance of the power bus. This resistance is usually not reported on the equipment nameplate nor listed in the manufacturer literature.

Equipment Heat Loss
No standard has been found that treats heat losses or efficiency of motor control centers. As with the other equipment, thermal equilibrium is assumed. Any heat lost by the equipment is added to the environment. As an illustration of the diverse range of equipment in a motor control center, consider that the motor control center can be made up of combination starters (circuit breaker or fusible disconnect), main and branch feeder breakers, main and branch feeder switches, relays, timers, and other control devices, and busses. The conclusion reached in this examination of motor control centers is that greater attention has to be devoted to the loss values of the installed equipment types and the determination of the bus losses.

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Measurement Uncertainty
No information is available concerning the measurement uncertainty of motor control center power losses. The quality of the loss figures associated with a motor control center obtained from manufacturers depends on the quality of the loss figures associated with the installed equipment.

Manufacturers
A list of motor control center manufacturers was assembled and a survey on equipment heat losses was performed through e-mail and through examination of company web sites. A total of 28 manufacturers of motor control centers was found on the NEMA web site and all off these manufacturers were contacted in the survey. Two manufacturers responded to the survey. From an examination of manufacturer web sites, power loss information was found bring to three the number of manufacturers reporting power loss data.

Information Deficiencies
For those manufacturers who list motor control center heat losses on their web sites, a menu approach was taken. The deficiency in the published loss information is the equipment contained in the “typical” motor control center. When specific equipment items are tabulated, the means used to measure the power losses and the uncertainty of the tabulated loss numbers is not presented.

Test Plan
The test plan consists of determining the heat loss of the individual components making up a motor control center. Each of the items listed in Table 6 under the heading of motor control center will be discussed in this section. Should a measurement technique or apparatus be required, then the details of that issue are discussed. Low Voltage Circuit Breakers: The information relevant to low voltage circuit breakers has been covered in the section treating circuit breakers. Disconnect Switches: A disconnect switch is similar to a circuit breaker in that there are electrical resistive power losses, some caused by the switch material and some contributed by the contacts of the switch. No information has been found concerning either resistance or power loss values. Of the equipment listed in the TRP 1104 Work-statement, the disconnect switch is found as part of a combination motor starter. The testing of the disconnect switch will be performed with the motor starters. Motor Starters: The motor starter consists of relays, coils, switches, and panel lights among other equipment. The motor starter remains in the circuit as long as the electric motor it is attached to continues to run. The losses of the starter consist of resistive heating. Data has been located from one manufacturer regarding power losses from motor starters. No rejected heat uncertainty

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information is available form this manufacturer. It is necessary to test the losses of the motor starters. Transformer Current Limiting Inductor 240 VAC 10 kVA 15:1 Wattmeter CT CT Balanced Short Test Leads Starter Load

Figure 4: Apparatus for Testing Motor Starters

In order to perform this test, the circuit of Figure 4 will be used. This circuit is similar to that of Figure 3. The circuit leading up to the starter is three phase. It is shown as single phase in the illustration so as not to clutter the diagram. As in Figure 3, the two wattmeter method of measuring power will be used. Three CTs will be used to step up the transformer secondary line current to as much as 2000 amp. Three identical CTs will be placed on the starter side to monitor the current. This will require four additional CTs with an added total expense of $600. Through proper calibration, the goal of the apparatus and experimental design is to achieve a measurements uncertainty no greater than ±10%. To be tested will be NEMA types 1 and 3 combination motor starters. We have received a type 1 starter from the General Electric Company and we will purchase types 1 and 3 starters from another company. This equipment is listed in a later section of this report. The testing of any starter is limited to 2000 amp. The purchase of the CTs is within the project budget. Bus Bars: Bus bars are used to convey electric current through the motor control center. The bus bar can be constructed either from copper or aluminum. The bus bar has a large cross sectional area to reduce the electrical resistance per unit length of conductor. The power losses of the bar are still subject to skin effect and enclosure. The bus bars run from the feeder lines to the individual equipment housed in the motor control center. While power loss values per unit length have been found for copper conductors, the best way to approach the power losses is through calculation. As with cables, good analytical models of the bus bar are available. Some of these are found in the Anders book mentioned in the section on Cables and Cable Trays. Another is ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.23 which treats isolated phase buses. The plan is to develop tables of losses for the buses on a per unit length basis and to also estimate the total length of bus found in a motor control center.

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Space Heaters: The purpose of a space heater is to eliminate moisture or the keep equipment fluids from becoming too viscous. The heater has a nameplate with the watt losses specified. The plan is to test a few of these devices with the apparatus of Figure 1. If the devices deliver the power claimed on the nameplate, then no further testing will be performed. If the nameplate value is not an accurate representation of the total power losses, then additional testing will have to be performed. Auxiliary Compartments for Relays and Instruments: These compartments are used in switchgear for housing relays and instruments. Total losses in these compartments depend on the number of relays and instruments in these compartments. Since these losses are much smaller in comparison to losses in the rest of the switchgear, instead of providing losses for individual relays and meters the manufacturers give loss for the whole compartment for typical configurations. However, it is not clear if these values are actually measured or estimated. Owing to the great variations in what might occupy an auxiliary compartment, the plan is to collect and average manufacturer information regarding the losses of auxiliary compartments. Adjustable Speed Drives: Adjustable speed drives were covered in a previous section. Enclosure: The magnetic field generated by the current flowing in different equipment creates eddy currents in the enclosure in which the equipment is placed. For example, the current flowing in the circuit breaker would induce eddy current in the metal cabinet in which the breaker is mounted. These eddy current losses could be substantial. In fact one of the manufacturers reported losses in the enclosure to be equal to that in the breaker itself. Other manufacturers did not provide any information on the effect of enclosures. At this stage we are not sure of the level of losses in the enclosure. We feel that the values provided by one manufacturer more of less ad hoc values. Thus, we plan to test the effect of enclosure. The approach would be to determine losses in the circuit breaker without an enclosure and then the same test with the enclosure. Difference in the two values would give losses due to enclosure. This test can be repeated for different type of enclosures to get a better feel of this effect. We don't expect to obtain exact values of losses in enclosures of different type of switchgear equipment. However, these tests will provide a better judgment on the effects of enclosure. At the least, we will be able to establish the magnitude of these losses in relation to losses in the equipment. In other words, we will be able to corroborate or refute one manufacturer's claim on losses in the enclosure.

References
NEMA ICS 1-1993 Industrial Control and Systems – General Requirements. NEMA ICS 2-1993 Industrial Control Devices – Controllers and Assemblies. NEMA ICS 2 – 1996 PART 8: Industrial Control and Systems Controllers, Contactors, and Over-load Rlays Rated Not More Than 2000 Volts AC or 750 Volts DC – Part 8 Disconnect Devices for Use in Industrial Control Equipment.

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ANSI/IEEE C37. NEMA ICS 2. Installation.2 62 06/10/01 .23 – 1987 (1991) Guide for Metal-Enclosed Bus and Calculating Losses in Isolated-Phase Bus.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants NEMA ICS 2. Operation.3-1995 Instructions for the Handling. NEMA ICS 3-1988 (R1993) Industrial Systems.Report – Rev.1 – 1990 Devices for Motor Service – A Guide for Understanding the Differences. and Maintenance of Motor Control Centers Rated Not More Than 600 Volts. 4. Phase I .

According to IEEE C37. 4. Metal-clad switchgear have voltage levels which range from 5 kV to 38 kV while station type cubical switchgear range in voltage levels from 15. and conversion of electric power. it is not clear if there is one procedure for determining the heat loss. each of which contributes to the rejected heat. however.21. and supporting structures used primarily in connection with the generation. accessories. In order to quantify the heat dissipated by the switchgear. protective (relays) or regulating equipment for remotely controlling other equipment. a control switchboard is a type of switchboard including control.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear Switchgear is made up of several electrical sub-components.20. and control switchboards. transmission.20. it is stated that the dc resistance of the current-carrying circuit from terminal to terminal of each pole unit in the close position shall be measured with at least 100 A flowing in the circuit and shall not exceed the limit set for the rating of the breaker by the manufacturer. From C37. Since the voltage levels for medium voltage switchgear range from 5 kV to 15 kV. According to C37. protective. metering. the term switchgear denotes a general term covering switching and interrupting devices and their combination with associated control. metal-enclosed bus.5 kV to 72. also assemblies of these devices with associated interconnections. and regulating devices.5 kV.2.20. instrumentation. A switchgear assembly is a general term referring to metal-enclosed switchgear.3 are all specific cases of metal-enclosed switchgear.09.1 to C37. The switchgear described by standards C37. Equipment Heat Loss No standard addresses switchgear heat loss. it is necessary to include the heat lost from all of the various parts and accessories of the switchgear. both of these types of switchgear need to be examined. metering. Control switchboards do not include the primary power switching devices or their connections. Measurement Uncertainty No information on measurement uncertainty applied to heat loss from switchgear has been found. DC switchgear is covered by IEEE C37.2 63 06/10/01 . Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards From a review of standards. Phase I .20. some manufacturer web sites have been found which have power loss values.Report – Rev.1 and heat loss measurements are not specified by the standard.

Hence.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Manufacturers A list of switchgear manufacturers was assembled and a survey on equipment heat losses was performed through e-mail and through examination of company web sites. The deficiency pertaining to the information is first how to subdivide the equipment. the procedure of the test plan is to gather loss information regarding these devices by contacting manufacturers.Report – Rev. Potential transformers are very widely used in power industry and significant information on losses in them is available. Information Deficiencies Those manufacturers who listed heat loss from switchgear in a catalog. Each of those parts will be mentioned here. Potential Transformers: Potential transformers are used in conjunction with voltage measurements in medium voltage switchgear.2 64 06/10/01 . Therefore. Some of the manufacturers responded to the e-mail and loss data were found on some company web sites. Significant information on losses in current transformers is available and thus they will not be tested with the exception of the two CTs purchased for the test apparatus. 4. Table 9 contains this information. Medium Voltage and DC Breakers: These components were discussed in the section on circuit breakers. Bus Bars: Bus bars were discussed in the section on motor control centers. Control Power Transformers: Control Power Transformers are used in medium voltage switchgear to provide low voltage for instruments and other control equipment in the switchgear. we haven't planned any tests for potential transformers. and loss number validity. The procedure of the test plan is to gather loss information regarding these devices by contacting manufacturers. Auxiliary Compartments for Relays and Instruments: These components were discussed in the section on motor control centers. Space Heaters: These devices were discussed in the section on motor control centers. a menu approach was taken. Current Transformers: Current transformers are used in conjunction with current measurements of very high magnitude. Test Plan The plan of representing information regarding the power losses from Medium Voltage and DC Switchgear is to address the heat loss from the individual parts. These are standard power transformers for which sufficient data are available. uncertainty of loss numbers. Phase I .

Report – Rev.3 –1999. NEMA SG 5 – 1995. Power Switchgear Assemblies. Test Procedure for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis. Standard for Control Switchboards.20.2 65 06/10/01 . Standard for Metal-Clad and Station-Type Cubicle Switchgear. ANSI C37. Metal . References IEEE C37.21 – 1985 (R1998). ANSI/IEEE C37.Enclosed Interrupter Switchgear. Standard Definitions for Power Switchgear. IEEE C37. 4.2 – 1993. IEEE C37.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Enclosure: These components were discussed in the section on motor control centers.100 – 1992. Standard for Metal-Enclosed Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breaker Switchgear. Phase I .1 – 1993.20.09 – 1999. IEEE C37-20.

The panelboards under consideration exclude the familiar residential variety. and with or without switches or automatic overcurrent protective devices. Phase I . Measurement Uncertainty No information regarding panelboard heat loss measurement uncertainty has been found. and loss number uncertainty. 4. Test Plan The plan of representing information regarding the power losses from panelboards is to address the heat loss from the individual parts. The deficiency pertaining to the information is first how to subdivide the equipment. a closer look has to be taken at the individual components that make up the panelboard. verifying loss numbers. One manufacturer responded to the e-mail and loss data were found in a catalog. In order to estimate the heat loss of these devices. Each of those parts will be mentioned here.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Panelboards Standards relevant to panelboards are listed at the end of this section. Information Deficiencies The manufacturer who listed heat loss from panelboards in a catalog did not provide the information as to what was included with the panelboard. or both. Bus Bars: Bus bars were discussed in the section on motor control centers. Some measurement of component losses will have to be performed. including buses. Low Voltage Circuit Breakers: Power losses from these devices were addressed in the section on circuit breakers. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards The standards do not discuss heat loss. According to NEMA PB 1.” Panelboards operate at 600 V or less with a 1600 or less amp mains and 1200 amp or less branch circuits. heat or power circuits designed to be placed in a cabinet or enclosure accessible only from front.Report – Rev. Manufacturers A list of panelboard manufacturers was assembled and a survey on equipment heat losses was performed through e-mail and through examination of company web sites. for the control of light. Enclosure: The losses created by the equipment enclosure have been discussed in the section on motor control centers.2 66 06/10/01 . a panelboard is defined as “a single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants References NEMA PB 1 – 1995.2 67 06/10/01 . Panelboards.Report – Rev. Operation. and Maintenance of Panelboards. UL 67 – 1993. NEMA PB 1. Instructions for the Safe Installation. Phase I .1 – 1996. 4. Panelboards.

2 68 06/10/01 . Likewise. 4. the quality of the information varies from good for transformers to uncertain for circuit breakers. The bulk of the substation losses is contributed by the transformer. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards No standards were found which discussed heat loss from the unit substation. power loss information from several of the components of unit substations is known. and breakers among other equipment. Low Voltage Circuit Breakers: Power losses from these devices were addressed in the section on circuit breakers. Test Plan The plan of representing information regarding the power losses from unit substations is to address the heat loss from the individual parts. Information Deficiencies The information deficiency is the loss data in a format it can be used by the design engineer.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Unit Substations The unit substation consists of a power transformer. buses. However. Phase I . Bus Bars: Bus bars were discussed in the section on motor control centers. Measurement Uncertainty No information regarding unit substation heat loss measurement uncertainty has been found. Each of those parts will be mentioned here. Auxiliary Compartments for Relays and Instruments: Information regarding heat losses from these devices was presented in the section on motor control centers. enclosure. The substation is usually located with other equipment such as motor control centers or switchgear. No manufacturers were contacted regarding the power loss of unit substations.Report – Rev. Manufacturers No list of unit substation manufacturers was compiled since the bulk of the losses is from the transformer and since the approach in this work is to estimate the heat loss through the rejected heat of the individual components. Heat Losses No information on the heat losses of unit substations has been found.

Unit Substation Transformers: Power losses from unit substation transformers were covered in the section on transformers. Enclosure: The losses created by the equipment enclosure have been discussed in the section on motor control centers.2 69 06/10/01 . 4.Report – Rev.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Space Heaters: Information regarding heat losses from these devices was presented in the section on motor control centers. Phase I .

4. no manufacturers of non-automatic transfer switches could be found. The thrust of this discussion is that a possibility exists that design test data may be available to predict the transfer switches heat loss. Manufacturers Through the NEMA web site. it cannot be expected that all manufacturers would follow only the resistance method of determining the temperature rise. For each size and make. it is hoped that five independent tests of loss determination can be made. Phase I . no direct measurement of heat loss is made. NEMA ICS 10 defines a non-automatic transfer switch as “a device. operated by direct manpower or electrical remote manual control. There is an alternate way of measuring the temperature rise through the use of thermocouples. no loss information has been found.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Category III Category III is made up of manual transfer switches. the temperature rise of the conductor can be determined. We have found that Cutler-Hammer makes transfer switches of the non-automatic variety. The design test of NEMA ICS 10 specifies that the temperature rise is to be determined. Review of Environmental Heat Gains Standards While NEMA ICS 10 specifies the design tests for transfer switches. Manual Transfer Switches Applicable standards for non-automatic (manual) transfer switches are shown in the references at the end of this section.Report – Rev. but does not specify how the temperature rise is to be determined. a possible way of determining the transfer switches heat loss is through the resistance test used to determine temperature rise of the conductors in the transfer switches. The UL 1008 production tests for transfer switches do not include a heat loss measurement.” only manufacturers of automatic transfer switches could be found. However.” The switches are rated 600 V or less and are used in single-phase or polyphase application. By measuring the resistance of the circuit after carrying rated current. a series of tests need to be performed. Measurement Uncertainty No information regarding power loss measurement uncertainty for transfer switches has been found. thus. This device is discussed here. The resistance of the circuit is measured at a known temperature. In the design test specified by UL 1008. the standard also specifies that the transfer switches covered by the standards must also pass the production tests specified in UL 1008. In examining the web site of manufacturers of transfer switches. for transferring one or more load conductor connections from one power source to another. In order to accumulate the necessary information. By using the search key word “transfer switch. No survey was taken of transfer switch manufacturers.2 70 06/10/01 .

Automatic Transfer Switches.Report – Rev.2 71 06/10/01 . Industrial Control and Systems.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Information Deficiencies Since no standards could be found and no information could be found from manufacturers. References NEMA ICS 10 – 1999. The plan is to test as many as possible since no data has been found on the heat losses of these devices. Test Plan The transfer switch can be treated the same as a circuit breaker and the apparatus/method used to test a circuit breaker can be used here. It is necessary to rely on equipment donations and/or loans in order to conduct these tests. Phase I . the purchase of these devices with project funds for testing purposes is not possible. UL 1008 – 1996. 4. Owing to the extent of the project budget. transfer switches were placed in Category III. AC Transfer Switch Equipment.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Summary of Phase II Information The recommended ranges of equipment sizes to envelop the testing work in included in Table 7. The type. and/or assembling the tables for the final report. A budget for the Phase II work is shown in Table 8. it is seen that 75 % of the equipment contained in the TRP 1104 Work-statement is involved in the Phase II activity. Column six contains either a GO or NO GO as far as the completion of the data gathering and loss verification testing is concerned. which can be testing. it is not necessary to follow any testing standards since these are usually not addresses by the manufacturing standards. and permission for testing are included in the Appendix. donation.Report – Rev. Table 10 lists all the equipment connected with this work. By considering the unique equipment items listed with a GO and NO GO in Table 10. The first column lists the equipment type while the second column shows any sub-categories of equipment.2 72 06/10/01 . number. For the 25 % of the equipment for which verification measurements are not planned. No equipment will be tested at a manufacturer’s factory. number. If column six contains a NO GO then an explanation is listed in the seventh column. calculating (such as bus bar losses). Phase I . These explanations consist of either “Wait Equipment” indicating the a discussion(s) is (are) being held on equipment loans or “No Equipment Source” indicating that there are currently no prospects of being able to borrow the equipment. A time schedule for completion of the work is provided in Table 9. we will be able to collect and pool loss data from manufacturer web sites and catalogs for all equipment items with the exception of the manual transfer switch. testing of loaned equipment. Several pieces of equipment such as bus bars and low voltage circuit breakers are listed in Table 10 more than once. and sizes of equipment to be purchased for testing are also listed in Table 7. The fourth column shows the activity that connected with the equipment. In performing the heat loss measurements. The type. the published data eliminates the need for further testing. Letters of equipment loaning. The third column shows the source of the loss information such as manufacturer. For any verification tests to be performed with the equipment. In regard to data acquisition standards. the test apparatus uncertainty is listed in column five. In regards to testing standards. In the case of where the testing standards exist. all power equipment having applicable testing standards have been identified. The test apparati to be used in the investigation together with the level of measurement uncertainty have been documented in the test plan. and/or testing of purchased equipment. and sizes of equipment to be tested at in-use locations as well as the location of each site is also contained in Table 7. those honored by the selected National Instruments hardware (in this case the 6024E data acquisition card and the SC-270 terminal board with cold junction compensation) and the software package LabVIEW published by National Instruments will be followed. 4.

The quantity t1. Now suppose each measurement has an uncertainty of ±10% or ±0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Uncertainty of Results The testing apparati will be designed and calibrated so that the uncertainty of any measured test results is no greater than ±10%.1 (expressed as a fraction).95 is the Student t value for a 95% confidence interval for the mean of two numbers. Consider further that the equipment brackets the necessary range of equipment. the expectation of uncertainty of results will be addressed. but this is only an academic exercise. the testing will try to envelop or bracket the range of equipment specified in the TRP 1104 Work-statement.042 * 2 /(12. Each piece of equipment is tested at a given load level and ambient condition.707 * 30)) 2 = 0. the 95% confidence interval for the true mean value at either end can be expressed as µ ± t1. In addition to computing a mean. say a hundred time or more. The uncertainty of the mean of each data point is ± (± 0. We do not have the luxury of having a hundred devices of the same size to test! What is possible is to show how big or small the uncertainty of the data will be given a particular standard deviation.1)2 + (± t 29. This allows one to appreciate how the standard deviation influences the result. The measurements are averaged at either end of the equipment range.95σ / 2)2 which shows that the uncertainty of a given data point cannot be determined in advance but only after the tests are performed. the designer of the experiment can state the uncertainty of the results ahead of time. 4.2 73 06/10/01 . however it would be hard to assemble a large collection of the same size product from many manufacturers owing to the expense. Suppose it were possible to organize many samples of a particular type and size of an equipment item from several manufacturers into a collection and it was also possible to randomly select items from this collection. In this case. 29.1)2 + (± t1. Consider that there are two pieces of equipment from two manufacturers.95σ / 2 where µ is the mean and σ is the standard deviation. There are times when an experimenter can make the second term under the radical very small by including a large number of independent tests such as repeating a pressure or temperature measurement.95 (30) )) = (2. Further suppose that the sample standard deviation remained the same as you drew 30 random samples from the collection. a standard deviation is also computed at each end of the range. In the following explanation. an additional independent measurement represents a test on another manufacturer’s device. The uncertainty of the mean of this sample is ± (± 0.00011 which makes the second term small compared to the first term under the radical.95σ / 30)2 2 (2) / (t1. This might be a good way to conduct the testing. In as many cases as the budget and the equipment donations permit. The uncertainty of the data is a product of the testing procedure.Report – Rev. Given the standard deviation at each end. For us. 95 where the ratio of the second terms under these last two radicals is (t Phase I .

Phase I . Since tν.2 74 06/10/01 . However. For degrees of freedom of 5 or more. then the limiting value of the ratio u100%/u75% of these two uncertainties would be 0. The figure of 75% is arrived at through the consideration of the uncertainty of the sample mean.0. To arrive at a good estimate of the mean value and the standard deviation of the test data.1)2 + (± υ n. then the uncertainty of the mean will be in the range from being the same as to 25 % larger than the mean obtained from testing all of the manufacturers. the significance of the mean heat loss value is as important as the spread of the data. This size requirement on n comes from the behavior of the Student t table. then you would have a fairly good estimate of the mean value of the heat loss. the table entries do not change rapidly with degrees of freedom. the sample standard deviation. then the engineer may want to use a heat loss value larger than the mean. if only 75 % of the manufacturers were tested. the uncertainty of this mean estimate can be reduced through further testing as shown above but the significant information is not the fine estimate of the mean value but rather the mean value and the spread of the data. If the data spread is small.Report – Rev. the recommendation is that 75% or more of the products (of a given size and equipment type) available from different manufacturers be tested. the uncertainty in the mean value for performing a test on 75% of the manufacturers would be u 75% = ± (± 0. (± 0. then the limiting value of the same ratio is 1. Certainly. 4.95 (where ν is the number of degrees of freedom) does not change rapidly with increases in ν and since the standard deviation is not that sensitive to additional sample. If the data spread is large. The significance of this discussion is that the loss values going into the mean calculation should be as good as you can produce (± 10%). then the mean is a representative number of the heat losses. The uncertainty of the mean value obtained by testing all of the manufacturers would be u100% = ± If σ was very large compared to the measurement uncertainty of 10%.75n.95σ / n )2 . i.95σ / (0.75. If σ was very small compared to the measurement uncertainty.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants If there were only five manufacturers of a given product and it was possible to test all of the products. Thus. Suppose there are n manufacturers of a particular size device where n is greater than or equal to 5.1)2 + (± υ 0.e.75n ))2 .

50 hp 100 .412 Motor Starters: Cutler-Hammer NEMA Type 1 NEMA Type 3 TOTAL 604 1.15 kV Current NEMA Type 1-3 5 and 15 kV Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker 4 1 Loan/Site test Combination Motor Starters Space Heaters Types 1 & 3 2 2 2 2 Donation/Purchase Purchase 2195 100 $18.AIC) 800 A Frame 2000 A Frame TOTAL 2800 6000 $8.507 Not Determined Two sizes TOTAL Reactors: GE (Enclosed Units) 2A 200 A 750 A TOTAL Olsun Electric 2A 200 A 750 A TOTAL TOTAL REACTORS 155 690 2800 3645 570 1269 1928 3767 $7.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Electric Power Equipment to be Tested Adjustable Speed Drives Battery Chargers Inverters Reactors Low Voltage Circuit Breakers Testing Range 25 . 800 Amp/ 800 A frame 3200.600 Amp 20 . 1600.2 75 06/10/01 . 200.800 Table 7: Electric Power Equipment to be Tested Phase I . 400. 4000 Amp 2000 Amp/2000 A frame Frames 5 . 2000.Report – Rev.195 Low Voltage Circuit Breakers: General Electric (Spectra Line) (65k .30 kVA 2 to 750 Amp Size to Test 25 & 50 hp 100. 4. 750 Amp Number to Test 2 3 2 3 2 Number of Manufacturers 2 2 2 2 1 Equipment Source ------Purchase Purchase 7412 8800 Equipment Cost 800. 600 Amp 20 & 30 kVA 2.591 $2.

and travel.Report – Rev. Table 8 shows the estimated cost for acquiring the equipment or test articles for performing measurements. Phase I . The funds remaining in the TRP 1104 budget are sufficient to cover the test apparatus construction. equipment purchase.2 76 06/10/01 . personnel salaries.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Phase II Budget The expenses for Phase II are estimated here. Table 8 shows the how these funds will be used. 4.

Part B Guide to PMS Teleconference with PMS for second coordination meeting Incorporate comments from second review Deliver Phase II final report to TC 9. Part B Guide report Transmit draft of Phase II. Phase II report Conclude Part A. 4.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Phase II Time Schedule Phase II Time Schedule for Completion of Work Month July August September October November December January February Activity Purchase components and build test apparatus Purchase equipment for testing Calibrate the test apparatus Send request for shipping loaned equipment Begin cable and bus loss calculations Begin testing purchased equipment Test loaned equipment Acquire and organize published loss information Continue cable and bus loss calculations Continue testing and calculations Teleconference with PMS to assess progress Begin work on Part B.Report – Rev. Phase II report Transmit Part A Report Transmit current Part B Guide document to PMS Teleconference with PMS for first coordination meeting Continue work on Phase II report Continue work on Phase II report Incorporate comments from first review Continue work on Phase II.2 Table 9: Phase II Time Schedule Phase I . testing and calculations Continue work on Part B.2 77 06/10/01 .

Tables Manufacturer/Test <10% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A <10% < 10% GO GO GO GO GO GO GO GO Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Calculations Manufacturer Test Manufacturer Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test Study/Assem. 4. Tables Manufacturer Assemble Tables N/A <10% Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test < 10% Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test GO GO GO GO GO GO GO Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test <10% <10% GO GO Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer Calculations Manufacturer/Tests Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test Assemble Tables Assemble Tables Assemble Tables Study/Assem. Tables N/A <10% Test Test/Assem. Tables <10% N/A <10% <10% GO GO GO NO GO No Equipment Source Manufacturer/Loan/Test Calculations Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Manufacturer Test Manufacturer/Test Manufacturer/Test Study/Assem. Tables Assemble Tables Manufacturer/Test <10% N/A N/A <10% N/A <10% GO GO GO GO GO GO **** Testing not necessary . Tables Manufacturer/Test Test/Assem. Tables Test/Assem.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Information Source Actions Verification GO/ Reason for NO GO Test NO GO Uncertainty Equipment Category Sub-Categories Transformers Unit Substation Power and Lighting Potential Control Power Current Motors Synchronous Induction DC Cables and Cable Trays Adjustable Speed Drives Batter Chargers Inverters Circuit Breakers Low Voltage Medium Voltage Motor Control Centers Disconnect Switches Combination Motor Starters Bus Bars Space Heaters Auxiliary Compartments Adjustable Speed Drives Enclosure Unit Substations Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Bus Bars Auxiliary Compartments Space Heaters Unit Substation Transformer Enclosure MediumVoltage and DC Switchgear Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers Bus Bars Potential Transformer Control Power Transformer Current Transformer Auxiliary Compartments Space Heaters Enclosure Panelboards Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Bus Bars Enclosure Manual Transfer Switch Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Calculations Manufacturer/Test Test Manufacturer/Test Study/Assem.2 78 06/10/01 .combined with Combination Motor Starters **** <10% Manufacturer/Donation/Purchase/Test Test/Assem. Tables N/A N/A N/A N/A < 10% <10% <10% GO GO GO GO GO NO GO Wait Equipment NO GO No Equipment Source Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer + Purchase/Test Assemble Tables Assemble Tables Assemble Tables Assemble Tables Assemble Tables N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A GO GO GO GO GO Table 10: Summary of Equipment Testing Phase I . Tables Calculations Study/Assem. Tables Test/Assem. Tables Test/Assem.Report – Rev. Tables Assemble Tables Assemble Tables Assemble Tables Assemble Tables Test/Assem. Tables Assemble Tables Test/Assem.

a different letter was composed stating the specific sizes and ranges for the requested information.org ) where we are trying to update the information provided by Hickok1. the work of Rubin and Hickok has been the sole source for these heat load estimates. ASHRAE # TRP 1104.2 and by Rubin3. The letter shown here was used for obtaining information on medium voltage switchgear. Specifically.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Appendix Letter of Contact Example An example of the letter used for contacting manufactures through e-mail and requesting information on loss figure tabulations and testing methods is included here. Due to uncertainties in the heat loss information. In order to update this heat loss information.2kV. and 13. Up to now. For each type of equipment. Date: April 11.Report – Rev. http://www. and 3000A sizes) is the following: 1) Is your loss data published in a public document or web site? If so could you identify the document / web address where the information could be found? If there is no public data Phase I . we are working on a project funded by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating. It the intention of this research endeavor to obtain fairly accurate updated information for proper sizing of the HVAC cooling system. 2000A.2 79 06/10/01 . 4. I am contacting manufacturers of electric power equipment to obtain current data and test methods. As you can see. 2000 To: Electric Equipment Manufacturers From: Warren White Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Dept. is to supply the heating/refrigeration design engineer with reliable information regarding electrical generating/distribution equipment heat loss so that heat load estimates can be made for the purpose of sizing heating/refrigeration equipment. and Air Conditioning Engineers. The focus of the project. the HVAC systems for cooling electrical equipment rooms tend to be either over or under designed.8kV of 1200A.ashrae. KS 66506 Phone: 785-532-2615 Fax: 785-532-7057 Re: Medium Voltage Switchgear Heat Loss To Whom It May Concern: Currently. what we are seeking regarding medium voltage switchgear (5kV. the data is about 15 years old or older. 324 Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan. Refrigerating. 7.

any information you provide will be used anonymously. control power transformers. Any non-public information you provide will not be shared with other manufacturers. Hickok. No. “Energy Losses in Electrical Power Systems. Your help is greatly valued. White.e. If you wish to verify the information I have provided. v IA-21 n 3.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. the source of the information will not be attached to any non-public data revealed in any report. Phase I . John Riley or ASHRAE's Manager of Research. Sincerely.edu).ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants source. Their addresses are supplied at the end of this letter. pp. Herbert N.. v IA-14 n 5. 803-819.2 80 06/10/01 . 4. you may contact the Project Supervisory Committee Chairman. 11491152. please let me know and please pass this document on to that individual. Vol. Warren N. “Heat Losses from Electrical Equipment in Generating Stations. Bill Seaton. Mr. Should you have any questions or if you require additional information regarding the project intent and/or scope. Herbert N. could you provide us with loss numbers? Are these losses just I2R losses or are there some constant losses included? 2) How is the loss information determined? If you use a test method described in a standard.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. 4 July/August 1979. what is the standard organization and what is the standard number? If there is no applicable standard for determining losses. 373-387. 2 McDonald. etc. “Energy Losses in Electrical Power Systems. Mr. relays and control.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. Thank you for you time. 3) Please state loss wattage and test methods for determining the losses for other equipment such as space heaters. We will acknowledge any participating manufacturers in an appropriate section of any report or paper coming from this work. If so requested. please contact me by phone or by e-mail (wnw@ksu. Should you believe another individual is a better choice of contact. M. The goal of seeking this information is to be able to predict a reasonable loss value for the switchgear as a function of the load current. Associate Professor References 1 Hickok. pp. William J. May/June 1985.Report – Rev. i. PAS-98. 3 I. Rubin. We will be happy to provide you with a draft of our report prior to publication so that you may examine it. Sep-Oct 1978 pp. how are the losses determined? Please describe the test procedure.

GA 30329-2305 Fax: 404-321-5478 Phone: 404-636-8400 e-mail: ( bseaton@ashrae. John B. Manager of Research ASHRAE.org ) Phase I . Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle N. Atlanta.com ) Mr.2 81 06/10/01 . KS 66211 Phone: 913-458-2344 Fax: 913-458-2934 e-mail: ( rileyjb@bv.. Riley Black & Veatch 11401 Lamar Avenue Overland Park.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Mr. 4. William W.Report – Rev.E. Seaton.

ge. Russ (IndSys. I have already received these two items.edu'" <pahwa@eece.SLS)" <russ. they will be shipped later this week. 4.Report – Rev.edu) Kansas State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Rathbone Hall Manhattan.Forwarded From: To: Subject: Date sent: message follows ------"Niemi. KS 66506-5204 Tel: 785-532-4654 Fax: 785-532-1188 Phase I . Anil ------.ksu.ksu. even modest samples require about 3 approvals. Hopefully.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Equipment Donation from General Electric Warren.com> "'pahwa@eece. 23 Apr 2001 11:34:54 -0400 I have ordered you the following: SEDA36AT0060 with SRPE60A60 Rating plug 60 amp current limiting breaker CR306C104 starter with CR123C778A heaters I apologize for delay but in this economy. ------.2 82 06/10/01 .niemi@indsys.edu> Equipment Mon.End of forwarded message ------Anil Pahwa (pahwa@ksu.

I don't think that either device could be removed from our property. we might be able to test a 5 kV and a 15 kV circuit breaker.edu> Fri.2 83 06/10/01 . For your information. 23 Feb 2001 13:28:57 -0600 Of the items on your list. Tom ------.com Re: ASHRAE project "Anil Pahwa" <pahwa@eece.edu) Kansas State University Electrical and Computer Engineering Rathbone Hall Manhattan. Anil ------.ksu. The other items are not things that we use in our power plants. KS 66506-5204 Tel: 785-532-4654 Fax: 785-532-1188 Phase I .Forwarded From: Subject: To: Date sent: message follows ------Tom_Ward@wr.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants E-Mail from Western Resources concerning Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers Warren.Report – Rev. however. 4.End of forwarded message ------Anil Pahwa (pahwa@ksu.

1200A Please let me know if you (2) Dh150 air mag breakers with 250DC control 150DH500A - Item 2 -.Microsheild 32 Reverse Power Relay. ---------- Phase I .edu> RE: equipment Fri." <jwkurtz@tva. 2001 4:50 PM To: Kurtz. White. 4.MSOC overcurrent relays Item 3 -. below is some equipment from ABB. White[SMTP:wnw@ksu.2 84 06/10/01 . Let me know if any interest is expressed. March 19.Report – Rev.gov> "'wnw@ksu. Subject: RE: equipment Jim: We can use the breaker mentioned below.edu'" <wnw@ksu. 16 Mar 2001 10:05:03 -0500 Mr. Kurtz. James W. James W.edu Sent: Monday. Manager Substation Project's Protection & Control 751-3196 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ---------From: Warren N. have any interest in this equipment? > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Item 1 --Qty 15kV.edu] Reply To: wnw@ksu.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants E-Mail on two matched 15Kv ABB Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers from TVA ABB told me the breaker is [refurbished breaker good as new] James W. I expressed several questions regarding the equipment. Are you now in a position to answer those questions? Thanks for your help? Warren From: To: Subject: Date sent: "Kurtz. How old is it? In my last e-mail.GPU 2000 generation protection relay Item 4 --TPU 2000 transformer protection relay Item 5 .

edu] > Reply To: wnw@ksu. > > Warren White > > > > From: "Kurtz. Before you ship an item such > as this.edu > Subject: RE: equipment > > Jim: > > Thanks for your email. Are any > of these available? We might need to visit again with a phone > conversation regarding the quality of the data we would get from > this equipment. James W. Do > you have any knowledge of this? In our phone conversation. > > Looking forward to hearing from you.edu > Sent: Wednesday.Report – Rev. the disconnect > switch > > would require a more than a pick-up to haul. Also. 9 Mar 2001 13:11:13 -0500 > > Mr.2 85 06/10/01 .edu'" <wnw@ksu. I would need to know that also.edu> > Subject: RE: equipment > Date sent: Fri. > > > The following items we may be able to get over a short period of time as > > they are retired from service. I am trying to determine if the heat loss from an aged > battery charger would be significantly different from a new one. 600 and 1200 amps > > NOTE: These items would be approximately 30 years old or older. it would be wise to determine if the device could provide > useful data. you > mentioned that you use 125V and 250V battery chargers. White[SMTP:wnw@ksu.gov> > To: "'wnw@ksu.ksu. What is the voltage level of the disconnect > switch? We are looking for 600 V switches used in conjunction > with medium voltage switch gear. 2001 8:24 AM > To: Kurtz. > Cc: pahwa@eece. > > > > BOB PHILLIPS > > 423-751-6753 Phase I . 4.( 3-6 months. Need > to > > check to see if they would meet their needs. > > Below is the first listing of material. All of the equipment seems ok. March 14. I am concerned that > pitting and oxidation of breaker and switch contacts might give us > non-representatively high readings. Please evaluate for your project > and let me know if you can use. White." <jwkurtz@tva. > However.ASHRAE > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants > From: Warren N. We are still looking.) > > * Battery chargers 24 & 48 volt > > * Circuit Breakers 15-kV 1200 amp > > * Disconnect Switch. since we are looking for heat loss. If they need the > insulators > > with these items. James W.

White. The second time frame involves > > receiving and completing the tests on the equipment.ASHRAE > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants > > blphillips@tva. March 07. I > > would prefer to complete all testing by the end of this coming summer. Manager > Substation Project's Protection & Control > 751-3196 > > > > > ---------> > From: Warren N. James W. March 7. KS 66506-5106 USA Voice: (785) 532-2615 FAX: (785) 532-7057 > > > wnw@ksu. KS 66506-5106 > USA > Voice: (785) 532-2615 > FAX: (785) 532-7057 Phase I . Warren N. > > Subject: equipment > > > > Jim: > > > > This is a follow up to our conversation on Wednesday. Warren N. A letter from TVA describing the equipment > that > > you will allow me to test will help here significantly.gov > > > James W. > > > > One constraint that I have to observe is that ASHRAE (organization > > funding the investigation) needs to be informed that equipment is > > available to be tested.edu > Dr. > > > > Thank you for your help and time! > > > > Warren White > > > > > > wnw@ksu. Associate Professor > Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department > 324 Durland Hall > Kansas State University > Manhattan. Kurtz. Associate Professor Mechanical and > > Nuclear Engineering Department 324 Durland Hall Kansas State University > > Manhattan. The first involves lining up > > equipment to test.edu Dr. please don't hesitate to call or > > e-mail.edu > > Sent: Wednesday. In this regard.2 86 06/10/01 .Report – Rev. White[SMTP:wnw@ksu. 4.edu] > > Reply To: wnw@ksu. 2001 2:52 PM > > To: Kurtz. There > are > > two time frames I am working with. White. My hope is that I can complete the location of > > equipment to test by the end of March. > > > > Should you have any other questions.

March 07. going to call you. White about the restrictive listed as asked if he could use other equipment. Please check at your plant sites to see if they have any surplus. Arthur F. James W. 2001 10:05 AM To: Pinkleton. James W.Report – Rev. White said he might be able to use one of the towmotor chargers. Sent: Wednesday. I talked to Dr. 2001 1:21 PM To: Phillips.. Arthur F. He needs a listing of equipment before the end of the month. can we help? ---------From: Pinkleton. Sent: Wednesday. any rating. For example: He can use battery chargers up to 250 VDC. Subject: FW: equipment list Revised list. March 07. Allen. Ken. Hugh M.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants E-Mail Regarding Battery Chargers from TVA Attach is a list of equipment we have been asked to help provide. March 07..2 87 06/10/01 . Mr. Inverters of almost any size Any circuit breaker up to 15KV (accept small less that 200 amps) If you find something and want to know if he can use the equipment then please contact him. THANKS ---------From: Kurtz. He is Phase I . 4. Bobby L.gov > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ---------From: Higley. Subject: FW: equipment list Hugh. 'Bob Kleeb' Cc: Kurtz. Hugh M. Thanks BOB PHILLIPS 423-751-6753 blphillips@tva. Sent: Wednesday. LET ME KNOW IF WE HAVE ANYTHING AVAILABLE. 2001 10:11 AM To: Higley. Subject: FW: equipment list BOB AND ART SEE E-MAIL BELOW FROM JIM KURTZ CONCERNING EQUIPMENT FOR KANSAS STATE. This is all indoor type equipment. He said he could use other equipment. Kenneth W.

February 15.2 88 06/10/01 . James W. February 16. David Sent: Friday. etc. Subject: FW: equipment list Please review this list for potential items that we could loan them for testing. get vendors to give them. Kurtz. White[SMTP:wnw@ksu. look forward to hearing from you again and I hope we can work out a suitable deal regarding the equipment. Warren White I wnw@ksu. 2001 5:37 PM To: Hall. Warren N. Sincerely. Cc: Denney. ---------From: Warren N. KS 66506-5106 USA Voice: (785) 532-2615 FAX: (785) 532-7057 Phase I . Manager Substation Project's Protection & Control 751-3196 ---------From: Hall.Report – Rev.>> David: <<Equipment List. Associate Professor Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department 324 Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan. The equipment list is attached and it is in pdf format. Roy C. White. 4.edu Sent: Thursday. 2001 12:13 PM To: Kurtz.ASHRAE > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants James W.edu Dr. David Subject: equipment list <<Attachment information.pdf>> Thanks for taking the time to discuss my measurement needs on the phone.edu] Reply To: wnw@ksu.

2003 . Ph. Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering and Anil Pahwa.D.Heat Gain from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants ASHRAE Research Project 1104-TRP PHASE II PART A: TEST REPORT Warren N. Ph.D. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Kansas State University June 6. White.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Uncertainty in Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium Voltage Switchgear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Examples and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Motor Starters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Unit Substations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cables and Cable Trays . . . . . . . 25 Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 v 1 1 1 6 9 9 Phase II – Part A i 06/06/03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii List of Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Motor Control Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Spreadsheet for Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformers . . . . . . Introduction and Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Limits on Losses . . . . . . . . . . . Phase II Test Results . . . . 28 Low Voltage Breakers . . . . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Table of Contents Page List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loss Calculation . 27 Battery Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Motor Starter Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Adjustable Speed Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Appendix 1 Raw Data. . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Phase II – Part A ii 06/06/03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Medium Voltage Breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Figure 13: 260 Volt DC Battery Charger Load and No Load Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Phase II – Part A iii 06/06/03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 7: NEMA 0 Power Losses with Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 3: Extreme Range of Losses for 600V Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60% Diversity Factor. . 28 Figure 12: 130 Volt DC Battery Charger Load and No Load Losses. . 33 Figure 19: 200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure (250 Amp Frame) . . . . 32 Figure 16: Figure 16: 100 Amp Breaker Power Losses in Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Figure 10a: Power Losses of NEMA 2 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure Figure 11: Inverter Losses as a Function of Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 5: Extreme Range of Losses for 15 kV Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60% Diversity Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 10: Power Losses of NEMA 3 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure . . . 32 Figure 17: 100 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure . . . 19 Figure 4: Extreme Range of Losses for 5 kV Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60% Diversity Factor. . . . . . 20 Figure 6: Circuit for Measuring Heat Loss of Combination Motor Starters . . . . . 10 Figure 2: Snap Shot of Spreadsheet for Calculation of Losses in Cable Trays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 18: 200 Amp Breaker Power Loss With Enclosure (250 Amp Frame) . 23 Figure 9: Power Losses of NEMA 1 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Figure 8: NEMA 0 Power Losses without Enclosure . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants List of Figures FIGURES Page Figure 1: Typical Arrangement of Cables in a Cable Tray. . 29 Figure 14: 60 Amp Frame Circuit Breaker Losses. . . 31 Figure 15: 60 Amp Frame Breaker Losses Without Enclosure . . . . . .

. . . . . 45 Figure 29: 230 Volt Drive Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240 Volt Applications . . 34 Figure 21: 800 Amp Breaker Heat Loss With Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Figure 23: 1200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss With Enclosure . . . . .600 Volt Applications . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Figure 20: 800 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure . . . . . . 44 Figure 28: Reactor Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Phase II – Part A iv 06/06/03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Figure 24: Comparison of Measured and Reported Breaker Losses . .480 Volt Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium Voltage Breaker Losses. . 49 Figure 34: 1200 Amp. . . . . . . . . 46 Figure 30: 460 Volt Drive Losses . . . . . . 35 Figure 22: 1200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Figure 26: Reactor Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 31: 600 Volt Drive Losses . . . 48 Figure 33: Thermal Chamber Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Figure 25: Unit Substation Power Loss Calculation Spreadsheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Figure 27: Reactor Losses . 47 Figure 32: Drive Losses as a Function of Current . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 20: CT Circuits Used to Test Low Voltage Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 6: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having a 150 oC Temperature Rise . . . . . . . 26 Table 17: Motor Control Center Bus Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 14: Starter Watts Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table 13: Losses in Cable Trays for 15 kV Cables . . . . . . . . . . 37 Phase II – Part A v 06/06/03 . . . . . . 5 Table 9: Manufacturera A and D Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses. . . . . . . . 27 Table 19: Circuit Breaker Heat Loss at Rated Frame Current . . . . . . Table 4: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having an 80 oC Temperature Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants List of Tables TABLES Table1: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having an 80 oC Temperature Rise . . . . . . Table 5: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having a 115 oC Temperature Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having a 150 oC Temperature Rise . 31 Table 21: Coefficients for Breaker Loss Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having a 115 oC Temperature Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Table 16: Motor Starter Coil Losses and Overall Losses . . . . 8 Table 11: Losses in Cable Trays for 600 V Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 Table 8: NEMA TP1 Efficiencies. . . . . . 7 Table 10: Manufacturer E Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Table 12: Losses in Cable Trays for 5 kV Cables . . . . . 25 Table 15: Comparison of Motor Starter Losses . . . . . . . Table 7: General Purpose Liquid Filled Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 18: Inverter Losses as a Function of Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 42 Table 25: Regression Constants for Drive Losses. . . . . . . . . 39 Table 24: Reactor Power Losses at Rated Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Table 22: Nominal Efficiencies for General Purpose Motors. 38 Table 23: Arrangement of Motor Averages. . . . . . 50 Phase II – Part A vi 06/06/03 . . . . 48 Table 26: Adjustable Speed Drive Losses – Tested Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

then the standard deviation is reported as N/A. nonlinear units. If only one set of loss values was available. consists of a compilation of heat loss data and a documentation of the testing methods used to measure the heat loss of specific power equipment items. Tables 1 through 3 present information concerning general purpose dry type units. The data gathering methods consist of both compiling industrial catalog data when it was believed that this information is representative of actual losses as well laboratory tests where a sample of certain equipment items were tested to verify published loss information. The order in which the data is presented consists of the order in which the data collection for the various equipment types was performed. Some of the presented results consist of graphs and/or tables of how the heat loss values vary as a function of load. full load. and total heat loss data for transformers were obtained from three different manufacturers.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Introduction and Executive Summary The Phase II report for “Heat Gain from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants” is divided into two separate documents being Part A and Part B. Since only one value was found for each size of nonlinear unit. In some cases there is both an absence of standards and an availability of only very crude estimates (if at all) of heat loss information. the methods by which the tests were performed are documented. both an average and a standard deviation was computed. The Part A document contains the heat loss information accumulated through the data gathering methods specified in the Phase I report of this investigation. When more than one set of loss values was available for the same size unit. In the situations where it was necessary to make equipment tests. Tables 4 through 6 pertain to dry type. The deciding factor between testing and simply accepting catalog data is the availability and adherence to published testing and/or manufacturing standards. losses are shown for units having a K factor of 4 and 13. Phase II –Test Results Transformers No load. The results of the data collection are shown in Tables 1 through 7. Part A of the report. The same is true for the liquid immersed Phase II – Part A 1 06/06/03 . In each table involving the nonlinear units. This order is different than the organization of equipment coverage in the Phase I document where the three categories defined in the RP 1104 work statement were used to organize the discussion of heat losses. no average heat loss or standard deviation is reported. which this document constitutes. These three scenarios represent the spectrum of the information presented in this document. The Part B document contains heat loss information together with instructions on using the heat loss information in determining the heat load. Table 7 contains data concerning liquid filled units. formulae are also presented for the calculation of losses since this might prove the most convenient for the engineer. The means of using the data for calculations is contained in the Part B portion of this report. In addition to the graphical and tabulated representation of losses.

The K Factor reported in Tables 4 through 6 is defined as the ratio between the additional losses due to harmonics and the eddy losses at 60 Hz. Table1: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having an 80 oC Temperature Rise Table 2: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having a 115 oC Temperature Rise Phase II – Part A 2 06/06/03 . It is used to specify transformers for nonlinear loads.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants units.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Table 3: General Purpose Dry Type Units Having a 150 oC Temperature Rise Table 4: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having an 80 oC Temperature Rise Phase II – Part A 3 06/06/03 .

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Table 5: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having a 115 oC Temperature Rise Table 6: Nonlinear Dry Type Units Having a 150 oC Temperature Rise Table 7: General Purpose Liquid Filled Units Phase II – Part A 4 06/06/03 .

0 98.0 99. kVA. i.4 99.3 97.3 98. pf is the power factor. From the definition of efficiency.5.4 98.2 98.5 97. and power factor equal to the corresponding value obtained from Table 8 for the appropriate load fraction. lf curve occurs at the given value.5 98. NL is the no load loss. 0.0 99. Using the idea of peak efficiency.35 or 0.e. dry type units and medium voltage liquid immersed units.7 98.8 98.5 150 225 300 500 750 1000 1500 2000 2500 Dry Type Low Voltage 75 oC – 35% Load 97.8 98. is d (lf ) zero at this point and relation provides another equation for the two unknown losses.1 99.9 99. we have pf ⋅ kVA ⋅ 1000 ⋅ lf η o = 100( )% (2) pf ⋅ kVA ⋅ 1000 ⋅ lf + NL + Load Loss ⋅ lf 2 where ηo is the efficiency in percent.3 99.8 98.3 98. .5.7 98. Solving the two derived equations for the two unknown losses produces η   1 − o  ⋅ pf ⋅ kVA ⋅ 1000  100  Load Loss = (3) ηo 2lf ⋅ 100 Phase II – Part A 5 06/06/03 . the slope of the curve.9 99.0 99.6 98.9 98. These efficiency values represent lower bounds on the peak efficiency that a transformer must meet or surpass before is may be given the Class 1 designation. low voltage units. Since the peak of the dη efficiency vs. the peak efficiency usually occurs at 35 % of full load while for medium voltage.2 98.6 97.7 98. i. Load Loss is the full load loss. we get one equation for the two unknowns of NL and Load Loss.5 98.8 97. the peak efficiency usually occurs at 50 % of full load. lf is the load fraction.2 99.2 99.0 99.9 ------------- Dry Type Medium Voltage 75 oC – 50% 96.0 98.1 98. values of load and no load losses can be determined.4 Table 8: NEMA TP1 Efficiencies Table 8 shows NEMA Class 1 transformer efficiencies.35 or 0.e 0.7 98.0 97. and the units of both the numerator and denominator are power. By setting the efficiency expression for a given unit type.5 98. For dry type.1 Liquid Immersed Medium Voltage 85 oC – 50% 98.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants KVA 15 30 45 75 112.

respectively. no testing was possible within the scope of this project. Likewise.ASHRAE and TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants  100  2 (4) NL = pf ⋅ kVA ⋅ 1000 ⋅ lf ⋅   η − 1 − lf ⋅ (Load Loss )   o  where ηo comes from Table 8 and lf is either 0. Phase II – Part A 6 06/06/03 . some manufacturers publish some general tables for predicting the heat loss. the only devices uncovered in this effort were simplified models for determining rejected heat. some of the information still matches data contained in the 1985 paper of McDonald and Hickok listed in the Phase I report.35 or 0.5 depending if a low or medium voltage unit. Only the dry type units require temperature correction. then the losses are approximately 2  T + T REF   transformer total losses = NL + (Load Loss )(lf )  K  T + 75 o C  watts   K (5) where TK is 234. Although this information was obtained from the latest versions of manufacturers’ documents. and lf is the load fraction. and TREF is the reference temperature. While there are proprietary models and software packages used by manufacturers for estimating the heat loss of these devices. Given the full capability of the of the unit in kVA.5o C for copper windings or 225o C for aluminum windings. Medium Voltage Switchgear Owing to the unavailability and expense of medium voltage switchgear. is under consideration. Tables 9 and 10 list the data obtained from three different manufacturers.

Stacked Each Vertical Section with Simple Relaying & Control Each Vertical Section with Simple Relaying & Control Each PT Rollout Each CPT rollout up to 15kVA Equipment Heaters if Supplied Watts Loss 600 1400 2000 500 750 840 675 1335 2030 2765 1220 1880 150 330 50 600 300 A D Table 9: Manufacturers A & D Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses Phase II – Part A 7 06/06/03 .Stacked 1-1200 Amp & 1-2000 Amp Breker .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Manufacturer Equipment 1200 Amp Breaker 2000 Amp Breaker 3000 Amp Breaker 600 Amp Unfused Switch 1200 Amp Unfused Switch 100 Amp CL Fuse 1200 Amp Breaker 2000 Amp Breaker 3000 Amp Breaker 3500/4000 Amp Breaker 2-1200 Amp Beakers .

1 Phase CPT – 15 kVA. 1 Phase CPT – 25 kVA. 3 Phase Heaters 150 Watt 300 Watt heater at 75 Watts 60 115 175 295 450 520 885 150 75 Table 10: Manufacturer E Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses According to manufacturer E. Phase II – Part A 8 06/06/03 . 1 phase CPT – 45 kVA.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Equipment Breakers 1200 Amp Breaker 2000 Amp Breaker Watts Loss 413 845 23 45 75 113 150 150 108 180 115 204 CTs – Sets of three 600:5 – Turns Ratio 1200:5 – Turns Ratio 2000:5 – Turns Ratio 3000:5 – Turns Ratio 4000:5 – Turns Ratio Auxiliary Frames Each Frame Main Bus Per Frame 1200 Amp 2000 Amp 3000 Amp 4000 Amp Control Power Transformers CPT – 5 kVA. the influence of the enclosure is to double the heat losses. 3 Phase CPT – 75 kVA. 1 Phase CPT – 105 kVA. 1 Phase CPT – 50 kVA.

provides a new spreadsheet useful to calculating the rejected heat from medium voltage switchgear. The bulk of the cable losses are the resistive losses in the main conductors. This spreadsheet is contained in Part B of this report. which come in 6 to 30 inch widths in 6-inch increments. For a bundle of n identical three-phase cables carrying a current I per phase with a resistance R per phase. normal industry practice and some simplifying assumptions make the task tractable. The model has two options for heating within the tray. heat balance equation considering flow of heat from center of the bundle to the surface and then from surface to the air by radiation and convection is given by Phase II – Part A 9 06/06/03 . Loss Calculation The model of Harshe and Black (1994) assumes that the current in all the cables in the bundle is known. and incorporating the information from the other two manufacturers. Cables and Cable Trays Cable Trays In industrial facilities. the heat generated also increases. The method of this paper allows partial packing of the tray and allows inclusion of load diversity. No accuracy information is available on any of this data.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants The information from manufacturer E comes in the form of a spreadsheet. However. and packing of the cables. Anders (1997) discusses a method for calculating the steady-state temperature of cables in opentop trays. A copy of this spreadsheet has not been included in this document since it is possible to identify the manufacturer. are neglected. There are almost infinite combinations of these variables. if the number of cables and their physical arrangement in the trays are known. One of the options assumes that cables generate heat uniformly across the cable tray and the second option assumes that the heavily loaded cables are located at the cable tray centerline and the lightly loaded cables are placed above and below the centerline. thus. size of cables. The uniform loading option is used for calculations presented in this report. Using the information provided by manufacturer E. Trays will have some eddy current losses. This method is based on a paper by Harshe and Black (1994) and it removes the conservatism in the thermal models used in IEEE Std 835-1994 for generating the ampacity tables. Details of the method are provided in the next section. eliminating that information pertaining to old technology equipment (available only as replacement parts). The main difficulty arises due to the temperature of the cables in the trays and since resistance of the conductors increase with temperature. total losses per foot at the room temperature of that specific cable tray can be computed. Thus. power cables are routed in cable trays. These tables are based on complete packing of the tray by cables and maximum current loading of the cables. Figure 1 shows a typical arrangement of cables in a tray. The temperature of the cables depends on loading of the cables. but they are extremely small and.

therefore.Watts generated within the cable bundle per unit length (W/m) hs .Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2-oC) As . The calculations become very complex for a general case.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 4 Wtotal = 3 n R I 2 = hs As (θ s − θ amb ) + σ ε As (θ s4 − θ amb ) This equation assumes that the cables are located indoors in still air and the heat flow is taking place above and below the tray with no sideways heat flow.Surface temperature of the cable bundle (oC) θ amb . the temperature at the bottom surface of the bundle will be different from the top surface.Emissivity of the cable bundle surface H w Figure 1: Typical Arrangement of Cables in a Cable Tray In general.248 k air w  ν 2 (θ s − θ amb )    and the coefficient for the top surface depends on the value of the Rayleigh Number (Ra): − 0.Stephan-Boltzmann constant (W/m2-K4) ε .25 for 105 < Ra <107 Phase II – Part A 10 06/06/03 . we have modified it for identical cables.25 0.Surface area of the cable bundle per unit length (m) θ s .Ambient air temperature (oC) σ .496 k air w −0. The coefficient for the bottom surface is   gβ  hB = 0. The equation presented by Harsh and Black (1994) considers cables of different sizes and numbers in a cable bundle. However. but as a simplification they are considered to be the same. The variables and symbols used in this equation are Wtotal . the convective heat transfer coefficient for the top and the bottom are different.25 hT = 0.25  gβ    ν 2 (θ s − θ amb )    0.

where X is the temperature rise.333 for 107 < Ra <1010 The thermal properties in these equations are computed at an average film temperature θ f = (θ s + θ amb ) / 2 . These tests determined that the model predicted temperatures higher than the measured except in cases where the temperature rise was up to5 oC.oC/W). The error was higher for higher temperature rises.5 oC.134 k air  2 (θ s − θ amb )  ν   0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants  gβ   hT = 0.Thermal conductivity of air (W/m-oC) w . the product of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the surface are can be expressed in terms of the convective heat transfer coefficients at the top surface and the bottom surface by the following equation hs As = w(hB + hT ) Since the heat transfer coefficients and resistance of the metallic parts of the cables are dependent on the cable temperatures. Also. Thus to accurately reflect the temperature rise.Kinematic viscosity of air (m2/sec) and the Rayleigh number is given by Ra  gβ = 0. insulation and encapsulated air (m. Harshe and Black (1994) also collected test data over a period of four years to check the validity of their model. and temperature rise between between 5 oC and 13.17 w3  2 ν  (θ s − θ amb )  The relationship between the centerline temperature.5 oC is divided by 0. and H is the total height of the cable bundle. an iterative procedure is needed to solve these equations. Phase II – Part A 11 06/06/03 . of the cable bundle and the surface temperature is given by the following equation θ max = θ s + ρH  Wtotal    4w  2  where ρ is the thermal resistivity of the cable bundle including conductor. the temperature rise in this range scales back to 5 oC.2X. The variables and symbols used in these equations are kair . a correction factor has been used based on the measured data of Harshe and Black for calculation shown in this report.Thermal expansion coefficient of air (1/ oC) ν . The calculated temperature is unchanged for temperature rise up to 5 oC. θ max . Hence. the temperature rise is divided by 2.Acceleration of gravity (m/sec2) β .Cable tray width (m) g .7 for temperature rise above 13.

The size of the change in initial temperature from one iteration to the next should be gradually reduced to obtain convergence. this modification was not needed. which are common to all cable and tray sizes and thus do not change from one case to another. diversity factor for the cables. The results based on this guess are shown in two rows in the spreadsheet. Losses per meter for the cable tray are then converted to watts per foot. The results in the first row are then accepted as the final results. and sheath and armor factor. size of cables. If this number goes below 107 then the worksheet ‘Alternate Calc’ must be used. Hence. except a few for 6-inch tray. number of cables in each layer. All the calculations prior to this are performed in the SI units. number of layers. This process can be stopped once the temperature in the first row is very close to the initial temperature. The formula used in the spreadsheet is for Rayleigh Number between 107 and 1010. Since the equations are non-linear.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Spreadsheet for Calculations A spreadsheet was developed to compute the steady-state results based on the model described in the previous section. Note that the results on the second row are not used. the initial temperature must be decreased. a slight change in the initial guess makes a large change in the results. A screen shot of the spreadsheet is given in Fig. In all the cases tried for this report. resistance at 20 oC. 2. Phase II – Part A 12 06/06/03 . the temperature in the last row could be very large or very small. These data includes the size of tray. The solution technique is iterative and starts by guessing the steady state temperature of the bundle and entering it in the proper cell. maximum ampacity of the cable at 90 oC. During the computation it is important to keep a watch on the column Rayleigh Number. The remaining data are physical constants. the initial temperature must be increased and if it is higher than the initial temperature. If it is lower than the initial temperature. It is assumed that the cables are sized such that the maximum current in normal operation is 80% of the maximum ampacity at 90 oC. They are used only to guide the iteration process. All data pertaining to a specific cable tray is entered on this spreadsheet in appropriate cells. outer diameter of the cable.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Figure 2: Snap Shot of Spreadsheet for Calculation of Losses in Cable Trays Phase II – Part A 13 06/06/03 .

2. This implies that the average current in a cable over a period of time is 60% of the full load current.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Examples and Results Computations for numerous cases of cables trays with 6-inch. 0. presence of shield. 5. This effect can be accounted for by changing the thermal resistivity of the cable bundle in the trays. A cable tray can have cables of only one voltage level at a time. 8. 10. 4. The change in losses from one type to the other in a voltage class would not be very significant. Many different types of cables are available for each voltage class with slight difference in the insulation and armor. the heat generated within two cable trays with same size cables but different insulation thickness would be the same. the difference is mainly due to insulation thick. In other words. Sheath and armor loss factor of 0 for 600 V cables. Although. and other construction related detailed. 3.1 for 15 kV cables is considered. Since the conductors sizes are the same. Only single layers are considered for 5 kV and 15 kV cables for all sizes because the height of the bundle even for the smallest size would exceed 3 inches. 5% for 5 kV cables. 11. These cables and respective data were obtained from a leading manufacturer of cables in the USA. A sample type from each voltage class was considered for the calculations. a cable manufacturing company. As per cable literature. Sheath loss factor of 0 for 600 V cables. However. The cables are sized such that normal full load current is 80% of the ampacity at 90 oC. actual cable arrangement for a specific application could be very different from the arrangements considered for these calculations. Total height of the cable bundle does not exceed 3 inches. An examination of the available data shows a variation of up to 20% in the overall dimension of the same size cable. All the cables in a tray are considered to be three-phase cables and are of the same size for a specific case. Multiple layers are considered for 600 V cables. 9. and 10% for 15 kV cables is considered. the total area occupied by the cables in a layer does not exceed 40% of the total cross-sectional area of the layer. A packing or fill factor of 40% is considered for the trays. 12-inch and 30-inch dimensions with different cable sizes of different voltages were performed using the spreadsheet. Cable dimensions and other cable data were obtained from web site of Southwire. Phase II – Part A 14 06/06/03 . These data areonly representative sample of different cable types. The cable arrangements for the trays were determined based on standard industry practice and engineering judgment. Specific factors considered are 1. Data for cables of different types but of the same size from the same manufacturer or from different manufacturer could have some variations.05 for 5 kV cables and 0.2 and it increases with voltage. this factor varies between 0 and 0. 6. 7. The cables are assumed to be stacked one top of the other with air space in between each stack. The primary difference would be in heat dissipation since thicker cable will have higher thermal insulation. the size of the copper conductor used for a specific size cable is the same in all cases. A diversity factor of 60% is considered.

92 51.62 10 31. 23.73 24. One of the reasons for this is that a very large number of small cables in several layers can be placed in the trays.35 2.61 60.81 18 31.79 53.47 22.00 7 31.85 31. These losses are roughly in proportion of the size of the trays.15 62.78 Temp.00 7 31.06 19.00 3 31.00 6 31.44 18.16 Watts.69 54 38. However.00 31.Dev 12-inch Tray Losses Watts/ft 67. 12-inch tray.44 8 33. of Cables 20 16 9 9 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 Temp.69 8.70 47.64 9.07 6. No.43 15.45 36.09 8 33.79 2.00 31. and 60.07 38.76 20 31.00 31.28 8. There appear to be three groups of cables based on losses. No.37 8.16 39.31 90.00 Table 11: Losses in Cable Trays for 600 V Cables Phase II – Part A 15 06/06/03 .75 54.4 Watts.00 2 Average Std.94 45 32.64 10. respectively.30 24 32. 5kV and 15 kV cables.27 8. In fact. They also seem to operate at higher temperatures.03 22 33.00 31.87 125 46.00 3 31. the second from # 1 to 4/0 (medium cables) with medium losses.77 Temp.35 92 37.39 7.25 35.03 9. Therefore.53 9.16 8.00 9 31.28 8. The number of cables and the steady-state temperatures for different cable sizes are also included in this table.94 10 32. the uncorrected temperature for # 8 cable with packing factor of 0.02 3.88 3. in a realistic scenario it would be unusual to find a cable tray filled with very large number of very small cables.83 3 31.16 17. there is large variation in the losses generated by trays with small cables and those with large cables.79 Watts for 6inch tray.77 No. The average losses per foot for 600 V trays are 10.41 22 33.17 19.04 23.42 49.14 51.72 2.11 33.27 33. we had to reduce the number of cables to keep the temperature below the maximum allowed. and the third from 250 kCM to 750 kCM (large cables) with low losses. the first from # 8 to # 2 (very small cables) with very high losses.96 21 38.80 33.10 33. Cable Size AWG or kCM 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 750 6-inch Tray Losses Watts/ft 29.80 21.00 31.84 8 30.13 8.13 45 43.17 51.28 20. o C 49. of o C Cables 46.00 3 31. which is the maximum temperature allowed for the cables.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants The results obtained are shown in Tables 11to13 for 600 V. Hence.19 3. and 30-inch tray.91 26 33.28 20.56 27.00 8 31.31 20.49 91.52 10. of o C Cables 48.92 36 35.00 5 30-inch Tray Losses Watts/ft 187.11 33.00 2 31.10 18. However.08 159.17 21.4 for all the tray sizes turned out to be higher than 90 oC. it is reasonable to consider that is most cases the losses would be in the midrange that is close to the computed average value.

64 30.93 31.Dev Table 12.89 31.53 31.00 9.00 6.48 31. of Losses Temp.00 7.90 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 7.00 9 21.00 22.69 1.77 31.83 1.40 31.00 23. Losses in cable trays for 5 kV cables Phase II – Part A 16 06/06/03 . No.00 7.86 31.79 2.60 31.00 3.77 31.15 31.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Cable Size AWG or kCM 2 6-inch 12-inch 30-inch Tray Tray Tray No.00 4.01 9 8 8 7 6 6 5 4 22.60 0.95 31.43 2.93 31.33 31.46 31. o o o Cables Watts/ft C Cables Watts/ft C Cables Watts/ft C 2 4.27 31.54 31.12 31.71 31.00 20.87 31.00 7.00 8.45 31.46 30.00 3 7.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 19. of Losses Temp. of Losses Temp.00 21.00 21.14 31.00 3.00 8. No.23 31.00 22.00 1 2.60 31.00 21.20 31.85 31.14 1 1 1/0 1 2/0 1 4/0 1 250 1 350 1 500 1 750 Average Std.00 6.

four 1/0.01 1.00 7.06 31.00 3. of Losses Temp.00 31.57 Table 13.59 31. but the decrease in losses due to lower number of cables is higher that the slight increase in sheath and armor losses.64 31.44 0.00 12-inch 30-inch Tray Tray No.03 31.50 31.25 31.00 6.24 31.67 31. For example.00 6.53 31.00 4.70 4.14 31. Since only one layer of cables was considered for all sizes.40 31.00 18. If a cable tray has cables of different sizes.00 3.17 31.19 30.83 31. the steadystate temperatures in all cases are very close to one another.00 19.00 7.00 3.00 19.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Cable Size AWG or kCM 2 6-inch Tray No.00 3.00 3.55 1.00 21.75 31.00 6.00 16. No.00 3.68 30. Further.Dev 3.00 6. of Losses Temp.08 31.00 7 18.98 1 2.48 1 1 1/0 1 2/0 1 3/0 1 4/0 1 250 1 350 1 500 750 Average Std.38 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 19. an estimate of losses can be obtained by prorating the losses of the tray for each type of cable by the number of cables of that type in the tray and then adding the losses.00 7.00 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 8.00 21. and one 2/0 Phase II – Part A 17 06/06/03 . Thus a smaller number of higher voltage cables of the same conductor size can be accommodated in the tray. the variation in losses with size is extremely small.53 31.24 31. Losses in cable trays for 15 kV cables The results for the 5 kV and 15 kV cable trays are quite different. the losses for 15 kV trays are lower than the 5 kV trays of the same size.00 17.75 31. o Cables Watts/ft C 1 2.70 17.20 31.00 4.40 31.00 19. if a 600 V12-inch tray has five 1 AWG.50 31.29 31.00 4.86 31.49 31. Also. o o Cables Watts/ft C Cables Watts/ft C 3 8. of Losses Temp.01 31. The losses for the 5 kV trays are lower than the 600 V trays of the same size. This is expected since higher voltage cables have thicker insulation around them.15 31. The higher voltage cables have higher sheath and armor losses.79 30.

The other uncertainty is associated with the sheath and armor factor used in the calculation.70( ) + 22. The losses reduced by 2% reduction for 3/0 600 V cable. 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants cables.21%. 5 for 600 V. this difference is 5. increased by 4. They attributed this difference to the value of thermal resistivity of the bundle and speculated that it is as low as 100 cm-oC/Watt or 50 cm-oC/Watt. For the 5 kV 12-inch tray with 250 kCM cables and sheath and armor factor of 0. The temperature of the bundle reduced slightly in all the cases. The lower extreme of temperature considered is the room temperature (26 oC) and the upper extreme of temperature considered are 90 oC for 600 V cables and 40 oC for 5 kV and 15 kV cables. Since the temperature range is smaller for 5 kV and 15 kV cables. 4.5( ) + 18. Fig. We have used 400 cm-oC/Watt in our calculations as suggested by Harshe and Black (1994). To check this effect. Thus we can conclude that the value of thermal resistivity of the bundle does not have very significant impact on the results. Similarly.1. If this is done for cables that result in very 10 10 8 close steady state temperatures. the total approximate losses for this tray would be 5 4 1 21.05.20 Watts. 5 kV. for the 15 kV 12-inch tray with 250 kCM cables and sheath and armor factor of 0. variation in cable dimension due to thickness of insulation will not have significant effect on the results. we computed losses for a few sample cases of 12-inch trays at thermal resistivity of 100 cm-oC/Watt. they also mention that the values of temperatures of the cable bundles measured by them were lower than those computed using their model.28 %. and Fig. Due to a wider range of temperatures for 600 V cables the average difference in the highest to the lowest loss. the losses increased by 9.57% for 250 kCM 5 kVcable. as a percentage of the lowest loss is 9. we determined losses at extreme values of possible temperatures. and 15 kV cables. which affects the losses in 5kV and 15 kV cable trays. 3.1 instead of 0. These values were chosen based on the calculations performed for different cases as discussed above.86%. Phase II – Part A 18 06/06/03 . and 0. Similar values are expected for the other cable sizes.38% both for 5 kV and 15 kV.82( ) = 22.2 instead of 0. The results of the extreme cases with the computed cases for 12-inch trays are shown in Fig. Limits on Losses To find the extreme values of losses for the base cases. Uncertainty in Results The main uncertainty in the results is related to the value of the thermal resistivity of the cable bundle. Hence. the error will be extremely small.70% for 25 kCM 15 kV cable. respectively. However.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 26 C Computed 40 C 12 10 Losses (Watts/ft) 8 6 4 2 0 2 1 1/0 2/0 4/0 250 350 500 750 Cable Sizes Figure 3: Extreme Range of Losses for 600V Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60% Diversity Factor 26 C Computed 90 C 90 80 Losses (Watts/ft) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 Cable Size 750 8 6 4 2 1 Figure 4: Extreme Range of Losses for 5 kV Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60% Diversity Factor. Phase II – Part A 19 06/06/03 .

and 3 starters had a relay that was excited by a 120 V 60 Hz. and 3. were removed from the circuit. The power loss for the relay was measured with a wattmeter separately from the power loss of the remainder of the motor starter. supply. The relay was energized and a glass and tube thermometer was placed by the Phase II – Part A 20 06/06/03 . used in the process of controlling the chamber temper. The NEMA 1. 2. The temperature-controlled chamber was used for controlling the environmental temperature of the device being measured. 1. 2. Motor Starters The tests on the motor starters were carried out through the use of the circuit shown in Figure 6. The NEMA 1 and 3 starters were combination starters with disconnect switches without fuses. The first was to measure the power loss of motor starters. The starters were of size 0. The NEMA 0 starter tested had neither a fuse nor a disconnect switch. The NEMA 0 starter required a 480 volts supply to energize the relay. The second approach to estimating losses consisted of compiling manufacturer data regarding the motor control center losses. The power required to excite the relay was measured with a wattmeter while the light bulbs. Motor Control Centers The estimation of power dissipation from motor control centers was approached from two different directions.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 26 C Computed 40 C 9 8 Losses (Watts/ft) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 350 500 750 Cable Sizes Figure 5: Extreme Range of Losses for 15 kV Cable Trays with 40% Packing Factor and 60% Diversity Factor.

* combination starters with disconnects ~ Valhalla 2101 Digital Power Analyzer N shunt Figure 6: Circuit for Measuring Heat Loss of Combination Motor Starters Phase II – Part A 21 06/06/03 . 25 Amp Variac Autotransformer (W50HG3BBM) N shunt Extech True RMS Power Analzer Model 380801 Disconnect Switch Breaker And Relay 80I-600 Current Transformer Motor Starter Relay Excitation L Fluke 8010A Digital Multimeter L Heating Lamps Starter # of Turns # of CTs NEMA 0 24 2 (in parallel) NEMA 1* 2 3 (in parallel) NEMA 2* 5 (each) 2 (in series) 120 Volt NEMA 3* 9 3 (in parallel) 60 Hz.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Temperature Controlled Chamber Current Transformer ABB Type CLE S#7524A63G06 5:1000/2000 Phase Leads ~ General Radio Co.

Figure 8 shows the NEMA 0 results without the enclosure.0 5.0 20.0 0. The starter was then connected in place and the measurement process was repeated. 2. The results of the measurements are shown in Figures 7 through 10a.0 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit 25.0 Heat Loss (Watts) 15.0 0. it is seen that the enclosure is not a strong influence on the losses. This loss measurement without the starter in place was called the “baseline” measurement. The procedure for conducting the tests consisted of determining the losses of the circuit without the starter connected to the test circuit. The rated voltage of the NEMA 1. and 50o C. and 3 starters was 480 volts. The current limit was determined by using the relay heater that allowed the greatest current to flow in the starter. The power loss measurements were made at room temperature.0 25. Since the two curve fits of Figure 6 and Figure 7 differ by less a watt. This was done by removing the starter from the circuit and connecting the jumper wires together to complete the circuit.0 5. The curves in both figures were obtained by fitting the data with a function that consisted of a constant plus a factor time the square of the current. As the thermometer rose in temperature up to 50o C. The difference between the loss measurements with the starter in place and the baseline measurements is the starter power loss. 40o C. Figure 7 shows the NEMA 0 power loss with enclosure. A towel was placed over the relay and thermometer.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants relay. All of the tests were conducted by running a single phase current up and down adjacent phases. NEMA 0 with Enclosure Room Temp (25 C) 30. 30o C.0 20.0 10.0 Figure 7: NEMA 0 Power Losses with Enclosure Phase II – Part A 22 06/06/03 .0 10. The NEMA 0 starter was tested with and without an enclosure while the NEMA 1 and 3 starters were tested only with an enclosure since the disconnect switch was built into the enclosure and was an integral part of the device. it was noted that the relay power loss remained at a steady 6 watts.0 Current (Amps) 15.

0 10.0 0.0 0 5 10 15 Current (Amps) 20 25 30 35 Figure 9: Power Losses of NEMA 1 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure Phase II – Part A 23 06/06/03 . Figure 10a shows the losses of the NEMA 2 starter.0 25.0 5.0 20.0 Current (Amps) 15.0 Figure 8: NEMA 0 Power Losses without Enclosure Figure 9 shows the results of testing the NEMA 1 starter while Figure 10 shows the results of the NEMA 3 starter tests.0 35.0 20.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants NEMA 0 without Enclosure Room Temp (25 C) 30 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit 25 20 Heat Loss (Watts) 15 10 5 0 0.0 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit (25 C) Curve Fit (30 C) Curve Fit (40 C) Curve Fit (50 C) 40.0 5. NEMA 1 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect Room Temp (25 C) 45.0 30.0 15.0 10.0 Heat Loss (Watts) 25.

0 80.0 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit (25 C) Curve Fit (30 C) Curve Fit (40 C) Curve Fit (50 C) 100.0 20.0 0.0 Heat Loss (Watts) 60.0 40.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants NEMA 3 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect Room Temp (25 C) 120.0 0 20 40 60 80 Current (Amps) 100 120 140 160 Figure 10: Power Losses of NEMA 3 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure Figure 10a: Power Losses of NEMA 2 Combination Starter with Disconnect with Enclosure Phase II – Part A 24 06/06/03 .

004I2 Table 14: Starter Watts Loss Motor Starter Data In examining the manufacturer data obtained from catalogs and websites. Three of the manufacturers (A.033*I2 8. NEMA Size 1 2 3 4 5 Company C Watts 79 106 210 420 700 Company D Watts 27 57 99 165 280 Company A Watts 39 56 92 124 244 Company B Watts 40 60 125 140 280 Average of Measured Companies Losses A. and D) have listed only combination motor starters (either fused or with breaker) while one manufacturer (C) has included some bus losses with the motor starter losses.7 + 0. This information is listed in Table 15 together with information derived from the testing performed in this investigation. Company O manufactured the NEMA 2 starteer.5+0. Company A manufactured the NEMA 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants The experimental error of the measurements is estimated as ± 5% of full scale. B. heat losses for motor starters were obtained from four different sources.018*I2 15. and D Watts 35 58 105 143 268 40 52 95 --------- Table 15: Comparison of Motor Starter Losses Phase II – Part A 25 06/06/03 .5*I2 7+0.5 95 Expression (Watts) 6 + 0. Tables containing the raw data from the measurements are included in the appendix. NEMA SIZE 0 1 2 3 Condition of Test With and Without Enclosure With Enclosure With Enclosure With Enclosure Watts (maximum) 27 40 51. B. This number is arrived at by doubling the uncertainty of the wattmeter used in measuring the motor starter power losses and this is a figure which is half the uncertainty goal cited in the Phase I document. Table 14 provides expressions for describing the power loss of the starters as a function of current. 1 and 3 motor starters tested in this work. One column of Table 15 shows an average of the data from those manufacturers who did not include bus losses with the motor starter losses.

NEMA Starter Size 1 2 3 4 5 6 Measured Company A Watts 7 ----15. the loss can be determined at any load level. The motivation for using the greatest possible current is this work was to discover how the losses vary with load. the maximum current was determined by the heaters and not rated load. i.00453 I2 18. Using this idea.4 18.00865 I2 17 + 0.9 17 18.5+ 0.0342 I2 12. Low voltage bus loss information from Company B was found.8 38. loss equations as a function of current were determined and are listed in Table 16.000687 I2 ---------- Table 16: Motor Starter Coil Losses and Overall Losses The measured data in Table 15 seem to compare favorably with the average reported loss from three manufacturers.8 44 Loss Equation Watts 6. It is assumed that the factor of 2.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Table 16 presents motor starter coil loss data. Although coil loss data was found for a NEMA 6 starter.9 18. no loss data for the starter itself was found. The distance measurements shown in Table 17 correspond to the nominal height and width of a motor control center panel.8 + 0.8 + 0.9 + 0.00149 I2 38. The coil loss represents a constant loss for the starter and is not a function of current. The motivation of the manufacturers was to provide a worst-case value of dissipated heat.5 times greater.e. That the measurements agree indicates that the manufacturers tested the starters in the same way.5 12. Phase II – Part A 26 06/06/03 .5 also holds for the other NEMA sizes.8 38. Note that since the losses are presented as a function of current. If a comparison is made between the largest currents used to test the motor starters and the current value corresponding to the rated horsepower for a 480 volt starter it is seen that the maximum current used in the tests is approximately 2. This information is contained in Table 17.5 ------------Data Company D Watts 6 12. The comparison between maximum values is only to verify the test results.8 44 Average Watts 6.

5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 150 200 Losses BTU/Hr 1140 1475 2525 3415 5690 6400 8530 12795 14980 18725 22470 24085 30110 36130 45160 55550 83320 111100 Losses Efficiency Watts % losses % 334 66.78 740 36.80 33.5 1 2 3 5 7.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Bus Description Three Phase Loss Vertical 600 Amp 100 Watts / 72 “ high section Vertical 300 Amp 50 Watts / 72” high section Horizontal 600 Amp 30 Watts/ 20” wide section Horizontal 800 Amp 40 Watts/ 20” wide section Horizontal 1200 Amp 60 Watts/ 20” wide section Horizontal 1600 Amp 80 Watts/ 20” wide section Horizontal 2000 Amp 110 Watts/ 20” wide section Table 17: Motor Control Center Bus Losses Inverters Information from three different manufacturers was found regarding the efficiency and heat losses of inverters.95 78.65 1667 33.99 75.64 82.72 32552 16. All three manufacturers report inverter efficiency at full load.01 1001 33.99 75.00 75.35 66.99 63.36 16276 16.36 8822 17.66 1875 25.00 2499 24.72 24413 16.22 56.01 3749 24.28 83.64 82.36 10586 17.95 78. Table 18 shows the loss data obtained and Figure 11 shows a plot of the losses.34 66.28 83.05 7057 17.05 6584 21.64 82.36 13232 17.64 82.72 Table 18: Inverter Losses as a Function of Load Phase II – Part A 27 06/06/03 . information was obtained from Company I regarding the variation of heat loss with load.20 432 43. To bolster this conclusion.05 5486 21.95 78. The conclusion drawn from reporting efficiency at this particular load is that the peak efficiency also occurs at this point. kVA 0.28 83.01 4389 21.

Companies I and J provided heat loss data as well as efficiencies. Company I produces inverters having capacities in the range specified by the RP 1104 work statement. but also heat losses. as stated in the Phase I document. The data included in the Part B report is the Company I information. the conclusion drawn from a comparison of the data is that Company I has presented not only efficiency values. The efficiency information. Also. Company I has presented information regarding no load losses which is an important quantity since the no load loss represents a constant loss independent of the charger load. The battery chargers produced by companies I and J cover different voltage ranges. Company K states that the efficiency of their products exceeds 90% but provide no other information. is very close to the Company I information. The appendix contains the manufacturers’ data collected in this work. one is less than 50 volts while the other is greater than 100 volts of DC output. Figures 12 and 13 show the difference between full load and no load losses for two different classes of battery chargers.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Inverter Efficiency Efficiency % 90 80 70 Efficiency % 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 KVA Figure 11: Inverter Losses as a Function of Load The conclusions drawn from the data in Table 18 is that the peak efficiency does occur at full load and that the efficiency does not change significantly in the range of 40 to 100% of full load. Battery Chargers Five battery charger manufacturers were identified. The losses are shown as a function of the rated DC output current of the units in the Phase II – Part A 28 06/06/03 . and K only provided ranges of efficiencies. H. presented by Companies G and H. Based on the information available. The quality of the manufacturers’ data cannot be determined since no inverters were available for testing and. standards for testing losses do not exist. Companies G. Companies G and H provide either nominal values or lower limits for their efficiencies and no loss information.

130 Volt DC Battery Charger No Load Watts Full Load Watts 8000 7000 6000 P ower Losses .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants particular voltage class.W atts 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 DC Current . In examining the two figures.5 larger than the no load losses.Watts 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 DC Current .Amps Figure 12: 130 Volt DC Battery Charger Load and No Load Losses 260 Volt DC Battery Charger No Load Watts Full Load Watts 12000 10000 Pwoer Loss . The no load losses represent the power needed to run the rectifier / converter in the absence of any load.Am ps Figure 13: 260 Volt DC Battery Charger Load and No Load Losses Phase II – Part A 29 06/06/03 . it is seen that full load losses are 2.

2 / 39 54 / 140 46.001752 I2 0. Frame Size Amps 60 100 225 250 400 600 800 1200 1600 2000 3000 3200 4000 5000 Company E Low Voltage Breaker Power Loss in Watts at Rated Current Equation – Curve Fit Company Company Company C Predicted Peak Value D A without / with enclosure without enclosure with enclosure 60 215 328 597 750 673 765 1067 460 1080 2400 3000 4700 400 1000 1500 28. Low Voltage Breakers Published information on low voltage circuit breaker power losses is sparse. Company C has published some information regarding power losses of low voltage breakers. there is not a significant amount of agreement as to what is the breaker heat loss.5 / 78 81/147/116 183 150 / 156 231 / 243 378 6. In this particular case. Several values were available for different breakers from Company C.2/20.000684 I2 0.002071 I2 0.000601 I2 0.001178 I2 330/440 865/1080 0.1/73.000511 I2 0.001138 I2 0. The information included in the company literature is intended for field-testing circuit breakers.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants The appendix contains tables of the loss information obtained from companies I and J.000749 I2 Table 19: Circuit Breaker Heat Loss at Rated Frame Current Phase II – Part A 30 06/06/03 .7 71.2 20. the information provided represents upper bounds on breaker power losses since if the electrical resistance of the breaker pole is such that the single pole watts loss is higher than the published value for the in service current then the breaker should be replaced.002562 I2 0. Table 19 lists the reported heat loss of low voltage breakers from four manufacturers.002016 I2 0. Some manufacturers include some bus losses with the loss figures they publish regarding low voltage breakers. As can be seen from the numbers in the table.3/9.6 0.

the 100 amp breaker is from Company N. each CT having 11 turns Four CTs wired in series. The 60 amp breaker is from Company D. and 50o C. The tests performed on the 800 and 1200 amp breaker used 4/0 cable while the testes on the other breakers used 1 gauge cable. 30o C. Breaker amps 60 100 250 800 1200 Test Circuit Details 17 µf capacitor in series with one CT having three turns Seven turns around 2 CTs wired in parallel Seven turns around 2 CTs wired in parallel Three CTs wired in series. and 1200 frame breakers. and the 200 amp breaker is from Company C. 800. 60 Amp Circuit Breaker with Enclosure Room Temp. The major difference between the motor starters and the circuit breakers was the current transformer (CT) circuit used to produce the load current. each CT having 11 turns Table 20: CT Circuits Used to Test Low Voltage Breakers Figures 14 and 15 show the 60 amp frame breaker heat loss with and without an enclosure. Data derived from the tests are listed in the Appendix. The details of the CT circuits used to test the breakers are listed in Table 20. The expressions in the last column are the results obtained from fitting all the measured data from a single breaker and enclosure circumstance with a single equation. The 800 and 1200 amp breakers were from Company A. The 200 amp breaker was from a 250 amp frame.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Loss tests were conducted on 60. Most of the breakers were fitted with a trip plug equal in size to the breaker frame. 250. 40o C. The tests were conducted in environments of room temperature. The last two columns of Table 19 are based on least squares quadratic curve fits to the test measurements. 10 9 8 Breaker Loss(Watts) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Current(Amps) 30 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit Figure 14: 60 Amp Frame Circuit Breaker Losses Phase II – Part A 31 06/06/03 . 100. The same facility used to test the motor starters was used for determining circuit breaker heat loss.

Current Room Temp (26 C) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Current (Amps) 35 C 40 C 50 C Curve Fit Figure 15: 60 Amp Frame Breaker Losses Without Enclosure Figure 16: 100 Amp Breaker Power Losses in Enclosure Phase II – Part A Breaker Loss (Watts) 32 06/06/03 . Figures 20 to 23 show the test results of the 800 and 1200 amp breakers. Figures 18 and 19 show the results for a 250 amp frame breaker. respectively under the same environmental conditions. 60 Amp Breaker Loss vs.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Figures 16 and 17 show the test results for a 100 amp frame breaker with and without enclosure.

0 100.0 40.0 60.0 Figure 18: 200 Amp Breaker Power Loss With Enclosure (250 Amp Frame) Phase II – Part A 33 06/06/03 .0 250.0 Figure 17: 100 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure 200 Amp Breaker in Enclosure Room Temp Data. (25 C) Room Temp Curve Fit 60 30 C Data 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Data 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Data 50 C Curve Fit 50 40 Heat Loss (Watts) 30 20 10 0 0.0 20.0 100.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 100 Breaker Without Enclosure Room Temp.0 Current (Amps) 150.0 Current (Amps) 80.0 200. Curve Fit 25 30 C Data 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Data 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Data 50 C Curve Fit 20 Heat Loss (Watts) 15 10 5 0 0.0 50.0 120. (25 C) Data Room Temp.

Data (25 C) Room Temp Curve FIt 60 30 C Data 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Data 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Data 50 C Curve Fit 50 40 Heat Loss (Watts) 30 20 10 0 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 200 Amp Breaker Without Enclosure Room Temp.0 Figure 19: 200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure (250 Amp Frame) 800 Amp Company A Breaker .No Enclosure Room Temp.0 100. Curve Fit 350 30 C Data 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Data 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Data 50 C Curve Fit 300 250 Heat Loss (Watts) 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Current (Amps) Figure 20: 800 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure Phase II – Part A 34 06/06/03 .0 Current (Amps) 150.0 50.0 250. (25 C) Data Room Temp.0 200.

No Enclosure Room Temp.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 800 Amp Company A Breaker in Enclosure Room Temp. Curve Fit 1000 900 800 700 Heat Loss (Watts) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Current (Amps) 30 C Data 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Data 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Data 50 C Curve Fit Figure 22: 1200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss Without Enclosure Phase II – Part A 35 06/06/03 . (25 C) Data Room Temp. Curve Fit 500 450 400 350 Heat Loss (Watts) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Current (Amps) 30 C Data 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Data 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Data 50 C Curve Fit Figure 21: 800 Amp Breaker Heat Loss With Enclosure 1200 Amp Company A Breaker . Data(25 C) Room Temp.

The line is used as a point of comparison and the conclusion is that the Company A data essentially varies linearly with frame current as opposed to a parabolic or quadratic variation. It is recommended that the loss values and equations shown in Table 21 be used to represent the low voltage breaker losses.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 1200 Amp Company A Breaker in Enclosure Room Temp.5 is smaller that the factor of 2 used by some manufacturers but slightly larger than the factor observed in the measured data which was as large as 1. For those situations where loss measurements are available.46 for the 60 amp case. 250 amp) are close to the data obtained from Company C. It appears that the losses from the smaller measured frames (60. (25 C) Data Room Temp. The data obtained from the 800 and 1200 amp Company A breakers appear to be reasonably close to the information obtained from Company A. it is assumed that the available information represents losses without the enclosure. Also shown in the figure is a straight line that serves as an upper bound for any of the losses. coefficients are presented for determining the breaker loss as a function Phase II – Part A 36 06/06/03 . In order to account for the enclosure losses. Figure 24 shows a comparison of the measured breaker loss data with and without the enclosure together with the information from Company A and Company C. it is difficult to deduce any clear trends. the measured values are reflected in the table. In those situations where only manufacturer data is available.33 in the 800 amp case or 1. Table 21 shows losses both with and without the enclosure. Only the data used to create Figure 24 is used for loss predictions.5 is applied to the “without enclosure “ figure. This line has a slope of unity and the line represents the maximum breaker losses as one watt per amp. a factor of 1. This upper bound line is shown merely for interest since what is represents is that the greatest breaker loss is about one watt per frame amp. Curve Fit 1200 30 C Data 30 C Curve Fit 40 C Data 40 C Curve Fit 50 C Data 50 C Curve Fit 1000 800 Heat Loss (Watts) 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Current (Amps) Figure 23: 1200 Amp Breaker Heat Loss With Enclosure Given the results presented in Table 19. In Table 21. 100. The factor of 1.

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TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

of current. The breaker loss for a given frame is the coefficient times the square of the current. Depending upon the breaker environment (with or without enclosure), one or the other coefficient presented for each frame is used in the loss calculation.
Company Data 5000 4500 4000 No Enclosure Measured Data Enclosure Measured Data Upper Bound

Low Voltage Breaker Losses
3500 Losses - Watts 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Current - Amps 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

Figure 24: Comparison of Measured and Reported Breaker Losses
Watts Loss Without Enclosure 6.3 20.2 60 71.1 147 215 330 865 1000 1500 2250 2400 3000 4700 Watts Loss With Enclosure 9.2 20.7 90 73.6 220.5 322.5 440 1080 1500 2250 3375 3600 4500 7050

Frame Current Amps 60 100 225 250 400 600 800 1200 1600 2000 3000 3200 4000 5000

Coefficient - Without enclosure 0.001752 0.002016 0.0011852 0.0011376 0.0009188 0.0005972 0.0005156 0.0006007 0.0003906 0.000375 0.00025 0.0002344 0.0001875 0.000188

Coefficient With enclosure 0.002562 0.002071 0.0017778 0.0011776 0.0013781 0.0008958 0.0006875 0.00075 0.0005859 0.0005625 0.000375 0.0003516 0.0002813 0.000282

Table 21: Coefficients for Breaker Loss Calculation (Values for 3000 Amp Frame Based on Interpolation)

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TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Motors
In searching for data related to motor power losses, four manufacturers were found who either have information on the company’s web site or publish catalogs containing motor performance information. These companies are Company D, Company L, Company M, and Company O. According to the Energy Policy Act of 1992, general-purpose electric motors in the range of 1 to 200 hp manufactured after October 24, 1997 must satisfy certain minimum values of efficiency. These minimum efficiency values vary according to horsepower, number of poles, and whether the motor case is open or closed. Motors satisfying the EPACT efficiencies are called “high efficiency” motors. In compiling the information specified in the work-statement, which requires that any loss information be categorized by horsepower and standard motor frame sizes, no distinction was made to the number of poles or to the motor construction. Table 22 shows the nominal efficiency values to be satisfied by the general-purpose motors. The Table also lists the efficiency values that were used to distinguish a high efficiency motor from other motors. The designation of “1104 η” in the Table is used to indicate the efficiency value used. The 1104 η value was needed only for motors rated for 10 hp or greater.
Electric Motor Efficiency Levels Prescribed in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 Nominal Full-Load Efficiency 1104 Enclosed Motors Open Motors Number of 6 4 2 6 4 2 η Poles
Motor Horsepower

1 80.0 82.5 -80.0 82.5 75.5 1.5 84.0 84.0 82.5 85.5 84.0 82.5 2 85.5 84.0 84.0 86.5 84.0 84.0 3 86.5 86.5 84.0 87.5 87.5 85.5 5 87.5 87.5 85.5 87.5 87.5 87.5 7.5 88.5 88.5 87.5 89.5 89.5 88.5 10 90.2 89.5 88.5 88.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 15 90.2 91.0 89.5 89.5 90.2 91.0 90.2 20 91.0 91.0 90.2 90.2 90.2 91.0 90.2 25 91.7 91.7 91.0 91.0 91.7 92.4 91.0 30 92.4 92.4 91.0 91.0 91.7 92.4 91.0 40 93.0 93.0 91.7 91.7 93.0 93.0 91.7 50 93.0 93.0 92.4 92.4 93.0 93.0 92.4 60 93.6 93.6 93.0 93.0 93.6 93.6 93.0 75 93.6 94.1 93.0 93.0 93.6 94.1 93.0 100 94.1 94.1 93.0 93.0 94.1 94.5 93.6 125 94.1 94.5 93.6 93.6 94.1 94.5 94.5 150 94.5 95.0 93.6 93.6 95.0 95.0 94.5 200 94.5 95.0 94.5 94.5 95.0 95.0 95.0 Table 22: Nominal Efficiencies for General Purpose Motors

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TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

The procedure followed in this work for collecting data was that, if for a given horsepower rating, the efficiency exceeded or equaled the corresponding value shown in Table 22, then the data was included with other motor data that satisfied the same criterion. If the efficiency was less, then this motor was added together with the other non-high efficiency motors. This distinction was only made for motors in the 10 to 200 hp range. For each manufacturer, efficiency and power factor information was collected for each frame and horsepower level. For a given frame and hp level, an average of the high efficiency hp and power factor was calculated along with an average of the regular efficiency and power factor. Table 23 shows how the data is arranged. HP Reg. η average High η average Reg. η - pf average High η - pf average

Frame Designation

Table 23: Arrangement of Motor Averages in Appendix Tables Once an average was computed for each manufacturer, the results of all manufacturers were then averaged. For motors having a power rating greater than 200 hp, the efficiency is considered as “high” and no information appears in the “Reg. η” lines of the spreadsheets contained in the Appendix. The power factor information was collected since it can be used to calculate the motor current that is useful in determining motor starter losses or series reactor heat dissipation. The Appendix includes the data collected from the four manufacturers.

Unit Substations
The unit substation can be thought of as low voltage switchgear that might include (in addition to a transformer) circuit breakers, current transformers, control power transformers, auxiliary compartment, space heaters, circuit breakers, and high current buses all arranged in a series of cabinets. To closely determine the power losses of such a device requires detailed knowledge of the construction such as length of buses, losses of individual components, and loading information. Although manufacturing standards exist, construction details will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The easiest conclusion to draw from the foregoing is that the most realistic way to estimate losses is to construct a model of the unit substation. Such a model was obtained from Company E for one line of their low voltage switchgear. This loss model is in the form of a spreadsheet. For the circuit breakers, the loss models were replaced by those presented in an earlier section.

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TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

The way in which losses from all other unit substation components are calculated are unchanged from the original way included in the spread sheet. Figure 25 shows the spreadsheet. It was observed that several manufacturers offered some means of estimating unit substation heat loss. Of the several manufacturers, this spreadsheet of Company E appears to be the most complete calculation and it allows for partial loads and includes enclosure effects. Excluding the circuit breaker, no uncertainty information regarding the component losses is available.

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ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Figure 25: Unit Substation Power Loss Calculation Spreadsheet Phase II – Part A 41 06/06/03 .

and 750 amps. 200 amps. but the reactors are manufactured by only one company. and O amps 2 4 8 12 18 25 35 45 55 80 100 130 160 200 250 320 400 500 600 750 Company P 240 Volt 240 Volt 3% 5% Impedance Impedance 14. It appears that the reactors marketed by these three companies constitute a significant market share. The manufacturer data obtained in this work is shown in Table 24.3 11. R.5 11.3 16 20 20 20 21 29 25.5 19. The tested reactors from Company Q were rated at 200 amps and 750 amps.3 29 28 31 41 31 41 43 43 43 43 52 61 52 61 54 54 54 54 62 65 62 65 67 71 67 71 86 96 86 96 84 108 84 108 180 128 180 128 149 138 149 138 168 146 168 146 231 219 231 219 264 351 264 351 333 293 333 293 340 422 340 422 414 406 414 406 630 552 630 552 amps 2 4 8 12 18 25 35 45 55 80 100 130 160 200 250 320 400 500 600 750 240 Volt 240 Volt 240 Volt 480 Volt 480 Volt 480 Volt 600 Volt 600 Volt 1. an 18 amp reactor was available for test. Companies D. Three of these manufacturers (Companies D. The tested reactors from Company D were rated at 4 amps.5% 3% 5% 3% 5% Impedance Impedance Impedance Impedance Impedance Impedance Impedance Impedance 9 11 12 10 5 8 13 5 13 15 15 24 9 12 17 9 17 23 26 42 11 16 28 11 28 37 30 42 14 22 35 14 35 52 43 64 16 24 48 16 48 64 45 77 21 37 52 21 52 80 73 93 25 44 54 25 54 91 82 105 29 48 61 29 61 97 86 121 33 67 102 33 102 140 100 171 41 78 112 41 112 149 113 187 49 85 141 49 141 165 142 239 54 94 151 54 151 194 170 257 57 104 180 57 180 194 199 286 76 118 181 76 181 273 203 394 138 256 256 333 245 425 165 333 333 442 289 467 183 360 360 491 334 594 430 541 Table 24: Reactor Power Losses at Rated Current Phase II – Part A 42 06/06/03 .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Reactors Series and line reactors power loss information was obtained from four different manufacturers. however these reactors are of different construction. From Company O. and R) market the same product on which they apply their company logos. Data on reactor power losses was also obtained from Company P.5% 3% 5% 1.5 26 36 48 49 54 64 82 94 108 116 124 154 224 231 266 307 427 20 29 31 43 52 54 62 67 86 84 180 149 168 231 264 333 340 414 630 480 Volt 480 Volt 600 Volt 600 Volt 3% 5% 3% 5% Impedance Impedance Impedance Impedance 7. O.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants No information was found that the manufacturers reporting power loss data follow the appropriate standard specifying the procedures for testing reactors. Using the test circuit. it was believed that the fraction determined for the 200 amp reactor would be valid for the 750 amp reactor. There is not enough information to draw a valid conclusion as to the discrepancy in the predicted heat loss value.284 and the fraction for the Company Q reactor was 0. In order to test the 750 amp reactors. 18. the two wattmeters provided nearly equal reading of opposite sign.317. The conductor temperature rise is rated for the Company D products as 115 oC.5 watts provided by the manufacturer. When the two meter readings were combined. Single phase tests were performed on both middle and outer legs to see if the single phase loss would be different. It appears that the values have been referenced to room temperature. That the winding temperature had greatly increased had been demonstrated for the 200 amp Company D reactor. The conductor temperature would be much higher. the fractions are different as the tests verified. three phase and single phase tests were conducted on the 200 amp reactors. That temperature correction was performed at all could not be ascertained from any manufacturer literature. even if temperature correction is taken into account. The goal was to determine the single phase fraction of the total three phase loss.5 oC for copper and 225 oC for aluminum and Tm winding temperature. These fractions were used to determine the total power loss of the 750 amp reactors from the measurement of the power loss from a single phase. the data for the 4 amp reactor was discarded. Phase II – Part A 43 06/06/03 . From information discussed in the Phase I report. The fraction for the Company D reactor was 0. Since the two 200 amp reactors are of different construction. it was possible to test the 4. First. A thermocouple placed in an air space between two layers of epoxy insulated reactor conductors indicated a temperature of 66 oC. The heat losses for the Company Q products could not be compared to any information available from the manufacturer. In analyzing the test data. The gap between the layers was subject to free convective airflow. several conclusions were drawn. However. and 200 amp reactors in a three phase circuit. The test circuit for the reactors is explained in the Phase I report. Second. The test showed that the single phase losses were the same and did not depend upon the choice of leg. It was discovered that to test the 750 amp reactors would require 12 additional CTs. since the 200 amp and 750 amp reactors of Company D were very similar and the 200 amp and 750 amp reactors of Company Q were similar. the losses vary linearly with winding absolute temperature according to the relation  25 + Tk  Loss 25o C = LossTm   T +T  k   m where Tk is 234. The test provided a maximum heat loss of 7 watts as compared to a value of 14. In using the two wattmeter method to measure the power loss. The 750 amp Company D reactor produced a predicted heat loss in excess of the reported value. the data provided the manufacturer has been temperature corrected. subtractive cancellation rendered the data very uncertain. The manufacturer data for the 200 amp Company D reactor shows a heat loss of 124 watts and the measured heat loss was 180 watts. Using the equation just presented to predict the winding temperature rise ( Tm – 25) provides a value of 117 oC.

240 Volt Applications 700 600 480 VOlt 3% Im pedance 600 500 480 Volt 5% Impedance 500 Company D Company P 400 Losses .Watts 400 300 300 200 200 Company D Company P 100 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 Current .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 450 700 240 Volt 3% Im pedance 400 240 Volt 5% Im pedance 600 350 500 300 Company D Losses .Amps 500 600 700 800 Figure 26: Reactor Losses .480 Volt Applications Phase II – Part A 44 06/06/03 .Watts Losses .Amps 500 600 700 800 0 0 100 200 300 400 Current .Amps 500 600 700 800 0 0 100 200 300 400 Current .Watts 250 Company P Company D Company P 200 Losses .Amps 500 600 700 800 Figure 27: Reactor Losses .Watts 400 300 150 200 100 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 Current .

are also known as variable frequency drives (VFD). R.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 700 700 600 Volt 3% Impedance 600 600 600 Volt 5% Impedance 500 500 Company D Company P Company D 400 Compnay P 400 LOsses . If a reactor manufacturer builds a reactor with a different temperature rise. and D. The particular name used is a function of the industry or application using the devices. and O with that of Company P two trends can be observed.Amps 500 600 700 800 Figure 28: Reactor Losses . The suggestion here is to use a 115 oC rise.Watts Losses . C. and variable speed drives (VSD). The data collected from the different manufacturers is listed in the Appendix. The Appendix contains additional information regarding the testing of the reactors.600 Volt Applications Figures 26 through 28 shows a comparison of the loss data provided by previously cited manufacturers. The conclusion to be drawn from this presentation is that an average of the two loss tables presented earlier should be used for the reactor loss prediction provided that the loss figures are temperature corrected to a more realistic temperature. In comparing the data of the reactors produced by Companies D.amps 500 600 700 800 0 0 100 200 300 400 Current . then the appropriate loss number could be corrected to this temperature. Adjustable Speed Drives Adjustable speed drives (ASD). The first trend is that the comparisons can be considered favorable. Four companies were found to list power losses of adjustable speed drives.Watts 300 300 200 200 100 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 Current . as they are referred to in manufacturing standards. B. Phase II – Part A 45 06/06/03 . These are Companies O. The second trend is that an average of the two curves in each plot would not differ too far from either curve.

With the increased current. Achieving the same horsepower at 230 volts requires twice the current necessary for 460 volts. only Company O provided any information concerning 600 volt drives. the losses are higher. 6000 5000 230 / 240 Volt Losses 4000 Losses . Company C presents some “worst case” results for drive losses for HVAC load calculations where both the highest frequency and current is used. With higher inverter switching frequencies. 460. By collecting the loss data from the four manufacturers for the voltage levels of 230. In fact. the greater is the dissipated heat. and 600 volts and plotting these values as a function of rated horsepower.HP 150 200 250 Figure 29: 230 Volt Drive Losses Phase II – Part A 46 06/06/03 .Watts 230 / 240 Volt Losses Fit 3000 2000 1000 0 0 50 100 Rating . Figure 29 shows the 230 volt drive losses as a function of rated horsepower. While all four manufacturers had information concerning 230 volt and 460 volt drives. Figures 30 and 31 show similar results for 460 and 600 volt drives. The dots in each figure represent manufacturer loss numbers and the solid line is a linear curve fit.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Significant factors influencing losses are voltage level and inverter frequency. The larger spread of the data in Figure 30 is an illustration of the influence of the switching frequency. respectively. very clear trends are observed.

Hp Fit Figure 31: 600 Volt Drive Losses Phase II – Part A 47 06/06/03 .Watts 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Rating .Hp Figure 30: 460 Volt Drive Losses 600 Volt Losses 600 Volt Losses 14000 12000 10000 Losses .Watts 6000 460 Volt Loss 4000 Fit 2000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Rating .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 12000 10000 460 Volt Losses 8000 Loss .

038 Table 25: Regression Constants for Drive Losses That the losses are proportional to current is further supported by some data obtained from Company D. the heat loss can be determined. Figure 32 presents this information.am ps 25 30 35 40 Fit Figure 32: Drive Losses as a Function of Current In order to test the adjustable speed drive losses. Phase II – Part A 48 06/06/03 . These curve fits are valid for horsepower range of 25 to 800 Hp.45435 363.55851 -201.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Table 25 shows the curve fit parameters for each of the voltage levels. The thermal chamber was calibrated by introducing a known power input to the chamber (through light bulbs) and measuring the inlet and outlet air temperature together with the airflow rate. 500 450 Watts Loss as a Function of Current 400 350 Power Loss Watts 300 Watts Loss 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 Current . a thermal chamber was constructed (calorimeter) for measuring the rejected heat.6234 276.7949 14.073 13. By knowing the temperature rise and the flow rate. That the slope of the 230 volt curve is approximately twice that of the 460 volt curve suggests that the losses are proportional to current. The thermal calibration is shown in Figure 33. Voltage 240 460 600 Slope Intercept 25.

The full load losses were bracketed by the manufacturer data obtained through the literature search. The 60 Hp drive was operated at 100 and 50 % load. The results of the tests are summarized in Table 26. The drives were loaded through resistive heating elements. The 100 % load loss corresponded to the curve fit value provided by the coefficients in Table 25. it was difficult to vary the load with the resistive load. The losses varied according to the load as expected. Since the 25 Hp.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Thermal Chamber Calibration Measured Watts 1600 Curve Fit 1400 1200 Indicated Watts 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 Input Watts 1000 1200 1400 1600 Figure 33: Thermal Chamber Calibration A 25 Hp. The losses at 50 % load is approximately half the full load loss. drive which were 100% and 80%. adjustable speed drives were tested with the thermal chamber. Phase II – Part A 49 06/06/03 . Two values of load were tested on the 25 Hp. Both drives were 460 volt units. drive was a constant torque device. and a 60 Hp.

The main difference between the losses with this breaker and the losses of the other equipment tested in this work is that the other equipment followed an I2R loss variation. The different exponent is thought to be caused by the ohmic heating as well as eddy and hysteresis losses occurring in the surrounding structure when the magnetic fields created by the current carrying conductors become large. The losses of the 1200 amp. The 1200 amps was produced by 4 CTs in series. it was concluded that any loss reading should be considered as being “without enclosure.HP Loss .” Figure 34 shows the loss values. the 675 watt figure of Table 9. The maximum value for the losses is 730 watts. The breaker was tested at room temperature since it was too large and heavy to fit in the thermal chamber. The breaker was contained in a housing which allowed free convective air flow and since this housing was constructed in such a way that the free convection could occur without restriction.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 60 Hp Drive Load .54 watts . each CT had the same number of turns used to test the 1200 amp low voltage breaker.08 × 10−5 I 2.watts 60 1289 30 578 25 Hp Drive % Freq. medium voltage breaker were fitted with a curve fit of the form KIx where K is a constant. Phase II – Part A 50 06/06/03 . Using this expression. medium voltage breaker from company A was tested using the circuit shown in Figure 6. I is the current. 100 % 80% Loss .watts 385 307 % 100 45 % Comparison 1171 Watts – curve fit Comparison 100 Data Range: 300 – 970 Watts 80 Table 26: Adjustable Speed Drive Losses – Tested values Medium Voltage Breakers A 1200 amp. This number compares favorably with 600 watt figure of Table 8. the losses are Losses = 1. and the 865 watt value of Figure 25. The phases of the breaker were wired in the same manner as the motor starter shown in that figure. and x is an exponent.

0 Heat Loss (Watts) 500.0 600.0 400.0 700. Medium Voltage Breaker Losses Phase II – Part A 51 06/06/03 .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 1200 Amp Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker Breaker Curve Fit 800.0 0.0 200.0 300.0 100.0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Current (Amps) Figure 34: 1200 Amp.

1733-1740. 1997. IEEE Std 835-1994 IEEE Standard Power Cable. IEEE Std.12-00-1993 IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Distribution. Rating of Electric Power Cables. and Regulating Transformers.12. NEMA Standards Publication TP 2-1998 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers. NEMA WC-3-1980 Rubber-insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy. pp. Ampacity Tables. IEEE Std. C57.Z. C57. IEEE Std. C57.L. New York.12-01-1998 IEEE Standard Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers Including Those with Solid-Cast and/or Resin-Encapsulated Windings. IEEE Std.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants References B. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. C57.90-1999 IEEE Standard Test Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution. “Ampacity of Cables in Single Open-Top Cable Trays”. Phase II – Part A 52 06/06/03 . Harshe and W. IEEE Std. NEMA WC-51-1986 Ampacities of Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays. IEEE Std.J. IEEE Press. October 1994. 112-1996 IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators. G. and Regulating Transformers. Power.91-1995 IEEE Standard Test Code for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers NEMA Standards Publication TP 1-1996 Guide for Determining Energy Efficiency for Distribution Transformers.12. Anders. 115-1995 IEEE Guide: Test Procedures for Synchronous Machines. Black. NEMA WC-8-1988 Ethylene-propylene-rubber-insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy. Power.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Appendix 1 – Raw Data Transformers Dry Type Units General Purpose Phase II – Part A 53 06/06/03 .

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Phase II – Part A 54 06/06/03 .

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Phase II – Part A 55 06/06/03 .

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Phase II – Part A 56 06/06/03 .

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Nonlinear Units Phase II – Part A 57 06/06/03 .

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Phase II – Part A 58 06/06/03 .

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Liquid Immersed Units Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment 1200 Amp Breaker 2000 Amp Breaker 3000 Amp Breaker 600 Amp Unfused Switch 1200 Amp Unfused Switch 100 Amp CL Fuse Watts Loss 600 1400 2000 500 750 840 Manufacturer A Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses Phase II – Part A 59 06/06/03 .

Stacked 1-1200 Amp & 1-2000 Amp Breker .Stacked Each Vertical Section with Simple Relaying & Control Each Vertical Section with Simple Relaying & Control Each PT Rollout Each CPT rollout up to 15kVA Equipment Heaters if Supplied Watts Loss 675 1335 2030 2765 1220 1880 150 330 50 600 300 Manufacturer D Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses Phase II – Part A 60 06/06/03 .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Equipment 1200 Amp Breaker 2000 Amp Breaker 3000 Amp Breaker 3500/4000 Amp Breaker 2-1200 Amp Beakers .

1 Phase CPT – 15 kVA.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Equipment Breakers 1200 Amp Breaker 2000 Amp Breaker 413 845 23 45 75 113 150 150 108 180 115 204 Watts Loss CTs – Sets of three 600:5 – Turns Ratio 1200:5 – Turns Ratio 2000:5 – Turns Ratio 3000:5 – Turns Ratio 4000:5 – Turns Ratio Auxiliary Frames Each Frame Main Bus Per Frame 1200 Amp 2000 Amp 3000 Amp 4000 Amp Control Power Transformers CPT – 5 kVA. 1 phase CPT – 45 kVA. 3 Phase CPT – 75 kVA. 1 Phase CPT – 105 kVA. 3 Phase Heaters 150 Watt 300 Watt heater at 75 Watts 60 115 175 295 450 520 885 150 75 Manufacturer E Medium Voltage Switchgear Equipment Power Losses According to manufacturer E. 1 Phase CPT – 50 kVA. the influence of the enclosure is to double the heat losses. 1 Phase CPT – 25 kVA. Phase II – Part A 61 06/06/03 .

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Motor Starters Company D NEMA 0 Motor Starter with Enclosure Phase II – Part A 62 06/06/03 .

0 3.0 9 26 6 23 25 20.3 6 9.0 4 12 6 14 40 14.15124367 22.6 5.0 3 9 6 12 25 12.0 6 6 30 2.5 6 6.665799406 11.61806785 16.0 11 31 6 26 Company D NEMA 0 Motor Starter with Enclosure Phase II – Part A 63 06/06/03 .1 6 8.282505451 9.61806785 16.3 40 4.701598074 7.0 0.26532687 6.18704234 19.0 5 16 6 17 40 16.29443834 8.7 5.1 50 8.0 3 9 6 12 30 12.15124367 22.1 0.18704234 19.0 0.3 6 9.7 5.1 40 8.2 6 8.4 1.2 30 6.0 1.1 0.15124367 22.0 6 6 50 2.4 6 6.4 1.503984652 6.0 11 31 6 26 30 0.0 9 25 6 22 40 20.701598074 7.0 0.701598074 7.0 7 21 6 20 25 18.282505451 9.5 6 7.1 0.1 6 8.5 6 7.0 0.0 5 16 6 17 25 16.51067185 26.7 5.1 40 6.0 0.0 6 6 25 2.0 0.4 6 6.0 0.0 0.44432021 13.0 0.0 1.0 3.6 40 10.W) Starter Total(W) 25 0.44432021 13.0 3 9 6 12 50 12.0 9 25 6 22 50 20.0 0.3 30 8.282505451 9.0 0.26532687 Temp.6 50 10.7 30 10.9 3.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Starter+Wire(W) Relay Loss(@480V.665799406 11.0 4 12 6 14 30 14.0 11 31 6 26 50 0.0 7 20 6 19 50 18.0 9 25 6 22 30 20.29443834 8.0 0.1 50 6.0 4 12 6 14 25 14.61806785 16.3 30 4.503984652 6.665799406 11.44432021 13.0 5 16 6 17 30 16.4 6 6.0 7 20 6 19 40 18.0 1.26532687 6.4 1.2 25 6.503984652 6.18704234 19.0 5 16 6 17 50 16.61806785 16.503984652 6.6 6 7.0 0.0 1.0 4 12 6 14 50 14.6 6 7.0 0.0 0.3 25 8.0 0.51067185 26.29443834 8.2 6 8.0 3 9 6 12 40 12.26532687 6.5 6 9.701598074 7.0 6 6 40 2.51067185 26.0 11 30 6 25 40 0.9 3.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Curve Fit 6.0 7 20 6 19 30 18.0 1.29443834 8.18704234 19.282505451 9.0 0.1 0.4 25 4.9 25 10.0 1.3 50 4.4 1.0 0.665799406 11.4 6 9.15124367 22.44432021 13.51067185 26.

3 50 0 0.4 39.0 21.0 7.5 1.800417 7.5 7.08653 31.8 7.0 17.6 25 21 8.8 7.0 0.3 50 6 0.8 7.93496 38.0 31.0 9.0 31.6 11.0 8.33168 31.6 1.9 7.6 11.4 11.0 0.0 7.4 25 9 1.0 8.73819 14.3 25 30 18.47447 17.50021 37.8 7.14362 31.0 25 3 0.873689 7.3 7.0 17.5 4.7 Company A NEMA 1 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect Company O NEMA 2 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect Phase II – Part A 64 06/06/03 .0 7.4 40 31 20.6 40 27 15.66115 14.6 40 15 4.0 14.0 21.0 39.7 30 27 15.0 25.2 7.2 7.2 50 9 1.609969 11.8 25 27 14.0 25.0 40 30 18.0 11.0 11.5 48.0 21.8 23.1 7.8 30 0 0.2 7.07102 7.0 9.9 7.9 52.492938 11.0 0.0 7.8 39.0 8.56634 26.7 25 15 4.0 17.77121 26.5 17.2 50 18 6.0 39.6 53.0 7.60252 26.2767 37.005799 9.1 7.1 7.8 7.2 7.2 7.33677 17.37715 17.1 50 24 12.4 25 18 6.7 25 12 2.3 7.3 7.4 7.0 50 30 19.0 9.29019 37.7 17.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Starter+Wire(W) Relay Loss(@120V.4 7.5 4.1 7.8 7.3 30 6 0.0 0.1 7.979239 9.0 50 3 0.0 37.0 8.0 17.0 7.14647 31.2 40 9 1.1 52.6 50 12 2.8 7.0 0.0 21.17772 8.6 50 27 15.09415 Temp.7 17.5 4.832703 7.5 30 21 9.7 11.0 7.81881 21.9 7.512526 11.0 37.5 40 0 0.2 7.0 25.6 1.0 14.0 39.1 40 24 11.2 23.97741 6.33745 6.2 40 18 6.5 7.4 7.0 14.3 7.1 30 30 18.W) Starter Net Total(W) 25 0 0.0 23.101762 8.4 7.6 30 15 4.3 7.4 7.0 39.3 25 6 0.0 31.3 50 31 20.6 4.3 40 6 0.089813 9.05585 6.61212 14.6 50 15 4.1 39.5 50 21 9.7 30 12 2.3 30 18 6.0 37.6 1.0 9.3 30 24 11.0 7.0 7.0 30 3 0.5 25 24 11.3 7.3 7.0 11.2 30 9 1.9 7.8 7.5 7.0 40 3 0.039814 9.64885 21.0 0.6 48.5 7.1 23.9 7.548702 11.3 48.61981 26.0 0.8 30.5 25 31 19.768281 7.33405 17.4 40 21 9.5 7.4 7.7 40 12 2.0 25.3 7.62194 14.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Curve Fit 6.0 39.5 7.3 7.6 30.0 31.134481 8.0 14.9 7.6967 21.0 7.2094 36.0 0.9 7.1 49.0 11.2 30 31 19.2768 39.6 52.0 7.0 37.01047 39.0 7.8 17.04225 39.7 7.1 30.66691 21.9 30.

5 15.18434 19.0 15.8 15.6 15.5 30 10 1.0 25 60 49.7 15.5 28.43442 22.5 15.5 30 140 263 344 15.4252 66.9 15.2 44.8 144.9 15.7006 15.70641 36.5 217 15.3 15.4 15.8 178.3 30 130 228 302 15.5 67.4 15.5 28.1 40 70 67.9 50 60 49.2314 97.0 15.5 31.1 25 120 197.69382 49.07802 42.8 146.7 15.49085 66.5 25 140 263 343 15.5 77.13004 31.09457 17.34701 19.13366 42.5 19.51352 57.0 15.5 17.46228 15.4 25 130 228 300 15.2 7.5 74.0 25 50 33.0 15.61984 36.0 117.37591 49.5 33.5 15.5 17.1 15.5 56.11411 30.1 15.5 57.8 88.2 89.27016 26.5 37.16425 19.8 28.3 50 130 230 299 15.9 15.5 50 10 1.3 50 80 88.0 15.92476 17.0 15.1 25 40 21.9 44.2 50 30 12.79437 86.28364 22.5 21.0 0.9 30 20 5.5 Company A NEMA 3 Combination Motor Starter with Disconnect Phase II – Part A 65 06/06/03 .0 15.3 88.6 15.1 46.2 15.6 181.W) Starter Net Total(W) 25 0 0.2 6.5 86.0 15.5 40 0 0.5 22.5 49.0 87.0 40 120 197.0 15.1 40 90 111.8 50 110 165.73325 87.0 15.5 19.2 40 30 12.0 50 100 139.6 15.00139 30.0 15.1 257 15.2 50 40 21.5 40 80 88.9 50 50 34.5 94.4 65.5 15.0996 30.5 68.0 15.5 42.2 25 30 12.67709 16.5 36.1923 75.1 15.9272 58.3 67.9 50 20 5.0 64.7 15.9 30 80 88.59608 44.1 16.01156 66.9 30 120 197.94691 76.9 40 110 165.22792 16.5 89.1 40 50 34.2 259 15.2 1.8 15.83641 68.5 30 90 111.7 65.4 218 15.8 15.4 30 30 12.5 17.22265 26.5 51.92698 37.1 40 40 21.3079 75.5 25.97226 20.5 23.3 180.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Starter+Wire(W) Relay Loss(@120V.1 1.8 50 70 67.2 30 70 67.5 58.37057 98.6 218 15.5 30.5 42.0 0.5 40 140 264 343 15.6 115.1 1.9 40 20 5.7 30.5 50 140 265 344 15.35678 26.4 25 110 165.9 30 110 165.66401 17.6 217 15.5 84.5 94.5 36.0 0.6 15.5 36.50339 16.0 15.78002 36.2 30 60 49.8 30 40 21.4 147.5 75.2 256 15.79737 Temp.0 25 70 67.5 66.5 74.5 95.5 15.5 15.13735 51.2 40 60 49.0 0.5 26.5 15.2 146.15269 23.85888 15.5 40 10 1.5 15.9 25 90 110.5 57.3 40 100 138.8 28.4 15.31143 42.5 17.88777 17.92626 101.39588 49.1 1.9 25 20 5.29171 22.8 15.5 15.5 26.49306 57.6 15.4 115.9 50 120 197.5 42.5508 59.5 96.5 50.6 15.02414 89.5 15.5 15.0 15.5049 15.5 30 0 0.1 6.4 15.5 19.2 256 15.20528 27.6 15.5 67.1 44.5 87.5 19.3 30 100 137.2 15.7 115.2 6.5 15.5 31.1 25 100 136.46116 97.3 25 80 87.1 180.5 15.5 25 10 1.5 50.7 50 90 112.8 30 50 34.8 15.99419 79.96467 86.5 22.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Curve Fit 15.3 40 130 229 300 15.5 44.5 50 0 0.

1.5. 3. and 20 KVA Sizes: 90% Efficiency: For three phase units .50 Hz Single Phase Output: 0. and 5 KVA Sizes: 85% Efficiency Company H Inverter Loss Information Phase II – Part A 66 06/06/03 . 1. 10. 5. 5. and 5 KVA Sizes: 85% Efficiency 24.5.5. and 25 KVA Sizes: 88% Efficiency: 240 VDC Input: 220 Volt .5. 130 VDC Input: Output: 120 . 10.60 Hz. 2.5. 1. 7. 3.5. 15. 2. and 20 KVA Sizes: 90% Efficiency: 240 VDC Input: 220 Volt . 3. Single Phase Output: 0. and 25 KVA Sizes: 88% Efficiency: 600 VDC Input: 120 Volt . 7.5. 5.5.50 Hz. Single Phase Output: 0. 7. 0. 2.60 Hz.60 Hz. 1.5.5. 48. 2.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Inverters Company G 240 VDC Input: 120 Volt . 2. 7. 0. 20. 2. 3. 1. 15.multiply single phase losses by three Company G Inverter Loss Information Company H 24. 48. 10. 130 VDC Input: Output: 220 V. 1.50 Hz Single Phase Output: 0. 15. 10. 5. 15. 20.

5 7.5 10 10 15 15 20 20 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 75 100 Full Load Full Load Loss Loss DC Bus Watts BTU/Hr Volts Efficiency % 130 2096 614 83 260 1952 572 83 130 3010 882 85 260 2550 747 85 130 4519 1324 85 260 3491 1023 85 130 5788 1696 85 260 4655 1364 85 130 8335 2442 86 260 6980 2045 86 130 10652 3121 86 260 9307 2727 86 130 15300 4483 87 260 13959 4090 87 130 18618 5455 88 260 18618 5455 88 130 23270 6818 88 260 23270 6818 88 130 84 31214 9146 260 86 33346 9770 260 87 40815 11959 Three Phase kVA 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 75 100 Full Load Full Load Loss Loss DC Bus Watts BTU/Hr Volts Efficiency % 130 80 6850 2007 130 81 9600 2813 130 82 12000 3516 130 82 17985 5270 130 83 22375 6556 130 84 26010 7621 130 85 28920 8473 260 87 30600 8966 260 87 40800 11954 Company I Inverter Loss Information Phase II – Part A 67 06/06/03 .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Single Phase kVA 3 3 5 5 7.

4 120 10 120 16.8 120 25.7 208 14.4 120 12.2 240 5 240 8.8 240 25.2 60 H z.6 240 16.6 120 50.6 120 50.3 240 8.8 120 25.1 208 38.6 208 58.7 120 8 120 10 120 13.1 208 38.4 120 3.2 240 33.4 240 10 240 16.4 120 16.6 208 19.3 208 9.6 208 4.4 208 29.8 208 7. O u tp u t (D C ) V olts A m ps 12 15 12 20 12 25 12 30 12 50 12 75 12 100 12 150 12 200 12 50 12 75 12 100 12 150 12 200 12 50 12 75 12 100 12 150 12 200 24 10 24 12 24 15 24 20 24 25 24 30 24 50 24 75 24 100 24 150 24 200 24 25 24 30 24 50 24 75 24 100 24 150 24 200 24 25 24 30 24 50 24 75 24 100 24 150 24 200 48 10 48 12 48 15 48 20 48 25 48 30 48 50 48 75 48 100 48 20 48 25 48 30 48 50 48 75 48 100 48 20 48 25 48 30 48 50 48 75 48 100 48 150 P o w er L o sses B T U /H r W atts 429 126 388 114 347 102 674 197 695 204 1043 306 1227 360 3068 899 3272 959 695 204 1043 306 1227 360 3068 899 3272 959 695 204 1043 306 1227 360 3068 899 3272 959 150 44 191 56 241 71 321 94 402 118 482 141 803 235 1205 353 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 402 118 482 141 803 235 1205 353 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 402 118 482 141 803 235 1205 353 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 312 91 383 112 382 112 643 188 803 235 964 282 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 643 188 803 235 964 282 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 643 188 803 235 964 282 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 4819 1412 E fficien cy η 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 Company J 60 Hz.7 208 9.2 240 6.8 240 6.6 120 6.2 120 33. Single Phase Units Phase II – Part A 68 06/06/03 .8 208 5.8 240 4.4 240 12.8 240 25.8 120 20 120 33.5 208 19.7 240 8.2 120 33.7 120 8.2 120 4 120 5 120 8.2 240 33.7 208 11.5 120 67 208 4.2 208 7.6 120 16.4 120 67.8 120 3.8 208 9.5 208 19.4 240 12.7 208 14.4 208 29.4 240 4.6 240 16.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Battery Chargers Company J C om pany J In p u t (S in g le P h ase) V olts A m ps 120 2.3 120 4 120 5 120 6.

5 24 150 220 36.6 48 100 240 50.8 24 75 220 18.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 50 Hz.7 48 20 240 8. Single Phase Units Phase II – Part A 69 06/06/03 .3 48 200 Power Losses BTU/Hr Watts 695 204 1043 306 1227 360 3068 899 3272 959 695 204 1043 306 1227 360 3068 899 3272 959 402 118 482 141 803 235 1205 353 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 402 118 482 141 803 235 1205 353 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 643 188 803 235 964 282 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 4819 1412 6426 1883 643 188 803 235 964 282 1606 471 2410 706 3213 941 4819 1412 6426 1883 Efficiency η 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 Company J 50 Hz.2 24 50 220 13.9 12 75 220 9.3 12 75 240 8.4 48 200 240 6.2 48 75 240 33.2 24 25 240 5 24 30 240 8.8 48 50 240 25.3 48 20 220 9.3 24 100 220 27.8 12 150 220 18. Input (Single Phase) Output (DC) Volts Amps Volts Amps 220 4.3 48 50 220 27.2 12 100 220 13.2 24 150 240 33.5 48 150 240 67.6 24 25 220 5.4 24 50 240 12.2 12 50 240 6.6 12 150 240 16.6 24 200 220 7.3 12 200 240 4.8 12 200 220 4.5 48 75 220 36.4 48 25 240 10.8 24 100 240 25.7 48 100 220 55 48 150 220 73.7 24 200 240 4.6 24 75 240 16.6 12 50 220 6.2 48 25 220 11 48 30 220 18.1 48 30 240 16.5 24 30 220 9.4 12 100 240 12.

9 48 200 240 50.9 48 400 50 Hz.8 Power Losses BTU/Hr Watts 2514 737 3772 1105 5029 1473 5029 1473 7543 2210 10057 2947 Efficiency η 88 88 88 88 88 88 Company J 50 and 60 Hz.4 24 300 240 33.9 24 200 240 25.7 380 16 380 21.1 48 200 208 58. Input (Three Phase) Output (DC) Volts Amps Volts Amps 208 19.9 48 200 480 25.6 48 300 208 78.5 24 200 208 29.1 48 400 240 33.7 48 400 480 16.1 380 42.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 60 Hz.4 380 21.1 24 400 240 16.7 24 300 480 16.9 24 400 208 39.4 48 300 480 33. Output (DC) Volts Amps 24 200 24 300 24 400 48 200 48 300 48 400 Power Losses BTU/Hr Watts 2514 737 3772 1105 5029 1473 2514 737 3772 1105 5029 1473 2514 737 3772 1105 5029 1473 5029 1473 7543 2210 10057 2947 5029 1473 7543 2210 10057 2947 5029 1473 7543 2210 10057 2947 Efficiency η 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 Input (Three Phase) Volts Amps 380 10.9 24 400 480 8.5 24 200 480 12.3 24 300 208 39.4 380 32. Three Phase Units Phase II – Part A 70 06/06/03 .8 48 300 240 67.

.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Input (Three Phase) Volts Amps 208 20 208 28 208 40 240 18 240 24 240 38 480 10 480 12 480 18 208 20 208 43 208 63 208 74 240 17 240 37 240 55 240 65 480 10 480 18 480 28 480 38 60 Hz.Float Chargers Output (DC) Volts Amps 24 200 24 300 24 400 24 200 24 300 24 400 24 200 24 300 24 400 48 100 48 200 48 300 48 400 48 100 48 200 48 300 48 400 48 100 48 200 48 300 48 400 Power Losses BTU/Hr Watts 6100 1787 9400 2754 12300 3604 6100 1787 9400 2754 12300 3604 6100 1787 9400 2754 12300 3604 3700 1084 6100 1787 9400 2754 12300 3604 3700 1084 6100 1787 9400 2754 12300 3604 3700 1084 6100 1787 9400 2754 12300 3604 Company J 60 Hz. Three Phase Float Chargers Phase II – Part A 71 06/06/03 .

Battery Chargers Phase II – Part A 72 06/06/03 . Output (DC) Volts Amps 110 50 110 75 110 100 110 150 110 200 110 300 110 400 110 500 110 600 110 50 110 75 110 100 110 150 110 200 110 300 110 400 110 500 110 600 130 50 130 75 130 100 130 150 130 200 130 300 130 400 130 500 130 600 130 50 130 75 130 100 130 150 130 200 130 300 130 400 130 500 130 600 220 50 220 75 220 100 220 150 220 200 220 300 220 400 220 500 220 50 220 75 220 100 220 150 220 200 220 300 220 400 220 500 260 50 260 75 260 100 260 150 260 200 260 300 260 400 260 500 260 50 260 75 260 100 260 150 260 200 260 300 Power Losses Watts BTU/Hr 1857 544 2785 816 3266 957 4239 1242 5652 1656 7188 2106 7905 2316 9881 2895 11857 3474 1857 544 2785 816 3266 957 4239 1242 5652 1656 7188 2106 7905 2316 9881 2895 11857 3474 2191 642 3290 964 3857 1130 5010 1468 6679 1957 8495 2489 9341 2737 11676 3421 14010 4105 2191 642 3290 964 3857 1130 5010 1468 6679 1957 8495 2489 9341 2737 11676 3421 14010 4105 3713 1088 5570 1632 6529 1913 8478 2484 11304 3312 14379 4213 15809 4632 19758 5789 3713 1088 5570 1632 6529 1913 8478 2484 11304 3312 14379 4213 15809 4632 19758 5789 4389 1286 6584 1929 7717 2261 10017 2935 13358 3914 16993 4979 18683 5474 23352 6842 4389 1286 6584 1929 7717 2261 10017 2935 13358 3914 16993 4979 Efficiency η 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 Company I Three Phase 60 Hz.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Company I Input (Three Phase) Volts Amps 208 28 208 42 208 56 208 82 208 110 208 163 208 215 208 269 208 323 480 12 480 18 480 24 480 36 480 48 480 71 480 93 480 117 480 140 208 33 208 49 208 65 208 96 208 128 208 190 208 251 208 314 208 376 480 14 480 21 480 28 480 42 480 56 480 82 480 109 480 136 480 163 208 56 208 84 208 111 208 165 208 220 208 326 208 431 208 538 480 24 480 36 480 48 480 71 480 95 480 141 480 187 480 233 208 65 208 98 208 130 208 192 208 256 208 380 208 502 208 627 480 28 480 43 480 56 480 83 480 111 480 165 60 Hz.

Output (DC) Volts Amps 110 50 110 75 110 100 110 150 110 200 110 300 110 400 110 500 110 600 110 50 110 75 110 100 110 150 110 200 110 300 110 400 110 500 110 600 130 50 130 75 130 100 130 150 130 200 130 300 130 400 130 500 130 600 130 50 130 75 130 100 130 150 130 200 130 300 130 400 130 500 130 600 220 50 220 75 220 100 220 150 220 200 220 300 220 400 220 500 220 50 220 75 220 100 220 150 220 200 220 300 220 400 220 500 260 50 260 75 260 100 260 150 260 200 260 300 260 400 260 500 260 50 260 75 260 100 260 150 260 200 260 300 Power Losses BTU/Hr Watts 1857 544 2785 816 3266 957 4239 1242 5652 1656 7188 2106 7905 2316 9881 2895 11857 3474 1857 544 2785 816 3266 957 4239 1242 5652 1656 7188 2106 7905 2316 9881 2895 11857 3474 2191 642 3290 964 3857 1130 5010 1468 6679 1957 8495 2489 9341 2737 11676 3421 14010 4105 2191 642 3290 964 3857 1130 5010 1468 6679 1957 8495 2489 9341 2737 11676 3421 14010 4105 3713 1088 5570 1632 6529 1913 8478 2484 11304 3312 14379 4213 15809 4632 19758 5789 3713 1088 5570 1632 6529 1913 8478 2484 11304 3312 14379 4213 15809 4632 19758 5789 4389 1286 6584 1929 7717 2261 10017 2935 13358 3914 16993 4979 18683 5474 23352 6842 4389 1286 6584 1929 7717 2261 10017 2935 13358 3914 16993 4979 Efficiency η 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 95 95 91 91 92 93 93 94 Company I Three Phase 50 Hz. Battery Chargers Phase II – Part A 73 06/06/03 .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Input (Three Phase) Volts Amps 380 15 380 23 380 30 380 45 380 60 380 89 380 118 380 147 380 177 415 14 415 21 415 28 415 41 415 55 415 82 415 108 415 135 415 162 380 18 380 27 380 35 380 53 380 70 380 104 380 137 380 172 380 206 415 16 415 25 415 32 415 48 415 64 415 95 415 126 415 157 415 189 380 31 380 46 380 61 380 90 380 120 380 179 380 236 380 295 415 28 415 42 415 56 415 83 415 110 415 164 415 216 415 270 380 36 380 54 380 71 380 105 380 140 380 208 380 275 380 343 415 33 415 49 415 65 415 96 415 128 415 191 50 Hz.

ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 130 Volt Amps 50 75 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 260 Volt Amps 50 75 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 No Load No Load Full Load Full Load BTU/Hr Watts BTU/Hr Watts 785 230 1960 574 1175 344 2950 864 1565 459 3925 1150 2350 689 5875 1721 3135 919 7830 2294 3925 1150 9785 2867 4700 1377 11750 3443 5480 1606 13700 4014 6265 1836 15660 4588 7830 2294 19570 5734 9400 2754 23500 6885 No Load No Load Full Load Full Load BTU/Hr Watts BTU/Hr Watts 1545 453 3860 1131 3215 942 5785 1695 3085 904 7710 2259 4625 1355 11570 3390 6170 1808 15420 4518 7710 2259 19300 5655 9255 2712 23130 6777 10800 3164 26990 7908 12335 3614 30840 9036 15420 4518 38550 11295 Company I Load and No Load Loss Information Phase II – Part A 74 06/06/03 .

5 243 DC Amps 700 800 Company C 1200/2000 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC Watts DC Amps Loss 600 38.5 700 49 800 52 900 58 1000 63 1200 77 1400 97 1600 105 1800 115 2000 126 Three Pole Watts Loss 115.5 700 52 800 54.5 31 32 32 36.5 900 66.5 199.5 205.5 700 49 800 52 1000 63 1200 77 Three Pole Watts Loss 115.5 156 163.5 123 138 150 165 165 Company C 1200 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC Watts DC Amps Loss 600 38.5 93 96 96 109.5 147 156 189 231 Company D 1600 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC Watts Loss Three Pole Watts Loss 60 75 55 40 55 60 90 120 195 180 260 460 Company C 2500 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC DC Watts Amps Loss 2500 168 Three Pole Watts Loss 504 Company D 3000 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC AC Watts Amps Loss 2000 2500 3000 Three Pole Watts Loss 480 750 1080 DC Amps 125 175 200 225 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 AC Amps 200 225 250 300 350 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1600 Company D 600 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC AC Watts Amps Loss 50 70 90 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 350 400 500 600 Three Pole Watts Loss 60 70 70 65 105 80 110 110 140 95 119 150 165 225 215 Company C Company C 800 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC Watts Loss 49 52 Three Pole Watts Loss 147 156 1200 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC Watts DC Amps Loss 600 40.5 41 46 50 55 55 Three Pole Watts Loss 75 84 87 90 91.5 1200 81 Three Pole Watts Loss 121.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Low Voltage Circuit Breakers Company C 600 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC DC Watts Amps Loss 300 43 350 51 400 40 450 51 500 58 600 61 Three Pole Watts Loss 129 153 120 153 174 183 Company C 800/1000 Amp Frame 1 Pole DC Watts Loss 25 28 29 30 30.5 147 156 174 189 231 291 315 345 378 Phase II – Part A 75 06/06/03 .5 1000 68.

3 16.9 1.1 35.5 40 20 0.3 1.075691 0.5 40 40 1 13.(C) Load(Amps) Trans.305978 4.3 1.223912 2.25 0.5 30.6 30 0 0 0 0 0 30 10 0.6 5.75 7.405495 9.175165 0.1 50 0 0 0 0 0 50 10 0.6 50 40 1 13.(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 26 0 0 0 0 0 26 10 0.9 25.405495 9.5 30.25622 1.4 0.5 30 60 1.3 40 0 0 0 0 0 40 10 0.6 4.305934 1.9 2.086449 0.008931 0.576484 2.5 10.5 26 50 1.8 27.8 24.5 9.3 50 50 1.3 4.5 9.5 0.089605 0.1 1.059429 0.037645 0.405495 9.008931 0.3 0.104663 0.8 1.25 20.024879 2.9 40 0 0 0 0 0 40 10 0.075691 0.4 50 20 0.175165 0.9 1.024879 2.379121 6.379121 6.3 1 35 30 0.4 26 20 0.3 16.4 0.5 3.2 Curve Fit 0 0.3 6.041062 0.75 7.099516 6.5 3.25 0.1 6.8 27.4 1.5 3.3 0.088425 0.25622 1.223912 0 0.223912 0 0.3 4.9 1.5 3.024879 2.118185 0.050551 0.048788 3.3 17.099516 6.5 30.7 8.4 35 20 0.75 7.3 6.3 15.09029 0.877253 0 0.3 1 40 30 0.5 3.104919 0 0.405495 9.25 20.4 30 50 1.4 4.9 27.3 2.25 0.75 7.037662 0 0.25 0.8 25.700659 1.2 9.6 26 50 1.576484 2.6 50 60 1.5 30.9 50 40 1 13.25 0.6 35 60 1.75 7.089605 0.25622 1.9 1.802637 4.039737 0.050551 0.4 4.25 20.059429 0.4 16.3 4.088425 0.802637 4.099516 6.001752 Curve Fit 0 0.008931 0.700659 1.6 1.3 3 40 50 1.5 9.75 7.6 1.3 17.2 50 0 0 0 0 0 50 10 0.048788 0.4 4.5 60 Amp Circuit Breaker Test with Enclosure 0.1 39 8.576484 2.9 1.305978 4.75 7.3 40 50 1.4 3.03796 0 0.175165 0.305934 0 0.160387 0.040194 0.25 20.5 3.5 30 20 0.25 0.9 1.305978 4.3 9.04996 0.039737 0.25 20.3 4.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 0.8 27.4 6.5 3.9 50 30 0.002562 Temp.024879 2.25622 1.011129 0.1 2.011222 0 0.52E-05 0 0.25 20.9 1.25 0.9 1.2 50 30 0.9 26 30 0.5 30.389266 0 0.5 30.3 4.4 40 20 0.1 39.099516 6.5 3.1 2.5 10 2.5 26 0 0 0 0 0 26 10 0.014612 0.1 50 50 1.700659 1.5 3.802637 4.000572 Phase II – Part A 76 06/06/03 .5 4.6 26 20 0.3 17.5 10.059429 0.3 0.04996 0.576484 2.6 30 40 1 13.3 4.3 4.1 36.086449 0.1 38.5 10.(C) Load(Amps) Trans.4 0.2 0.25 20.7 4.379121 6.015354 0 0.8 25.4 6.3 26 60 1.802637 4.143733 0.25 0.7 4.050551 0.305934 0 0.6 26 40 1 13.5 30.244058 0.8 26 40 1 13.5 40 60 1.040194 0.700659 1.(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 35 0 0 0 0 0 35 10 0.75 7.25 20.64953 60 amp Circuit Breaker w/o Enclosure Test Temp.1 36.175165 0.305978 4.8 35 40 1 13.050551 0.3 40 30 0.6 1.5 50 20 0.3 0.1 36.000553 0.379121 6.4 17.1 39.22574 0.5 9.223912 0 0.038952 0.3 6.8 4.5 26 30 0.305934 0 0.6 6.5 40 60 1.030667 0.8 40 40 1 13.5 30.1 35 50 1.3 30 30 0.5 50 60 1.3 0.8 4 26 60 1.

457771 0.052292 Constant Sum 0.0 96 109 13 50 90.82477 20.038211 0.037184 0.030704 0.54763 0 0.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 25 0.26059 0.0 14 16 2 30 40.031666 0.477677 10.0 95 107 12 30 90.51048 15.016287 0.0 120 136 16 25 100.29365 16.17795 13.830853 1.0 38 43 5 50 60.037145 9.228176 0.0 14 16 2 50 40.001955 1.0 120 137 17 40 100.0 38 43 5 40 60.83358 19.207713 0.0 2 2 0 30 20.0 24 28 4 50 50.0 0 0 0 25 10.192831 7.195476 0.017051 0.047565 0.00138 0.195476 0.578337 12.027697 0.0 73 83 10 50 80.002077 1.0 54 61 7 30 70.047565 0.016287 0.0 0 0 0 40 10.26059 0.01283 Phase II – Part A 77 06/06/03 .043145 0.028611 0.057943 0.00138 0.477677 10.0 149 170 21 50 0.0 24 27 3 30 50.204643 0 0.334473 0.0 95 107 12 25 90.0 95 108 13 40 90.54763 0 0.0 73 82 9 25 80.0 149 169 20 40 0.0 2 2 0 50 20.002077 1.869419 3.030704 0.0 14 16 2 25 40.12762 4.886906 7.01279 0.0 6 7 1 30 30.017051 0.0 24 27 3 25 50.0 38 43 5 25 60.0 120 136 16 30 100.08623 0.0 54 61 7 40 70.08623 0.01283 Constant Sum 0.334473 0.82477 20.0 6 7 1 50 30.00158 Constant Sum 0.038211 0.031666 0.323412 5.0 0 0 0 50 10.759286 3.028611 0.886906 7.12762 4.00158 0 0.77133 Constant Sum 0.0 54 61 7 25 70.0 73 83 10 40 80.781905 1.052292 0 0.457771 0.0 0 0 0 30 10.0 2 2 0 40 20.057943 0.027697 0.17795 13.01279 0.77133 0 0.759286 3.0 73 82 9 30 80.0 149 169 20 30 0.869419 3.037145 9.001955 1.043145 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 100 Amp Circuit Breaker no Enclosure Test (7 Turns on two CT's wired in parallel.204643 0 0.29365 16.83358 19.0 6 7 1 40 30.0 38 43 5 30 60.0 6 7 1 25 30.0 150 171 21 Curve Fit 0 0.0 2 2 0 25 20.323412 5.037184 0.830853 1.578337 12.0 24 28 4 40 50.192831 7.) Temp.0 121 138 17 50 100.0 14 16 2 40 40.207713 0.0 54 61 7 50 70.228176 0.51048 15.781905 1.

001954763 1.001379768 0.015697868 0.0 0 0 0 30 10.0 96 110 14 50 90.260590234 0.334473168 0.012790161 0.334473168 0.0 6 7 1 50 30.047565418 0.260590234 0.882958986 1.037145222 9.531835945 5.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 25 0.001578968 Constant Sum 0.00547225 Constant Sum 0.623337149 Phase II – Part A 78 06/06/03 .759286306 3.127620099 4.195476256 0.002848263 0.67923261 0 0.578336552 12.83357675 19.0 6 7 1 25 30.0 73 82 9 30 80.781905025 1.037145222 9.886906404 7.002167923 1.83357675 19.0 2 2 0 40 20.216792326 0.0 38 43 5 25 60.013698599 0.0 73 84 11 40 80.804523739 10.001379768 0.951130935 3.781905025 1.0 54 62 8 40 70.0 38 43 5 50 60.000178016 0.047565418 0.0 2 2 0 30 20.204642582 0 0.54762562 0 0.51048039 15.87991947 22.038210969 0.0 38 43 5 40 60.0 150 172 22 Constant Sum 0.62282398 13.176238884 0.81624758 14.26883568 0.867169304 1.0 120 136 16 25 100.01628689 0.0 24 28 4 40 50.027696698 0.01628689 0.0 24 27 3 25 50.886906404 7.0 73 84 11 50 80.002207397 0.986657719 3.027696698 0.195476256 0.038210967 0.07397466 0 0.017643994 0.0 2 2 0 50 20.016216439 0.468677217 5.142261752 0.12734378 17.204642582 0 0.461356935 0 0.220739747 0.0 24 28 4 50 50.87470887 17.376544428 Constant Sum 0.54762562 0 0.012790161 0.0 2 2 0 25 20.0 0 0 0 25 10.0 121 139 18 50 100.0 149 169 20 40 0.) Temp.127620099 4.0 120 136 16 30 100.0 73 82 9 25 80.51048039 15.0 14 16 2 40 40.0 14 16 2 30 40.518493664 7.0 38 43 5 30 60.046998913 0.014419333 0.0 54 62 8 50 70.0 54 61 7 25 70.946630877 10.2823039 0.193443029 0.0 0 0 0 40 10.057943083 0.0 95 107 12 25 90.0 95 109 14 40 90.0 14 16 2 50 40.759286306 3.56017841 21.0 149 170 21 50 0.0 120 138 18 40 100.0 14 16 2 25 40.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Curve Fit 0 0.038210967 0.0 24 27 3 30 50.0 6 7 1 40 30.057943083 0.578336552 12.419808152 7.033764951 0.219177582 0.001578968 100 Amp Circuit Breaker in Enclosure Test (7 Turns on two CT's wired in parallel.0 54 61 7 30 70.002388186 0.0 149 169 20 30 0.048726036 0.001954763 1.0 0 0 0 50 10.0 6 7 1 30 30.0 95 107 12 30 90.

0 54 58 4 25 80.25713 0 0.0 488 523 35 25 200.347054 0.70864 49.25878 0.08489 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 200 Amp Circuit Breaker w/o Enclosure Test Temp.41089 34.0 213 230 17 40 140.0 95 101 6 30 100.0 54 58 4 40 80.82951 0 0.0 293 316 23 50 160.86133 47.318416 0.029067 0 0.0 383 411 28 25 180.37473 39.095923 0.422571 1.317925 7.0 0 0 0 50 20.0 148 158 10 30 120.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 25 0.479769 1.0 213 228 15 30 140.579337 0.22828 42.960921 4.230179 0.0 383 411 28 30 180.37370229 Constant Sum 0.919078 4.70525 38.01923 1.006548 0.001071 3.500383 2.98646 27.706 27.0 148 158 10 25 120.082265 0.0 24 26 2 25 60.0 611 653 42 40 0.000183 0.99424 17.497372 0.094923 0.001056 2.06541 0.0 148 160 12 50 120.0 292 313 21 30 160.046637 Constant Sum 0.0 7 7 0 40 40.021125 0.727134 0.0 0 0 0 40 20.852722 10.086438 0.803142 6.99806576 0 0.038753 0.676312 11.0 95 103 8 50 100.420273 1.0 213 227 14 25 140.169803 0.066118 0 0.0 0 0 0 30 20.001527 0.7118 0.052111 0.178567 0.0 95 101 6 25 100.101076 0.240326 0.0 24 26 2 50 60.25575 17.0 491 530 39 50 200.0 292 315 23 40 160.761142 10.0 24 26 2 40 60.02301 0 0.104774 3.0 95 102 7 40 100.912853 0.32E-05 1.0 385 415 30 50 180.0 610 653 43 30 0.045185 0.6919 42.0 292 313 21 25 160.97695 Constant Sum 0.70738 15.64828 24.83195832 Constant Sum 0.001199 3.0 54 58 4 50 80.0 7 7 0 30 40.0 148 160 12 40 120.04457 34.617223 0.02128 31.0 613 663 50 50 0.2717 23.41862 20.0 489 523 34 30 200.56428 15.71318 3.0 613 662 49 Curve Fit 0 0.001226 3.012494 0.140422 0.88185371 Phase II – Part A 79 06/06/03 .954503 0 0.0 490 530 40 40 200.428295 1.5087 30.0 384 415 31 40 180.690285 3.0 0 0 0 25 20.412071 7.0 7 7 0 25 40.49023 1.0 7 7 0 50 40.0 54 58 4 30 80.21257 20.854656 6.0 214 230 16 50 140.843682 12.043006 0.183437 0.0 24 26 2 30 60.

001235 3.35589942 Constant Sum 0.38156 25.0206 0.042395 4.929523 1.0 24 26 2 25 60.0 610 654 44 30 0.0 385 417 32 50 180.3585 51.758971 3.0 7 7 0 50 40.0 148 160 12 25 120.40591 0 0.917007 0.0 214 232 18 50 140.035882 10.0 54 58 4 30 80.54739 28.758971 3.244094 0.0 491 533 42 50 200.009035 0.54739 28.38335 0.193374 0.01291 1.299634 0.0 7 7 0 25 40.000662 0 0.67832 41.367182 0.260711 0.26712194 0 0.055239 0.97426 0 0.0 384 416 32 40 180.0 613 662 49 50 0.40421584 Phase II – Part A 80 06/06/03 .460124 0.976237 4.0 24 27 3 50 60.0 95 103 8 50 100.14353 35.595389 8.01879 49.0 0 0 0 25 20.0 489 524 35 30 200.164766 0 0.35148 17.0 0 0 0 30 20.199391 0.367182 0.99357 15.0 148 160 12 30 120.957684 7.0 95 103 8 25 100.0 613 665 52 Curve Fit 0 0.123537 0.0 383 411 28 30 180.957684 7.461433 0.000565 0.16371 0.883821 Constant Sum 0.077744 0.001276 7.0 24 26 2 30 60.0 611 655 44 40 0.439743 1.0 0 0 0 50 20.0 7 7 0 40 40.0 148 161 13 50 120.494059 1.0206 0.0 7 7 0 30 40.000662 0 0.058095 0.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 25 0.145586 4.0 54 58 4 40 80.78613 24.299634 0.0 292 313 21 25 160.962774 0.411516 0.510599 2.2089 31.001099 4.05988 Constant Sum 0.61915 43.0 292 315 23 40 160.169581 12.0 95 103 8 40 100.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 200 Amp Circuit Breaker in Enclosure Test Temp.97426 0 0.0 95 103 8 30 100.0 213 230 17 30 140.0 213 230 17 25 140.01291 1.193374 0.83073 21.0 0 0 0 40 20.439743 1.01934 32.76497 18.045741 1.0 292 313 21 30 160.446532 7.0 490 531 41 40 200.83073 21.61915 43.0 54 58 4 25 80.904946 12.035882 10.0 24 26 2 40 60.0 213 231 18 40 140.0 148 160 12 40 120.0 488 523 35 25 200.99357 15.001791 0.058095 0.001791 0.14353 35.0 293 316 23 50 160.26712194 Constant Sum 0.61978 40.929523 1.38335 0.144564 0.028758 0.001099 4.0 383 411 28 25 180.0 54 59 5 50 80.

38288448 86.0075 Constant Sum 0.58723566 45.53757992 38.0266717 0 0.054054837 Constant Sum 0.170322295 0 0.408598745 18.6625427 290.4442246 142.5612912 186.3489426 139.94655923 74.7389079 142.39564224 9.98076793 75.72884775 57.41421878 63.021695307 0.270673 324.095327 0 2.64696047 20.65569238 2.035670519 9.64330769 71.59442871 52.84079374 32.60491384 26.99802124 26.122846 330.420265829 52.2851209 284.79201934 39.009755817 0.85270673 11.156093074 3.14024633 71.11105614 46.2025028 235.42098463 13.243551 9.000505427 249.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 25 0 0 0 0 25 75 5 8 3 25 150 21 33 12 25 225 47 76 29 25 300 86 136 50 25 375 133 211 78 25 450 193 304 111 25 525 262 407 145 25 600 343 528 185 25 675 439 666 227 25 750 541 819 278 25 800 620 942 322 30 0 0 0 0 30 75 5 8 3 30 150 21 33 12 30 225 48 76 28 30 300 86 136 50 30 375 133 213 80 30 450 193 305 112 30 525 263 409 146 30 600 346 530 184 30 675 440 668 228 30 750 545 823 278 30 800 623 947 324 40 0 0 0 0 40 75 5 8 3 40 150 21 33 12 40 225 49 77 28 40 300 87 139 52 40 375 135 216 81 40 450 195 307 112 40 525 267 415 148 40 600 349 537 188 40 675 443 676 233 40 750 548 833 285 40 800 628 955 327 50 0 0 0 0 50 75 5 8 3 50 150 21 34 13 50 225 49 78 29 50 300 87 140 53 50 375 137 217 80 50 450 197 311 114 50 525 269 418 149 50 600 351 541 190 50 675 447 679 232 50 750 554 837 283 50 800 634 964 330 Curve Fit 0 2.6974423 139.3026184 323.000507148 289.63765643 26.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 800 Amp Company A Circuit Breaker no Enclosure Test Temp.08974257 34.394252463 11.1601945 185.5732307 231.308283 181.3395 Phase II – Part A 81 06/06/03 .73535267 104.9832 Constant Sum 0.7826298 182.008205804 1.10332789 5.5746324 0 2.000515774 243.35436363 47.86268634 0.330202427 0 0.76782778 41.41082692 25.90122846 11.0756546 102.581049168 0 0.568108911 31.000517229 323.9995052 290.72299866 2.38879846 3.0692452 285.9414107 331.31766826 102.67436057 45.18472696 46.06600388 1.5307115 104.48841894 71.843026184 11.37210474 25.909414107 11.6786214 234.41965536 72.4732014 0 2.347124917 5.280091289 10.9536758 230.77510076 85.855980008 7.45697047 14.024640779 0.55062571 72.925762274 41.5686 Constant Sum 0.

30143758 140.823013602 15.4449833 313.40712242 61.1608594 307.57534004 137.463580106 49.87073844 97.7779834 186.9388428 432.27920809 91.750523968 0.4456378 24.65819659 139.56823001 35.579188757 67.000691921 410.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Curve Fit 0 3.6284897 187.55403558 11.677351389 1.06979062 7.73160957 127.8517778 53.33433858 23.97489536 87.2566578 389.684661976 31.322885348 0.34528482 44.16821763 95.19755371 34.6327864 439.639021859 1.9339327 Sum Constant 0.82520597 93.172557 386.56504498 48.4500653 247.000675447 266.2859723 0 3.037828637 1.669404591 0.973992 0 3.46531146 34.041228988 9.892057503 15.72828237 47.6641017 382.27292005 97.02851753 62.86124582 96.862087 Sum Constant 0.2057503 442.14753969 5.7108177 249.19449585 60.000687347 344.018991399 70.60155672 61.799388428 15.91258081 3.3276665 244.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 25 0 0 0 0 25 75 5 8 3 25 150 21 35 14 25 225 47 81 34 25 300 86 148 62 25 375 133 235 102 25 450 193 338 145 25 525 262 456 194 25 600 343 591 248 25 675 439 744 305 25 750 541 914 373 25 800 620 1050 430 30 0 0 0 0 30 75 5 8 3 30 150 21 35 14 30 225 48 82 34 30 300 86 150 64 30 375 133 237 104 30 450 193 340 147 30 525 263 460 197 30 600 346 594 248 30 675 440 747 307 30 750 545 919 374 30 800 623 1056 433 40 0 0 0 0 40 75 5 8 3 40 150 21 36 15 40 225 49 84 35 40 300 87 152 65 40 375 135 239 104 40 450 195 344 149 40 525 267 466 199 40 600 349 600 251 40 675 443 757 314 40 750 548 929 381 40 800 628 1061 433 50 0 0 0 0 50 75 5 8 3 50 150 21 36 15 50 225 49 85 36 50 300 87 154 67 50 375 137 241 104 50 450 197 347 150 50 525 269 471 202 50 600 351 605 254 50 675 447 761 314 50 750 554 935 381 50 800 634 1072 438 Constant Sum 0.21651475 0.170033 243.225669246 0 0.0916802 315.000679647 353.9021925 0 3.29205441 34.79021485 94.98471071 136.1878031 189.896644516 0 0.434134895 0.8296537 0 0.7863862 Phase II – Part A 82 06/06/03 .64026131 0 0.4172817 7.3013602 434.90207725 96.63814387 0.21428389 67.6728705 309.2012523 12.7504627 379.3083835 23.79695077 61.32555502 Constant Sum 0.1140701 190.866327864 15.097438105 68.09160311 1.795766589 0.0543252 800 Amp Company A Circuit Breaker in Enclosure Test Temp.943778189 22.165748662 8.

62450988 152.8083676 489.3880745 731.76425629 53.9194199 1637.2261899 594.6176083 214.6291698 435.93467967 181.4704332 719.1064073 718.3674183 1149.043880745 24.3092242 856.1111077 862.3382257 138.5794304 0 0.8783066 291.40612747 54.000604 6857.941064073 23.000594 6093.8126184 335.149435 2056.4525708 372.101531867 24.1587296 55.5048434 240.43784827 70.8461385 290.70209191 151.7108986 923.5797068 296.11526931 148.1531867 738.43212361 292.995702 506.05702516 148.5210509 594.1868528 523.1031985 60.0970186 217.312695 800.0374238 0 5.0897253 1088.6601956 0 0.2240813 610.50233899 95.372 1200 Amp Company A Circuit Breaker no Enclosure Test Temp.66690001 327.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Curve Fit 0 5.003473444 27.77881733 53.6183405 55.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 25 0 0 0 0 25 100 8 14 6 25 200 29 58 29 25 300 65 132 67 25 400 117 235 118 25 500 183 362 179 25 600 263 510 247 25 700 360 682 322 25 800 467 872 405 25 900 588 1077 489 25 1000 726 1307 581 25 1100 884 1584 700 25 1200 1060 1899 839 30 0 0 0 0 30 100 8 14 6 30 200 29 58 29 30 300 65 134 69 30 400 117 239 122 30 500 184 368 184 30 600 264 512 248 30 700 360 684 324 30 800 470 874 404 30 900 593 1082 489 30 1000 731 1308 577 30 1100 887 1585 698 30 1200 1060 1900 840 40 0 0 0 0 40 100 8 14 6 40 200 29 60 31 40 300 66 139 73 40 400 118 244 126 40 500 186 371 185 40 600 267 522 255 40 700 363 694 331 40 800 473 885 412 40 900 595 1092 497 40 1000 732 1328 596 40 1100 892 1596 704 40 1200 1061 1913 852 50 0 0 0 0 50 100 8 15 7 50 200 29 61 32 50 300 67 140 73 50 400 121 248 127 50 500 188 381 193 50 600 269 534 265 50 700 365 704 339 50 800 477 890 413 50 900 598 1104 506 50 1000 742 1338 596 50 1100 900 1610 710 50 1200 1071 1930 859 Constant Sum 0.944704332 23.003057611 27.611364 565.289959 1081.3949267 96.412147 1400.17552298 54.0726365 602.102 Constant Sum 0.3095701 870.382595 943.5543403 604.1501565 386.00192552 46.00061 8574.35979302 745.511593 634.57348662 346.158 Phase II – Part A 83 06/06/03 .127 Constant Sum 0.8687528 855.41301219 241.9750615 390.46957665 95.4610773 481.2281007 481.285356 878.009356 291.361979 1164.6551472 298.923893 1258.5266018 213.0613617 384.6205889 0 0.6722621 200.9675091 Constant Sum 0.278343 1214.000594 5190.1487525 858.4980395 494.26074849 182.2738104 0 0.91378681 97.5132265 0 6.1121396 380.2905123 380.5382967 219.3188272 0 6.807244985 57.1940493 725.155673 1601.

672672 0 7.5224179 368.2559045 1082.5222204 603.445659694 29.854521 607.47954201 119.63060447 120.32393833 409.66062769 193.2249537 1079.0836765 910.8837223 394.514511608 30.9006936 1035.8109138 461.99090756 67.0984352 744.0209191 270.42211856 588.7501235 368.9287429 608.08993195 0.49772689 29.5210015 481.187778 752.84699823 140.014227 3419.000751451 14818.08334706 67.003282 1201.000749773 9202.0212486 1083.264722195 48.1414923 268.05804643 67.3489053 1943.6785414 19.186312 Constant Sum 0.553253 2461.01093724 119.71527 MOTORS Phase II – Part A 84 06/06/03 .6754402 751.772689 907.4646553 33.000744566 3836.62761 2786.000752084 13725.0263658 82.2950169 479.837325 476.7743 2114.231329 1200 Amp Company A Circuit Breaker in Enclosure Test Temp.243185837 1.4717104 1002.479052 2615.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Curve Fit 0 7.762551 250.0628794 1936.23036 0 2.520836765 30.3898564 1581.6800363 485.000494 0 7.68753088 120.4431723 269.51317866 626.17347613 234.1305551 186.22649 Constant Sum 0.266261 0 0.043749 364.3333882 188.043486 0 0.9248229 1072.2321857 187.9636302 187.333553 609.899135 Constant Sum 0.075878 3393.289262 1235.4511608 909.565532 234.089672 0 2.6015922 815.918168 367.671259 1028.047245902 48.204697 387.4924111 1606.018267552 110.3158781 749.3886176 479.78263877 67.2110688 480.8627902 270.271270936 24.3603265 322.19071935 500.(C) Load(Amps) Just Wire(W) Breaker+Wire(W) Breaker(W) 25 0 0 0 0 25 100 8 14 6 25 200 29 59 30 25 300 65 139 74 25 400 117 248 131 25 500 183 389 206 25 600 263 549 286 25 700 360 752 392 25 800 467 965 498 25 900 588 1213 625 25 1000 726 1475 749 25 1100 884 1771 887 25 1200 1060 2100 1040 30 0 0 0 0 30 100 8 14 6 30 200 29 60 31 30 300 65 143 78 30 400 117 259 142 30 500 184 400 216 30 600 264 574 310 30 700 360 777 417 30 800 470 985 515 30 900 593 1220 627 30 1000 731 1475 744 30 1100 887 1774 887 30 1200 1060 2099 1039 40 0 0 0 0 40 100 8 15 7 40 200 29 64 35 40 300 66 149 83 40 400 118 270 152 40 500 186 420 234 40 600 267 596 329 40 700 363 785 422 40 800 473 989 516 40 900 595 1220 625 40 1000 732 1475 743 40 1100 892 1777 885 40 1200 1061 2100 1039 50 0 0 0 0 50 100 8 15 7 50 200 29 66 37 50 300 67 157 90 50 400 121 281 160 50 500 188 427 239 50 600 269 598 329 50 700 365 786 421 50 800 477 990 513 50 900 598 1222 624 50 1000 742 1485 743 50 1100 900 1785 885 50 1200 1071 2109 1038 Constant Sum 0.048108 2860.0487519 1654.842132 71.5659694 900.426951 737.174996 0 7.

5 89.900 0.950 0.ASHRAE Motors HP η Frame 184TZ 184TZ 213JM 213JM 213JM 213JP 213LP 213LP 213T 213T 213T 213T 213T 213TC 213TCZ 215JM 215JM 215JM 215JM 215JM 215JP 215JP 215JP 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T B215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC B215TC 84.910 0.910 0.760 0.7 TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 20 pf η pf η Company L 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 10 pf 0.920 86.910 0.5 82.950 85.5 89.760 0.800 0.5 91.7 82.5 87.820 0.830 0.5 0.7 0.0 91.930 0.7 0.7 91.910 0.920 0.0 91.7 91.900 0.5 89.910 0.5 82.770 90.740 0.5 91.7 91.5 86.5 89.5 90.910 0.880 0.900 0.910 0.930 0.5 89.910 0.5 87.840 0.900 0.920 85.5 85.5 85.5 87.820 0.730 0.920 0.910 0.7 88.5 90.900 0.910 0.5 89.760 86.2 0.5 85.5 89.830 0.5 85.5 85.5 91.920 85.5 0.5 89.7 85.900 0.740 0.5 89.760 0.5 89.910 89.2 91.5 87.910 0.7 0.820 0.770 0.5 85.920 Phase II – Part A 85 06/06/03 .730 0.5 85.5 87.0 91.5 89.5 88.5 85.5 89.830 0.900 0.920 85.5 0.900 0.940 0.7 91.900 0.760 0.5 89.950 0.5 87.730 0.5 89.900 0.910 0.920 0.930 0.5 89.820 0.5 85.5 91.760 0.920 0.730 0.5 86.0 86.5 87.2 91.5 89.830 0.5 0.910 0.780 0.5 91.

820 0.820 0.0 0.0 0.5 87.710 0.5 89.5 87.800 0.0 89.730 0.860 0.5 88.880 0.920 0.5 0.860 0.0 93.890 0.750 0.770 90.870 0.5 89.4 94.810 0.920 0.5 87.0 91.5 87.860 88.7 92.820 0.900 90.750 0.810 87.5 88.4 93.5 0.750 0.860 92.0 91.840 0.820 0.2 91.750 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Motors HP η Frame 10 pf η 15 pf η 20 pf Company L 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf 125 η pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 215TCZ 215TCZ 215TZ 215Z 254JM 254JM 254JM 254JP 254JP 254JP 254LP 254LP 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TZ 254U 256JM 256JM 256JM 256JM 256JP 256JP 256JP 256LP 256LP 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 85.840 87.0 0.860 0.0 91.0 92.920 Phase II – Part A 86 06/06/03 .7 0.910 88.5 88.5 89.860 0.2 91.820 88.4 0.840 0.4 92.0 93.0 91.910 0.2 91.880 93.810 0.7 92.0 0.910 0.5 91.4 0.710 0.810 0.0 91.4 92.780 0.910 85.4 0.0 91.0 88.810 0.890 0.820 86.0 0.5 89.840 0.790 0.910 0.5 88.5 87.810 0.820 0.0 92.4 92.900 88.720 90.0 91.0 93.890 0.2 92.910 0.5 0.7 92.890 0.900 0.840 87.810 0.840 0.950 0.880 82.0 0.5 90.5 86.5 86.900 0.5 88.810 0.770 0.740 85.0 91.5 89.800 0.890 86.860 88.5 0.2 90.850 0.5 0.910 85.780 0.810 0.800 0.850 0.4 93.850 0.750 91.870 0.5 90.5 89.830 0.5 87.2 91.910 91.1 91.5 84.5 0.0 91.910 0.800 87.840 0.840 0.5 92.860 88.0 93.7 91.0 91.2 0.890 0.5 0.5 88.720 0.790 0.0 91.800 0.5 90.5 90.0 93.0 0.850 91.840 0.910 0.5 86.890 0.5 90.2 91.840 0.0 0.900 0.0 91.4 0.4 93.720 0.5 88.780 0.880 0.0 91.5 0.850 0.860 0.820 0.0 93.0 0.2 90.2 91.800 0.2 0.0 91.820 0.5 90.920 0.890 0.810 0.5 89.5 91.5 0.0 93.910 0.

5 256U 90.5 0.890 0.850 0.890 93.870 90.5 89.0 0.0 91.900 91.840 88.820 0.890 0.5 0.900 0.820 93.0 0.860 0.720 90.4 88.0 91.7 92.4 256TC 92.870 91.890 92.7 0.5 92.830 0.890 87.6 93.7 92.900 88.770 91.4 93.4 0.4 0.7 0.5 91.4 0.900 0.790 87.910 0.2 0.ASHRAE Motors HP η Fram e 10 pf η TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 pf η 20 pf Com pany L 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 256TC 91.2 256U 90.5 89.880 91.920 0.840 91.81 91.900 0.830 94.4 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256U 87.870 92.7 256TC 92.0 0.5 88.780 92.840 88.840 0.870 0.830 0.2 92.900 0.6 0.6 93.840 91.4 0.860 0.6 0.5 88.2 0.5 0.840 0.6 94.890 0.820 0.5 0.4 0.5 90.800 92.0 91.0 0.5 284U 88.850 87.870 0.840 93.790 0.800 89.2 284JM 284JM 284JM 284JP 284JP 284JP 284LP 284T 84.820 89.830 92.900 0.2 91.790 89.0 0.5 0.5 0.910 0.2 0.2 256UC 90.900 0.0 0.830 0.6 0.820 0.810 0.1 94.760 92.5 90.4 0.870 0.1 0.7 0.0 91.820 0.0 0.900 91.0 91.5 0.820 0.5 87.7 92.5 90.820 0.810 90.820 0.890 0.5 92.0 0.5 91.4 0.0 0.0 90.870 0..870 0.820 0.810 91.820 0.900 93.820 92.820 0.6 91.840 91.6 0.4 93.820 89.800 90.0 0.840 0.780 91.880 0.740 84.0 93.820 92.840 0.4 0.730 93.0 93.820 86.4 0.7 0.860 89.2 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TSC 284TSC 284TSC 284TZ 284U 86.1 0.830 91.4 92.0 0.4 0.820 0.4 0.6 0.760 0.840 88.840 0.2 0.870 93.0 93.820 94.0 0.900 93.2 92.870 0.910 0.910 Phase II – Part A 87 06/06/03 .900 91.5 286JM 286JM 286JM 286JP 286JP 286JP 0.7 91.5 0.4 0.0 0.

4 0.1 94.840 0.0 0.870 0.850 0.890 91.4 0.860 93.820 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants M o to rs HP η F ra m e 10 pf η 15 pf η 20 pf C om pany L 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286TC 286TC 286TC 286TC 286TC 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TSC 286U 286U 286U 286U 324JM 324JM 324JM 324JP 324JP 324JP 324LP 324LP 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324TC 324TC 324TC 324TC 324TC 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TSC 324TSC 324U 324U 326JM 326JM 326JM 326JP 326JP 326JP 86.850 0.850 0.1 0.900 94.7 0.840 0.0 93.2 91.830 88.840 90.890 0.840 92.6 93.800 91.4 0.870 0.840 0.840 Phase II – Part A 88 06/06/03 .2 0.840 0.850 0.2 0.900 0.0 93.860 0.890 88.5 0.2 0.860 91.5 0.890 93.7 93.820 0.850 0.7 0.850 0.860 94.830 0.910 0.900 89.830 0.5 0.830 92.5 0.7 93.890 90.860 0.840 0.810 92.4 0.810 92.7 0.6 0.890 92.830 0.850 93.5 91.2 91.800 91.4 0.2 91.0 91.2 91.830 92.860 0.0 0.860 0.4 0.0 93.900 93.860 0.5 0.7 91.1 94.790 92.840 90.7 0.0 93.850 92.900 0.890 91.900 89.1 91.800 94.910 91.810 91.780 93.0 92.1 0.0 0.7 93.2 92.2 90.6 0.820 90.7 93.840 0.820 92.4 0.720 90.5 94.5 90.6 0.0 0.6 0.5 90.4 92.7 89.840 0.830 0.840 0.900 0.900 0.4 0.0 94.810 94.4 0.890 0.0 0.5 0.0 94.910 94.5 89.4 94.1 0.0 0.7 0.7 91.5 93.900 0.860 0.2 90.0 90.4 93.1 0.730 85.840 91.5 91.890 93.830 90.5 94.2 0.1 0.840 0.0 91.7 0.830 0.0 0.0 93.900 90.0 0.840 94.800 0.820 0.890 89.820 0.740 84.850 0.2 0.2 90.870 91.2 0.7 92.790 92.900 91.4 0.900 0.0 88.2 90.850 0.860 0.6 0.900 91.4 90.0 0.0 93.5 0.830 0.

4 0.5 90.7 0.5 0.6 93.0 0.6 95.920 92.860 0.0 95.6 94.850 94.850 0.860 0.890 93.790 0.5 92.1 94.860 0.4 0.830 94.0 93.910 0.1 94.0 94.860 0.0 95.830 92.4 93.0 93.830 0.920 89.830 91.900 92.5 88.900 94.0 0.2 0.800 0.870 0.820 93.860 0.0 93.6 94.830 93.1 95.0 0.6 0.850 0.860 92.820 91.850 0.870 94.900 91.810 94.860 90.0 0.1 0.6 0.830 93.0 0.1 0.840 0.1 94.4 0.910 Phase II – Part A 89 06/06/03 .6 95.890 93.870 0.810 93.860 94.900 93.730 0.1 0.820 92.900 0.1 0.870 0.1 94.1 0.900 94.780 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.890 0.810 93.5 0.860 93.0 93.1 94.860 0.0 94.800 93.860 93.800 93.860 0.870 90.880 0.850 0.850 94.900 93.6 93.1 94.7 0.5 0.870 93.0 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants C om pany L 25 pf η M o to rs HP η F ra m e 10 pf η 15 pf η 20 pf 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 326TC 326TC 326TC 326TC 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TSC 326TSC 326U 326U 326U 326VP 326VP 364JP 364JP 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364TC 364TC 364TC 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TSC 364TSC 364U 364VP 364VP 365JP 365JP 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365TC 365TC 365TC 365TS 365TS 365TS 93.0 0.720 93.810 0.0 94.860 93.2 0.900 93.920 0.870 0.6 0.900 0.1 94.4 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.920 0.5 0.7 0.2 93.850 0.6 94.910 93.830 0.6 0.6 93.0 0.0 94.4 93.810 93.1 94.820 93.830 0.870 94.6 89.850 0.840 0.910 0.6 94.0 93.1 0.850 91.6 0.0 95.5 0.0 0.6 0.860 0.830 0.0 0.830 94.1 95.1 94.870 0.1 0.860 93.860 0.4 93.910 0.0 0.870 87.

6 87.5 0.5 0.880 93.4 0.900 0.5 0.800 0.4 0.850 0.870 Phase II – Part A 90 06/06/03 .1 94.7 0.910 0.1 94.820 0.5 0.870 95.910 93.820 94.910 94.830 95.0 0.8 0.6 94.5 91.0 0.870 91.850 94.820 95.910 95.8 0.850 0.870 0.6 0.900 94.1 94.890 93.860 94.5 95.830 95.5 95.0 0.4 0.860 0.850 0.6 0.0 93.840 94.5 0.860 94.0 0.5 0.0 0.830 94.0 0.8 0.1 94.830 91.4 0.4 95.860 95.1 94.0 0.5 0.870 0.870 95.880 0.820 0.890 95.870 0.0 95.860 0.5 0.850 95.1 95.0 95.880 0.890 94.0 0.0 94.6 0.860 93.910 95.890 0.5 0.0 95.0 94.5 94.870 87.4 0.880 0.820 95.840 87.5 95.5 94.870 0.900 95.6 0.5 0.810 94.860 93.5 0.860 0.4 0.870 94.820 95.0 95.900 95.820 0.810 0.850 0.7 93.5 91.4 0.850 93.6 93.5 95.900 0.4 94.840 0.910 92.0 0.820 94.850 0.900 95.820 93.4 0.1 91.860 0.840 93.0 0.920 0.870 0.830 91.880 0.1 94.820 0.880 94.850 0.870 0.900 93.910 0.780 93.6 0.0 95.5 95.850 0.830 0.4 0.880 92.0 95.830 0.860 88.0 94.5 95.5 0.870 94.5 0.830 94.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants C om pany L 25 pf η M o to rs HP η F ra m e 10 pf η 15 pf η 20 pf 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 365TSC 365TSC 365VP 365VP 365U 365U 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404TC 404TC 404TCZ 404TCZ 404TS 404TS 404TS 404TS 404U 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405TC 405TC 405TCZ 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405U 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444TC 444TC 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444U 445T 445T 445T 445T 93.7 0.1 95.6 0.6 0.5 0.810 95.7 0.850 0.5 0.1 0.4 94.0 95.8 0.4 0.

0 0.8 0.4 0.880 94.850 96.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 95.0 0.810 0.810 95.8 0.2 0.2 0.890 95.6 0.5 0.880 95.0 0.890 95.0 95.890 95.8 0.830 0.0 0.8 0.860 Phase II – Part A 91 06/06/03 .850 96.0 0.8 95.900 95.930 95.880 95.880 95.900 95.830 95.900 95.810 94.830 95.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants M o to rs HP η F ra m e 10 pf η 15 pf η 20 pf C om pany L 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 445TC 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445U 445U 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 449 449T 449T 449T 449T 449T 449TC 449TM 449TM 449TS 449TS 449TS 449TY 449TY 449TY 449TY 449TY 5004 5004G 5004G 5007L 5007S 5008G 5008S 5009L 5009L 5009L 5009L 5009S 5009S 5009S 5009S 5010S 5010S 5010SS 5010SS 5011L 5011L 5011L 5012MS 5012MS 5012S 5012SS 5012SS 95.0 0.0 0.1 0.810 94.8 0.860 95.870 95.0 0.2 0.5 95.820 95.910 94.850 93.830 0.1 95.8 94.8 0.930 93.8 0.900 0.0 95.850 95.860 95.880 0.4 0.8 0.910 0.0 0.8 0.870 0.880 94.900 93.

910 96.890 95.4 0.890 95.5 0.8 0.920 95.920 0.8 0.880 94.8 0.5 0.1 0.810 94.880 95.8 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Motors HP Frame 300 η pf Company L 350 400 pf pf η η 450 η pf η 500 pf η 600 pf η 700 pf η 800 pf η 900 pf 1000 pf η 1250 pf η 1500 pf η 1750 pf η 2000 pf η 95.8 95.900 95.880 95.890 0.5 0.920 95.880 95.5 0.8 0.880 95.8 0.860 95.900 0.910 95.4 0.8 0.880 95.890 95.4 0.930 95.0 0.5 0.910 94.2 0.900 94.900 0.910 94.8 0.8 96.8 95.880 0.8 0.900 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445TC 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445U 445U 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 449 449T 449T 449T 449T 449T 449TC 449TM 449TM 449TS 449TS 449TS 449TY 449TY 449TY 449TY 449TY 5004 5004G 5004G 5007L 5007S 5008G 5008S 5009L 5009L 5009L 5009L 5009S 5009S 5009S 5009S Phase II – Part A 92 06/06/03 .910 95.0 0.8 0.1 0.4 95.930 93.910 96.8 0.910 94.8 0.900 95.870 0.800 95.0 0.0 95.6 0.830 95.8 0.2 0.1 0.890 95.880 94.880 96.5 0.8 0.890 95.850 95.900 0.4 0.890 94.920 95.890 95.8 0.8 96.8 95.4 0.900 95.5 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.890 95.930 95.0 0.0 0.890 95.880 95.890 94.

1 94.0 93.4 93.0 92.5 94.5 93.7 92.0 95.0 94.5 90.7 92.0 94.0 94.2 91.0 93.6 94.0 91.5 95.5 91.0 95.0 90.0 91.2 91.7 92.0 92.2 91.0 93.1 93.6 94.0 91.0 90.5 89.2 89.5 94.6 93.0 93.5 η 15 η 20 Company D η η 25 30 η 40 η 50 η 60 η 75 η 100 η 125 η 150 η 200 89.0 94.7 91.5 94.0 95.2 90.4 93.1 93.0 93.6 90.4 91.4 91.2 90.4 93.6 93.5 95.0 95.0 91.5 94.7 93.6 95.0 Phase II – Part A 93 06/06/03 .ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Motors HP Frame 213T 215T 254T 254T 256T 256T 284T 284T 284TS 286T 286T 286TS 324T 324TS 326T 326T 326TS 364T 364TS 365T 365TS 404T 404TS 405T 405TS 444T 444TS 445T 445TS 447T 447T 447TS 449T η 10 88.1 93.

865 0.2 91.5 89.2 91.816 0.847 0.825 0.2 88.0 91.0 93.7 91.820 0.0 91.0 91.0 91.5 89.0 91.865 0.821 0.843 0.811 0.5 89.839 0.5 89.ASHRAE Motors HP η Frame 213T 213T 213T 213T 213T 213TC 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T B215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 254TC 88.864 0.813 0.849 0.0 91.0 91.831 0.739 0.5 89.830 0.5 89.5 90.850 0.0 93.5 87.837 0.837 0.5 88.839 0.0 0.837 0.828 0.5 89.7 91.0 93.5 87.2 90.0 91.811 0.5 89.835 0.820 0.879 Phase II – Part A 94 06/06/03 .879 0.852 0.880 0.835 0.835 0.5 89.835 90.857 90.5 0.0 93.864 0.860 0.0 91.855 0.858 0.5 88.894 0.5 90.0 87.848 0.825 0.7 91.882 0.5 89.2 90.5 89.850 0.785 0.881 90.839 0.0 93.0 91.0 91.880 0.5 91.878 0.875 89.7 91.0 0.5 89.7 85.0 91.5 89.833 0.852 89.740 0.848 0.839 0.2 91.879 0.840 0.5 TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 20 pf η η Company M 25 30 pf pf η pf η 40 η pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 10 pf 0.746 0.5 89.866 90.854 0.820 0.881 0.5 89.813 0.5 89.7 91.2 0.5 88.5 89.880 0.0 93.834 0.0 92.5 89.0 91.822 0.5 89.4 93.7 91.865 0.835 0.5 90.831 0.890 0.5 89.861 0.2 90.2 90.875 0.7 91.0 91.811 0.7 92.885 0.856 0.835 0.837 0.4 0.5 89.2 91.5 89.851 0.882 0.849 0.882 0.2 0.

4 92.7 0.4 92.897 0.831 0.857 0.2 90.838 0.7 91.840 0.838 0.848 0.5 89.4 92.827 0.4 91.855 0.0 91.887 0.860 0.853 0.0 91.5 88.837 0.826 0.851 0.7 92.845 0.86 0.730 0.821 0.7 91.5 0.2 90.0 93.2 90.848 0.4 92.888 0.852 0.1 90.5 89.0 91.0 91.826 0.855 0.819 0.810 0.876 0.724 0.0 90.7 91.4 92.850 0.888 86.4 94.6 94.5 89.0 91.87 0.886 0.2 91.7 0.5 89.880 0.838 0.887 0.4 92.4 92.5 0.0 91.857 Phase II – Part A 95 06/06/03 .1 94.7 91.870 0.787 0.860 0.840 0.728 0.0 89.6 93.5 89.0 91.740 91.5 90.821 0.805 0.0 91.0 91.830 0.895 0.5 88.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Motors HP η Frame 10 pf η 15 pf η 20 pf Company M 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TSC 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 286T 89.821 0.833 0.0 91.898 0.7 91.0 91.890 0.829 0.7 91.0 91.0 91.730 91.837 0.0 91.900 0.875 0.0 91.6 80.4 92.855 0.0 91.845 0.0 0.0 0.4 92.833 0.0 93.4 92.5 0.2 90.2 91.4 93.856 0.7 0.0 91.893 91.7 92.0 91.814 0.839 90.2 91.4 92.5 89.6 93.882 0.0 91.7 91.842 0.0 91.839 0.819 0.0 93.4 92.721 0.894 0.2 90.885 0.0 93.738 0.895 0.0 93.733 0.7 92.852 91.1 90.850 0.886 0.5 89.7 92.0 90.860 0.7 92.801 0.830 0.6 93.4 92.840 0.874 91.2 91.5 92.0 91.716 0.841 0.4 92.4 92.895 88.838 0.732 0.0 91.860 0.817 89.5 89.0 91.6 0.820 0.6 93.852 0.854 0.4 0.829 0.7 91.871 0.822 0.0 91.820 0.861 0.857 0.848 0.858 0.2 91.0 91.895 0.888 91.0 91.858 0.85 0.849 0.2 91.4 93.837 0.828 0.898 0.840 0.0 0.0 91.1 94.863 93.843 0.4 0.0 91.2 90.2 90.733 0.850 0.898 0.856 0.7 91.888 0.837 0.822 0.

876 0.0 93.883 0.859 0.875 0.5 94.0 93.0 91.865 Phase II – Part A 96 06/06/03 .850 0.6 0.2 90.876 0.4 92.888 0.5 89.6 93.1 94.7 93.4 92.920 0.2 90.850 0.6 93.878 0.842 0.2 0.1 0.0 91.0 93.4 93.2 90.890 0.0 93.4 93.0 93.806 0.845 0.906 0.4 92.0 94.862 0.887 0.848 0.1 87.860 0.771 0.876 0.6 93.862 0.900 93.2 0.857 0.875 0.768 0.6 93.862 0.6 93.840 0.6 94.887 0.878 0.884 91.855 0.2 92.0 93.0 93.6 0.4 93.856 0.882 0.6 0.5 0.0 95.6 0.761 0.0 93.1 0.2 90.880 0.899 0.0 91.860 0.870 0.4 92.853 91.5 94.6 93.875 0.0 95.4 92.862 0.0 0.876 0.7 93.864 0.884 91.7 91.877 0.4 91.907 0.857 0.5 89.1 94.861 0.0 94.872 0.0 91.0 93.7 92.4 94.865 0.770 91.906 0.875 0.5 94.855 0.769 0.4 92.773 0.5 93.1 94.862 0.769 0.0 93.857 0.780 0.6 93.5 89.857 0.832 0.770 0.749 0.852 0.0 93.764 0.886 0.0 93.859 0.4 92.0 91.7 92.880 0.818 93.885 0.814 0.6 95.840 0.4 92.864 0.0 91.7 91.0 93.877 0.906 0.4 92.854 0.7 91.843 0.7 91.876 0.0 93.851 0.5 90.2 90.843 0.875 0.856 0.0 93.856 0.5 90.0 95.0 95.890 0.785 0.875 0.ASHRAE Motors HP η Frame 10 pf η TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 pf η 20 pf Company M 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 286TC 286TC 286TC 286TC 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TSC 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324TC 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TSC 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326TC 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TSC 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 90.5 94.7 91.0 93.0 93.4 92.771 91.770 0.879 0.857 0.5 89.882 0.875 0.1 94.885 0.0 93.0 94.6 93.766 0.0 93.5 93.875 0.4 92.4 93.858 0.5 94.0 93.0 0.0 92.875 92.848 0.858 0.825 0.0 92.6 93.860 92.878 0.0 93.0 93.5 89.4 92.0 94.877 0.851 89.858 0.854 0.857 0.902 0.0 93.862 0.5 94.882 0.893 0.900 0.866 0.4 93.4 92.

5 95.855 0.875 94.0 0.864 0.0 95.900 0.877 93.839 0.769 0.0 91.6 94.4 95.808 0.855 95.857 0.883 0.5 94.900 0.878 93.4 0.1 0.5 0.0 95.880 0.1 94.6 93.7 91.1 95.838 0.7 91.5 0.0 93.6 93.0 93.855 0.905 0.0 93.2 0.0 95.6 93.891 0.804 0.855 0.875 0.870 93.857 0.7 92.838 0.908 94.853 94.6 93.6 0.889 0.4 0.864 Phase II – Part A 97 06/06/03 .757 0.810 0.918 95.849 0.0 95.6 93.0 93.860 0.878 94.877 94.889 0.885 0.910 95.869 94.777 0.0 96.850 94.1 95.6 0.4 95.910 0.4 95.911 0.1 0.4 95.865 0.874 94.4 0.797 0.801 0.895 0.890 0.849 0.5 0.4 95.1 94.0 93.4 92.7 0.0 0.915 94.1 94.809 94.884 0.878 95.874 91.1 94.4 94.881 0.5 95.6 93.4 0.854 0.863 0.4 95.1 94.0 93.852 0.0 93.4 0.6 93.872 0.0 93.860 0.795 0.904 0.874 95.6 94.0 91.7 91.797 0.0 93.868 0.0 91.0 91.910 94.854 0.1 94.1 94.870 0.6 94.0 91.769 0.878 95.4 0.5 0.875 93.867 0.876 93.1 94.0 0.0 93.0 93.878 0.803 0.859 0.908 94.855 0.906 94.7 91.817 0.877 95.1 0.0 95.4 0.6 93.782 0.874 0.6 93.850 0.0 0.864 0.6 93.6 94.0 93.1 95.4 95.0 91.872 0.864 0.866 0.887 0.863 0.5 0.5 94.899 0.807 0.804 93.6 93.5 0.770 0.4 95.857 0.1 94.1 94.853 0.1 94.0 93.878 93.1 94.836 0.860 0.858 0.885 0.6 0.795 0.1 94.5 0.4 95.1 0.5 0.4 93.846 0.779 93.875 0.5 94.864 0.793 0.1 0.832 0.778 0.1 0.6 93.5 95.1 94.0 91.1 94.5 94.4 0.6 93.0 93.840 0.0 0.807 0.6 95.6 95.1 94.4 0.791 0.6 93.819 93.6 93.6 94.6 94.890 0.4 93.6 93.862 0.797 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 20 pf η pf Company M 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf Motors HP η Frame 10 pf η 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365T 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404TS 404TS 404TS 404TS 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 93.882 0.4 95.892 0.885 91.850 0.5 0.0 93.5 0.850 0.784 0.803 0.830 0.811 94.853 0.895 0.865 93.875 94.866 0.5 95.850 0.875 0.5 94.0 95.862 0.881 0.6 0.855 94.

1 0.815 94.6 93.818 0.870 0.0 95.8 96.851 0.4 0.954 95.825 0.2 96.889 0.860 0.1 0.800 95.0 0.6 0.4 96.872 0.862 0.884 0.4 0.885 0.836 0.4 0.831 95.862 93.895 0.870 0.2 0.4 95.5 0.809 94.818 0.0 95.835 0.858 0.8 95.850 0.4 0.2 96.877 0.4 95.2 0.857 95.855 0.861 0.859 0.974 93.6 0.810 95.8 95.0 95.0 95.896 0.5 0.4 0.6 93.860 0.804 93.0 95.6 93.0 0.763 93.2 0.853 95.8 0.872 0.6 93.859 95.794 0.856 94.0 92.4 0.5 95.805 0.1 0.815 95.1 0.0 95.5 0.878 0.798 95.824 94.4 95.0 95.0 0.8 0.900 94.0 95.792 0.6 0.820 0.795 95.885 94.2 96.884 0.851 0.2 96.885 0.0 0.8 0.1 0.8 0.871 0.0 95.8 95.895 0.4 96.2 96.870 0.865 0.854 0.8 0.2 96.6 93.851 95.821 93.855 0.787 0.817 94.5 95.810 95.0 95.872 93.0 95.5 95.862 0.852 0.864 0.6 0.891 94.882 0.877 94.0 0.8 95.843 94.807 93.772 0.804 93.0 95.0 95.0 0.1 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Motors HP η Frame 10 pf η 15 pf η 20 pf Company M 25 pf η 30 η pf η 40 pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 449 449T 449T 449T 449T 449T 449TM 449TM 449TS 449TS 5004 5004G 5004G 5008G 5008S 5010S 5010S 5010SS 5010SS 5012MS 5012MS 5012S 5012SS 5012SS 5807 5807ML 5807ML 93.0 0.811 0.785 96.840 0.854 0.867 Phase II – Part A 98 06/06/03 .6 94.0 96.0 95.5 0.850 0.860 0.799 93.861 95.862 95.789 93.1 95.871 0.851 0.6 0.880 94.8 95.0 0.785 0.852 94.6 0.855 0.5 0.8 93.0 95.6 0.855 0.869 93.891 93.814 94.899 93.2 95.806 95.5 94.894 0.0 95.2 0.4 0.8 96.0 95.5 94.6 95.0 0.2 96.853 94.0 0.5 95.4 0.5 94.1 0.814 94.818 94.

5 0.1 0.5 95.819 93.5 0.845 95.912 94.901 0.913 94.1 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.895 0.747 94.884 94.4 0.8 0.893 95.0 95.6 0.5 0.845 94.876 95.8 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.921 95.5 0.4 0.883 93.4 95.0 0.0 0.893 95.4 0.899 95.8 0.896 94.4 0.893 95.0 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.917 95.834 95.0 0.5 0.0 0.8 0.0 95.0 0.6 0.0 0.902 0.885 95.872 94.916 95.900 93.4 0.5 0.1 0.889 0.821 94.924 95.873 94.4 0.877 95.902 94.1 0.895 94.911 95.5 0.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Company M 400 pf η 450 η pf η 500 pf η 600 pf η 700 pf η 800 pf η 900 pf η 1000 pf 1250 pf 1500 pf 1750 pf 2000 pf Motors HP Frame 300 η pf η 350 pf η η η η 95.0 0.5 95.4 0.1 0.9095813 Phase II – Part A 99 06/06/03 .888 95.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 95.895 94.920 94.0 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.876 94.899 95.4 0.891 95.6 0.880 95.875 94.0 0.895 94.910 94.0 0.762 94.918 95.896 94.892 95.895 0.770 94.1 0.5 0.824 95.880 95.4 0.4 0.891 93.861 94.890 95.0 0.1 0.4 0.915 95.890 95.874 95.837 95.1 0.867 93.5 0.4 0.891 95.895 95.4 0.4 0.887 95.5 0.887 95.897 95.902 95.873 94.8 0.0 0.873 94.893 95.919 95.886 95.830 95.911 95.754 94.868 93.8 0.896 95.4 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.861 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 449 449T 449T 449T 449T 449T 449TM 449TM 449TS 449TS 5004 5004G 5004G 5008G 5008S 5010S 5010S 5010SS 5010SS 5012M S 5012M S 5012S 5012SS 5012SS 5807 5807M L 5807M L 5807SS 5809 5809M L 5809M L 5809M L 5809SS 5811 5811M L 5811M L 5811M L 5811SS 5812 94.8 0.6 0.833 95.904 94.826 95.897 94.802 95.895 95.885 95.4 0.809 94.880 95.8 0.896 94.4 0.5 0.5 0.883 95.5 0.4 0.876 94.750 93.896 95.4 0.922 94.916 0.876 94.0 0.

0 91.0 92.2 90.7 90.5 91.5 90.4 92.4 90.5 TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 20 pf η η Company O 25 30 pf pf pf η η 40 η pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 10 pf 89.2 89.2 Phase II – Part A 100 06/06/03 .2 91.5 90.7 90.2 91.5 90.7 92.0 88.ASHRAE Motors HP η Frame 210LP 213T 213T 213T 213T 213T 213TC 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T 215T B215TC L215T L215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 215TC 254LP 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254T 254TC 91.2 90.2 90.0 91.

0 92.5 91.1 92.5 90.7 91.7 91.2 91.7 91.0 93.6 93.5 91.6 93.5 93.0 91.5 93.4 92.9 92.4 93.4 92.5 90.6 90.4 92.7 90.ASHRAE Motors HP η Frame TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 20 pf η η Company O 25 30 pf pf pf η η 40 η pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 10 pf 256LP 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256T 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 256TC 284LPH 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284T 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TC 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TS 284TSC 284TSC 286LPH 286T 286T 286T 90.3 90.2 91.0 92.6 Phase II – Part A 101 06/06/03 .2 90.0 91.4 93.7 90.6 91.0 91.1 91.7 92.0 91.5 90.2 91.0 91.4 90.7 91.5 91.2 90.1 91.7 92.0 92.5 92.

0 Motors HP η Frame 286TC 286TC 286TC 286TC 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TS 286TSC 286TSC 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324T 324TC 324TC 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TS 324TSC 326LP 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326T 326TC 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TS 326TSC 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364T 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 364TS 10 20 Company O 25 30 pf pf pf η η 92.0 95.6 94.0 94.1 92.4 91.2 94.0 93.0 93.4 91.1 94.1 94.1 94.6 94.2 93.4 93.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 pf η pf η 91.4 91.5 93.0 93.3 93.7 93.6 40 η pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 91.4 93.1 94.3 93.1 93.9 93.2 94.6 91.2 92.6 95.7 92.2 93.9 92.1 Phase II – Part A 102 06/06/03 .3 93.0 93.6 94.

0 93.0 95.8 94.9 95.8 95.1 94.5 94.0 95.1 95.8 94.2 94.ASHRAE Motors HP η Frame TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 15 20 pf η η Company O 25 30 pf pf pf η η 40 η pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf η 150 pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 10 pf 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 365TS 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404T 404TS 404TS 404TS 404TS 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405T 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 405TS 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444T 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 444TS 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 445T 95.4 94.6 94.2 94.4 95.1 94.3 93.4 95.6 95.3 94.9 95.8 95.0 94.1 93.6 95.0 95.0 95.5 95.1 93.3 Phase II – Part A 103 06/06/03 .6 95.1 96.4 95.7 94.

2 95.4 95.5 95.4 96.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Company O 25 30 pf pf pf η η Motors HP η Frame 10 pf η 15 pf η 20 40 η pf η 50 pf η 60 pf η 75 pf η 100 pf η 125 pf 150 η pf η 200 pf η 250 pf 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 449 449T 449T 449T 449T 449T 449TM 449TM 449TS 96.5 96.0 95.8 96.5 95.5 95.2 95.6 95.2 95.4 96.5 96.3 96.4 Company O 300 350 pf pf η η η 400 pf η 450 pf η 500 pf η 600 pf 700 η pf η 800 pf η 900 pf 1000 pf η η 1250 pf 1500 pf η 1750 pf η 2000 pf η Motors HP Frame 95.9 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 445TS 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447T 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 447TS 449 449T 449T 449T 449T 449T 449TM 449TM 449TS 449TS Phase II – Part A 104 06/06/03 .2 95.3 95.2 95.2 96.5 96.0 96.

8 186 2.0 0 40 0.4 -70.1 -1.189357 0.382763 40 1.0 0.87211 Constant Sum 0.925948 0.25 3.4 -72.0 -208 225 5.0 -194.56849 0 0.16155 0.1 1.010796 0.7 -98.0 -215 232 5.4 101 2.0 0 30 0.3 0.147991 0.9 4.237801 40 0.4 -7.537509 50 2.2 2.024366 30 0.444867 40 3.152756 0.095832 30 0.482442 30 4.00 15.100639 0.323702 0.50 4.0 5.0 -254 275 6.0 4.053335 0.598067 40 1.7 1.4 76.216212 50 1.00 2.5 3.357177 1.2 1.0 0.6 16.0 -189.050258 0.299202 27 3.8 0.006513 0.00 0.75 5.2 0.00 2.0 0.7 126 3.652429 1.25 11.5 -139.4 1.0 0.775816 30 3.4 4.25 3.9 60.9 0.50 12.55945 30 2.7 -14.0 0.945909 50 2.224636 0.0 0.382605 40 4.553059 27 2.276365 3.25 3.436641 30 2.0 0.0 0.508763 30 3.1 1.213898 0.2 2.0 0.0 152 4.1 -0.5 -140.01016 8.2 5.353664 0.084902 0.00 2.015428 0 0.304844 0.0 6.948335 30 3.0 0 50 0.1 205 1.3 150 4.1 0.194084 1.405304 50 4.00 0.75 5.531052 40 2.035531 27 0.3 2.279101 27 1.864849 50 1.5 2.199756 0.1 -0.0 -224 241 5.04102 0.25 11.50 0.9 1.023923 40 0.3 0.5 56.5 0.9 0.024024 50 0.0 2.50 0.888265 27 1.3 -36.966335 9.7 -14.1 56.0 -174.7 -16.7 -14.2 29.7 208 2.2 0.142122 27 0.1 177 1.5 0.740999 27 2.0 4.0 -56.7 1.0 1.9 8.25 1.0 18.50 12.0 0.5 0.505422 4.0 1.7 176 2.7 0.3 0.75 0.459394 50 3.0 -53.0 -115.9 1.75 2.00 15.3 1.9 39.0 -168.2 -3.3 0.0 0.267866 0.50 1.0 -249 267 5.906852 50 3.1 0.0 1.688847 40 3.402357 50 2.3 3.006081 0.75 5.0 2.344195 3.4 -9.9 0.0 -23.75 2.75 5.25 0.389863 10.50 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 2.0 -192.9 0.50 1.059984 50 3.857283 8.5 1.5 1.5 76.75 13.50 4.0 6.9 81.168213 0.005788 0.7 -94.389863 30 1.7 16.75 0.3 2.384377 8.0 -115.75 13.018704 3.2 2.382763 12.0 4.1 0.00 0.3 4.0 -123.0 0.1 4.0 131 4.6 0.3 -38.0 6.50 12.00 2.8 75.307016 0.00 9.5 -147.5 43.7 8.00 0.0 -118.70862 50 3.12699 Constant Sum 0.50 1.386615 4.29268 0.0 0.60916 30 1.0 3.3 0.407663 2.8 0.0 5.6 1.8 2.0 0 27 0.0 26.56849 27 1.75 2.193954 30 2.25 1.177155 50 2.00 9.7 0.2 -3.937738 40 2.8 2.7 -91.0 5.104206 0.3 4.001262 0.6 1.0 0.000391 0.000594 0.877978 27 2.75 0.3 3.0 6.0 -164.0 -24.00 15.9 3.007791 0.042935 40 3.841536 0.25 0.0 0.3 0.4 -8.4 0.4 -71.219298 30 1.104229 0.3 26.592168 0.584178 0 0.963997 27 3.0 38.8 98 2.116406 27 3.0 -267 288 6.703951 2.75 0.172212 40 2.50 12.6 25.940861 1.973679 30 2.1 157 4.0 -232 251 6.2 1.6 1.3 101 3.00 15.50 4.3 9.5 0.994384 27 4.7 -94.894645 40 3.0 0.1 40.0 9.0 1. Loss Loss Loss Net Loss Curve Fit Temp (°C) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 27 0.0 -242 261 6.5 4.0 -219 236 5.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Reactors 4 amp Company D Reactor without Enclosure Powered straight off of variac with 25 micro-farad capacitors in series Phase Wire Extech Valhalla Curr.50 0.0 -27.1 1.00 9.285896 Constant Sum 0.0 -260 281 6.75 13.0 0.5 -142.9 203 2.0 7.2 9.2 0.089647 0.5 105 2.0 1.861217 40 1.9 0.8 0.0 -166.25 1.0 0.183003 0.3 0.0 -52.75 2.0 0.00 0.0 -274 295 6.907513 Phase II – Part A 105 06/06/03 .25 1.00 0.319775 27 1.00 0.0 213 4.381176 0.02251 1.2 149 4.50 0.096094 50 0.013369 0.004671 27 3.2 -4.033778 0.150034 Constant Sum 0.50 4.0 1.600589 50 1.75 13.096816 0.0 -238 257 6.745389 2.0 0.877191 30 1.384377 50 1.3 -40.124209 50 0.1 -0.00 9.6 0.0 6.1 15.25 0.0 -198.273958 27 2.000577 0.117923 30 3.4 -76.0 -24.392269 40 2.097466 30 0.0 3.0 -53.2 -3.0 1.9 1.4 -7.056549 0 0.095691 40 0.001774 0.25 0.0 122 3.408044 0.535108 0.0 1.25 3.8 123 3.0 179 2.042455 0.215304 40 1.3 -36.00 0.25 11.0 0.006257 0.25 11.6 57.041742 0.

444867 40 3.402357 50 2.178798 0.0 4.405304 50 4.8 1.215304 40 1.436641 30 2.00 0.50 0.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 -54.60916 30 1.00 2.552462 1.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 4 amp Company D Reactor with Enclosure Powered straight off of variac with 25 micro-farad capacitors in series Phase Wire Extech Valhalla Curr.75 13.8 0.353664 0.0 -168.172742 0.458614 1.0 2.0 5.9 0.1 1.25 1.000594 0.598067 40 1.8 40.388491 10.50 1.095691 40 0.25 11.25 0.4 0.7 104.00 15.1 4.7 180.000993 0.0 7.75 0.0 259.7 15.0 -241 260 6.50 1.4 0.34527 4.096816 0.124209 50 0.0 1.75 5.005788 0.0 126.672231 1.081052 0.0 6.2 42.7 0.041742 0.2 0.032653 0.9 2.177155 50 2.014346 0.159529 0.25 11.877978 27 2.0 -272 293 6.0 -23.0 4.25 3.25 3.4 15.0 2.5 -141.4 -76.0 4.0 -194.7 39.104206 0.6 2.75 5.5 0.7 -95.0 179 2.6 1.381176 0.033778 0.183003 0.75 13.084588 0.0 6.25 0.279101 27 1.084902 0.0 4.0 -194.00 15.973679 30 2.2 0.0 231.093664 0.00 0.2 102.010796 0.0 6.7 77.0 6.75 5.00 15.0 0.050258 0.2 -3.2 -4.0 0.193954 30 2.9 26.0 5.3 0.2 0.0 0.8 99.3 152.0 4.024366 30 0.906852 50 3.0 7.945909 50 2.19448 0.857283 3.9 0.139845 0.5 1.00 0.00 2.0 2.7 0.3 1.537509 50 2.4 -72.0 0.0 2.0 263.0 2.9 8.00 0.077272 0.1 186.7 18.50 4.0 0.5 29.0 1.5 1.0 0.50 12.0 0.948335 30 3.1 0.50 0.415748 11.0 238.039681 10.2 -3.3 2.0 0.98538 Constant Sum 0.0 1.6 58.75 0.0 0.50 0.095832 30 0.4 -7.0 287.0 -214.056549 0 0.0 0.847953 1.319775 27 1.4 3.1 -0.000577 0.447491 0.1 0.888265 27 1.087712 0.8 8.75 0.682806 2.75 2.299202 27 3.0 0.0 9.382605 40 4.221809 4.6 151 3.0 283.7 -92.2 -3.0 0 50 0.290287 0.0 0.5 100 2.58009 Constant Sum 0.404777 0 0.4 -7.849556 0.0 -261.004671 27 3.50 1.50 0.6 4.50 4.2 1.072013 0.0 6.25 0.00 9.5 -142.0 4.1 4.0 0.0 -194.75 2.0 -260 281 6.9 2.9 5.0 -118.276365 4.3 208.0 -240.100639 0.010513 0.00 2.0 6.50 4.0 -117.9 208 2.6 4.55945 30 2.0 -169.25 11.0 -53.096094 50 0.0 -27.7 15.0 -266.1 9.0 0.0 0.688847 40 3.216212 50 1.6 2.5 149.331925 2.584178 0 0.392269 40 2.0 -23.0 0.0 6.0 3.5 0.00 9.3 -36.9 0.3 56.1 25.6 0.4 1.9 8.0 -120.0 5.963997 27 3.1 1.116406 27 3.7 0.0 -221.600456 1.6 1.3 -37.25 0.6 1.1 3.4 -9.0 0.75 2.7 -14.251936 0.9 180.14142 0.0 0.9 2.25 3.50 12.9 1.25 1.0 3.5 0.0 6.4 56.75 0.0 -249 268 6.2 0.482442 30 4.75 13.059984 50 3.0 -116.4 -7.172212 40 2.0 0 27 0.001262 0.3 -40.5 1.00 9.1 128.018704 3.9 1.5 0.4 124.4 59.994384 27 4.1 -0.2 1.1 125 3.7 1.56849 27 1.0 -199 214 4.9 1.035531 27 0.4 157.2 0.5 1.7 0.600589 50 1.553059 27 2.00 15.00 9.273958 27 2.1314 1.7 -14.3 0.0 -223 240 5.531052 40 2.389863 30 1.3 3.894645 40 3.0 0 30 0.0 4.032077 0.722441 32.1 77.0 2.7 -93.937738 40 2.0 5.0 -215 232 5. Loss Loss Loss Net Loss Curve Fit Temp (°C) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 27 0.267866 0.75 13.0 208.142122 27 0.7 -97.2 1.508763 30 3.015428 0 0.7 40.25 1.7 0.316139 1.9 0.5 -147.864849 50 1.0 0 40 0.024024 50 0.219298 30 1.0 0.382763 40 1.50 12.3 -37.50 4.117923 30 3.75 5.0 -244.194084 0.75 2.459394 50 3.2 2.00 0.1 4.042935 40 3.7 -16.50 1.50 12.4 -73.0 -53.384377 50 1.861217 40 1.25 11.0 0.00 2.0 4.0 -168.00 0.023923 40 0.7 4.775816 30 3.1 1.9 1.8 1.877191 30 1.25 1.0 3.6 25.001774 0.41289 Constant Sum 0.007791 0.9 3.1 0.38563 10.0 -23.2 80.1 0.403417 0.0 -175.3 1.237801 40 0.01213 0.25 3.5 2.0 -56.1 -1.0 1.740999 27 2.9 78.4 0.00 0.4 -73.097466 30 0.977567 9.5 -139.150034 Constant Sum 0.7 -13.50617 Phase II – Part A 106 06/06/03 .0 1.1 1.4 0.00 0.120368 0.70862 50 3.1 0.0 0.1 -1.8 0.905665 2.

74 -312.000 0.243 1.50 2.0 51.749 -66.0 89.01 -358.252 0.8 6.6 35.7 2.25 -110.6 1.502 -50.997 0.0 0.03 4.496 0.005 0.6 0.99 3.5 1.50 -138. Curr.0 373 15.0 325 13.503 1.5 173 5.757 1.7 2. Curr.0 206 9.02 2.0 2.7 68.254 1.0 3.26 2.749 0.74 3.0 2.25 2.491 1.1 0.750 0.3 114 3.250 -1.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 4 amp Company D without Enclosure Powered straight off of variac with 25 micro-farad capacitors in series Ave.72 3.25 -232.504 0.248 0.00 2.98 4.4 2.4 23.73 2.01 3. Loss Loss Loss (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 0.000 0.51 2.249 0.0 1.00 -197.00 -87.3 1.1 0.751 1.50 -271.0 0.27 3.499 -5.000 0.75 -167.995 1.496 0.0 0.4 2.5 3.2 0. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Extech Valhalla Net Wire Curr.0 Phase II – Part A 107 06/06/03 .0 283 12.511 1.76 2.52 3.752 0.7 1.47 3.77 3.750 -12.252 1.739 1.48 2.0 0.01 3.98 2.76 2.0 4.0 3.1 0.3 1.999 -22.27 3.00 1.0 243 11.4 0.7 13.000 0.0 3.51 3.250 -34.24 2.22 3.0 142 4. Curr.

2 6.935549 50 9. Curr.2 4 25.01 2.7 0.73838 5.0 7 45 47.8 2.846025 50 8.00333 60.6139 6.41 16.390569 30 8.94 4 9.3 167.46 16.68924 8.90 3.2 19 123.152367 25 4.12 11.15 11.5 213.00 1.78 15.2 105.3757 0.1263 9.060362 25 2.00 5.01 104.24 12.00 4.65 16.7252 1.7 2.1 11 71.2 0.1 18.542381 25 14.8 26.01 2.8 4 25.62706 1.2 11.86 8 39.98 11.1 6.4 26.27 8.2 126.8 1.097157 30 3.3 165.01333 203 44 247 242.607032 50 4.99 9.002632 50 1.60 17.90 17.9 11.1 89.06 6.008964 50 5.945692 40 8.3 18.12 6.01 6.4 6.80078 25 10.99 11.253908 25 6.5 26.02 9.4313 4.7 11.06 1.88 17.92 5.1923 4.705646 25 7.02 9 47.3248 21.77 7.62176 5.26 7.6 17.3517 14.13 7.01 10.85792 Constant Sum 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.996667 14.187981 25 2.794075 25 6.4202 1.993602 0.664 Constant Sum 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 160. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Extech Valhalla Net Wire Temp.4 12 72.4 191.56 17.00 1.993333 48.4 11.60 17.09 4.0864 40 0.99667 73.3 22 142.76 9.037482 40 2.3 47.76 10.26026 8.003333 48.003333 9.04 9.5 29 188.04 4 9.1 15 104.986289 0.04 4.53523 11.3 7 45.9 9 57.99333 140.996667 28.5149 6.22 7.174779 40 13.97 11.2 215.6478 2.745912 138.27 14.97 14.95 4.89 14.76 14.97 3.70 16.3 7 45.2 1.1 0.4 74.5 124.985087 30 11.99 60.30 7.270267 30 6.04 3.19 7.793204 40 9.854525 Phase II – Part A 108 06/06/03 .7 9 57.748695 0.72 9.96 15 139.1 106.18 13.74 7.996667 2.933568 0.96 7.00 15 139.5 22 143.0852 15.3 27 166.757151 40 15.26 8.86 6.15 5.95 4.18 6.96 1.9 6.7 17.01 160.622585 0.1292 6.97 2.99 3.4 13 86.05462 30 9.3867 20.92 5.85 10.7 18.2 1.2 0.8 5.5 146.1 73.4 88.99667 73.2 1.1 6.95 17.723291 0.006667 21.00 0.08 2.319616 30 12.97 1.01 120.5488 9.428929 25 9.98 1.86 3.5 107.13 6.01 104.9 11.996667 60.384565 25 8.96 11.3 25 164.988897 25 12.08 4.095791 30 6.9 60.2 0.78 8.5 0.5 2.7 59.37155 2.9 19 123.6 0.49514 1.3 2. Curr.5 25 165.96 6.95 9.7 9 56.74409 74.90 10.97 13 104.67198 25 11.9905 (°C) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 1.06203 30 1.92 2.946422 30 7.77348 1.95333 182.8355 40 12.92 8 38.99 2.993333 28.748695 78.79 15.13 5 14.3 0.5 36 217.5 0.006667 28.53835 40 10.180992 30 13.003333 2.034153 50 2.263384 40 3.99333 88. Loss Loss Loss Curve Fit 0.2 15 103.86 13.00333 181.01 10.05 2.65 17.003333 30.13 3.03 1.86 13.006667 0.447337 30 17.7 2.30 14.5 4 25.93 16. Curr.05 9.71738 2.61 18.003333 14.676645 25 3.0 6 34 36.8 2.0 0.02 1 0.86 11.2 26.05 1.2 9 57.111958 40 4.92579 7.86 14.92 4.497646 30 5.96 2.99667 121.80 16.98 1.3 0.1 5 35.98 2.88268 2.3 47.and 75 turns of the 14 gauge wire wrapped around each of the CTs Constant Sum Ave.89 13.51978 1.8437 6.02 2.8 6.2 60.0592 8.7 90.96 8 38.09 10.98 10.85 12.04 10.98 5.05 6.006667 48.5 16 103.19 10.4 74.26 9.64095 12.75 9.5 18.04 3 5.81961 5.478381 50 7.40 15.89 4.17 13.98 3.5 2.82 6.35 13.60.1 1.96 1 0.99667 87.06 11.22 15.36962 40 17.1 74.0337 24.76 8.31428 50 0.2 11.5 2.99333 74.4 33 193.1 10 70.00 1.16 9.745912 0.55 18.32941 9.02 6.97 3.07 4 9.07 10.98 11.12 12.79 13.98 16.5 188.81 12.5 0.8 0.1 0.9111 3.4 16.95 10.2 37 218.1 13 87.82 9.74 8.97 1.04 9.10 4.831422 40 6.6 17.90544 0.12 7.179175 50 3.295276 25 13.996667 5.0 22 144 145.98302 6.2 6 34.5 2.5 10.01667 181.003333 5.75 14.21 12.7117 0.5 167.40 15.003333 21.00333 122.0757 19.97912 0.4 0.99 7.081962 30 2.57414 25 17.749059 0.003333 0.00 13.06 8.90 18 202 43 245 241.6 2.5 6 34.9 36 218.71321 0.04 0.93 4.324699 40 7.91649 6.02 6.735843 104.95449 1.97 4.01 14.86 4.10 3.00 5.99667 202 41 243 238.9 190.36061 6.9 125.11 5 14.3 47.05 2.85 16 159.6811 4.99 6.2 0.254959 30 15.2 0.49 15.28 7.18 9.380102 30 16.652289 30 14.90 18.4 11 71. Curr.912564 40 14.86 5.7 13 86.01544 25 16.12501 3.996667 2.874017 40 16.20068 12.003333 2.98298 2.26 14.6 0.2 36.003333 21.77 15.003333 21.3 6 45.65 7.5 36.3 6.599254 25 15.32598 Constant Sum 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.06 0.8 2.1 36.60326 8.8468 1.9447 4.745687 0.97 89.9 31 191.83 11.96 13.7 10.66 16.61622 4.395698 40 5.55 16.5646 1.58 18.88 8.22389 30 1.00 8 38.25477 40 11.3 1.50 17.04 3 5.5 17 121.7 60.984806 0.996667 60.181066 30 10.04 10.15 11.06 6.09394 4.4 4 25.55 17.3 2.3 144.199237 50 6.002108 40 1.9 214.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 18 Amp Company O Reactor Baseline 75.

5 26.00333 193.76 9.82461 2.9 21.106352 0.2 225 -82 14.822815 7.4 4.00667 247 436 -151 0.003333 0.993333 57.7 1.6 -59 12.9 3.13 10.6 -23 8.08 7.3 85.262933 4.92 4.15 5.996667 2.8 11.74 16 188.15 4.003333 0.62107 12.00667 103.69 15.413079 1.53719 17.93994 27.53053 26.04 2.4 -31 9.90 6 25.16 17.996667 72.08 2.87 5.00 0 0 0.13 5.01 1.70 17.278228 52.and 75 turns of the 14 gauge wire wrapped around each of the CT's Ave.447042 11.87645 15.00667 218.581362 1.199878 0.9 3.0 -39 10.9 6.16 16.993333 17.00 6.2 12.824435 5.6 9.92 4.95 3 6.0 0.3 298 -108 16.08 2.7 5.77 15 166.368874 2.885433 7.15 17.996667 71.2 21.0 0.02 8.05757 0.3 3.735473 0.77 11.2 Constant Sum Curve Fit (Watts) 0 0.85 5.952923 1.57992 0.00 1.97 2.99667 191.2 48.7 -18 7.527404 17.4 343 -121 17.96759 0 0.14 10.239925 0.10 9.2 -17 7.2 108.12 17.0 1.74 14.19 11.3 -1.051228 1.05 7.4 133.14 17.94 1.7 108.717277 7.5 33.003333 56.669268 1.01 1.6 1.81 8.993333 45.69 13 123.6 33.00 0.01 0.13 10.21127 6.16 9.99 3.6 -60 12.97326 Constant Sum 0.95 5.01 1.7 8.19 14.1 2 3.068796 2.0 1.5 28.16 10.14 10.6 -71 13.1 5 6.3 -7.99667 103.00 4.77552 2.91 4 10.1 133.1 -2.666986 9.90769 0 0.07 4.110231 0.00 0.4 161.70621 38.204912 5.01 8.67 16.70 18.5 35 0 0.116803 28.15 18.1 11.73192 34.993333 57.15 5.97 2.70 17.018048 0.7 1.462946 9.4 10 13 14.6 1.62093 10.10 9.8 5.1121 Constant Sum 0.993333 17.3 3.6 1.994919 5.1 33.1 -8.7 162.12 7.8 23.12 7. Curr.4 -12.17 12.4 4.42541 0.2 -8.8 5.17 15.4 -12.3 -0.94248 0.1 161.1 133.701639 2.4 2.01 8.119997 40.021048 0.458131 0.3 -24 8.319876 5.97 2.13 5.065869 0 0.662357 3.003333 34 65.99 1.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Temp.13 14.15 16.1 -32 9.003333 16.72 14.0 -40 10.00333 104.16 8.064841 0.08 3.00 0.679946 3.98 4.17 14.09 4.5 300 -107 16.17 11.7 -60 12.07 11.15 11.16 14.5 1.823906 0 0.08 14.594187 1.98856 18.00 1. Loss Loss Loss (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 0.00667 87.72 17 217.17 16.3 2.996512 1.5 260 -93 15.1 32.3 13.81 8.050099 3.2 0.079969 1.01 2.3 259 -96 15.9 3.183213 0.9 107.66 13.8 1.60.3 2.3 -1.0 -4.02 6.11097 36.17 16.993333 5.94 2.15 12.1 11.3 -0.5 193.1 -70 13.18 12.5 383 -139 18.99 45 85.99192 4.92 5.6 -49 11.996667 0.09 12.110985 1.582873 5.04 0.003333 34.00 0.0 0.358036 1.8 47.96825 28.13 7.4 47.871966 2.3 85.15 18.07 4.90 2.09 10.15192 0.053529 4.437529 7.87 7.78 12.04 1.07 15.5 27.5 1.98 1 0.6 -24 8.96 2.14 17.00 0.5 48.6 6.2 21.20 5.117583 0.00877 0.16 9.235287 5.85 7 35.106352 0 0.097 13.68 12.45819 0 0.22623 30.00 0.14 16.6 -49 Net Reactor Loss (Watts) 0 0.993333 57.03 4.77084 24.04 0. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Wire Extech Valhalla Curr.294231 0.1 21 23.82 4.68 14.17 18.6 19 17.1 11.74 11.993333 70.9 -4.2 -70 13.8 -4.996667 2.2 0.7 108.82 4.94 1.95 5.107998 8.0 1.3 2.00 0 0 0 0 1.996667 25.2 15.73 18 243 431 -153 0.6 6.01479 0.90 6 25.08 2.11 8.912296 4.293556 0 0.4 11.15 15.98 0.03 8.31313 Phase II – Part A 109 06/06/03 .6 -12.05 7.00 0.3 -0.00333 143.975257 11.7 5.3 12.90 6 25.003333 11.94 2 2.177414 6.7 21.7 23.9 19.2 8.77 13.000932 0.996667 6.622565 2.13 8.9 6 8.8 4.9 223 -82 14.1 -0.01 1.4 2.16 12.061887 0.2 -17 7.398902 9.07 10.8 -17 7.00 1.5 338 -123 17.71 18.82 9.72 14 142.16 13.12 15.71 9.3 0.19 13.02 6.1 38 0 0.79 8.07 1.84508 23.28096 Constant Sum 0.032113 0.21 11.94 1.15 5.010187 0.923146 2.0 3.7 26.44365 15.7 25.7 -32 9.67253 0.02 3.3 33.5 5.9 388 -136 18.00667 86.0 -39 10.766856 3.75393 21.8 5.96 2.0 5.242066 0.16 9.26991 20.12 12.16 13.705328 11.16 13.465656 1.3 -50 11.4 -49 11.01071 0.39648 32.3 6.2 387 -136 18.050391 0.650885 5.16 5. Curr.1 9.33177 17.4 -31 9.993333 45.15 15.11 9.9 -40 10.13 8.2 18.00 0 0 0.76 9.993333 17.2 192.3 -7.478388 1.02 3.80 7.445361 0.226162 1.8 5.433454 0.90535 0.13 7.00333 86.3 85.12 2.86677 0.275094 5.120798 0.33715 9.4 4.03 4.12 13.414015 0.17 13.8 13.73586 34.728805 7.3 12.85 4.87 7.00333 123.76 10 71.05 7.621417 1.04 2.1 65.5 16.1 193.387652 2.006793 0.08 11.030482 0.5 65.4 2.19 16.10 9.10242 0.8 6.00 3.3 298 -110 16.0 -4.2 64.003333 45.95 3 6.4 8.14 15.7 33.02 6.51423 1.7 19.789551 8.99667 165.17 9.95 5.87 7 34.9 340 -123 17.4 133.5 222 -83 14.6 -12.608446 10.1 5.15 17.4 17.00 0 0 0. (°C) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 18 Amp Company O Reactor without Enclosure 75.00 0.00667 121.8 37 0 0.6 3.3 2.3 -1.98723 30.00667 144 259 -94 15.00333 245 434 -152 0.0829 35.93 4 11.6 4.00333 164.00 1.5 20.80 8.73 11.80 7.75 11.6 -23 8.70 15.00333 218.003333 2.992 20.09 14.28982 23.620477 2.78 7.5 0.545094 2.99166 14. Curr.003333 10.

4 3.1 -7.477016 1.17 8.08 11. Curr.006667 25.9 5.5 25.2 224 -82 14.10 17.59251 7.066054 0.171827 0.020121 0.1 65.9 17.4 -17 7.902722 1.and 75 turns of the 14 gauge wire wrapped around each of the CT's Ave.59359 0 0.74 11.2 -60 12.776547 4.583377 5.77105 29.04 7.270709 11.633358 0.8 36 0 0.14 14.01595 140.83 6.1 193.12406 Constant Sum 0.3 298 -109 16.9 3.98 1.0 0.19 13.2 18.456626 1.7 21.6 31.47084 25.71 12.06 2.8 22.2 -39 10.8 3.122007 0.116288 5.4 342 -121 17.4 135.14 5.003333 35.05 9.355373 2.03 2.4 -32 9.529042 7.16 14.38248 25.01667 247 434 -151 0.00 0.74 13 123.7 6.00 0.00333 87.1268 0.003333 0.880273 0.006588 3.334081 0.676375 0.00667 143.85 9 57.70 16.11 8.6 4.325279 0.5 48.77105 29.13 17.456351 1.5 27.88 6.2 0.96 1.44945 25.14 7.7 107.035429 1.5 33.43876 25.21468 0 0.2 -0.680522 0.113053 0 0.318741 0.996667 0.58889 1.2 -1.02 1 0.20789 36.616103 3.21861 32.8 1.14271 0.4 2.00 0 0 0.5 222 -82 14.83 6 25.14 5.15 11.450705 1.607019 7.00333 70.12745 37.584973 7.4 -2.114538 0 0.5 0.1 12.11 17.6 11.13 10.2 21.09657 Constant Sum 0.13 8.00 0.607019 7.664144 9.829555 2.06 3.03 4.81 7.0 -17 7.762136 1.003333 0.123369 5.030842 1.21 10.461771 7.74 16.71 15.8 5.510216 4.0 -49 Net Reactor Loss (Watts) 0 0.4 2.2 107.006667 5.123369 5.619912 3.0 0.99 3.270709 11.00 8.72 15 165.00 0.12 10.2 387 -137 18.04 9.06 5.15 11.1 133.966732 2.113808 0.6 Constant Sum Curve Fit (Watts) 0 0.2 21.10 15.7 8.156419 3.01 8.234257 11.15 5.282592 5.123237 4.274404 2.111359 16.9 -12.458152 1.1 -71 13.04 1.09 7.993333 6.98 3.28082 22.996667 34.94 2.12 7.99 5.0 -7.11 6.11 15.371142 1.01381 0.022231 1.24209 1.8 -39 10.76 15 166.96974 4.96 3 6.003333 17.166292 1.5 15.9 5.5 192.6 1.99667 243 434 -153 0.12 9.13586 13.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants Temp.00 0 0 0.027084 0.818789 4.85582 4.99333 188.2 48.00 4.307491 5.00 6.09 14.076873 1.95 1.02 3.6 11.996667 57.95 3.14 12.5 1.00333 245 434 -153 0.832608 2.99333 103.07553 37.5 260 -94 15.425599 4.86 6 25.00333 164.75 15.12 6.179312 1.022003 1.4 -59 12.3 -7.5 13.456626 1.08 3.08 5.035429 1.05569 28.008911 5.75 10 72.519136 1.18044 1.26152 19.996667 34 65.73 17.0 3.4 4.069902 5.151042 0.11485 0.87 4.1 133.9 14.44819 28.301611 9.7 -70 13.1 33.1 10.9 -24 8.15 10.12 12.78 18.118856 0.996667 2.559794 0.02 5.2 191.3412 1.136278 0.993333 16.94 4.4 8.996667 2.059975 0.14 12.74754 3.02 6.601678 7.1 -0.16 18.78251 29.05 6.111359 0.80 11 86.96525 0.2 12.71264 2.8 48.9 -31 9.3 298 -107 16.3 -60 12.3 258 -95 15.9 224 -82 14.5 -24 8.43854 13.07553 37.02 8.6 13.7 27.8159 25.0 1.9 -4.608099 1.895291 1.92 3.99333 191.13 16.139677 0.96 2.034113 0.05 1.816177 0 0.5 1.3 12.8 6.665695 0.3 -0.92 1.86 5.117906 0.384461 0.08 2.4538 25.3 2.5 38 0 0.78 9.7 5.03289 0 0.73 13 123.48256 16.76 10.05 3.85 8.5 6.066322 0.27758 11. (°C) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 18 Amp Company O Reactor with Enclosure 75.10 10.4 2.84 8.123369 5.9 383 -133 18.395619 2.635692 6.01 4.87 5.823769 0.606166 Phase II – Part A 110 06/06/03 .835664 2.028807 2.5 -7.5 4.006687 1.09356 0 0.12 8.87 6 25.078431 0.003333 11.958412 1. Curr.14 9.437088 3.5 385 -137 18.13 7.9 7.76 11.353036 0.805832 2.020556 0.026667 45 85.996667 10.666911 0.115303 0.14 18.114538 0.94548 37.35693 22.0 -40 10.2 -1.14 9.0 -50 11.611979 0.13 4.5 30.1 31.014127 0.8675 16.11 16.3 85.0 1.99667 144 260 -95 15.14 16.147157 4.7 161.93 2 2.13 12.12 13.87 6.996667 11.76 10 71.11846 1.14 16.33395 33.00 0.68768 16.15 9.11 15.126518 1.02 3.2973 33.015125 0.05 10.0 0.1 18 18.39356 13.479392 3.7 1.318475 1.5 4.00 0.93 4 10.06 11.10 17.1 -4.034668 0.60.993333 34.4 -17 7.04 0.00 0.828142 1.132537 5.86 4.00 0 0 0.74 15.029051 0.06 2.12 10.64665 36.341855 2.3 33.77 18. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Wire Extech Valhalla Curr.009417 2.5 66.74 12.03737 0.1 -12.336543 9.7 19.00 0.6 2.993333 71.15836 25.05 4.2 64.4 133. Curr.680371 0.13 8.2 7.09613 22.96 1.5 298 -107 16.469709 1.536086 2.579861 2.8 5.03 1.86727 4.46144 13.03 4.9 341 -122 17.379384 9.4538 13.8675 16.00333 193.617709 7.00 1.0 -24 8.18 12.07347 3.249637 3.4 4 5.14 15.113776 0.012945 0.00333 86.13 18.19 11.75 17.1 36 0 0 0.829555 2.37152 0 0.070038 1.672403 0.9 21.44247 1.3 18.7 24.7 1. Loss Loss Loss (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 0.007174 0.04455 18.283078 3.6 1.49347 19.006667 6.5 20.7 6.98 8.35693 22.8 1.7 -40 10.00085 0.0 0.95 1.8 -12.10 16.06 7.3 0.09 14.150933 5.99333 218.00 0.859803 4.81 8 45.17 15.31282 13.00 1.4 4.00 0.00 0 0 0.00 0.4 12.517839 0.00 6.84 8.0 1.519054 2.5 -71 13.5 11 12.02 2.206312 1.007251 0.9 -31 9.3 85.3 -0.00333 104.916694 0 0.47515 19.7 28.310166 0.6 -49 11.119653 39.995303 4.324326 9.98 1.066861 0 0.3 6.993333 2.59804 2.13 16.13 7.1 -4.8591 16.87 7.50264 19.2 2 3.0 3.8 -50 11.231184 0.537588 5.26352 0 0.871091 4.14 17.8 11.6 6.09 15.17 14.9 5.915622 0.1 21 24.76 12 103.455103 1.75 14.115303 0.27758 11.069458 1.77877 2.232679 1.060582 1.347 22.608312 5.7 108.330433 9.166377 0.98 2.71 13.25578 2.66973 29.4 48.104411 0.06 7.776533 2.99333 217.600001 1.5 9.174233 4.11 12.0 1.91741 32.4 2.99 4.17907 Constant Sum 0.405804 1.390213 0 0.13 11.03 1.78 11.85582 4.9184 0 0.048943 0.148581 0.020635 0.03 0.77 16.2 5.83 9 56.008754 0 0.157279 11.02005 11.14 13.5 -12.84 8.99667 121.7 33.917632 2.9 108.1 -17 7.2 -24 8.4 -2.14 17.698165 3.003333 45.717409 3.538089 4.14 13.996667 57.18 4.3 85.96 2.3 2.42862 19.94 3.2 9.5 5.026266 1.00667 218.12 9.2973 33.121015 9.81961 21.325407 0.61555 0 0.08 2.4 161.993333 17.85 6.684676 11.99 5.0 -4.857391 7.14 13.006667 17.283698 9.114088 43.596738 4.13 13.825403 2.04 2.996667 45.5 339 -122 17.388912 7.8 5.4 15.97 1.1 162.295402 2.98 4.13 14.60167 0.1 6.80461 16.48406 32.77 14 142.5 -32 9.7 5.

0 718 -398 158.0 0.3 622 -123 499.1 126.1 154.045711 4.4 -7 39.0 0.9 140.5 57.67434 54.3 60.0 88.3 0 6.809007 180.22794 16.8 132.0 60.5 308 -60 248.2 131.648 45.7 66.2 57.2 83.0 175.9 156.1 99.8 116.7 497 -98 399.7 13.2 39.4 232 -128 99.3982 1-Phase Curve Fit 0 0.5 140.0 248.0 17.0439 3-Phase Curve Fit 0 1.3 159.0 204.93348583 64. Curr.6 21.10022899 1.90145 109.8 82.2 190.3982 Constant Sum 0.1 167.78569 18. Curr.8793 145.0 Curve Fit (Watts) 0 1.0 145.0 0.4 90.5 146.1 20.0 97.8 181.1 20.42565 51.1 399.906179 49.3 499.0 0.495591 0.14278 0 0. Curr.105165384 16.4 366 -202 118.3 35.1 7.7 62.6 54.0 104.2 154.8 19.0 Phase II – Part A 111 06/06/03 .00955 64.554428 557.7455 259.3 21.0 0.8755 0.0 160.4 108.0 6.0 1.0 126.0 0.186081 145.8793 145.0 946 -525 178.00955 64.60285 8.4 -30 126.0 6.7213485 44.4 -19 82.511428 2.4 80.803982 7.0346303 200 Amp Company O Reactor Ave.0 44.6 38.47595 88.3 124.0 0.701119605 7.182845 12.74832035 88.0 0.9 398 -79 319.22284 6.4114 25.0 0 19.5 59.2 -10 47.7446 180.0 102.1 120.0 144.73138 41.5 21.66886 1-Ph to 3-Ph Curve Fit -0.12796 28.7 -4 20.4 -31 59.2 21.9 319.3 160. Curr.16585206 115.1 20.7 42. Loss Loss Loss (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 0. Curr.6 37.7446 180.10121 114.ASHRAE TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants 200 Amp Company D Reactor with 11 turns on CT Ave.2 71. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Wire Extech Valhalla Curr.2 54.0 1233 -689 198 190 213 200.0 179 201 221 200.0 172.05996 32.0 77.1 140.2491 165.0 527 -292 138.12796 28.0 180.0 72.5 110.10121 114.0 0 0. Loss Loss Loss (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 0.3 79.0 0.1 225 -44 181.7 -71 79.3 159.0 179. Curr.0 180.6 80.648 45.0 1612 -909 Net Reactor Loss (Watts) 0.3 14.9 47.5 119.2 100.0 101.0 40.4 135.22794 16.2 119.8 24.0 199.2 40. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Extech Valhalla Net Wire Curr.00449496 1204.7 59.1 99.47595 88.11190835 28.803982 7.

ASHRAE

TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

200 Amp Company Q Reactor with 15 turns on CT's Ave. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Wire Extech Valhalla Curr. Curr. Curr. Curr. Loss Loss Loss (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 20.6 19.5 20.1 20.1 6.7 21.3 -11 41.1 38.5 40.5 40.0 25.6 85.7 -46 61.5 57.5 61.0 60.0 57.2 192.7 -103 81.8 76.9 81.1 79.9 101.7 338.0 -183 102.9 96.0 101.4 100.1 158.4 531 -287 123.2 114.9 121.7 119.9 227.0 761 -411 143.5 133.8 142.2 139.8 310.0 1037 -560 164.5 152.8 162.5 159.9 404.0 1365 -735 185.8 171.5 183.0 180.1 513.0 1752 -940 199 184 195 192.7 584.0 1991 -1067 Extrapolating to get 200 amps: 200 (From Curve Fit) Net Reactor Loss (Watts) 0.0 3.6 14.1 32.5 53.3 85.6 123.0 167.0 226.0 299.0 340.0

Curve Fit (Watts) 0 3.6240508 14.424053 32.400096 57.504211 90.180358 129.45642 175.98077 230.20872 291.92496 334.08499 360.0011

Constant Sum 0 0.009000027 263.867236 0.000578 0.10501 0.009981 17.67539 20.97968 41.68542 80.65428 17.71336 50.05623 34.98731

1-Phase 3-Phase Curve Fit Curve Fit 0 0 1.1405676 3.624051 4.5622706 14.42405 10.265109 32.4001 18.249082 57.50421 28.514191 90.18036 41.060435 129.4564 55.887814 175.9808 72.996329 230.2087 92.385979 291.925 114.05676 360.0011

1-Ph to 3-Ph Curve Fit -0.03247657 3.567684363 14.36816717 32.36897185 57.5700984 89.97154682 129.5733171 176.3754093 230.3778233 291.5805592 359.983617

200 Amp Company Q Reactor Ave. Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase Extech Valhalla Net Wire Curr. Curr. Curr. Curr. Loss Loss Loss (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 21.0 20 18.6 19.9 5.7 1 6.7 42.0 39.2 39.5 40.2 23.6 2 25.6 63.2 57.7 58.9 59.9 54.2 3 57.2 84.1 77.0 78.8 80.0 96.7 5 101.7 104.6 96.1 99.4 100.0 151.4 7 158.4 125.3 116.7 118.0 120.0 219.0 8 227.0 146.8 134.5 138.7 140.0 295 15 310.0 167.2 154.0 158.4 159.9 386 18 404.0 187.8 176.6 175.7 180.0 496 17 513.0 202 187 191 193.3 557 27 584.0

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TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

750 Amp Company Q Reactor Single Phase watt loss testing for outer leg. CT on wattmeter has 10 to 5 ratio. Net 1Wire Total Phase Loss Loss 1-Phase Current Loss (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) Curve Fit 0.0 0 0 0 0 50.0 8 10 2 2.222621 100.0 26 34 8 8.890484 150.0 56 74 18 20.00359 200.0 96 130 34 35.56194 250.0 150 202 52 55.56553 300.0 216 290 74 80.01436 350.0 296 396 100 108.9084 400.0 388 522 134 142.2477 450.0 494 660 166 180.0323 500.0 610 822 212 222.2621 550.0 742 1008 266 268.9371 600.0 880 1190 310 320.0574 650.0 1042 1418 376 375.623 700.0 1214 1658 444 435.6337 750.0 1416 1932 516 500.0897

Constant Sum 0 0.000889 938.83584 0.04956 0.792962 4.01437 2.439645 Constant 12.71297 3.1564642 36.17249 Intercept 79.36013 -0.032477 68.02531 196.9055 105.3107 8.626814 101.1518 0.142164 69.99463 253.1367

1-Phase Curve Fit 0 2.222621 8.890484 20.00359 35.56194 55.56553 80.01436 108.9084 142.2477 180.0323 222.2621 268.9371 320.0574 375.623 435.6337 500.0897

1-Ph to 3-Ph Prediction -0.03247657 6.983147149 28.03001831 63.10813692 112.217503 175.3581165 252.5299774 343.7330858 448.9674416 568.2330449 701.5298956 848.8579937 1010.217339 1185.607932 1375.029773 1578.482861

750 Amp Company D Reactor Single Phase watt loss testing for outer leg. CT on wattmeter has 10 to 5 ratio. Net 1Wire Total Phase Loss Loss 1-Phase Current Loss (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) (Watts) Curve Fit 0.0 0 0 0 0 50.0 8 8 0 0.999035 100.0 26 30 4 3.996142 150.0 56 64 8 8.991319 200.0 96 112 16 15.98457 250.0 150 174 24 24.97588 300.0 216 252 36 35.96527 350.0 296 342 46 48.95273 400.0 388 448 60 63.93827 450.0 494 568 74 80.92187 500.0 610 706 96 99.90354 550.0 742 860 118 120.8833 600.0 880 1016 136 143.8611 650.0 1042 1206 164 168.837 700.0 1214 1418 204 195.8109 750.0 1416 1650 234 224.783

Constant Sum 0 0.0004 335.8340886 0.998072 1.49E-05 0.982713 0.000238 Constant 0.952351 3.522195423 0.001206 Intercept 8.718641 -0.100228987 15.50993 47.91225 15.23762 8.313321 61.79685 23.3964 67.06074 84.95374

1-Phase Curve Fit 0 0.999035 3.996142 8.991319 15.98457 24.97588 35.96527 48.95273 63.93827 80.92187 99.90354 120.8833 143.8611 168.837 195.8109 224.783

1-Ph to 3-Ph Prediction -0.100228987 3.418568917 13.97496263 31.56895215 56.20053748 87.86971862 126.5764956 172.3208683 225.1028369 284.9224013 351.7795615 425.6743174 506.6066692 594.5766169 689.5841603 791.6292995

CTs each had 15 turns. For 200 amp reactors, each phase was driven by a pair of CTs connected in series with 15 turns of 4/0 cable wrapped around the two CTs. For 750 amp reactors, the CT circuit shown in the figure was used to drive one phase of the reactor. Each CT provided 250 amps. Phase II – Part A 113 06/06/03

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TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

750 Amp Reactor Wiring

Phase 1

Phase 2

15 Turns

15 Turns

15 Turns

Adjustable Speed Drives
Adjustable Speed Drives Company O 240 V Drive Amps HP Loss - Watts 48 27 1024 55 31 1143 77 43 1325 80 45 1330 129 72 2069 150 84 2370 180 100 3186 240 134 3375 291 162 4455 325 181 5002 460 V Drive Fit Amps HP 969.8863 22.5 1069.485 24 1382.511 27 1425.196 27 2122.39 34 2421.187 42 2848.04 48 3701.746 59 4427.396 65 4911.163 77 96 120 150 160 180 240 292 321 322 325 357 360 425 471 475 525 527 590 670 670 600 V Drive Amps HP Loss - Watts Fit 300 696.1345 19 420 717.038 24 462 758.845 30 603 758.845 35 766 856.3947 45 861 967.88 57 961 1051.494 62 1108 1204.786 85 1108 1288.4 109 1305 1455.628 138 2089 1720.406 168 2089 2054.862 252 2370 2472.932 284 3185 2612.289 300 3375 2891.002 300 3375 3727.142 350 4455 4451.797 350 6772 4855.931 400 5149 4869.867 400 5002 4911.674 450 5861 5357.615 500 5002 5399.422 600 5810 6305.241 7122 6946.281 6510 7002.024 7470 7698.807 7991 7726.679 8210 8604.626 8820 9719.479 10252 9719.479 Loss-Watts Fit 338 184.4571 418 285.9031 633 407.6382 667 509.0842 853 711.9762 1092 955.4465 1174 1056.892 1894 1523.544 2404 2010.485 2683 2598.871 2921 3207.547 3620 4911.839 4515 5561.094 4930 5885.721 5941 5885.721 6705 6900.181 6835 6900.181 7711 7914.64 8550 7914.64 9485 8929.1 10425 9943.56 12377 11972.48

24 26 29 29 36 45 51 63 69 82 103 128 160 171 192 256 312 343 344 347 381 385 454 503 508 561 563 630 716 716

26 33 42 49 63 79 86 118 152 192 234 351 396 418 418 488 488 557 557 627 697 836

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TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Company B 230 V Drive HP kW 18.5 22

Loss - Watts 25 840 30 980

460 V Drive kW HP 18.5 22 30 37

25 30 40 50

Loss - Watts 710 840 980 1200

Company C 230 V Drive Constant Torque HP Loss - Watts 30 1052 40 1439

230 V Drive Variable Torque (4 kHz) 230 V Drive Variable Torque(10 kHz) HP Loss - Watts HP Loss - Watts 25 831 30 1127 40 1260 40 1332 50 1528

460 V Drive Constant Torque HP Loss - Watts 30 655 40 880 50 885 60 1055 75 1270 100 1605 125 1952 150 2251 200 3067 250 4483 300 5246 350 5966 Worst Case HP Loss - Watts 25 850 882.3096 30 970 955.3299 40 1140 1101.371 50 1270 1247.411 60 1300 1393.452 75 1680 1612.513 100 1960 1977.614

460 V Drive Variable Torque HP Loss - Watts 25 560 40 800 50 910 60 960 75 1150 100 1400 125 2271 150 2596 200 3246 300 5246 350 5966 400 6624

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TRP – 1104 Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants

Company D 230 V Drive HP
Constant Trq. Var. Trq. 25

Constant Torque Efficiency Watts Loss 2 Khz 15 kHz 2 kHz 15 kHz 30 96.3 96.5 97.6 97.7 2 Khz 97.1 97.2 97.6 97.8 98 2 Khz 98 98.1 98.2 98.1 98.1 98.3 95.2 94.7 95.8 95.6 10 kHz 96.2 96.3 96.8 97.1 97.2 6 kHz 97.9 97.9 97.9 97.8 97.9 98 690 780

25 30 460 V Drive 25

Var. Torque Watts Loss 15 kHz 890 890 1160 1160 970

25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350

40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 300

510 2 kHz 650 850 900 1000 1150 2 Khz 1500 1750 2050 2850 3500 3850

970 10 kHz 850 1100 1200 1300 1550 6 kHz 1600 2000 2350 3250 4000 4450

Fit 62 72 101 118 153 208 290 360 466

460 V Drive amps Watts Loss 3.4 45 4.2 72 6.4 96 7.7 127 10.4 164 14.7 216 21 301 26.4 340 34.6 468

1050 1150 1250 1500 1850 2000 2300 3150 3800 4300

Medium Voltage Breakers

Company A 1200 Amp, Medium Voltage Breaker

Phase II – Part A

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WATTS LOSS DATA
600 V Switchgear
INDIVIDUAL DEVICE WATT LOSS TOTALS ITEM TOTALS

AMPS BREAKERS WITH BUS WORK 800 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 1200 A Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 1600 A Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 2000 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3000 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3200 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 4000 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 5000 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT CURRENT TRANSFORMERS (SETS OF 3) 800:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 1600:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 2000:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3000:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3200:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 4000:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT MAIN BUS PER FRAME 800 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 1600 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 2000 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3000 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3200 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 4000 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT AUXILIARY COMPARTMENT CONTROL POWER TRANSFORMER SINGLE PHASE - 1 KVA SINGLE PHASE - 3 KVA SINGLE PHASE - 5 KVA SINGLE PHASE - 7.5 KVA SINGLE PHASE - 10 KVA SINGLE PHASE - 15 KVA HEATERS - 150 WATT HEATERS - 300 WATT HEATER AT 75 WATTS 800

MARGIN

WATTS ITEM ITEM DEVICE EFFECT OF QUANTITIES WATTS LOSS OR CB ENCLOSURE TOTALS 330 165 495

0.8 0.8 1200 0.8 0.8 1600 0.8 0.8 2000 0.8 0.8 3000 0.8 0.8 3200 0.8 0.8 4000 0.8 0.8 5000 0.8 0.8 4700 2350 7050 3000 1500 4500 2400 1200 3600 2250 1125 3375 1500 750 2250 1000 500 1500 865 433 1298

800 0.8 0.8 1600 0.8 0.8 2000 0.8 0.8 3000 0.8 0.8 3200 0.8 0.8 4000 0.8 0.8

30

15

45

60

30

90

75

38

113

113

56

169

129

65

194

150

75

225

800 0.8 0.8 1600 0.8 0.8 2000 0.8 0.8 3000 0.8 0.8 3200 0.8 0.8 4000 0.8 0.8

200

100

300

228

114

342

250

125

375

437

219

656

500

250

750

550

275

825

75

38

113

12 36 60 90 120 150 150 75

6 18 30 45 60 75

18 54 90 135 180 225 150 75 TOTAL WATTS:

MCC Margin - % 80 kW / hp 0.7457

Size NEMA 1 NEMA 2 NEMA 3 NEMA 4 NEMA 5

HP First Cabinet 3 15 80

Relay Loss Resistance 3 Phase Horizontal Bus Loss watts ohms 3 Phase Vertical Bus Loss Amps Loss 6.5 0.034154 Amps Loss 600 30 Watts/ 20" wide sect. 12.9 0.008648 300 50 Watts/ 72" high sect. 800 40 Watts/ 20" wide sect. 17 0.004525 600 100 Watts/ 72" high sect. 1200 60 Watts/ 20" wide sect. 18.8 0.001488 1600 80 Watts/ 20" wide sect. 38.8 0.000687 * Height may vary with different manufacturers. 2000 110 Watts/ 20" wide sect. AMPS Motor Power AMPS Diversity Riser Compartment Bus Bus Starter Starter NEMA Size Efficiency Factor KW Current Factor Current Height - ft. Size - Amp Loss - Watts Loss - Watts Margin - % 1 2 4 0.85 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 2.63 12.43 66.28 3.52 16.61 88.59 1.0 0.8 0.8 87.67 84.16 70.87 1.0 1.0 2.5 300 300 300 SUM 0.71 0.66 1.16 1.82 6.92 14.43 26.27 40.70 100 100 100 Total

Height ft. * 1 1 2 2.5 3

Losses Watts

40.70

Second Cabinet

4 20 35 75

1 2 3 4

0.88 0.9 0.85 0.9

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

3.39 16.57 30.71 62.14

4.53 22.15 41.04 83.05

1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8

129.72 125.19 107.48 66.44

1.0 1.0 2.0 2.5

300 300 300 300 SUM

1.56 1.45 2.14 1.02 6.17

7.20 15.61 24.62 25.37 72.80

100 100 100 100 Total 113.50

Third Cabinet

5 40 150

1 3 5

0.85 0.9 0.85

0.9 0.9 0.9

4.39 33.14 131.59

5.86 44.29 175.87

0.8 0.8 1.0

215.99 211.30 175.87

1.0 2.0 3.0

300 300 300 SUM

4.32 8.27 8.59 21.18

7.25 22.68 60.05 89.98

100 100 100 Total 203.49

Fourth Cabinet

45 200

3 5 Current 87.67 129.72 215.99 217.04 SUM

0.9 0.9 Bus Current 87.67 217.40 433.39 650.43 650 AMPS

0.9 0.9 Bus Size 800 800 800 800 800 AMPS

37.28 165.71 Bus Losses 0.48 2.95 11.74 26.44 26.44 Watts

49.83 221.47

0.8 0.8

217.04 177.17

2.5 3.0

300 300 SUM

10.90 8.72 19.62

24.19 60.37 84.56

100 100 Total 288.04

Panel Horizontal Bus 1 2 3 4 Fifth Cabinet Breaker

Horiz. Bus

Total

68.06

Breaker

274.99

Total Loss

Watts

631

8 1200 0.8 0.8 0.8 4000 0.8 108 108 216 180 180 360 115 115 230 204 204 409 60 115 175 295 450 520 885 60 115 175 295 450 520 885 120 230 350 590 900 1040 1770 .15 kVA SINGLE PHASE .45 kVA THREE PHASE .8 663 663 1325 1418 1418 2837 2015 2015 4030 2765 2765 5530 600 0.5 kVA SINGLE PHASE .8 0.8 4000 0.10 kVA SINGLE PHASE .8 2000 0.8 0.8 3500 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 3000 0.8 0.8 2000 0.8 0.75 kVA ITEM QUANTITIES ITEM WATTS LOSS 1200 0.WATTS LOSS DATA MEDIUM VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR Enter the item quantity in this column Watt loss for items appears in this column INDIVIDUAL DEVICE WATT LOSS TOTALS DEVICE OR CIRCUIT EFFECT OF Margin BREAKER ENCLOSURE TOTALS ITEM TOTALS AMPS 5 & 15 KV CIRCUIT BREAKERS WITH BUS WORK 1200 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 2000 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3000 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3500/4000 Amp Breaker LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT CURRENT TRANSFORMERS (SETS OF 3) TURNS RATIO 600:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT TURNS RATIO 1200:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT TURNS RATIO 2000:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT TURNS RATIO 3000:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT TURNS RATIO 4000:5 LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT RELAYING AND CONTROL PER VERTICAL SECTION SIMPLE COMPLEX MAIN BUS PER FRAME 1200 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 2000 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 3000 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT 4000 A LOAD CURRENT LOAD CURRENT CONTROL POWER TRANSFORMERS SINGLE PHASE .8 0.8 2000 0.8 3000 0.8 23 23 45 45 45 90 75 75 150 113 113 225 150 150 300 150 330 150 330 300 660 1200 0.8 0.50 kVA THREE PHASE .8 3000 0.8 0.25 kVA SINGLE PHASE .8 0.

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS 50 HEATERS 150 WATT 300 WATT OTHER .ENTER VALUE IN DEVICE COLUMN 150 300 150 300 50 100 TOTAL WATTS: ITEM .