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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Functionally. centrioles. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. Organelles: 1." 4. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. The ER provides mechanical support. repair. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it.g. and helps export chemicals from the cell. Functionally. 2. nucleoli. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. It is located near the nucleus. Microfilaments and Microtubules . 3. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. 2. If the cell is injured. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. membranous sacs called cisternae. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. 3. such as mature red blood cells. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. The inner folds are called cristae. 2. carbohydrates. karyolymph. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. comprising the chromosomes. and control. Ribosomes: 1. support. 2. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. and inorganic substances. and genetic material (DNA). Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. and the mitotic spindle. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. provide movement. transports substances intracellularly. 3. do not grow or reproduce. 3. which carry on phagocytosis. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes.. Nucleus: 1. 2. 2. They are involved in muscular contraction. 2. 3. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. and movement. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. maintenance. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. 2. Mitochondria: 1. In conjunction with the ER. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. Cells without nuclei. Peroxisomes: 1. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. Usually the largest organelle. 1.13. 2. 2. 3. They support. 4. lipids. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles.The Cytoskeleton: 1. but smaller. Thus they are called "suicide packets. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Cytoplasm: 1. They contain enzymes (e. stores synthesized molecules. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . cilia. They are formed from Golgi complexes. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. and form the structure of flagella. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. 3. 3. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them.
6. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. and mucus. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. 5. and elastic fibers. 3. 2. Some. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis.DNA Repair: 1. Cell Division: 1. 3. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. 2. "SOS" Genes . Examples are melanin. 5. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. mRNA associates with ribosomes. anaphase. 2. Cellular Inclusions: 1. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). which consist of rRNA and protein. If they are numerous and hairlike. This involves transcription and translation. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. Gene Action . they are called flagella. and telophase. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. are amorphous. Somatic Cell Division: 1. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. 2. an "SOS response" occurs. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. 3.2. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. Flagella and Cilia: 1. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). or chromosomes. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. In response to DNA damage. 8. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. 3. like collagenous. 3. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. 7. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. If projections are few and long. Extracellular Materials: 1. In transcription. metaphase. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . glycogen. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. 2. Others. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. 4. are fibrous. 6.Protein Synthesis: 1. 4. they are called cilia. 3. the DNA molecules. lipids. reticular. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. 2. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. It consists of prophase. DNA Polymerase is an example. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon.
2. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. Glandular Epithelium: 1. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Depending on their function and structure. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. and most upper respiratory structures. 2. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. 4. portion of urethra. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. except for cartilage. 5. It can replace itself. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. 2. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. where it protects and secretes. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. supports. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. 2. It does not occur on free surfaces. auditory tubes. columnar (rectangular). Epithelium has many cells. It has few cells. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). 9.1. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. and apocrine glands. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. simple. noncancerous tumors are called benign. 3. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. Many theories of aging have been proposed. and binds organs together. 5. 7. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. Exocrine glands (sweat. Connective Tissue: 1. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. and transitional (variable). 3. but none successfully answers all questions. and epiglottis. an extensive intercellular substance. and no blood vessels (avascular). 4. 8. and compound. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. little intracellular material. 3. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. stratified (several layers). 3. merocrine. parts of urethra. 3. Functional classification includes holocrine. It is found covering ovaries. tubuloacinar. Connective tissue protects. 6. Epithelial Tissue: 1. and lining some glandular ducts. oil. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. acinar. connective. and nervous. pharynx. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. cell shapes include squamous (flat). cuboidal (cubelike). muscular. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). 2. the study of tumors is called oncology. It lines larger excretory ducts. 2. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. in kidneys and eyes. and a rich blood supply (vascular).
Elastic. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). trachea. called adipocytes. tendons. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. It provides strength. membranes of organs. elastic. bone tissue.4. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. It is flexible. and vascular tissue. 7. in the nose. 2. such as the digestive tract. where it gives support. pericardium. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. and true vocal cords. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. cartilage. Adipose. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. and in the subcutaneous layer. serous. around body organs. are specialized for fat storage. Tissue Inflammation . 2. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. mast. and in respiratory structures. and melanocytes). peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). auditory tubes. and swelling. Muscle tissue performs one major function . 2. 2. ligaments.contraction. and Cardiac. 6. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. spleen. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. macrophages. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. and Iymph nodes. bronchial tubes. and external ear. elastic arteries. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. plasma. 3. It is found as a component of fascia. Dense. and provides support. heat. Visceral (smooth). and cutaneous. o Serous membranes (pleura. and Reticular. pain. sometimes loss of function occurs. at the ends of bones. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. and aponeuroses. Examples are: mucous. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. 5. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. Membranes: 1. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. 4. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. allows movement.
2. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. receiving stimuli. pus is produced. 5.2. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. nerves. an abscess develops. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. 6. Tissue Repair: 1. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. 5. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. The Integumentary System . hair follicles. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. black melanin. storage of chemical compounds. and ducts of sweat glands. The skin and its derivatives (hair. If the injury is superficial. and parenchymal regeneration. 2. skin glands (sebaceous. 8. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. oil glands. brown melanin. E. C. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. 3. synthesis of vitamin D. and Meissner's corpuscles. kinins. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. granulation tissue is involved. 5. carotene. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine.The Skin: Skin 1. hair follicles. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. If damage is extensive. and nails. In most inflammations. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. 3. 3. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. salts. some B. D. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. It performs the functions of protection. and root hair plexuses. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. the process slows down with aging. serotonin. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. • Hair: 1. 4. The color of skin is due to melanin. and several organic compounds. lucidum. granulosum. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. from deepest to most superficial. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. The reticular region is dense. Various vitamins (A. and corneum. spinosum. dermal papillae. 4. Repair Process: 1. and excretion of water. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. and a hair follicle. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. The epidermal layers. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. and pheomelanin (yellow). 2. arrectores pilorum muscles. 2. 7. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. if it cannot drain out of the body. 3. Conditions for Repair: 1. 2. 4. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. • Glands: 1. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. maintaining body temperature. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. and ceruminous). glands. sudoriferous. scab formation. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. are the stratum basale. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). nerves.
3. 6. leverage. The principal parts of a nail are the body. Disorders . second-degree (partialthickness). Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. 2. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. 10. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. 2. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Homeostasis: 1.6F). raised plaques or papules. 2. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. protection. 2. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. or psychogenic factors. 9. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. 4. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. Depending on the depth of damage. and covering wounds with temporary protection. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . skin burns are classified as firstdegree. replacing lost body fluids. regulating metabolic rate. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. They are found in the external auditory meatus. and third-degree (fullthickness). eponychium. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. and boils. 3.• palms and soles. mineral storage. If environmental temperature is high. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. The functions of the skeletal system include support. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. free edge. Nails: 1. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. 2. pubis. Histology: 1. lunula. their ducts open into hair follicles. As the perspiration evaporates. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. 11. and areolae. 7. 5. and matrix. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Most warts are benign. 4. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. and blood cell production. hyponychium. systemic diseases. Nails are hard. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. removing dead tissue. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. and skin grafting. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. root. 8. the skin is cooled. pimples.
Colles'. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. Pott's. 2. hypertrophic cartilage. supports. 3. marrow. 2. 8. Homeostasis: 1. 2. comminuted. This process is called remodeling. and irregular bones. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. Cartilage degenerates. and the epiphyses of long bones. The types of fractures include: partial. 4. articular cartilage. In both types of ossification. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. 9. 3. Disorders . Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. 8. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. greenstick. 7. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. proliferating cartilage. periosteum. metaphysis. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. Osteoblasts lay down bone. compact bone protects. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . phosphorus. and vitamins (A. It forms most of the structure of short. A fracture is any break in a bone. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. except for the epiphyseal plate. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. impacted. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. 6. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. simple. medullary or marrow cavity. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. Normal growth depends on calcium. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. displaced. complete. and endosteum. The two types of ossification. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). 7. spiral. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. where bone replaces cartilage. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. Functionally. compound. Next. 3. 3.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. and resists stress. epiphyses (ends). and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 6. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. transverse. 4. and calcified matrix. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. C. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. and periosteum. 2. Functionally. and nondisplaced. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. intramembranous and endochondral. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. 5. 5. flat. forming a callus. 4. spongy bone is laid down first. and remodeling. ossification occurs in the epiphyses.
mandible. The patella is an example. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . or passage of nerves and blood vessels. parietal (2). Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. fused). 5. and vomer. Vertebral Column: 1. anterolaterals. 3. and posterolaterals. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. 2. support. On the basis of shape. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. palatine (2). zygomatic (2). or irregular. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. hyoid bone.1. foramen. Terms that describe markings include fissure. lumbar vertebrae (5). vertebral column. 2. Hyoid Bone: 1. bones are classified as long. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). 2. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 4. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. flat. the sternum. 3. ethmoid. 3. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). lambdoidal. short. 2. the sacrum (5. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. head. and maxilla. and ethmoid. 1. sphenoid. 6. muscle attachment. crest. The vertebral column. maxillae (2). The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). These curves give strength. fossa. and balance. sphenoid. and spine. occipital. thoracic vertebrae (12). process. facet. lacrimal (2). 2. sagittal. 7. Condyle. They are lined by mucous membranes. tuberosity. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. The major fontanels are the anterior. auditory ossicles. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. Surface Markings: 1. temporal (2). sternum. and ribs. meatus. Skull: 1. fused) and the coccyx (4. It is composed of 22 bones. inferior nasal conchae (2). The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. Examples are coronal. 3. and squamosal sutures. posterior. 2. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation.
the pelvic girdle.The vertebra are similar in structure. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. and L 2. Talus. metatarsals. Cuboid. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. 2. 2. carpals. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. a congenital defect. Navicular. radius. and seven processes. 2. 5. metacarpals. and Medial Cuneiform. Capitate. Thorax: 1. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. and phalanges. and detail. Pisiform. ulna. the ribs and costal cartilages. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. and ischium. Schaphoid (Navicular). The tarsals are: Calcaneus. 2. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. 4. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. L l. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. o Lower Extremities: 1. 3. each consisting of a body. tibia. and lordosis. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. pubis. shape. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . o Upper Extremities: 1. Triangular (Triquetrum). Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. and the bones of the lower extremities. kyphosis. 3. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). tarsals. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. Hamate (Unciform). Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. II. is referred to as spina bifida. and phalanges. 3. vertebral arch. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. 2. Examples include scoliosis. 3. 4. and the thoracic vertebrae. fibula. 2. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. the bones of the upper extremities.
All synovial joints are freely movable. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. inversion and eversion. tension of ligaments.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. 3. rotation. and loss of function. and a synovial membrane. and muscle tension. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. Structurally. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. 5. 7. with no joint cavity. tendons. pivot joints (radioulnar). to provide support and leverage. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. angular movements. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). or luxation. supination and pronation. 5. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. 3. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. 1. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. cartilaginous. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). Articulations: 1. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . articular cartilage. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. joints are classified as fibrous. swelling. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones).arches. Bones held together by cartilage. Synovial Joints: 1. articular discs. 2. protraction and retraction. 4. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). Cartilaginous Joints: 1. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). 6. A dislocation. Disorders . The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. 3. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. 2. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). with no joint cavity. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. some also contain ligaments. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). 2. and bursae. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. 2. or synovial. 2. and muscles. 2. 4. circumduction. and elevation and depression. 8. biaxial. Fibrous Joints: 1. are cartilaginous joints. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). 2. ligaments. 2. are fibrous joints. or triaxial. joints. 3. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. 6. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). hinge joints (elbow).
The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. 4. 2. 7. covering the entire muscle. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. and troponin. perimysium. junction. 4. covering fasciculi. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. 3. 3. Energy for Contraction: 1. and T tubules. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Types: 1. 3. the neuron releases acetylcholine. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. 3. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. 2. Functions: 1. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. maintenance of posture. 3. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. 6. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. 3. Physiology of Contraction: 1. It is striated and voluntary. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Connective tissue components are epimysium. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. There are three types of fascia: superficial. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. Through contraction. and endomysium. and subserous. 2. deep. 2. nuclei. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. It is striated and involuntary. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. 8. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. triggering the contractile process. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. 5. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. 4. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. Contraction . Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones.without dislocation. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. The Motor Unit: 1. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. 2. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. and heat production. covering individual fibers. 2. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. tropomyosin. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. or myoneural. 2. contract.
Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. each of which contracts as a functional unit. This muscle is found only in the heart. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. 2. 4. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. Disorders . 2. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. treppe. 5. Kinds of Contractions: 1. Abnormal contractions include spasms. and isometric. stimulus. or subthreshold. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. 4. isotonic. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. 2. and larger T tubules. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. The fibers are arranged in a network. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. 2. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. or threshold. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. cramps. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. 3. 2. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. convulsions. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. 6. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm.2. more blood capillaries. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. tenderness. 2. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. Homeostasis: 1. tetanus. 3. 5. it is called lumbago. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. 3. 3. and tics. and stiffness of joints. 2. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. Unit it is paid back. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. and a large amount of myoglobin. more mitochondria. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. 3. muscles. and related structures in the thigh. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. 3. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. If it occurs in the lumbar region. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. It is striated and involuntary. Muscle Tone: 1. stimulus. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. fibrillations. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers.
The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. and carry out phagocytosis. bipolar. 2. the membrane is said to have an action potential. and action. and the membrane is said to be polarized. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and deltoid region of the arm. Neurons: 1. On the basis of function. attach neurons to blood vessels. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. 6. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. size. lateral side of the thigh. and circular. and unipolar. 2. including motor neurons. 5. neurons are multipolar. The antagonist produces an opposite action. 3. Nerve Impulse: 1. 3. convergent. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. interpreting them. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. and resistance on the lever. oligodendrocytes. 6. origin and insertion. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. 4. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. and reacting to them. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. 5. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. second-class. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. or nerve cells. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. location. 1. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. 2. effort. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. 2. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. Intramuscular Injections: 1. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. shape. Around the time of birth. 2. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. microglia. On the basis of structure. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. 3. Neurons. 3. cardiac muscle tissue. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. 2. number of origins (or heads). pennate. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. and minimal irritation. produce the myelin sheath. and usually a single axon. 2. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. and glands. and ependyma. If. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. 4. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. Fascicular arrangements include parallel.
from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. 6. 2. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. 7. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater.travels from point to point along the membrane. and vertebral ligaments. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. posterior. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. anterior. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. cell body. central canal. 5. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. 6. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. 4. 2. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. 5. 6. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. meninges. 3. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. anterior. and lateral white columns. or axon hillock. According to the all-ornothing principle. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. posterior. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. 6. Protection and Coverings: 1. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. 3. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. 4. 3. 7. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. and lateral gray horns. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. 5. 4. arachnoid and pia mater. 3. Structure in Cross Section: 1. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 7. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. 2. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. and ascending and descending tracts. 2. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. 5. cerebrospinal fluid.
9. and motor neuron. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. 8. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc.2. 2. A reflex is a quick. 3. a sensory neuron. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. The posterior root. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. except for T 2-T 11. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. 5. a center. • Distribution: 1. posterior root ganglion. Disorders . and rami communicantes. 7. tendon reflex. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. respectively. 2. and sacral plexuses. lumbar. and the abdominal reflex. constant segments of the skin. 4. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. A stretch reflex. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. a motor neuron. brachial. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). 5. 2. Wallerian degeneration. ventral ramus. 3. 1. 3. and an effector. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. the Achilles reflex. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. 2. 3. 4. 4. 1. 5. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. flexor reflex. meningeal branch. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. perineunum. 4. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. 2. is an example. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. The skin segments are called dermatomes. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. and crossed extensor reflex. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. and epineurium. form networks of nerves called plexuses. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. • Dermatomes: 1. 5. association. 2. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. Functions: 1. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. 6. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. such as the patellar reflex. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. Following peripheral nerve damage. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. Its basic components are a receptor. and regeneration. • Composition and Coverings: 1. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. the Babinski sign.
Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. 2. 1. 2. and cerebellum. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. cells. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. and unconsciousness. swallowing. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. 4. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. ventricles. Embryological Development: 1. 6. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. and hiccuping. cerebrum. it is called external hydrocephalus. diencephalon. Protection and Coverings: 1. The Diencephalon: 1. 2. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. 3. or death of brain 5. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. 1. The Brain Stem: 1. sneezing. permanent damage. 3. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. 1. cranial meninges. vomiting. 3. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. coughing. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. 4. 1. vasoconstriction. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. 2. or death. 2. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. respiratory rate. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. 2. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. 2. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. 1. 4. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. convulsions. 2. 3. epilepsy. 2. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 3. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. The pons is superior to the medulla. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. 2. it is called internal hydrocephalus. which helps control respiration. mental retardation. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness.1. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. and central canal. During embryological development.
4. 3. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. to the cerebral cortex. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. 3. and occipital. numerical and scientific skills. The Cerebrum: 1. 5. 3. 2. glutamic acid. and dynorphin. aspartic acid. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. fissures. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. either anatomically or functionally. serotonin. Brain Lateralization: 1. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. gamma aminobutyric acid. 1. 6. 5. dopamine. 3. 2. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. parietal. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 2. They help to control muscular movements. imagination. spoken and written language. excite. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 7. endorphins. It controls the autonomic nervous system. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. 3. and reasoning. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. constricted vermis. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. controls body temperature. taste. 2. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. regulates food and fluid intake. norepinephrine. temporal. The Cerebellum: 1. 1. 3. insight. 10. and sulci. 3. and tumors. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. 2. and glycine. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. sound. 3. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain.7. 4. 1. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. and smell. infections. 6. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. musical and artistic awareness. 2. 3. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. 9. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. except smell. touch. 2. 7. 1. and generating mental images of sight. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. 2. space and pattern perception. Its cortex contains convolutions. 2. 2. 8. 3.
Hypoglossal . Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. cornea. Motor function. The Cranial Nerves: 1. 12. Facial Sensory. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language.11. Vagus Sensory. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. soft palate. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). 11. 7. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. Examples include angiotensin. 9. thrombosis. 4. upper jaw. 8. 2. forehead.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1.Motor. lower jaw. nose. thoracic and abdominal organs. 1. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. 12. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. . larynx. 5. upper teeth. Trigeminal Sensory function. lower teeth. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. Optic . etc. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Motor. 4. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. 4. hearing and balance.The sense of smell. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . some neck and shoulder muscles. 5. sensory. Accessory Motor. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. 11. Vestibulococ hlear . etc. 6. inferior pharynx. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Motor function. Motor. taste. Palate. Soft palate. tongue muscles. upper eyelid. 3. the victim experiences degrees of motor. 9. cholecystokinin. 8. pharynx. taste. pharyngeal muscles. Depending on the form of the disease. cerebellum. 3. or basal ganglia during fetal development. Tongue muscles. Glossophary ngeal . 6. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles.The sense of vision. 10. 4. or early infancy. Scalp. Disorders . also called strokes. Oculomotor . Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. 10. Impulse transmission is interrupted. 2. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. or psychological malfunction. 7. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system.Sensory. Olfactory . larangeal muscles. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. or atherosclerosis.Sensory. muscles of mastication. muscles of facial expression. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain.Motor function of eye muscles. childbirth.
2. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. proprioception. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. surgery. end organs of Ruffini. free nerve endings. thermoreceptors. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. and body position. 3. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. personality changes. nociceptors. and third-order neurons. and pain. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. 2. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. and tendon organs. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. electromagnetic receptors. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. they cause subconscious motor reactions. 2. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Merkel's discs. In terms of simplicity or complexity. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. The neural pathway for light touch. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . receptors are classified as exteroceptors. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. and sometimes delirium. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. and liver damage. connective tissues. 2. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. 4. 6. 7. 3. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. 4. Levels of Sensation: 1. pressure. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. 2. Characteristics: 1. and chemoreceptors. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. and end organs of Ruffini. vibration). visceroceptors. Classification of Receptors: 1. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. According to location. 3.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. 3. second-order. brain dysfunction. and Pacinian corpuscles. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). 4. 2. 5. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. and proprioceptors. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. General Senses . and acupuncture. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. 3. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. muscle spindles. 5. Sensations: 1. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. Receptors located in muscles.muscle spasms and encephalitis. Meissner's corpuscles. 12. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. conduction of the impulse to the brain. 13. movement of body parts. 4. 2. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. tendons.
decrease in heart rate. cardiac muscle. 3. 2. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. 2. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. 5. that is. 3. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). ganglia. It has been used to control heart rate. afferent neuron. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). or visceral efferent nervous system. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. and plexuses. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. It is entirely motor. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 2. 2. 4. activities of smooth muscle. The autonomic nervous system. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. and corticobulbar tracts. anterior corticospinal. 4. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. in particular by the cerebral cortex. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. tectospinal. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. 2. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. and visceral effector. 4. Physiology: 1. Olfactory Sensations: 1. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. 2.6. It is regulated by centers in the brain. Motor Pathways: 1. regulates visceral activities. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. and vestibulospinal tracts. concerned with energy expenditure. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. 3. and to make childbirth easier. to alleviate migraine headaches. in general. 4. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). 4. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. reduced metabolic rate. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. association neuron. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. 2. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. 3. and the medulla oblongata. the hypothalamus. it consists of activated and long-term components. On the basis of the transmitter produced. Integrative Functions: 1. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and glands. 3. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. 3. Control by Higher Centers: 1. It usually operates without conscious control. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1.
which contains rods and cones. The four primary tastes are salt. and the threshold of smell is low. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. 4. ossicles. lens. 3. sweet. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. 3. IX. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. and tympanic membrane). increase pressure in the endolymph. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. 5. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. and cerebral cortex. strike the oval window. eyelashes. 2. and iris). which destroys neurons of the retina. 5. 9. olfactory tracts. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. 3.2. convergence. ciliary body. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. and bitter. 8. set up waves in the perilymph.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. VII. thalamus. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. and inverted image formation. and X. Trachoma is a chronic. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. 3. 7. and lipid-soluble. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). 2. and vitreous humor. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. 10. 3. the organ of hearing. strike the basilar membrane. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and cerebral cortex. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. A sound impulse is then initiated. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. pass through the ossicles. and the lacrimal apparatus. or vertical motion. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. 4. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. the optic tract. 8. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. constriction of the pupil. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. Disorders . medulla. 5. 4. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. eyelids. and the cortex. and round window). and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. Visual Sensations: 1. external auditory canal. 4. 2. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. water-soluble. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 2. linear. 6. aqueous humor. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. the optic chiasma. sour. accommodation of the lens. 5. strike the tympanic membrane. 6. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). (b) vascular tunic (choroid. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. oval window. and (c) retina. olfactory bulbs. hypermetropia (farsightedness). Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. 4. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). Substances to be smelled must be volatile. 7. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. the thalamus.
and acromegaly. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. 2. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 13. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. respond to stress. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 6. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). 2. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). and regulating factors. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. nerve impulses. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). 10. 2. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. Histologically. 2. sebaceous. 7. 3. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. 5. 11. help regulate growth and development. Control of Hormonal Secretions . Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). 9. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). 4. 4. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). On the basis of solubility. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). giantism. 3. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. 15. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 8. and contribute to reproductive processes. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. 16.Feedback Control: 1.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. 12. 2. 3. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). 14. Exocrine glands (sweat.
Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. 3. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. growth and development. which secrete calcitonin (CT). The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. and lactation. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. menstrual cycle. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). 5. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. Mineralocorticoids (e. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. zona ennin late. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. 10.g. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. and delta cells. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. and parafollicular cells. Glucocorticoids (e. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. 3. 2. 4. and serve as antiinflammatories. Histologically. and gonadocorticoids. exophthalmic goiter. 2. 7. 4. myxedema. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. glucocorticoids. Histologically. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. 2. 6. Ovaries and Testes: 1. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. 2. pregnancy. 2. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. 2. 4.. Pancreas: 1. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Cretinism. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 3. 5. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. beta cells. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. 3. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. 6. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Secretion is controlled by TRF. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. Histologically. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Secretion is controlled by CRF. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood.Thyroid: 1. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 9. 4.g. and zona reticularis. Histologically. beta cells secrete insulin. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. help resist stress. Parathyroids: 1. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. They are released under stress. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. 5. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Histologically. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. 8. and the reactivity of the nervous system.. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. 6. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism.
2. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. leucocytes (white blood cells). Components: 1. 2. 4.5 percent solutes. foods. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. granular leucocytes. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. 2. and water content of cells. thymic humoral factor (THF). White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. Thymus: 1. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions.90 NaCI.45. about 4. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. 3. 4. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. 2. eosinophils. 6. wastes. pH. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). A healthy male has about 5. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. consists of 91. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. fibrinogen). Erythrocyte formation. and thrombocytes (platelets). 3. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells.000/mm3. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. Normal blood contains 250. 2.5 percent water and 8. Erythrocytes: 1. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. 3.000 to 9. It protects against toxins and microbes. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. 2.pinealocytes. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). Thrombocytes: 1. 2.5 to 5. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. Blood transports oxygen.85 to 0. Normal blood contains 5. nutrients. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. 38 degrees C (100. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. and Iymph glands. 0. and blood vessels.8 million/mm3. The liquid portion of blood. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. body temperature. Red blood cells live about 120 days. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. 5. and platelets.000 to 400. 3. Lymphocytes. 6. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. Leucocytes: 1. and enzymes. 5. Iymph vessels. 3. 2. called erythropoiesis. carbon dioxide. 4. hormones. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. 7. temperature. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. the heart. It helps to regulate pH. 3. called plasma. thymic factor (TF).5. neuroglial cells. globulins.35 to 7. Plasma: 1. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. 4. a healthy female. Functions: 1.4 degrees F). and salinity. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection.000/mm3.4 million/mm3 of blood. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1.
through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. Anticoagulatants (e. and sickle cell anemia. heparin) prevent clogging. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. pernicious. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). hemolytic. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. 3. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. Interstitial Fluid: 1. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. 9. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. 4. 11. and out through the aorta. The Cardiovascular System . especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes.. 3. 3. 2. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. respiratory gases. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. encloses the heart. 2. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. The cause is a virus. Wall – Chambers – Vessels .The Heart: 1. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. hemorrhagic. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding.and hormones. 4.Valves: 1. and endocardium. aplastic. In vascular spasm. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. 5. 2. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. myocardium. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. 4. Like plasma. 3. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. In the Rh system. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. 10. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. and blood coagulation.g. Disorders . The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. 6. 2. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. In the ABO system. 2. The parietal pericardium. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. platelet plug formation. 2. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. It involves vascular spasm. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. 7. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. 8. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .
detecting the presence of fetal life. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. temperature. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. 7. 5. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. Cardiac Cycle: 1. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. atrioventricular (AV) node. determining the presence of several fetuses. 5. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Electrocardiogram: 1. 5. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. Cardiac Output: 1. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). 3. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. Conduction System: 1. 4. between the atria and their ventricles. 2. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. 7. 3.4. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. 4. 3. aortic reflex. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. and right heart (atrial) reflex. 6. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. 4. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. 6. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. 2. sodium. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. potassium). Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). bundle branches. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. 3. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). 7.8 sec. 3. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. 6. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. 2. and Purkinje fibers. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. Blood Supply: 1. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 4. 2.
and therefore blood pressure. 4. 5. 3. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. As blood volume increases. Capillaries: 1. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. 4. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. 5. fibrillation. Veins: 1. and the shock cvcle is intensified. flutter. and tetralogy of Fallot). blood pressure increases. Arteries: 1. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. 4. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. others are fenestrated. high blood pressure. 2. to correct some defects. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. In severe shock. valvular stenosis. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. 3. They drain blood from capillaries into veins.emotion. The heart becomes hypoxic. 2. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. some capillaries are continuous. and age. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. Venules: 1. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. obesity. cigarette smoking.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. and to apply chemotherapy locally. sex (gender and physical activity). 3. 4. 2. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. 2. 3. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. 3. This network increases the surface area. diabetes mellitus. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. and arrhythmias (heart block. lack of exercise. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. and tunica externa. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. 2. 2. 2. 2. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. Disorders . Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. septal defects. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. and genetic disposition. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite.ener Arterioles: 1. and premature contractions).
Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. chemicals. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. 3. temperature. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. Blood Reservoirs: 1. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. intestines. 8. pulmonary. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. 3. when lung. and liver functions are established. 3. digestive. Circulatory Routes: 1. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. 3. 2. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. sex. 2. and autoregulation. the arch of the aorta. and fetal circulation. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. and higher brain centers. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. spleen. Systemic Circulation: 1. 2. At birth. 2. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. 2. and the descending aorta. 2. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. chemicals. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. stomach. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. 9. chemoreceptors. emotions. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. and age. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. 2. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. Disorders . Other routes include the cerebral. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. Fetal Circulation: 1. They in turn empty into the right atrium. skeletal muscular contractions. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. and breathing. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. 3. 7. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. 6. 2. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat.
Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. 2. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. antimicrobial substances (interferon. Based on chemistry and structure. to Iymph trunks. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. and fever. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. 7. lacrimal apparatus. and kidneys. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. 2. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. 2. phagocytosis. and IgE). 3. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. saliva. IgA. 3.1. palatine. complement. acid pH of skin. 5. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. Iymph nodes. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. 3. 2. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. 2. 2. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. 4. and Iymph organs. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. and flow of urine). Lymph Circulation: 1. unsaturated fatty acids. to Iymph capillaries. 6. brain. IgD. mucus. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. when introduced into the body. reactivity. epiglottis. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. cilia. They include the pharyngeal. and Iysozyme). incompatible blood cells. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. 5. Iymphatic vessels. 2. pollen. 3. 4. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. to the subclavian veins. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. 4. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. 9. IgM. each with specific biological roles (IgG. and properdin). microbial structures. Examples of antigens are microbes. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. chemical factors (gastric juice. inflammation. 3. Lymphatic Organs: 1. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. called Iymphatics. mucous membranes. and multivalence. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. 3. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. and transplants. 8. and lingual tonsils. to Iymphatics. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. Antigens are chemical substances that. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics.
invading antigen. 14. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. 5. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. eczema. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. and multiple sclerosis (MS). Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. 8. 7. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. yawning. and hives. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. laughing. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. detection of disease. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). they are important in diagnosis. asthma. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. 2. 3. treatment. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. 10. 4. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. sneezing. 2. 4. 13. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. 12. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. crying. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. 11. Coughing. myasthenia gravis. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. memory B cells recognize the original. sighing. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 3. 6. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. preparing vaccines. sobbing. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. During forced inspiration. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .liver and spleen. 2. 2. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. rheumatic fever. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases.
The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). 3. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). and Circulation. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. vital. inflated alveoli. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. It is symbolized by p. include inspiratory. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. 2. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. and irritation to the respiratory centers. 2. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. the inflation reflex. and excess mucus production. 2. blood pressure. 3. 4. In bronchogenic carcinoma. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. assuming that the pressure remains constant. C's of CPR are Airway. Breathing. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. According to Dalton's law. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. when the temperature remains constant. and function of the epithelial cells. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. and a rich blood supply. and enlarged chest. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. inflated lungs. and minimal volumes. External Respiration . both in the brain and outside. Disorders . 2.are tidal volume. pCO2. 6. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. compresses the lungs. Pulmonary lung capacities. a large alveolar surface area. expiratory reserve. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. 3. 4. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. pain. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). 3. and apneustic area. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. 2. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. 3. the sum of two or more volumes. residual volume. 5. pneumotaxic area. 2. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. temperature. 3. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. and total. functional residual. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. The A. and DPG. inspiratory reserve. division. 2. B. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. 4.Internal Respiration: 1. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. temperature. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries.
Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. and tongue. the hardest substance in the body. forms the floor of the oral cavity. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. falciform ligament. Deglutition: 1. It consists of a voluntary stage. and pancreas. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. Some papillae contain taste buds. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. 3. or dentes. 4. 4. palates. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. which aid mechanical digestion. 3. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. Salivary Glands: 1. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. and sublingual glands. 2. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and serosa (peritoneum). Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. 2. 4. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. lesser omentum. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Organization: 1. tongue. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. absorption. or alimentary canal. salivary glands. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. 2. The teeth. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. Teeth: 1. 2. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. 8. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. together with its associated muscles. The tongue. and greater omentum. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. 2. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. 4. 5. Digestive Processes: 1. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. submandibular (submaxillary). mechanical and chemical digestion. and accessory structures. gallbladder. 3. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. 2. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. root. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. lipid. and defecation. peristalsis. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. muscularis. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. submucosa. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. 2. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. 3. 3. and cervix. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. lips. 2. The accessory structures include the teeth. mesocolon. 2. 9. liver.7.
Gallbladder: 1. and stomach gastrin. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). 4. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). 2. 2. villi. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption.Histology: 1. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. 3. Among the substances absorbed are some water. Stomach: Anatomy . 3. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. 2. 2. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. 2. and vitamins. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. The esophagus is a collapsible. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. intrinsic factor. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Absorption: 1. Esophagus: 1. Pancreas: 1. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and transported as chylomicrons. 2. and alcohol. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). 3. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. gastric. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). 2. 3. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. certain electrolytes and drugs. The small intestine also absorbs water. 2. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. hydrochloric acid.Histology: 1. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. 2. 3. and the microvilli. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). and intestinal. a protein-digesting enzyme. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). Absorption: 1. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Hormones also assume a role. Liver: 1. 2. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). electrolytes. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. resynthesized to triglycerides. glands that produce mucus. 2. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. 2. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. Small Intestine: Anatomy . Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase).
Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. and water. and cementum. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. . 12. 2. and undigested foods. 6. During digestion. and mass peristalsis. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . bacteria. peristalsis. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. 11. and vitamins. and non-A. 2. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. a foreign body. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. stenosis. The large intestine absorbs water. colon. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. rectum. epithelial cells. 8. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. Defecation: 1. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. 2. act as building blocks in forming new body components. 3. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. 4. Feces consists of water. proteins. 4. and anal canal. and barium x-ray. Types include hepatitis A. periodontal membrane.1. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. carcinoma of the cecum. electrolytes. 5. or kinking of the organ. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. 7. 2. Anabolic reactions use energy. alveolar bone. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. action. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. minerals. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. vitamins. lipids. 3. 3. rather than enzymatic. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Metabolism: 1. 10. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. 5. 2. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. 2. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. 2. Disorders . Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. 9. hepatitis B. inorganic salts. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. colonoscopy. Its subdivisions include the cecum.
Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. 2. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. 2. Glucose Catabolism: 1. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. 3. 5. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. 3. 3. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. 4. and I molecule of GTP. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. 3. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. 2. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. 2. 2. As a result of glycolysis. When oxygen is in short supply. glucagon. thromboplastin for blood clotting. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. 2. Glucose Anabolism: 1. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. coenzyme Q. Electron Transport Chain: 1. the Krebs cycle. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. Lipid Metabolism: 1. Fat Storage: 1. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. Glycolysis: 1. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). 2. and the electron transport chain. 3. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. epinephrine. and cytochromes. During digestion. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. It is stimulated by cortisol. Lipid Catabolism: 1. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. 3. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. 4 molecules of NADH2. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 3. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. and growth hormone (GH). pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. 4. In beta oxidation. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 1 molecule of FADH2. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. 6. thyroxine. under aerobic conditions. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. recombined to form triglycerides. 3. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. Fate of Lipids: 1. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat.2. 2. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids.
The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. 2. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. During the absorptive state. cobalt. 2. manganese. or converted. potassium. and insulin. hormones. Amino acids. D. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. and hydrogenation. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. 2. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. 3. Before amino acids can be catabolized. 2. and K. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. The process is stimulated by insulin. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. Protein Anabolism: 1. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. During digestion. decarboxylation. called ketosis. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. and so forth. sulfur. iodine. 4. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. Production of Body Heat: 1. fats. Vitamins: 1. 3. 3. 2. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. copper. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. 2. and chromium. and body temperature. fatty acids. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. stored. 2. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. E. based on the needs of the body. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. but an excess of ketone bodies. Very little protein is used as a source of energy.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. selenium. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. thyroxine. Protein Metabolism: 1. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. Protein Catabolism: 1. Inside cells. may cause acidosis. 3. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. and proteins. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. zinc.4. the nervous system. 2. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. Lipid Anabolism . Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. During the absorptive state. iron. enter body cells by active transport. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. structural elements. sodium. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. magnesium. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. conversion of glycerol into glucose. 2. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. snd ketane hadies. Minerals: 1. these conversions involve deamination. chlorine.Lipogenesis: 1. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. phosphorus. Fate of Proteins: 1. hormones. Many function in enzyme systems. 2.
2. failure to grow. 5. 4. adipose capsule. 2. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. urinary bladder. and a pelvis. 4. and sometimes mental retardation. medulla. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. ascending limb of Henle. Loss of Body Heat: 1. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. 6. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. papillae. the kidneys consist of a cortex. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. 2. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. 3. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. calyces. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. and dizziness. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. and perspiration. profuse perspiration. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. 2. loop of Henle. 3. and urethra. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. deereased metabolic rate. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. columns. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . stages include chill and crisis. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. and thyroxine production.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). pyramids. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. and K and calcium is inadequate. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. 5. Internally. proximal convoluted tubule. 7. D. 3. reduced perspiration. 4. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 2. 5. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. and renal fascia. lethargy. descending limb of Henle. cramps. 2. 4. glomerulus. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. ureters. 3. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Physiology: 1. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. 3. 3. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. skeletal muscle contraction. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. sympathetic stimulation. distal convoluted tubule. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. 4. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. nausea. and high body temperature. 4. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure.
and fluids of the eyes and ears. nitrogenous wastes. 10. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. pericardial. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. The solutes include urea. 8. Urinary Bladder: 1. 7. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). muscularis. bilirubin. pleural. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. renal calculi. temperature. Ureters: 1. 3. Disorders . Urethra: 1. plasma and Iymph. glucose. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. Gl tract fluids. 3. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). casts. and certain drugs. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. salts. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. 4. uric acid. 2. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. 8. erythrocytes. Included are ions.6. Normally. Histologically. 3. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. Body Fluids: 1. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). odor. and fibrous coat. and the glomerular filtrate. and peritoneal fluids. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. diuretics. 7. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. pH. ketone bodies. and specific gravity. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). urobilinogen. 2. 2. ketone bodies. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. and ions. indican. blood concentration. cerebrospinal fluid. 5. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. Chemically. 6. and emotions. primarily by peristalsis. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. 9. and a serous coat. creatinine. 2. It includes interstitial fluid. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. and ions. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. 11. and microbes. 4. synovial fluid. 5. integument. Besides the kidneys. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. 2. hippuric acid. the lungs. including water. 2. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. glucose. amino acids. leucocytes. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. 5. turbidity. In exchange. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Homeostasis: 1. the rest by facultative reabsorption. 3.
Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). lungs. 3. interstitial fluid. 3. and kidney excretion. 9.35 and 6. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. and fluid and electrolyte balance.1. respirations. It also functions in blood clotting. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). At the arterial end of a capillary. 4. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. fluid moves in the opposite direction. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. a decrease in rate. 8. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. decreases pH. 5. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. skin. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. nerve impulse conduction. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. muscle contraction. especially extracellular fluid. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. phosphate.35 to 7. 3. At the venous end. 2. 7. 3. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. 2. 3. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation.45 and 8. 11. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. 10. 4. Under normal conditions. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth.00. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. An increase in rate of respirations. 2. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH.80. 4. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. proper fluid movement between compartments.45. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. chemical transmitter release. and heartbeat. 4. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. 2. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. and regulating pH. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. increases pH. Plasma. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. and protein. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. 5. 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. 2. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. muscle contraction. and GI tract. and regulation of pH. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). muscle contraction. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. Electrolytes: 1.
8. 6. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. Reproductive System: 1. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). Male Reproductive System: 1. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. 2. 2. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. Ducts: 1. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. bulbourethral glands. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. 2. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. 7. and efferent ducts. and 7. sustentacular cells. 5. II. and rete testis. protein anabolism. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. which nourish sperm cells. 6. 3. 3. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. Scrotum: 1. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. Testes: 1. straight tubules. ejaculatory duct. 11. in which sperm cells are made. and tail. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. urethra. ductus epididymis. Accessory Glands: 9. 3. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. midpiece. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. stimulates bone growth. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). 5. membranous. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and spongy (cavernous). 10. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. development. and interstitial endocrinocytes. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. sperm maturation. 4. 2. Testosterone controls the growth. and penis. 2.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. straight tubules. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. 12. ducts (transport and store gametes). prostate gland. 4. and maintenance of sex organs. ductus deferens. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. 3. seminal vesicles. rete testis. 7. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis.
. 2. 2. and epithelial cells. 4. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. 5. During the preovulatory phase. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. Estrogens stimulate the growth. The uterus is an inverted. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. The penis is the male organ of copulation. development. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. 2. 3. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. tissue fluid. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. 3. implantation of a fertilized ovum. and inner endometrium. 4. 7. 6. development of a fetus during pregnancy. They produce ova. ovulation. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. 2. III. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. mucus. 8. 10. During the postovulatory phase. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. on either side of the uterus. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. uterus. Ovaries: 1. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. 6. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. Uterus: 1. endometrial repair occurs.nutrients. 3. 5. 4. discharge ova (ovulation). and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. Penis: 1. and stimulate protein anabolism. During the menstrual phase. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. and vulva. 2. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. Histologically. 2. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. 9. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 11. vagina. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. and labor. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. middle myometrium. uterine tubes. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads).
Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). 2. The removal of a malignant breast. 4. 3. 7. 2. labia minora.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. 2. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. lubrication. It is said to be haploid (n). Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. 3. 2. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. vestibule. 10. the cessation of the sexual cycles. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). If fertilization and implantation do occur. Perineum: 1. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 12. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. Vagina: 1. syphilis. equatorial division. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. and orgasm. labia majora. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and the lower portion of the birth canal. Vulva: 1. lubrication. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. 8. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Sexual Intercourse: 1. 9. abnormal bleeding. equatorial division. 2. 11. 2. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. 5. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. clitoris. dysmenorrhea. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). 2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). 8. 7. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. Mammary Glands: 1. and ova maturation. 2. pectoral muscles. 10. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. 3. enlarged prostate. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. genital herpes. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. 9. 13. 2. It consists of the mons veneris. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). 6. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. The female role also involves erection. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. 12. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. vaginal and urethral orifices. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. and sperm maturation. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. and tumors. Spermatogenisis: 1. and orgasm (climax). Oogenesis: 1. Disorders . Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. trichomoniasis.
and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. and birth. 3. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. 2. 1. 2. fetal growth. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. 4. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. implantation. Its various events are hormonally controlled. . embryonic growth.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. 5.
3. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. 3. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. and progesterone. tubal ligation. estrogens. 4. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. mechanical. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. and protection. Birth Control: 6. and Down's syndrome. chorion. 3. mesoderm. 3. expulsion of the fetus. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. Tay-Sachs disease. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. alcohol. laparascopic technique). Parturition and Labor: 1. 5. Examples are infections. 8. sterilization (vasectomy. 2. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. 2. Inheritance: 1. estrogens. protein anabolism. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. and allantois. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . microbes. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. and chemical). 2. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. removal of wastes. During the fetal period. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). 2. 6. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. and progesterone. Lactation: 1. chemicals and drugs. Dominant genes control a particular trait. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. amnion. such as hemophilia. 2. 2. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. 5. 2.The morula develops into a blastocyst. and smoking. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. During embryonic growth. 7. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. sickle cell anemia. 2. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). 4. 1. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. . and delivery of the placenta. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. and contraception (natural. 3.