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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
The ER provides mechanical support. and the mitotic spindle. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. do not grow or reproduce. Nucleus: 1. such as mature red blood cells. transports substances intracellularly. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. 1. but smaller. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. Thus they are called "suicide packets. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. Cytoplasm: 1. carbohydrates. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. which carry on phagocytosis. 3. 2. 3. lipids. Mitochondria: 1. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and inorganic substances. stores synthesized molecules. Cells without nuclei. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Ribosomes: 1. If the cell is injured. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. Usually the largest organelle. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. centrioles. 2. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. 2. 3. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. 4. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. 3. cilia. The inner folds are called cristae. membranous sacs called cisternae. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. karyolymph. support. Functionally. They are involved in muscular contraction. Functionally. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. and form the structure of flagella. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. and genetic material (DNA). Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. 3." 4. In conjunction with the ER. exchanges materials with cytoplasm.g. 2. 2. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. provide movement. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. repair.. It is located near the nucleus.13. Microfilaments and Microtubules . Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. They are formed from Golgi complexes. and control. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. They contain enzymes (e. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. maintenance. 3. 2. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. 2. and helps export chemicals from the cell. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. and movement. 2. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. Organelles: 1. 2. 3. They support. 2. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. comprising the chromosomes. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. nucleoli. 3. Peroxisomes: 1. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane.The Cytoskeleton: 1.
cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .DNA Repair: 1. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. 2. 3. anaphase. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. 2. they are called flagella. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. 3. Others. Flagella and Cilia: 1. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. and telophase. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. They assume an important role in cell reproduction.Protein Synthesis: 1. an "SOS response" occurs. and elastic fibers. which consist of rRNA and protein. or chromosomes. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. This involves transcription and translation. are amorphous. 3. 3. In response to DNA damage. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. DNA Polymerase is an example. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). 3. lipids. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. reticular. Cellular Inclusions: 1. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. 8. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. In transcription. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. 2. Cell Division: 1. 6. they are called cilia. like collagenous. and mucus. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. 4. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. 4. metaphase. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. 3. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. 5. "SOS" Genes . certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. Extracellular Materials: 1. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. If they are numerous and hairlike. If projections are few and long. glycogen. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Examples are melanin. Gene Action . 2. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. 6. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. It consists of prophase.2. are fibrous. 2. 5. the DNA molecules. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. Somatic Cell Division: 1. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. 7. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. Some. 2.
A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Connective tissue protects. Connective Tissue: 1. muscular. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. 2. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. 4. 4. 3. 2. Functional classification includes holocrine. tubuloacinar. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. 3. and binds organs together. It can replace itself. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. acinar. Epithelial Tissue: 1. and epiglottis. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. and apocrine glands. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). simple. 3. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Epithelium has many cells. and nervous. and lining some glandular ducts. and most upper respiratory structures. except for cartilage. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Glandular Epithelium: 1. merocrine. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. It does not occur on free surfaces. 2. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. connective. It is found covering ovaries. and a rich blood supply (vascular). 3. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. cell shapes include squamous (flat). noncancerous tumors are called benign. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. Many theories of aging have been proposed. It has few cells. in kidneys and eyes. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. stratified (several layers). Exocrine glands (sweat.1. Depending on their function and structure. auditory tubes. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. an extensive intercellular substance. the study of tumors is called oncology. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. 7. 5. columnar (rectangular). Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. 2. but none successfully answers all questions. 3. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. 2. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. and compound. 9. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). pharynx. and transitional (variable). portion of urethra. where it protects and secretes. cuboidal (cubelike). and no blood vessels (avascular). parts of urethra. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. 5. oil. supports. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. 2. 2. 6. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. It lines larger excretory ducts. little intracellular material. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. 8. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses.
allows movement. and melanocytes). serous. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). pain. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. It is found as a component of fascia. sometimes loss of function occurs. and in the subcutaneous layer. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. and true vocal cords. Visceral (smooth). Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. mast. 2. called adipocytes. cartilage. Adipose. where it gives support. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. bone tissue. auditory tubes. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. Tissue Inflammation . at the ends of bones. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. elastic.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. macrophages. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and vascular tissue. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. and aponeuroses. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. heat. 6. are specialized for fat storage. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. Examples are: mucous. 2. such as the digestive tract. Dense. and cutaneous. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. and external ear. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. Membranes: 1. 2. and Reticular. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. Elastic. in the nose. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. It is flexible.contraction. elastic arteries. and in respiratory structures. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. 5.4. tendons. 2. and swelling. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. spleen. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). membranes of organs. bronchial tubes. trachea. pericardium. o Serous membranes (pleura. and provides support. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. 3. 7. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. It provides strength. around body organs. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. plasma. and Iymph nodes. ligaments. 4. and Cardiac. Muscle tissue performs one major function . Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae.
8. some B. from deepest to most superficial. granulosum. The epidermal layers. 3. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. and pheomelanin (yellow). 7. • Glands: 1. 2. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. skin glands (sebaceous. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. E. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. C. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). and nails. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. glands. nerves. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. nerves. 3. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. lucidum. maintaining body temperature. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. and root hair plexuses. 6. 3. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. If the injury is superficial. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. serotonin. receiving stimuli. If damage is extensive. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. synthesis of vitamin D. and corneum. sudoriferous. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. 4. Tissue Repair: 1. the process slows down with aging. carotene. granulation tissue is involved. black melanin. 2. and parenchymal regeneration. The color of skin is due to melanin. 3. 2. brown melanin. 4. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. arrectores pilorum muscles. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. pus is produced. dermal papillae. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. scab formation. 2. 5. 2. salts. • Hair: 1. 5. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. and ceruminous). 5. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. an abscess develops. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. Various vitamins (A. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and a hair follicle. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer.The Skin: Skin 1. oil glands. Conditions for Repair: 1. if it cannot drain out of the body. In most inflammations.2. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. spinosum. The skin and its derivatives (hair. and excretion of water. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. and ducts of sweat glands. and several organic compounds. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. Repair Process: 1. D. and Meissner's corpuscles. hair follicles. It performs the functions of protection. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. are the stratum basale. hair follicles. storage of chemical compounds. 4. The Integumentary System . The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. The reticular region is dense. kinins.
Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. 8. 4. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. and third-degree (fullthickness). skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. raised plaques or papules. lunula.6F). and blood cell production. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. free edge. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. second-degree (partialthickness). Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. The principal parts of a nail are the body. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. If environmental temperature is high. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. mineral storage. The functions of the skeletal system include support. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. 3. their ducts open into hair follicles. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. 3. 5. 2. 9.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. pubis.• palms and soles. 2. Nails: 1. eponychium. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. Depending on the depth of damage. and skin grafting. replacing lost body fluids. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. removing dead tissue. They are found in the external auditory meatus. and covering wounds with temporary protection. protection. Most warts are benign. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. and matrix. 4. 6. or psychogenic factors. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. Histology: 1. Nails are hard. 2. root. and areolae. Homeostasis: 1. 11. 3. As the perspiration evaporates. leverage. the skin is cooled. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. regulating metabolic rate. Disorders . pimples. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. hyponychium. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. 2. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. and boils. 10. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. 7. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. systemic diseases.
metaphysis. 5. Colles'. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. and periosteum. The types of fractures include: partial. and the epiphyses of long bones. and vitamins (A. 3. spongy bone is laid down first. except for the epiphyseal plate. where bone replaces cartilage. epiphyses (ends). Next. It forms most of the structure of short. Homeostasis: 1. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. proliferating cartilage. medullary or marrow cavity. complete. impacted. 3.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). 4. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. and nondisplaced. 2. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. and calcified matrix. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. This process is called remodeling. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. 2. simple. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. 3. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). flat. and remodeling. Osteoblasts lay down bone. and irregular bones. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. 6. compact bone protects. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. 2. 6. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. 9. 7. forming a callus. greenstick. Pott's. Functionally. and endosteum. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. 8. 3. marrow. 5. articular cartilage. periosteum. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. A fracture is any break in a bone. Cartilage degenerates. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. transverse. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. 7. intramembranous and endochondral. In both types of ossification. spiral. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. 4. hypertrophic cartilage. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. phosphorus. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Normal growth depends on calcium. C. Functionally. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . supports. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. compound. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. displaced. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. comminuted. and resists stress. 4. 8. The two types of ossification. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. Disorders .
2. and ethmoid. Terms that describe markings include fissure. 3. sphenoid. fused) and the coccyx (4. and ribs. ethmoid. and balance. 4. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. support. It is composed of 22 bones. foramen. Examples are coronal. 2. and squamosal sutures. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. head. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. fossa. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. temporal (2). mandible. Hyoid Bone: 1. auditory ossicles. thoracic vertebrae (12). occipital. The vertebral column. sternum. 2. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). posterior. flat. the sacrum (5. inferior nasal conchae (2). The patella is an example. maxillae (2). palatine (2). and maxilla. zygomatic (2). 5. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. muscle attachment. These curves give strength. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. Condyle. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 1. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. On the basis of shape. parietal (2). The skull consists of the cranium and the face. short. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. or irregular.1. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. The major fontanels are the anterior. and vomer. bones are classified as long. 6. meatus. lacrimal (2). 3. and spine. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. sphenoid. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. Skull: 1. 3. lumbar vertebrae (5). Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. facet. hyoid bone. sagittal. 3. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. crest. lambdoidal. 2. anterolaterals. 2. vertebral column. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). fused). the sternum. process. Vertebral Column: 1. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). tuberosity. and posterolaterals. They are lined by mucous membranes. Surface Markings: 1.
Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. 2. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. is referred to as spina bifida. Schaphoid (Navicular). tarsals. Cuboid. o Lower Extremities: 1. Navicular. 5. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. 2. Hamate (Unciform). The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. radius. tibia. 4. and ischium. Talus. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. and phalanges. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. L l. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. and detail. vertebral arch. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. 2. shape. and phalanges. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. 2. 3. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. the ribs and costal cartilages. metacarpals. pubis. 3. 2. Triangular (Triquetrum). Thorax: 1. and seven processes. and the bones of the lower extremities. each consisting of a body. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. 3. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. 3. the pelvic girdle. Capitate. o Upper Extremities: 1. carpals. and L 2. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. metatarsals. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). ulna. a congenital defect. kyphosis. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. 4. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and Medial Cuneiform. and lordosis. fibula. the bones of the upper extremities. and the thoracic vertebrae.The vertebra are similar in structure. 2. II. Examples include scoliosis. Pisiform.
3. and loss of function. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. tendons. 3. joints. or luxation. or synovial. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. tension of ligaments. 2. Structurally. Articulations: 1. to provide support and leverage. 2. and a synovial membrane. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. rotation. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). some also contain ligaments. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. 2. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). are cartilaginous joints. circumduction. angular movements. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). saddle joints (carpometacarpal). Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. pivot joints (radioulnar). A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. A dislocation. and muscles. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. with no joint cavity. Disorders . 6. cartilaginous. 6. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). a partial dislocation is called subluxation. articular discs. 3. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. and bursae. Synovial Joints: 1. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). 1. with no joint cavity. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). or triaxial. supination and pronation. All synovial joints are freely movable. and elevation and depression. are fibrous joints. joints are classified as fibrous. Fibrous Joints: 1. swelling. 4. articular cartilage. 3. 2. 4.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. 5.arches. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. 2. and muscle tension. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). protraction and retraction. Bones held together by cartilage. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. ligaments. 5. 8. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. 2. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). 2. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. inversion and eversion. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. 7. biaxial. hinge joints (elbow). 2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity.
A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. 8. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. junction. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. covering fasciculi. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. 3. 2. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. 6. deep. 2. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. tropomyosin. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. Types: 1. 3.without dislocation. It is striated and voluntary. triggering the contractile process. maintenance of posture. covering individual fibers. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. and endomysium. and subserous. perimysium. 5. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. 2. 3. 4. or myoneural. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. and heat production. contract. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. 4. The Motor Unit: 1. 2. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It is striated and involuntary. 4. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. 3. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. 2. covering the entire muscle. nuclei. 3. 3. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. 2. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. the neuron releases acetylcholine. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. sarcoplasmic reticulum. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. Contraction . Energy for Contraction: 1. There are three types of fascia: superficial. and T tubules. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. and troponin. Through contraction. Connective tissue components are epimysium. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. Physiology of Contraction: 1. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. Functions: 1. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. 7.
The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. This muscle is found only in the heart. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. 3. It is striated and involuntary. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. and isometric. stimulus. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. or subthreshold. 4. 2. 3. 2. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. and a large amount of myoglobin.2. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. Unit it is paid back. and larger T tubules. 2. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. 3. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. The fibers are arranged in a network. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. convulsions. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. 3. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. or threshold. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. fibrillations. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. 2. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. Abnormal contractions include spasms. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. 3. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. tetanus. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. 2. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Homeostasis: 1. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. tenderness. 3. each of which contracts as a functional unit. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. and related structures in the thigh. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. 5. Disorders . Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. stimulus. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. more blood capillaries. treppe. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. 2. and tics. cramps. muscles. and stiffness of joints.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Kinds of Contractions: 1. If it occurs in the lumbar region. isotonic. 2. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. 4. more mitochondria. 3. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. it is called lumbago. 6. Muscle Tone: 1. 3. 5. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. 2. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit.
The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. 5. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. 3. and reacting to them. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. 2. 3. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. size. number of origins (or heads). 3. 2. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. the membrane is said to have an action potential. and circular. shape. 1. and minimal irritation. produce the myelin sheath. origin and insertion. neurons are multipolar. lateral side of the thigh. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. On the basis of function. Around the time of birth. Nerve Impulse: 1. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. attach neurons to blood vessels. 4. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. and action. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. and carry out phagocytosis. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. microglia. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. and ependyma. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The antagonist produces an opposite action. If. and resistance on the lever. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. 3. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. effort. Neurons: 1. 6. and unipolar. 2. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. On the basis of structure. 6. and the membrane is said to be polarized. and glands. or nerve cells. 2. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. 4. location. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. and deltoid region of the arm. 2. pennate. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. 2. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. interpreting them. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. cardiac muscle tissue. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. 2. Intramuscular Injections: 1. bipolar. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . second-class. Neurons. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. including motor neurons. and usually a single axon. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. oligodendrocytes. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. 5. convergent. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system.
travels from point to point along the membrane. Protection and Coverings: 1. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. and vertebral ligaments. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. 6. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. 3. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. 2. 7. 2. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. 5. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. 6. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. 5. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. 5. and ascending and descending tracts. or axon hillock. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. 6. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. anterior. 7. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. 4. posterior. 3. 2. posterior. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. meninges. 5. 4. cell body. and lateral white columns. central canal. arachnoid and pia mater. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. According to the all-ornothing principle. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. Structure in Cross Section: 1. anterior. 2. cerebrospinal fluid. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 3. 6. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. 3. and lateral gray horns. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. 4. 4.
2. Following peripheral nerve damage. 3. 5. respectively. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. and motor neuron. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. except for T 2-T 11. 5. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. 4. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. 4. and an effector. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. the Achilles reflex. • Dermatomes: 1. Its basic components are a receptor. a sensory neuron.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. • Distribution: 1. 5. brachial. 2. ventral ramus. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. 6. 2. constant segments of the skin. association. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. a motor neuron. 2. such as the patellar reflex. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 4. • Composition and Coverings: 1. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. 3. A stretch reflex. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. and crossed extensor reflex. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 1. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. The skin segments are called dermatomes. 8. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. Disorders . and the abdominal reflex. A reflex is a quick. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). Another function is to serve as a reflex center. a center. posterior root ganglion. The posterior root. 1. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. Wallerian degeneration. lumbar. 3. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. 2. and sacral plexuses. 3. Functions: 1. is an example. tendon reflex. 7. and regeneration. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. 2. and rami communicantes. 2. 9. 2. form networks of nerves called plexuses. 5. the Babinski sign. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. meningeal branch. and epineurium. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. perineunum. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. flexor reflex. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. 4. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis.
sneezing. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. 2. 2. respiratory rate. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. 2. 1. 2. 2. vasoconstriction. vomiting. convulsions. 1. epilepsy. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. diencephalon. 2. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. cranial meninges.1. which helps control respiration. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. 4. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. and unconsciousness. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. 4. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. 4. cerebrum. it is called external hydrocephalus. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. it is called internal hydrocephalus. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. 3. During embryological development. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. cells. 1. Embryological Development: 1. 2. and central canal. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. 3. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. The Diencephalon: 1. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. and hiccuping. 1. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. 1. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. 3. and cerebellum. Protection and Coverings: 1. 6. 3. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. permanent damage. 3. coughing. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. mental retardation. 2. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. swallowing. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. or death. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. The Brain Stem: 1. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. ventricles. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. or death of brain 5. The pons is superior to the medulla. 2. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus.
endorphins. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. numerical and scientific skills. and generating mental images of sight. 6. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. and dynorphin. 1. 3. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 3. 10. except smell. 2. Brain Lateralization: 1. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 7. constricted vermis. 2. 3. The Cerebellum: 1. and tumors. 2. spoken and written language. sound. space and pattern perception. 9. taste. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. gamma aminobutyric acid. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. They help to control muscular movements. 6. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. either anatomically or functionally. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. temporal. musical and artistic awareness. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. and sulci. to the cerebral cortex.7. 8. 3. 1. infections. parietal. 3. 2. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. insight. 2. glutamic acid. 1. and smell. 4. 7. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. 5. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. aspartic acid. fissures. 3. controls body temperature. 3. and occipital. dopamine. regulates food and fluid intake. 3. 2. serotonin. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. 3. 2. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. 2. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. 5. 3. Its cortex contains convolutions. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. excite. norepinephrine. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. touch. 2. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. It controls the autonomic nervous system. and reasoning. 4. 2. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. and glycine. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. imagination. 1. The Cerebrum: 1. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine.
pharyngeal muscles. Depending on the form of the disease. 10. upper jaw. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. . Impulse transmission is interrupted. 9. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. 4. cornea. Motor function. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. The Cranial Nerves: 1. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. etc. 12. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. Vestibulococ hlear . muscles of facial expression. 1. etc. 3.11. inferior pharynx. 2. 5. the victim experiences degrees of motor. tongue muscles. nose.The sense of smell. thrombosis. Facial Sensory. larangeal muscles.Sensory. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. Hypoglossal . Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. pharynx. Disorders . thoracic and abdominal organs. 6. 4. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Tongue muscles. Accessory Motor. 2. 10. lower jaw. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. Palate.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. cholecystokinin. upper teeth.Motor. or early infancy. upper eyelid. 7.Sensory. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. childbirth.The sense of vision. also called strokes. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. Vagus Sensory. 4. cerebellum. 7. Trigeminal Sensory function. or psychological malfunction.Motor function of eye muscles. Glossophary ngeal . 11. or basal ganglia during fetal development. 3. 8. 11. some neck and shoulder muscles. or atherosclerosis. Olfactory . Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. muscles of mastication. 6. taste. soft palate. Motor function. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. 12. 5. 9. hearing and balance. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. sensory. Motor. Oculomotor . lower teeth. Soft palate. 4. taste. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. Scalp. 8. Examples include angiotensin. Optic . forehead. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Motor. larynx.
An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. Receptors located in muscles. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. free nerve endings. 4. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. Characteristics: 1. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. second-order. visceroceptors. Classification of Receptors: 1. 2. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. they cause subconscious motor reactions. 4. conduction of the impulse to the brain. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. General Senses . Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles.muscle spasms and encephalitis. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. 3.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . tendons. 2. brain dysfunction. and proprioceptors. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. 3. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. vibration). electromagnetic receptors. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. surgery. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. and sometimes delirium. and end organs of Ruffini. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. 7. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. thermoreceptors. and body position. pressure. 5. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. movement of body parts. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. 3. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. proprioception. and Pacinian corpuscles. 3. Merkel's discs. and third-order neurons. 2. 3. 2. and chemoreceptors. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. nociceptors. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. The neural pathway for light touch. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. and acupuncture. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. 5. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. Levels of Sensation: 1. In terms of simplicity or complexity. 2. and liver damage. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. personality changes. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). end organs of Ruffini. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. 12. According to location. Sensations: 1. and pain. 2. 2. 6. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. and tendon organs. muscle spindles. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. 4. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. 4. connective tissues. Meissner's corpuscles. 13. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor.
Sympathetic responses are widespread and. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. 4. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. 2. Olfactory Sensations: 1. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. anterior corticospinal. activities of smooth muscle. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. Motor Pathways: 1. 4. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. the hypothalamus. 3. that is. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 4. It is entirely motor. 4.6. afferent neuron. and the medulla oblongata. and visceral effector. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. 2. 3. it consists of activated and long-term components. decrease in heart rate. 3. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. Integrative Functions: 1. and plexuses. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. 2. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. regulates visceral activities. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. association neuron. On the basis of the transmitter produced. to alleviate migraine headaches. tectospinal. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. in particular by the cerebral cortex. It is regulated by centers in the brain. 3. and to make childbirth easier. or visceral efferent nervous system. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. in general. It has been used to control heart rate. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). 2. 3. cardiac muscle. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. The autonomic nervous system. 2. ganglia. Control by Higher Centers: 1. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. 5. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). concerned with energy expenditure. 2. Physiology: 1. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. and glands. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. 3. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). 4. It usually operates without conscious control. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. 2. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). reduced metabolic rate. and corticobulbar tracts. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. and vestibulospinal tracts. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column).
3. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. 3. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. and inverted image formation. water-soluble. ossicles. and tympanic membrane). (b) vascular tunic (choroid. and cerebral cortex. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. linear. the optic chiasma. 5. or vertical motion. 7. and the threshold of smell is low. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. and vitreous humor. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. 3. ciliary body. 6. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. the organ of hearing. and the lacrimal apparatus. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). pass through the ossicles. strike the basilar membrane. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. aqueous humor. and (c) retina. 2. 8. 8. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. set up waves in the perilymph. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. 2. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. Visual Sensations: 1. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. which destroys neurons of the retina. 4. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. oval window. 5. 4. medulla. sour. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. eyelids. external auditory canal.2. the thalamus. strike the tympanic membrane. 3. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 10. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). The four primary tastes are salt. Trachoma is a chronic. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. Disorders . The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). strike the oval window. and bitter. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. accommodation of the lens. and lipid-soluble. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. increase pressure in the endolymph.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. which contains rods and cones. thalamus. olfactory bulbs. 4. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. 5. the optic tract. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. and iris). IX. 4. 2. and cerebral cortex. and the cortex. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. sweet. VII. lens. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. hypermetropia (farsightedness). 3. 9. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. constriction of the pupil. olfactory tracts. 6. 2. convergence. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. and X. and round window). The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. A sound impulse is then initiated. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. 5. 4. eyelashes.
7. 12. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). 2. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). 4. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). 15. 3. nerve impulses. Histologically. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 16. 2.Feedback Control: 1. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). sebaceous. 2. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. 4. 9. and regulating factors. 11. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. Exocrine glands (sweat. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. 10. 13. and contribute to reproductive processes. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). help regulate growth and development. 8. and acromegaly. 14. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. 3. Control of Hormonal Secretions . 2. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. giantism. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 3. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. On the basis of solubility. respond to stress. 2. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). 6. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). 5. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1.
Secretion is controlled by TRF. 6. Glucocorticoids (e. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. 3. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. 2.g. Parathyroids: 1. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. and zona reticularis. Alpha cells secrete glucagon.. 4. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. Histologically. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). 2. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). beta cells. 4. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. and parafollicular cells. 5. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. They are released under stress. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. 2.g. exophthalmic goiter. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. 5. 2. beta cells secrete insulin. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. Pancreas: 1. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. myxedema. 3. menstrual cycle. 2. Histologically. 6. 3. Cretinism. 4. 8. Histologically. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. growth and development. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). and delta cells. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. 10. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. 3.Thyroid: 1. pregnancy. 6. Secretion is controlled by CRF. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. and serve as antiinflammatories. 4. which secrete calcitonin (CT). Mineralocorticoids (e. 9.. Histologically. and lactation. glucocorticoids. 7. zona ennin late. 2. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. and the reactivity of the nervous system. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. and gonadocorticoids. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Ovaries and Testes: 1. Histologically. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. help resist stress. 5. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption.
basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes).5 percent solutes.4 million/mm3 of blood. nutrients. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone).8 million/mm3.000 to 9. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 6. 0. consists of 91. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. Thrombocytes: 1. eosinophils. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. 2. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. neuroglial cells. 2. Erythrocytes: 1. 2.4 degrees F).5 to 5. 5. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. thymic factor (TF). Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. 2. and enzymes. leucocytes (white blood cells). A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. foods. thymic humoral factor (THF). 2. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. 3.pinealocytes. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. 3. 38 degrees C (100. Functions: 1. 6. the heart. pH. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. Components: 1. 2. about 4. Leucocytes: 1. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . body temperature. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. and water content of cells. wastes. and salinity. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. Blood transports oxygen. globulins. 2. granular leucocytes. called plasma. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. and Iymph glands. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei.85 to 0. Normal blood contains 250. 4. and platelets. It helps to regulate pH. and thrombocytes (platelets). Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. 3. carbon dioxide. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). 4. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. Iymph vessels. Normal blood contains 5.90 NaCI. It protects against toxins and microbes. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. called erythropoiesis. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis.35 to 7. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. 3.45. 4. Lymphocytes. 5. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red blood cells live about 120 days.000/mm3. Thymus: 1. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. 4. a healthy female. 2. temperature.5.000 to 400. hormones. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. The liquid portion of blood. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. 3. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. Erythrocyte formation.000/mm3. Plasma: 1.5 percent water and 8. fibrinogen). 3. 7. A healthy male has about 5. and blood vessels.
and out through the aorta. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. 3. myocardium. 2. In vascular spasm. Disorders .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). The parietal pericardium. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis.Valves: 1. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. pernicious. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. 2. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. 2. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. encloses the heart. 2. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. In the ABO system. and endocardium. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). heparin) prevent clogging. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. The cause is a virus. 11. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. In the Rh system. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. Anticoagulatants (e. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1.The Heart: 1. platelet plug formation. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot).and hormones. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. hemorrhagic. 4. 7. aplastic. respiratory gases. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. 3. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. 4. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. and sickle cell anemia. The Cardiovascular System . 3. 2. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. and blood coagulation. 8. It involves vascular spasm. 3.g. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. Like plasma. 9. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. 6. 10. 2. Interstitial Fluid: 1. 5. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. hemolytic.. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. 4. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. 2. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss.
The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. aortic reflex. 2. 6. 4. 6. 4. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). Atrioventricular (AV) valves. atrioventricular (AV) node. 3. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. Blood Supply: 1. detecting the presence of fetal life.4. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. 2. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. Cardiac Output: 1. 3. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. 4. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 6. 3. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve.8 sec. 5. 7. and right heart (atrial) reflex. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. Electrocardiogram: 1. 7. 7. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. potassium). are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. Cardiac Cycle: 1. bundle branches. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). determining the presence of several fetuses. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. sodium. 4. Conduction System: 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. temperature. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. 2. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. between the atria and their ventricles. 5. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). 5. and Purkinje fibers. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). A peculiar sound is called a murmur.
and age. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. The heart becomes hypoxic. 3. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. 4. some capillaries are continuous. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). blood pressure increases. and the shock cvcle is intensified. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. sex (gender and physical activity). As blood volume increases. 3. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. lack of exercise. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . septal defects. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. valvular stenosis. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. fibrillation. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. Disorders . 2. This network increases the surface area. 3. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. In severe shock. to correct some defects. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. others are fenestrated. Venules: 1. 4. 2. and to apply chemotherapy locally. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. 2. 5. Arteries: 1. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. 2. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. flutter. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. and premature contractions). Arteries carry blood away from the heart. 3. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. high blood pressure. 2. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries.emotion. obesity. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. 3. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. 5. 4. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). 3. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Veins: 1. and therefore blood pressure. and arrhythmias (heart block.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Capillaries: 1.ener Arterioles: 1. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. cigarette smoking. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. diabetes mellitus. and tetralogy of Fallot). Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. and genetic disposition. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. 4. 2. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. 2. 2. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. and tunica externa.
9. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. when lung. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. Systemic Circulation: 1. Other routes include the cerebral. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. and the descending aorta. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). and age. 3. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. Fetal Circulation: 1. and fetal circulation. the arch of the aorta. intestines. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. and breathing. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. Disorders . chemicals. 2. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. 8. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. 7. emotions. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. pulmonary. stomach. 3.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. temperature. 3. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. At birth. 2. 2. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Circulatory Routes: 1. chemoreceptors. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. digestive. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. chemicals. 2. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood Reservoirs: 1. spleen. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. They in turn empty into the right atrium. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. 2. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. and higher brain centers. 2. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. and liver functions are established. and autoregulation.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. 2. 3. sex. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. 2. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. 6. 3. skeletal muscular contractions.
microbial structures. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. mucus. 3. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. 3. They include the pharyngeal. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 3. 4. brain. and transplants. palatine. 3. and fever. Examples of antigens are microbes.1. pollen. to Iymph trunks. lacrimal apparatus. each with specific biological roles (IgG. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. to the subclavian veins. and kidneys. 2. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. Iymphatic vessels. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. incompatible blood cells. and lingual tonsils. unsaturated fatty acids. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. chemical factors (gastric juice. mucous membranes. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. 9. 2. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. and properdin). and Iysozyme). 2. reactivity. 4. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. and flow of urine). saliva. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. epiglottis. and IgE). 3. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. phagocytosis. acid pH of skin. IgM. 2. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. 2. and Iymph organs. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. Based on chemistry and structure. 4. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. inflammation. IgA. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. IgD. 2. Antigens are chemical substances that. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. cilia. to Iymphatics. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. antimicrobial substances (interferon. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. 5. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. and multivalence. Iymph nodes. Lymph Circulation: 1. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. complement. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. 3. 2. called Iymphatics. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. 6. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. 7. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. 8. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. to Iymph capillaries. Lymphatic Organs: 1. when introduced into the body. 5.
and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . asthma. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. and hives. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. 7. sneezing. 8. During forced inspiration. they are important in diagnosis. 2. laughing. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. memory B cells recognize the original. 5. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. Coughing.liver and spleen. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. invading antigen. 2. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. and multiple sclerosis (MS). crying. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. 12. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. 13. detection of disease. 10. 6. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. 11. myasthenia gravis. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. preparing vaccines. 4. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. 14. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. 3. treatment. 2. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). eczema. rheumatic fever. sobbing. 3. sighing. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 4. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. 2. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. yawning. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response.
temperature. and apneustic area. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. include inspiratory. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. 2. expiratory reserve.are tidal volume. 4. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). and enlarged chest. 3. 4. compresses the lungs. 5. inflated alveoli.Internal Respiration: 1. 2. a large alveolar surface area. In bronchogenic carcinoma. Pulmonary lung capacities. 2. 3. and DPG. and excess mucus production. External Respiration . It is symbolized by p. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. and minimal volumes. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. both in the brain and outside. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. residual volume. C's of CPR are Airway. According to Dalton's law. functional residual. and function of the epithelial cells. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. blood pressure.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. and total. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. assuming that the pressure remains constant. the sum of two or more volumes. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. vital. inflated lungs. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. pneumotaxic area. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. B. division. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. the inflation reflex. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. The A. pCO2. and irritation to the respiratory centers. 2. and a rich blood supply. 4. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. 2. 3. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. 6. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). when the temperature remains constant. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. Breathing. 3. pain. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 2. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. 3. inspiratory reserve. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. and Circulation. 3. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. Disorders . The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. temperature.
The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. which aid mechanical digestion. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. forms the floor of the oral cavity. and defecation. palates. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. 3. 2. 2. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. Salivary Glands: 1. The tongue. 2. 4. 2. liver. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. absorption. It consists of a voluntary stage. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. root. and greater omentum. together with its associated muscles. and serosa (peritoneum).7. 3. lips. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. Deglutition: 1. and tongue. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. gallbladder. Some papillae contain taste buds. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. salivary glands. 9. 4. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. falciform ligament. 4. The accessory structures include the teeth. 8. tongue. 2. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. Teeth: 1. and sublingual glands. 4. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. and pancreas. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. Organization: 1. and accessory structures. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. or dentes. 5. the hardest substance in the body. 3. 2. 2. or alimentary canal. lipid. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. mechanical and chemical digestion. 3. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. submandibular (submaxillary). Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. and cervix. submucosa. 2. The teeth. 2. 3. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. lesser omentum. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. muscularis. peristalsis. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. Digestive Processes: 1. mesocolon. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown.
Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. and stomach gastrin. 2. 3. 3. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and the microvilli.Histology: 1. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. intrinsic factor. and transported as chylomicrons. Small Intestine: Anatomy . Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. Liver: 1. 2. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. The esophagus is a collapsible. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Esophagus: 1. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. 2. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. 3. hydrochloric acid. 2. certain electrolytes and drugs. 2. 3. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. and intestinal. 2. Pancreas: 1. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). 2. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. 2. Absorption: 1. and vitamins. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile.Histology: 1. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. Gallbladder: 1. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. The most important mechanism is local reflexes.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). 2. 3. resynthesized to triglycerides. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Absorption: 1. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. The small intestine also absorbs water. Hormones also assume a role. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. Among the substances absorbed are some water. Stomach: Anatomy . dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). glands that produce mucus. a protein-digesting enzyme. 2. electrolytes. gastric. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). 2. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). 2. 4. villi. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). and alcohol. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption.
Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. and non-A. and mass peristalsis. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. . or kinking of the organ. Types include hepatitis A. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. carcinoma of the cecum. bacteria. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. 5. vitamins. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. 2. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. rather than enzymatic. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. inorganic salts. The large intestine absorbs water. 2. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. 9. 2. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. Feces consists of water.1. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. 12. 2. and vitamins. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10. 4. colon. rectum. proteins. and cementum. periodontal membrane. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. Anabolic reactions use energy. action. 3. 2. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. and anal canal. Metabolism: 1. hepatitis B. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. peristalsis. lipids. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. 5. epithelial cells. Its subdivisions include the cecum. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. 8. a foreign body. During digestion. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. electrolytes. and undigested foods. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. and water. 7. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. 2. 11. 4. 3. 6. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. act as building blocks in forming new body components. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. colonoscopy. minerals. stenosis. alveolar bone. and barium x-ray. Defecation: 1. Disorders . 3. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. 2.
there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. As a result of glycolysis. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. under aerobic conditions. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. 3. During digestion. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. Lipid Metabolism: 1. 2.2. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. and growth hormone (GH). 5. 3. 3. epinephrine. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. and I molecule of GTP. 2. 3. Glucose Catabolism: 1. Fate of Lipids: 1. 4. 2. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. 2. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. 3. Lipid Catabolism: 1. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. Glycolysis: 1. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. 2. and cytochromes. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. Electron Transport Chain: 1. 2. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. 2. 4 molecules of NADH2. Fat Storage: 1. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. the Krebs cycle. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. 6. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. It is stimulated by cortisol. 4. 3. and the electron transport chain. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. recombined to form triglycerides. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. 1 molecule of FADH2. In beta oxidation. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. 3. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . thromboplastin for blood clotting. Glucose Anabolism: 1. When oxygen is in short supply. 2. thyroxine. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. coenzyme Q. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). glucagon. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.
Vitamins: 1. fats. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. enter body cells by active transport. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. Production of Body Heat: 1. Before amino acids can be catabolized. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . potassium.Lipogenesis: 1. 2. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. snd ketane hadies. D. and K. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. E. manganese. sodium. 2. magnesium. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. cobalt. phosphorus. During digestion. hormones. copper. stored. conversion of glycerol into glucose. Many function in enzyme systems. 2. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. Inside cells. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. decarboxylation. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. zinc. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. and so forth. Fate of Proteins: 1. sulfur. 2. 2. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. 2. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. and chromium. but an excess of ketone bodies. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. iodine. structural elements. 2. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. 3. 4. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. fatty acids. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. Protein Anabolism: 1. based on the needs of the body. may cause acidosis. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. 3. and hydrogenation. Lipid Anabolism . chlorine. 3.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. selenium. these conversions involve deamination. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. 3. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. Minerals: 1. or converted. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. During the absorptive state. During the absorptive state. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. 2. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. called ketosis. the nervous system. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. and body temperature. and proteins. The process is stimulated by insulin. Protein Catabolism: 1. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. Protein Metabolism: 1. 2. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. 2. and insulin. Amino acids.4. iron. hormones. thyroxine.
This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). descending limb of Henle. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. profuse perspiration. glomerulus.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). columns. deereased metabolic rate. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. Physiology: 1. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. 7. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. and dizziness. and high body temperature. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. 2. and renal fascia. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 4. calyces. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. 3. 2. lethargy. skeletal muscle contraction. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. 5. 2. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. 4. 4. 3. reduced perspiration. 3. sympathetic stimulation. Loss of Body Heat: 1. and K and calcium is inadequate. the kidneys consist of a cortex. and thyroxine production. failure to grow. and urethra. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. 4. ascending limb of Henle. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. nausea. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. and sometimes mental retardation. 2. 4. stages include chill and crisis. 6. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. ureters. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. D. 4. urinary bladder. papillae. and perspiration. distal convoluted tubule. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. 3. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. 3. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. 5. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. 2. 2. adipose capsule. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. loop of Henle. medulla. Internally. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. cramps. proximal convoluted tubule. 5. 3. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. and a pelvis. pyramids.
2. turbidity. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. temperature. and certain drugs. synovial fluid. the lungs. creatinine. 9. integument. and specific gravity. and peritoneal fluids. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. 8.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. Included are ions. 2. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. and ions. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. leucocytes. primarily by peristalsis. diuretics. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. indican. The solutes include urea. Body Fluids: 1. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). amino acids. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. and emotions. 4. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. bilirubin. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. It includes interstitial fluid. Disorders . Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. Homeostasis: 1. 7. 7. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. 5. and ions. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. odor. Besides the kidneys. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. 4. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. 2.6. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. muscularis. pleural. erythrocytes. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. 2. uric acid. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). 2. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). nitrogenous wastes. and fluids of the eyes and ears. 3. hippuric acid. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. glucose. 5. Ureters: 1. 6. 3. 10. In exchange. renal calculi. 3. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. the rest by facultative reabsorption. Gl tract fluids. including water. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). Histologically. 11. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. cerebrospinal fluid. plasma and Iymph. Urethra: 1. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. pH. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. Normally. glucose. 2. Chemically. 3. pericardial. and the glomerular filtrate. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). and a serous coat. ketone bodies. and fibrous coat. 8. blood concentration. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. ketone bodies. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. salts. 5. Urinary Bladder: 1. urobilinogen. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. and microbes. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. 4. casts.
Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). skin. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. 7. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions.45 and 8. phosphate. 5. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. 2. and fluid and electrolyte balance. fluid moves in the opposite direction. 2. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. 2. 3. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations.00. and GI tract. respirations. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. It also functions in blood clotting. interstitial fluid. muscle contraction. Plasma. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 5. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. muscle contraction. chemical transmitter release. 4. 10.80. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. 4. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. 2. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. At the arterial end of a capillary. 8. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. 11. muscle contraction. especially extracellular fluid. increases pH. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. a decrease in rate. Under normal conditions. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. and kidney excretion. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. proper fluid movement between compartments.45. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .35 to 7. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. lungs. and regulation of pH. 3. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. nerve impulse conduction. 4. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 2. and protein. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. 4. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. decreases pH. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. 4. and regulating pH. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. 3.1. and heartbeat. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. 3. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 9. At the venous end. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. An increase in rate of respirations. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. 6. 3. Electrolytes: 1. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries.35 and 6. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions).
Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. and rete testis. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. and efferent ducts. 2. 2. sustentacular cells. membranous. midpiece. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. Scrotum: 1. 3. 8. 3. 12. 2. 5. which nourish sperm cells. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. and 7. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). 10. and penis. urethra. ejaculatory duct. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. development. sperm maturation. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. ductus deferens. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. II. Reproductive System: 1. 7. in which sperm cells are made. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 6. 4. 4. Male Reproductive System: 1. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. Ducts: 1. seminal vesicles. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. 6. straight tubules. prostate gland. 2. Accessory Glands: 9. 3. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. straight tubules. 7. Testosterone controls the growth. 11. and interstitial endocrinocytes. and maintenance of sex organs. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). stimulates bone growth. Testes: 1. 2. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. and tail. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. ductus epididymis. 3. ducts (transport and store gametes). The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. rete testis. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. bulbourethral glands. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. 5. and spongy (cavernous). protein anabolism. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic.
implantation of a fertilized ovum. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. on either side of the uterus. The uterus is an inverted. During the menstrual phase. uterine tubes. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. The penis is the male organ of copulation. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. vagina. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. 7. Penis: 1. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. 10. During the postovulatory phase. 4. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. 6. ovulation. 4. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. Uterus: 1. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. 11. development of a fetus during pregnancy. discharge ova (ovulation). Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. middle myometrium. 5. and vulva. Ovaries: 1. Histologically. 3. 4. . III. 8. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. endometrial repair occurs. 2. 6. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. 5. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. 2. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. During the preovulatory phase. and labor. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). They produce ova. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. 2. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). mucus. 3. 2. and inner endometrium. Estrogens stimulate the growth. 2. 9. development.nutrients. and stimulate protein anabolism. 3. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. tissue fluid. uterus. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. 2. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. and epithelial cells.
8. Mammary Glands: 1. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. Perineum: 1. 3. It consists of the mons veneris. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. 12. The removal of a malignant breast. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. the cessation of the sexual cycles. 2. 4. 7. 2. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. It is said to be haploid (n). Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. abnormal bleeding. and orgasm. 11. 6. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Sexual Intercourse: 1. 10. 2. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). lubrication. clitoris. trichomoniasis. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. and orgasm (climax). 3. 3. Vagina: 1. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. enlarged prostate. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. lubrication. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 9. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. The female role also involves erection. 9. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. 8. Spermatogenisis: 1. and tumors. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. Disorders . Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. 12. pectoral muscles. vaginal and urethral orifices. labia minora. 2. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. dysmenorrhea. 2. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. If fertilization and implantation do occur. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. and sperm maturation. equatorial division. 5. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). equatorial division. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). 2. 2. 13. Oogenesis: 1. 2. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). 7. genital herpes. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. and ova maturation. and the lower portion of the birth canal.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 10. vestibule. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). Vulva: 1.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. labia majora. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. syphilis.
fetal growth. 1. 2. 4. implantation. 3. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. embryonic growth. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. and birth. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. 2. Its various events are hormonally controlled. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. . 5.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization.
and chemical). 2. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. chemicals and drugs. mechanical. and progesterone. protein anabolism. 2. and protection. such as hemophilia.The morula develops into a blastocyst. sickle cell anemia. amnion. estrogens. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. 2. Dominant genes control a particular trait. 1. During the fetal period. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. and progesterone. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. expulsion of the fetus. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). During embryonic growth. 8. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. Parturition and Labor: 1. Tay-Sachs disease. tubal ligation. microbes. removal of wastes. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. sterilization (vasectomy. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. 2. 2. 7. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. 2. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. 5. laparascopic technique). 3. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). 2. 5. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. and contraception (natural. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. 3. Inheritance: 1. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. alcohol. and smoking. Examples are infections. Birth Control: 6. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. and delivery of the placenta. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. and allantois. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. 3. 6. . Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. 3. 4. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. estrogens. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). Lactation: 1. 2. and Down's syndrome. mesoderm. 4. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. chorion. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1.
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