This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. and the mitotic spindle. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Mitochondria: 1. nucleoli. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Thus they are called "suicide packets. 4. and control. lipids. 3. stores synthesized molecules. 2. Ribosomes: 1. but smaller. 3. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. They are involved in muscular contraction. Cells without nuclei. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. such as mature red blood cells. repair." 4. karyolymph. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Functionally. Peroxisomes: 1. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. comprising the chromosomes. and helps export chemicals from the cell. They are formed from Golgi complexes. support. 3. 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1.13. 2. They support.g. carbohydrates. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. Cytoplasm: 1. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. maintenance. The ER provides mechanical support. Nucleus: 1. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. 1. 3. do not grow or reproduce. 2. and movement. The inner folds are called cristae.The Cytoskeleton: 1. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. Microfilaments and Microtubules .. 2. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. 2. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. cilia. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. 3. provide movement. If the cell is injured. 2. Usually the largest organelle. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. and genetic material (DNA). membranous sacs called cisternae. In conjunction with the ER. Organelles: 1. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. 3. 2. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. They contain enzymes (e. transports substances intracellularly. centrioles. and form the structure of flagella. which carry on phagocytosis. 3. and inorganic substances. Functionally. 2. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. It is located near the nucleus. 3.
6. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). 2. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). 2. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). 3. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. 4. Cell Division: 1. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA.DNA Repair: 1. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. they are called cilia. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. 3. like collagenous. Some. 8.2. 4. 6. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. an "SOS response" occurs. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. lipids. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. reticular. which consist of rRNA and protein. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. In transcription. Cellular Inclusions: 1. If they are numerous and hairlike. 2. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. 3. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. "SOS" Genes . 3. the DNA molecules. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. Somatic Cell Division: 1. and mucus. Flagella and Cilia: 1. mRNA associates with ribosomes. and elastic fibers.Protein Synthesis: 1. they are called flagella. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. 2. Others. 7. 3. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. If projections are few and long. Examples are melanin. Gene Action . 2. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. Extracellular Materials: 1. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. 3. 5. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. anaphase. are amorphous. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. or chromosomes. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. 5. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. and telophase. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. DNA Polymerase is an example. This involves transcription and translation. metaphase. It consists of prophase. In response to DNA damage. glycogen. are fibrous. 2.
2. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. It has few cells. the study of tumors is called oncology. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. Exocrine glands (sweat. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. and binds organs together. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. simple. 2. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. parts of urethra. acinar. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. It does not occur on free surfaces. noncancerous tumors are called benign. 3. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. but none successfully answers all questions. an extensive intercellular substance. and apocrine glands. Connective tissue protects. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. connective. muscular. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. and most upper respiratory structures. supports. 2. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. little intracellular material. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. 4. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. in kidneys and eyes. except for cartilage. 2. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. 2. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. 5. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. pharynx. cell shapes include squamous (flat). Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. 3. It lines larger excretory ducts. 8. and epiglottis. 4. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer).1. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. Many theories of aging have been proposed. 2. and lining some glandular ducts. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. 9. Glandular Epithelium: 1. and a rich blood supply (vascular). Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. portion of urethra. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. oil. 6. Functional classification includes holocrine. and nervous. Connective Tissue: 1. and transitional (variable). A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. merocrine. auditory tubes. It can replace itself. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. columnar (rectangular). stratified (several layers). 5. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. and no blood vessels (avascular). 3. Epithelial Tissue: 1. Epithelium has many cells. and compound. Depending on their function and structure. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. 3. 2. tubuloacinar. It is found covering ovaries. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. cuboidal (cubelike). 3. where it protects and secretes. 7.
Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. 6. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. around body organs. and aponeuroses. and external ear. and true vocal cords. Muscle tissue performs one major function . cartilage. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. spleen. bone tissue. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. Tissue Inflammation . and a typical cell is the fibroblast. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. such as the digestive tract. and Cardiac. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. auditory tubes. tendons. pericardium. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Membranes: 1. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. and vascular tissue. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. mast. Adipose. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. sometimes loss of function occurs. 2. elastic arteries. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. Elastic. 5. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. pain. in the nose. allows movement. Dense. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. Examples are: mucous. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. and Reticular. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. 2. and in the subcutaneous layer. and melanocytes). Adult Connective Tissue: 1. and Iymph nodes. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). 7. macrophages. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). 2. and provides support. 4. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells.4. and in respiratory structures. membranes of organs. It is found as a component of fascia. It is flexible. are specialized for fat storage. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1.contraction. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. called adipocytes. Visceral (smooth). serous. elastic. and cutaneous. heat. 3.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. It provides strength. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. where it gives support. and swelling. bronchial tubes. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. 2. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. ligaments. at the ends of bones. o Serous membranes (pleura. plasma. trachea. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses.
8. nerves. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. 5. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. pus is produced. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. are the stratum basale. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. In most inflammations.The Skin: Skin 1. maintaining body temperature. and root hair plexuses. hair follicles. 7. scab formation. and a hair follicle. 5. synthesis of vitamin D. The epidermal layers. brown melanin. and pheomelanin (yellow). the process slows down with aging. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. and ceruminous). lucidum. 2. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. an abscess develops. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. D. If the injury is superficial. receiving stimuli. carotene. some B. and corneum. 4. nerves. arrectores pilorum muscles. 5. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. The skin and its derivatives (hair. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. spinosum. 6. black melanin. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. and several organic compounds. granulation tissue is involved. salts. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). • Hair: 1. and ducts of sweat glands. kinins. skin glands (sebaceous. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. 3. The color of skin is due to melanin. glands. oil glands. and parenchymal regeneration. Conditions for Repair: 1. 2. and excretion of water. C. granulosum. sudoriferous. and Meissner's corpuscles. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. hair follicles. if it cannot drain out of the body. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. 3. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. 4. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. Repair Process: 1. dermal papillae. Tissue Repair: 1. The Integumentary System . Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. If damage is extensive. 3. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. 4. and nails. 2. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. serotonin. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. • Glands: 1. storage of chemical compounds. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. The reticular region is dense. 2. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. from deepest to most superficial. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. E. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Various vitamins (A. 3. It performs the functions of protection.2. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes.
and matrix. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. second-degree (partialthickness). Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. Disorders . 2. If environmental temperature is high. Homeostasis: 1. Histology: 1. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. replacing lost body fluids. 2. and third-degree (fullthickness). and skin grafting. and blood cell production. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. The principal parts of a nail are the body. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. As the perspiration evaporates. leverage. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. 4. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions.6F). Nails are hard. hyponychium. 2. eponychium. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. lunula. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. 7. 8. 3. pimples. 4. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. 5. They are found in the external auditory meatus. 6. 2. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. the skin is cooled. regulating metabolic rate. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. pubis. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. or psychogenic factors. raised plaques or papules. mineral storage. free edge. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. and boils. Most warts are benign.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and covering wounds with temporary protection. 11. 2. 9. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. 10. and areolae. The functions of the skeletal system include support. Nails: 1. removing dead tissue. systemic diseases. root. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. 3. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98.• palms and soles. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. protection. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. Depending on the depth of damage. their ducts open into hair follicles. 3. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli.
2. and periosteum. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. spongy bone is laid down first.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). hypertrophic cartilage. Pott's. epiphyses (ends). The types of fractures include: partial. Cartilage degenerates. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. 4. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. Next. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. metaphysis. 8. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. and vitamins (A. 3. Homeostasis: 1. 7. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. This process is called remodeling. complete. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. compound. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. and nondisplaced. forming a callus. Functionally. impacted. and calcified matrix. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. greenstick. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. Colles'. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. proliferating cartilage. C. marrow. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). phosphorus. 6. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. where bone replaces cartilage. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. and irregular bones. periosteum. 5. Normal growth depends on calcium. except for the epiphyseal plate. 7. A fracture is any break in a bone. 3. flat. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. 2. 8. It forms most of the structure of short. In both types of ossification. 4. comminuted. and endosteum. medullary or marrow cavity. displaced. and the epiphyses of long bones. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. spiral. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. Functionally. and resists stress. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. supports. transverse. 9. 4. 6. 2. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. intramembranous and endochondral. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. compact bone protects. articular cartilage. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. 2. Disorders . 3. and remodeling. simple. 5. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. Osteoblasts lay down bone. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. 3. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. The two types of ossification. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones.
Hyoid Bone: 1. and spine. 2. bones are classified as long. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 2. the sternum. vertebral column. crest. maxillae (2). 4. 3. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. sphenoid. support. and vomer. Condyle. inferior nasal conchae (2). 3. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. and ethmoid. fused) and the coccyx (4. 2. head. 2. 3. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. parietal (2). Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. facet. Vertebral Column: 1. Surface Markings: 1. process. 7. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. The major fontanels are the anterior. tuberosity. 2. and posterolaterals. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. These curves give strength. lacrimal (2). or passage of nerves and blood vessels. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). They are lined by mucous membranes. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. muscle attachment.1. The patella is an example. and maxilla. 1. sphenoid. zygomatic (2). thoracic vertebrae (12). It is composed of 22 bones. 2. palatine (2). The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). sternum. auditory ossicles. and ribs. fused). sagittal. Examples are coronal. or irregular. the sacrum (5. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. foramen. anterolaterals. lambdoidal. On the basis of shape. flat. temporal (2). The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). 3. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. fossa. 6. Terms that describe markings include fissure. short. lumbar vertebrae (5). and balance. 5. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. posterior. The vertebral column. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. mandible. hyoid bone. meatus. Skull: 1. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. and squamosal sutures. ethmoid. occipital. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .
and the bones of the lower extremities. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). 3. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. fibula. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. the ribs and costal cartilages. o Lower Extremities: 1. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. 5. tibia. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. the pelvic girdle. Examples include scoliosis. 2. tarsals. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. ulna. carpals. o Upper Extremities: 1. 2. and L 2. 4.The vertebra are similar in structure. Hamate (Unciform). Navicular. 3. a congenital defect. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. shape. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. radius. 2. Capitate. 2. and the thoracic vertebrae. Pisiform. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. is referred to as spina bifida. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. 2. Talus. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. pubis. and phalanges. and detail. and ischium. and phalanges. 3. and Medial Cuneiform. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. metacarpals. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the bones of the upper extremities. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. 4. 3. II. Thorax: 1. Triangular (Triquetrum). kyphosis. and lordosis. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. vertebral arch. Cuboid. Schaphoid (Navicular). L l. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. and seven processes. each consisting of a body. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). 2. metatarsals.
Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. 4. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. circumduction. some also contain ligaments. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. and loss of function. 6.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. rotation. swelling. with no joint cavity. Disorders . to provide support and leverage. biaxial. Fibrous Joints: 1. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. and muscles. Articulations: 1. 2. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. protraction and retraction. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. and elevation and depression. joints are classified as fibrous. pivot joints (radioulnar). Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. with no joint cavity. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). joints. cartilaginous. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. 5. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. 2. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. are cartilaginous joints. 2. supination and pronation. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). is a displacement of a bone from its joint. or triaxial. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. A dislocation. 2. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). 3. 7. All synovial joints are freely movable. 5.arches. 2. and muscle tension. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. articular cartilage. or luxation. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. Bones held together by cartilage. Synovial Joints: 1. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). 4. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). ligaments. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. 2. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. 3. 3. 6. angular movements. or synovial. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 8. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). articular discs. hinge joints (elbow). Structurally. tendons. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). 1. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. are fibrous joints. 2. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. and a synovial membrane. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. and bursae. tension of ligaments. 3. inversion and eversion. Male and Female Skeletons: 1.
Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. 2. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. It is striated and involuntary. 3. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. 3. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. The Motor Unit: 1. covering the entire muscle. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. nuclei. 4. and troponin. Energy for Contraction: 1. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. covering individual fibers. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. and heat production. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Contraction . and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. contract. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. 5. triggering the contractile process. There are three types of fascia: superficial. and T tubules. or myoneural. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. junction. Physiology of Contraction: 1. Through contraction. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. 4. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. covering fasciculi. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. 8. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. maintenance of posture.without dislocation. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. Functions: 1. 6. 2. 2. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. 2. 3. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. deep. Types: 1. It is striated and voluntary. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. 4. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. the neuron releases acetylcholine. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. tropomyosin. Connective tissue components are epimysium. 2. and endomysium. and subserous. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. 2. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. 7. 3. perimysium. 3. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. 2. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. 4. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. tetanus. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. Abnormal contractions include spasms. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. 3. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. It is striated and involuntary. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. and related structures in the thigh. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. 2. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. stimulus. convulsions. and a large amount of myoglobin. Unit it is paid back. and stiffness of joints. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. 3. more blood capillaries. isotonic. 3. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. tenderness. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. 3. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. more mitochondria. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. This muscle is found only in the heart. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Kinds of Contractions: 1. 5. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. 2. 3. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. fibrillations. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. or subthreshold. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. muscles. 3. 6. stimulus. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. 3. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Muscle Tone: 1. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. Homeostasis: 1. 5. If it occurs in the lumbar region. 2. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. treppe. The fibers are arranged in a network. and tics. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. or threshold. 4. 2. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. 2. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. and larger T tubules. Disorders . The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . A record of a contraction is called a myogram. and isometric. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. 3. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. it is called lumbago. cramps. 2. each of which contracts as a functional unit.2. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. 2. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks.
pennate. and resistance on the lever. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. and the membrane is said to be polarized. location. shape. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. 2. number of origins (or heads). lateral side of the thigh. or nerve cells. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. 4. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. including motor neurons. 3. The antagonist produces an opposite action. Neurons: 1. and unipolar. On the basis of structure. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. and minimal irritation. 5. cardiac muscle tissue. Nerve Impulse: 1. 5. 3. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. 2. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. and circular. Neurons. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. convergent. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. effort. 6. Intramuscular Injections: 1. and ependyma. and action. 2. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. 2. and usually a single axon. 6. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. produce the myelin sheath. and carry out phagocytosis. 2. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. 4. bipolar. Around the time of birth. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. 3. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. microglia. 2. second-class. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. attach neurons to blood vessels. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. 1. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. and deltoid region of the arm. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. 3. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. If. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. On the basis of function. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. neurons are multipolar. and reacting to them. origin and insertion.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. 2. the membrane is said to have an action potential. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. interpreting them. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. size. oligodendrocytes. and glands.
posterior. 7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. 6. 5. According to the all-ornothing principle. anterior. 6. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. 6. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. central canal. 3. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. 5. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. arachnoid and pia mater. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 3. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. and vertebral ligaments. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. 4. 2. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. 5. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. and lateral white columns. 2. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. 3. posterior. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. anterior. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. and ascending and descending tracts. 4. 6. cell body. 2. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions.travels from point to point along the membrane. 3. 4. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. Structure in Cross Section: 1. and lateral gray horns. 7. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. 7. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. meninges. or axon hillock. Protection and Coverings: 1. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. 4. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization.
The skin segments are called dermatomes. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. and epineurium. flexor reflex. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. A reflex is a quick. 3. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. except for T 2-T 11. lumbar.2. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. • Distribution: 1. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. 3. Wallerian degeneration. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. 2. • Composition and Coverings: 1. tendon reflex. The posterior root. form networks of nerves called plexuses. A stretch reflex. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. and motor neuron. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. 4. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. 5. and sacral plexuses. 7. the Achilles reflex. 4. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. 5. 1. is an example. and an effector. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. 2. 1. respectively. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. 2. meningeal branch. 2. 4. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. such as the patellar reflex. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. and rami communicantes. constant segments of the skin. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 2. perineunum. a sensory neuron. 4. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . a center. Disorders .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Following peripheral nerve damage. 5. Functions: 1. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. 9. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. brachial. 5. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. 3. 8. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. 6. a motor neuron. association. and regeneration. and crossed extensor reflex. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. ventral ramus. 3. and the abdominal reflex. 2. 2. posterior root ganglion. • Dermatomes: 1. Its basic components are a receptor. the Babinski sign. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction.
2. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. it is called internal hydrocephalus. coughing. 2. 3. convulsions. Embryological Development: 1. 1. respiratory rate. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. The Diencephalon: 1. 2. 2. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. epilepsy. and hiccuping. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. 4. cells. 1. 2. During embryological development. 4. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. 1. cerebrum. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. 6. 3. diencephalon. and unconsciousness. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. which helps control respiration. 2. Protection and Coverings: 1. 1. 2. vasoconstriction. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. The Brain Stem: 1. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 3. and cerebellum. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. 2. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. 2. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. it is called external hydrocephalus. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. vomiting. 4. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. 1. cranial meninges. sneezing. swallowing. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. The pons is superior to the medulla. 3. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. mental retardation. 2. or death of brain 5. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. 3. ventricles.1. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. permanent damage. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. or death. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. and central canal. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements.
taste. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. fissures. 6. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 3. 2. temporal. constricted vermis. and tumors. Brain Lateralization: 1. 2. 10. Its cortex contains convolutions. sound. 7. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. 2. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. and sulci. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. 2. infections. 3. 3. imagination. and dynorphin. 1. 3. 3. 3. excite. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. 1. 2. except smell. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. The Cerebrum: 1. spoken and written language. serotonin. 3. 5. 1. numerical and scientific skills. 2. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. space and pattern perception. It controls the autonomic nervous system. musical and artistic awareness. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. 2. touch. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . connects the nervous and endocrine systems. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 4. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. The Cerebellum: 1. and occipital. 4. and reasoning. 3. to the cerebral cortex. 2. and glycine. 6. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. regulates food and fluid intake. aspartic acid. glutamic acid. and smell. controls body temperature. parietal. 8. 7. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 5. 9. 3. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. either anatomically or functionally. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 1. dopamine. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. 3. gamma aminobutyric acid. 2. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. insight. endorphins. 2. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. and generating mental images of sight. They help to control muscular movements. norepinephrine.7.
6.Sensory. 4. pharyngeal muscles. muscles of mastication. lower teeth. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. forehead. 5. Oculomotor . Depending on the form of the disease. upper teeth. upper jaw. 4. Olfactory . childbirth. 7. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. nose. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. 12. 5. 3.Sensory. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. thoracic and abdominal organs. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. 3. larynx. 11. taste. 8. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. 12. muscles of facial expression. 9.Motor function of eye muscles. 10. larangeal muscles. Vagus Sensory. Examples include angiotensin. Scalp. 8. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. or atherosclerosis. or basal ganglia during fetal development. The Cranial Nerves: 1. . also called strokes. Accessory Motor. Vestibulococ hlear . cholecystokinin. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Optic . Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). some neck and shoulder muscles. Glossophary ngeal .The sense of vision. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. Motor. 1. etc. Hypoglossal . Motor. or early infancy. the victim experiences degrees of motor. 2. soft palate.Motor. upper eyelid. Impulse transmission is interrupted. or psychological malfunction. 7. Motor function. inferior pharynx. hearing and balance. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .11.The sense of smell. Disorders . pharynx. Soft palate. Palate. 6. etc. Facial Sensory. 2. Trigeminal Sensory function. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. 4. cornea. 9. sensory. tongue muscles. taste. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. Tongue muscles. thrombosis. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. 4. Motor function. 11. cerebellum. lower jaw. 10.
Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. 2. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. and liver damage. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. In terms of simplicity or complexity. Sensations: 1. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. and tendon organs. 5. and sometimes delirium. they cause subconscious motor reactions. 2. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. and pain. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. 2. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. proprioception. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. Classification of Receptors: 1. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. nociceptors. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. 4. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. Levels of Sensation: 1. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. connective tissues. 13. visceroceptors. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. Meissner's corpuscles. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. and proprioceptors. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. and chemoreceptors. end organs of Ruffini. The neural pathway for light touch. Characteristics: 1. electromagnetic receptors. 2. 12. thermoreceptors.muscle spasms and encephalitis. 3. General Senses . personality changes. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. 2. 3. 2. pressure. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. 3. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. and third-order neurons. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. 3. second-order. 7. tendons. movement of body parts. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. Merkel's discs. vibration). brain dysfunction. and acupuncture. muscle spindles. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. 4. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. 4. and end organs of Ruffini. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. conduction of the impulse to the brain. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. surgery. and Pacinian corpuscles. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. 2. 5. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. 6. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. and body position. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. Receptors located in muscles. According to location. free nerve endings. 4. 3.
2. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. and plexuses. 4. 4. 2. 2. Motor Pathways: 1. 4. in general. association neuron. decrease in heart rate. the hypothalamus. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. Olfactory Sensations: 1. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. The autonomic nervous system. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. ganglia. regulates visceral activities. 2. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. 3. cardiac muscle. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). 5. and visceral effector. It usually operates without conscious control. On the basis of the transmitter produced. It is regulated by centers in the brain. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. It has been used to control heart rate. or visceral efferent nervous system. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. 4. 2. and glands. activities of smooth muscle. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. that is. 3. 3. and corticobulbar tracts. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). 2. to alleviate migraine headaches. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. Integrative Functions: 1. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). 3. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. reduced metabolic rate. and to make childbirth easier. in particular by the cerebral cortex. concerned with energy expenditure. 3. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS).6. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. tectospinal. 4. anterior corticospinal. Physiology: 1. 2. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). It is entirely motor. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. it consists of activated and long-term components. and vestibulospinal tracts. and the medulla oblongata. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. Control by Higher Centers: 1. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. 3. afferent neuron.
sweet. strike the oval window. thalamus. 8. medulla. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. and inverted image formation. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. sour. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. set up waves in the perilymph. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. aqueous humor. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. 5. 5. accommodation of the lens. and round window). 3. lens. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. and (c) retina. IX. the organ of hearing. water-soluble. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. A sound impulse is then initiated. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 8. ciliary body. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. strike the tympanic membrane. 6. 2. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. and cerebral cortex. and X. 4. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). 6. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. 5. and cerebral cortex. Trachoma is a chronic. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). The four primary tastes are salt. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. and tympanic membrane). and the lacrimal apparatus. the optic tract. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. and lipid-soluble. 7. 7. and iris). Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. hypermetropia (farsightedness). Visual Sensations: 1. pass through the ossicles. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. convergence. eyelids. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). (b) vascular tunic (choroid. which contains rods and cones. and the cortex. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. increase pressure in the endolymph. constriction of the pupil. 3. 10. 3. oval window. 4. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. linear. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. external auditory canal. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. 3. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. eyelashes. and vitreous humor. which destroys neurons of the retina. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 2. olfactory bulbs. Disorders . and bitter. 4. 4. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 4. 2. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . olfactory tracts. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. the thalamus.2. or vertical motion. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. 5. 2. the optic chiasma. strike the basilar membrane. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. ossicles. 3. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. and the threshold of smell is low. 9. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. VII.
ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 13. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. 9. Exocrine glands (sweat. 15. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. 2. Histologically. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. sebaceous. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). On the basis of solubility. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. 5. 2. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). giantism. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. 11. and regulating factors. 7. nerve impulses. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. respond to stress. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. 2. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself.Feedback Control: 1. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). 6. 2. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. 12. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. 4. 8. 10. help regulate growth and development. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. and acromegaly. 3. 14. and contribute to reproductive processes. 2. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. 4. Control of Hormonal Secretions . 16. 3. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. 3.
which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. 2. Glucocorticoids (e. 8. 6. 3. Histologically. 3. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. help resist stress. Cretinism. and zona reticularis. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. 2. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. myxedema. 6. Histologically. and the reactivity of the nervous system. Ovaries and Testes: 1. 4. Histologically. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Histologically. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland.Thyroid: 1. 5. Parathyroids: 1. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1.. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 2. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. and serve as antiinflammatories. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. Secretion is controlled by TRF. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. pregnancy. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 4. and lactation. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. beta cells. 5. beta cells secrete insulin. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. 9. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. 6. exophthalmic goiter. 10. 7. 2. 2. 3. 5. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. Pancreas: 1. 3. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Secretion is controlled by CRF.g. and delta cells. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. and gonadocorticoids. menstrual cycle. glucocorticoids. zona ennin late. Histologically. They are released under stress. 4.. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. which secrete calcitonin (CT). it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and parafollicular cells. Mineralocorticoids (e. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys.g. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. 4. 2. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. growth and development. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses.
the heart. and Iymph glands.4 million/mm3 of blood. It protects against toxins and microbes. and blood vessels. nutrients. 3. 4. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. thymic factor (TF). Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. The liquid portion of blood. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. and thrombocytes (platelets).4 degrees F). differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). called plasma. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity.85 to 0. 6. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. Leucocytes are nucleated cells.90 NaCI. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. body temperature. Erythrocytes: 1.5. fibrinogen). The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. Components: 1. Lymphocytes. wastes.5 percent water and 8. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 38 degrees C (100. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. consists of 91. 2. Functions: 1.pinealocytes. pH. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. 2. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. Thrombocytes: 1. 3. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. 2. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. 2. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. Leucocytes: 1. 3. 5. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). Normal blood contains 5. Thymus: 1. about 4.5 percent solutes. 3. temperature.000/mm3. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. Iymph vessels. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. neuroglial cells. globulins. 3. It helps to regulate pH. 4. thymic humoral factor (THF). Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. 3. Plasma: 1. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. 2. leucocytes (white blood cells). A healthy male has about 5.8 million/mm3. carbon dioxide. 6. 0. a healthy female.000 to 400. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. 7. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. hormones. granular leucocytes. and water content of cells.000 to 9. Erythrocyte formation. 5. Normal blood contains 250. foods. and enzymes. eosinophils.35 to 7.5 to 5. and salinity.000/mm3. 4.45. 4. and platelets. 2. Blood transports oxygen. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. 2. called erythropoiesis. Red blood cells live about 120 days. 2.
In vascular spasm. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. 4. The parietal pericardium. Interstitial Fluid: 1. 3. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+.g. hemorrhagic. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. It involves vascular spasm. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. and out through the aorta. respiratory gases. 2. In the Rh system. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). 3. The Cardiovascular System . consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. 3. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. encloses the heart. platelet plug formation. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. In the ABO system. aplastic. 8. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). pernicious. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. and sickle cell anemia. and blood coagulation. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes.. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. Like plasma. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type.The Heart: 1. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). Kinds of anemia include nutritional. 2. heparin) prevent clogging. 4. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. hemolytic. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. Disorders . a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. 9. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. 5. Anticoagulatants (e. 3. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. 2. 11. 2. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency.and hormones. The cause is a virus. myocardium. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. 6. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. 4. 2. 10. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture).Valves: 1. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. and endocardium. 2. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . 2. 7.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1.
are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 6. 7. Electrocardiogram: 1. 5. 5. detecting the presence of fetal life. 3. Cardiac Cycle: 1. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. 4. 3. atrioventricular (AV) node. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. temperature. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation.4. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. potassium). Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. 2. 2. Blood Supply: 1. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 2. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. bundle branches. 5. 4. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. Cardiac Output: 1. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). and Purkinje fibers. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. 4. 3. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. between the atria and their ventricles. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. 7. 6. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). With an average heartbeat of 75/min. 6. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). aortic reflex. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). 3. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. determining the presence of several fetuses. and right heart (atrial) reflex. 2. 7. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. 3. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. sodium.8 sec. 2. 4. Conduction System: 1. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves.
3. some capillaries are continuous. obesity. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Venules: 1. 3. This network increases the surface area. 3. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. 2. fibrillation. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. 4. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art.ener Arterioles: 1. to correct some defects. Arteries: 1. The heart becomes hypoxic. lack of exercise. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. 2. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. 2. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. 2. and genetic disposition. diabetes mellitus. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. Disorders . They drain blood from capillaries into veins. blood pressure increases. high blood pressure. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. As blood volume increases. 2. cigarette smoking. 3. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. and tunica externa. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. 2. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. 4. and premature contractions). 3. 4. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. In severe shock. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. and age. 2. septal defects. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries.emotion. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Veins: 1. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. 5. and arrhythmias (heart block. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. and therefore blood pressure. 4. valvular stenosis. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. 3. 2. sex (gender and physical activity). and to apply chemotherapy locally. others are fenestrated. flutter. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and tetralogy of Fallot). Capillaries: 1. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue.
and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. 2. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. stomach. Systemic Circulation: 1. They in turn empty into the right atrium. 3. chemicals. emotions. 2. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). and breathing. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. 3. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. chemicals. and higher brain centers. 3. skeletal muscular contractions. temperature. 2. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. and fetal circulation. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. digestive. 6. chemoreceptors. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. 2. Other routes include the cerebral. 8. and liver functions are established. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. At birth. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. when lung. spleen. Blood Reservoirs: 1. and age. and the descending aorta. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. 2. sex. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. Disorders . pulmonary. 9. 3. 7. 3. 2. Circulatory Routes: 1. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. intestines. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Fetal Circulation: 1. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. 2. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and autoregulation. the arch of the aorta. 2. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries.
2. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. to the subclavian veins. and transplants. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. and multivalence. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. IgA. 2. when introduced into the body. and flow of urine). 2. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. 3. 3. Antigens are chemical substances that. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. lacrimal apparatus. 3. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. saliva. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. 2. 3. and Iysozyme). to Iymphatics. and fever. pollen. inflammation. 4. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. 6. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. Examples of antigens are microbes. 5. 8. complement. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. to Iymph capillaries. 4. 2. IgM. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. 2. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. Lymphatic Organs: 1. 3. epiglottis. 7. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. incompatible blood cells. 4. and IgE). It also acts as a reservoir for blood. and kidneys. 9. reactivity. to Iymph trunks. acid pH of skin. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. and lingual tonsils. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. phagocytosis. 2.1. brain. chemical factors (gastric juice. 3. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. Lymph Circulation: 1. They include the pharyngeal. unsaturated fatty acids. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. each with specific biological roles (IgG. 5. and Iymph organs. microbial structures. cilia. mucus. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. palatine. and properdin). called Iymphatics. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. IgD. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. Based on chemistry and structure. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. antimicrobial substances (interferon. Iymph nodes. Iymphatic vessels. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. mucous membranes.
4. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. sneezing. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. and multiple sclerosis (MS). they are important in diagnosis. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. 7. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. 13. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. preparing vaccines. 2. 2. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. sighing. memory B cells recognize the original. 3. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. rheumatic fever. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax.liver and spleen. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. myasthenia gravis. treatment. Coughing. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. eczema. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. 11. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. and hives. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. 3. crying. laughing. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. 2. 4. 5. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. yawning. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 14. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. During forced inspiration. 10. sobbing. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. asthma. invading antigen. 8. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 12. 6. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. 2. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . detection of disease.
The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. the inflation reflex. 4. 4. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. and DPG. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. and excess mucus production. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. and a rich blood supply. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. pCO2. B. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. 5. 3. pneumotaxic area. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). pain. C's of CPR are Airway. and enlarged chest. 3. include inspiratory. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. and Circulation. 6. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). temperature. the sum of two or more volumes. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. and apneustic area. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. 2. vital.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. External Respiration . Disorders . residual volume.are tidal volume. assuming that the pressure remains constant. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. temperature. 3. blood pressure. It is symbolized by p. 3. inflated lungs. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. Breathing. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. expiratory reserve. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. division. when the temperature remains constant. The A. 2. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. compresses the lungs. 2. and total. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. 3. Pulmonary lung capacities. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. 4. a large alveolar surface area. and function of the epithelial cells. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells.Internal Respiration: 1. functional residual. In bronchogenic carcinoma. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. 2. 2. both in the brain and outside. According to Dalton's law. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. 2. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. inflated alveoli. inspiratory reserve. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. and minimal volumes. 3. and irritation to the respiratory centers.
root. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. lips. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. together with its associated muscles. salivary glands. It consists of a voluntary stage. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. The teeth. Teeth: 1. tongue. 3. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. 4. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. The tongue. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. Organization: 1. and serosa (peritoneum). Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. which aid mechanical digestion. Salivary Glands: 1. submucosa. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The accessory structures include the teeth. and sublingual glands. forms the floor of the oral cavity. Deglutition: 1. peristalsis. liver. or dentes. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. 3. absorption. 2. muscularis. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. the hardest substance in the body. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. 9.7. palates. lipid. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. 4. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. 4. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. 5. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. and cervix. and defecation. 2. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. 2. and tongue. or alimentary canal. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. 2. gallbladder. and accessory structures. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. and greater omentum. 3. and pancreas. Digestive Processes: 1. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. 4. mechanical and chemical digestion. 2. 2. 8. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. Some papillae contain taste buds. 2. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. 3. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. lesser omentum. submandibular (submaxillary). 2. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. 3. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . falciform ligament. 2. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). mesocolon.
Small Intestine: Anatomy . 4. 3. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. The esophagus is a collapsible. a protein-digesting enzyme. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Hormones also assume a role. Absorption: 1. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. certain electrolytes and drugs. 3. 2. 2. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. 2. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. 2. 2. The small intestine also absorbs water.Histology: 1. 2. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. 2. and intestinal. and the microvilli. glands that produce mucus. 3. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). resynthesized to triglycerides. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). 2. and stomach gastrin. 3. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. and transported as chylomicrons. Absorption: 1. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). hydrochloric acid. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). 2. Gallbladder: 1. 3. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach.Histology: 1. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. Among the substances absorbed are some water. Pancreas: 1. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. and alcohol. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. 2. Liver: 1. intrinsic factor. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). 2. electrolytes. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. villi. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. gastric. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). Stomach: Anatomy . and vitamins. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). Esophagus: 1. 2.
The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. and undigested foods. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. 9. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. 2. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. peristalsis. and mass peristalsis. 2. Anabolic reactions use energy. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. vitamins. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. 4. During digestion. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. rectum. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. and vitamins. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. stenosis. action. Defecation: 1. and water. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. alveolar bone. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Feces consists of water. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. 8. hepatitis B. a foreign body. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. electrolytes. Its subdivisions include the cecum. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. 11. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. and anal canal. and non-A. and barium x-ray. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. rather than enzymatic. 3. proteins. Disorders . 2. epithelial cells. colonoscopy. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. 12. 5. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation.1. minerals.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 5. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. 6. 2. 2. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. inorganic salts. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. carcinoma of the cecum. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. bacteria. 4. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. periodontal membrane. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. . 3. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. act as building blocks in forming new body components. and cementum. or kinking of the organ. colon. 2. 10. lipids. 7. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Metabolism: 1. The large intestine absorbs water. 3. Types include hepatitis A.
recombined to form triglycerides. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. Glucose Catabolism: 1. and the electron transport chain. 4. 3. 2. 2. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. 2. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. and I molecule of GTP. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). Fats are stored in adipose tissue. and cytochromes. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. under aerobic conditions. thromboplastin for blood clotting. 3. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. 4 molecules of NADH2. 3. 2. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. glucagon. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. the Krebs cycle. 6. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. 3. and growth hormone (GH). 1 molecule of FADH2. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. As a result of glycolysis. 3. 3. Glycolysis: 1. 2. thyroxine. Electron Transport Chain: 1. 5. Glucose Anabolism: 1. 4.2. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. It is stimulated by cortisol. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. Fate of Lipids: 1. In beta oxidation. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. 2. Fat Storage: 1. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. Lipid Metabolism: 1. coenzyme Q. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. 2. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. 3. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. 2. During digestion. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. When oxygen is in short supply. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. epinephrine. 3. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. Lipid Catabolism: 1.
Minerals: 1.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. 3. fatty acids. 2. 3. sodium. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. potassium. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. During digestion. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Many function in enzyme systems. The process is stimulated by insulin. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. structural elements. Protein Catabolism: 1. E. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. 3. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. fats. hormones. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. snd ketane hadies. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. and body temperature. manganese. decarboxylation. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. and insulin. selenium. and so forth. 2. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Protein Anabolism: 1. During the absorptive state. 2. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. Production of Body Heat: 1. magnesium. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. iodine. Before amino acids can be catabolized.4. 3. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH).Lipogenesis: 1. conversion of glycerol into glucose. and chromium. or converted. 2. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. these conversions involve deamination. 2. hormones. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. thyroxine. Lipid Anabolism . 2. 2. enter body cells by active transport. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. Inside cells. cobalt. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. may cause acidosis. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. stored. Vitamins: 1. zinc. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. Amino acids. sulfur. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. and hydrogenation. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. and K. called ketosis. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. based on the needs of the body. Fate of Proteins: 1. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. 2. Protein Metabolism: 1. phosphorus. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. the nervous system. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. copper. chlorine. but an excess of ketone bodies. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. iron. During the absorptive state. D. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. 2. 2. 4. and proteins.
and K and calcium is inadequate. nausea. 2. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. medulla. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. ureters. 4. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. 4. 4. reduced perspiration. 5. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. lethargy. 2. and perspiration. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Causes are regulatory or metabolic. calyces. glomerulus. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. 3. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. and renal fascia. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. pyramids. sympathetic stimulation. and a pelvis. and thyroxine production. cramps. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 4. profuse perspiration. and urethra. distal convoluted tubule. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. skeletal muscle contraction. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. and sometimes mental retardation. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. loop of Henle. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. the kidneys consist of a cortex. and dizziness. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . 2. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. 2. 4. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. 3. columns. deereased metabolic rate. descending limb of Henle. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. failure to grow. adipose capsule. proximal convoluted tubule. 5. 2. 5. Body Temperature Regulation: 1.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). 2. papillae. Physiology: 1. 3. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. ascending limb of Henle. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. 6. 3. Internally. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. 4. stages include chill and crisis. 3. urinary bladder. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. and high body temperature. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. D. Loss of Body Heat: 1. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. 7.
urobilinogen. the lungs. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. 3. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. Normally. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. including water. indican. Histologically. 5. 4. plasma and Iymph. 2. Chemically. amino acids. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). integument. 2. the rest by facultative reabsorption. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). and specific gravity. 4. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. Homeostasis: 1. primarily by peristalsis. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. diuretics. 3. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. and microbes. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. The solutes include urea. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. and certain drugs. ketone bodies. ketone bodies. blood concentration. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. uric acid. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. salts. and ions. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. Its function is to discharge urine from the body.6. 3. nitrogenous wastes. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. cerebrospinal fluid. Besides the kidneys. and a serous coat. 5. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. In exchange. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 8. 5. 4. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). and peritoneal fluids. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. and fibrous coat. It includes interstitial fluid. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). 2. Urethra: 1. leucocytes. synovial fluid. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. Urinary Bladder: 1. 7. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. erythrocytes. and ions. and the glomerular filtrate. 2. creatinine. Gl tract fluids.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. casts. pH. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. pericardial. muscularis. Disorders . temperature. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. 2. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. glucose. Body Fluids: 1. renal calculi. glucose. odor. hippuric acid. Ureters: 1. and emotions. 8. 11. 6. Included are ions. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). 10. pleural. turbidity. 7. 3. bilirubin. 2. 9. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. and fluids of the eyes and ears.
and heartbeat. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. 2. respirations. It also functions in blood clotting. a decrease in rate.45 and 8. and protein. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. 4. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. 2. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). 5. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Plasma. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. 3. muscle contraction. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. 4.35 to 7. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. skin. and regulating pH. interstitial fluid. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. fluid moves in the opposite direction. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. 4. and kidney excretion.45. especially extracellular fluid. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 6. 2. 7. phosphate. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. 4. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. 3.35 and 6. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth.80. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. and GI tract. muscle contraction. nerve impulse conduction. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. and regulation of pH. 2. lungs. muscle contraction. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. and fluid and electrolyte balance.00. An increase in rate of respirations. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. Electrolytes: 1. chemical transmitter release. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. proper fluid movement between compartments. 2. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). decreases pH. At the arterial end of a capillary. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. increases pH. 11. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. At the venous end. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. 3. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 3. 10. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. 3. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). Under normal conditions. 8.1. 5. 9. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume.
viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. Male Reproductive System: 1. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. sperm maturation. Scrotum: 1. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. sustentacular cells. ducts (transport and store gametes). 6. 4. development. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. and 7. 10. Testes: 1. seminal vesicles. and maintenance of sex organs. 3. 7. prostate gland. and spongy (cavernous). 3. ejaculatory duct. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. 11. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). 2. protein anabolism. 4. bulbourethral glands. and interstitial endocrinocytes. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). and efferent ducts. membranous. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. stimulates bone growth. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. in which sperm cells are made. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. II. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. Testosterone controls the growth. 5. 8. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. and tail. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. 3. and penis. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. 2. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. urethra. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. 3. Accessory Glands: 9. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. and rete testis. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. Ducts: 1. midpiece. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Reproductive System: 1. 12. ductus epididymis. ductus deferens. 5. 2. 7. rete testis. straight tubules. 6. straight tubules. which nourish sperm cells. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. 2. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. 2.
the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. 8. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. implantation of a fertilized ovum. 2. The penis is the male organ of copulation. development. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. ovulation. During the preovulatory phase. vagina. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. 11. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. and stimulate protein anabolism. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. 2. 9. 2. and labor.nutrients. and vulva. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. 2. 5. mucus. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. uterus. 3. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. 3. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . If fertilization and implantation do not occur. 2. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. 7. and epithelial cells. development of a fetus during pregnancy. They produce ova. 4. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. 4. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. middle myometrium. tissue fluid. . During the menstrual phase. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). 6. 5. During the postovulatory phase. 10. Histologically. 2. Ovaries: 1. on either side of the uterus. discharge ova (ovulation). Penis: 1. endometrial repair occurs. 4. Estrogens stimulate the growth. The uterus is an inverted. III. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. uterine tubes. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. and inner endometrium. 6. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. Uterus: 1. 3. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem.
The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. 2. and the lower portion of the birth canal. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. The removal of a malignant breast. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 3. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 7. and orgasm. 3. 7. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. 8. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. pectoral muscles. 10. If fertilization and implantation do occur. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. and orgasm (climax). Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. 12. 12. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. equatorial division. vaginal and urethral orifices. 2. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. 8. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. and sperm maturation. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. 10. and tumors. 2. 3. 4.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. Spermatogenisis: 1. abnormal bleeding. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. enlarged prostate. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. 5. It is said to be haploid (n). Vulva: 1. It consists of the mons veneris. 6. 2. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. Disorders . Sexual Intercourse: 1. labia majora. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. Oogenesis: 1. 2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. Mammary Glands: 1. clitoris. 13. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. Vagina: 1. and ova maturation. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Perineum: 1. labia minora. lubrication. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. the cessation of the sexual cycles. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. 9. genital herpes. equatorial division. dysmenorrhea. 2. 9. 2. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). syphilis. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. The female role also involves erection. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. trichomoniasis. 2. lubrication.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 11. vestibule. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries.
Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. fetal growth. 1. Its various events are hormonally controlled. 2. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. . Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. implantation. embryonic growth. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. 3. 4. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. and birth. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. 2.
5. 2. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. 4. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. 6. 3. estrogens. and Down's syndrome. 8. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). 2. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). Lactation: 1. Birth Control: 6. estrogens. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. sickle cell anemia. chemicals and drugs. and progesterone. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. and delivery of the placenta. and chemical). 3. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. Examples are infections. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. and protection. 2. microbes. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. and smoking. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. During the fetal period. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. 2. and allantois. 1. 3. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. 4. mesoderm. amnion. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. Parturition and Labor: 1. . During embryonic growth. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. 5. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. expulsion of the fetus. Tay-Sachs disease. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1.The morula develops into a blastocyst. and progesterone. 2. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. 2. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. such as hemophilia. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. and contraception (natural. Dominant genes control a particular trait. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. Inheritance: 1. tubal ligation. 2. protein anabolism. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. sterilization (vasectomy. 3. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). laparascopic technique). chorion. alcohol. 2. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. removal of wastes. mechanical. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. 3.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.