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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.

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Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.

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horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary

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accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a

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2. Ribosomes: 1. Peroxisomes: 1. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. comprising the chromosomes. 3. 3.13. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Organelles: 1. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. They are formed from Golgi complexes. 2. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. and the mitotic spindle. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. They are involved in muscular contraction. Usually the largest organelle. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. In conjunction with the ER. Nucleus: 1. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. 3. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. Mitochondria: 1. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. and form the structure of flagella. carbohydrates. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. cilia. Thus they are called "suicide packets. maintenance. nucleoli. and helps export chemicals from the cell. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. It is located near the nucleus. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. and genetic material (DNA). the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. They support. 2. repair. 1. They contain enzymes (e. stores synthesized molecules. do not grow or reproduce. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. 2. which carry on phagocytosis. support. The inner folds are called cristae. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. lipids. Functionally. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin.. and movement. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. karyolymph. 2. such as mature red blood cells. 2. Functionally." 4. 2. 3. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. and control. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. centrioles. Cytoplasm: 1. membranous sacs called cisternae. but smaller. 2. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. 4. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. 3. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. provide movement. Cells without nuclei.g. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. 3. Microfilaments and Microtubules . transports substances intracellularly. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling.The Cytoskeleton: 1. 2. The ER provides mechanical support. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. If the cell is injured. and inorganic substances. 3. 3. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. 2.

glycogen. 2.DNA Repair: 1. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). are fibrous. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. 4. Others. and mucus. they are called cilia. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. and elastic fibers. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. 3. "SOS" Genes . metaphase. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. mRNA associates with ribosomes. anaphase. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). 3. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . DNA Polymerase is an example. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. they are called flagella. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. 3. Cell Division: 1. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. This involves transcription and translation. 8. the DNA molecules. which consist of rRNA and protein. are amorphous. 3. Cellular Inclusions: 1. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand.2.Protein Synthesis: 1. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. 6. In response to DNA damage. Gene Action . Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. 2. lipids. It consists of prophase. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. 2. Extracellular Materials: 1. reticular. 7. Examples are melanin. 4. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. and telophase. 5. Some. 2. like collagenous. 6. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. 3. If projections are few and long. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. Flagella and Cilia: 1. 2. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Somatic Cell Division: 1. 5. 3. If they are numerous and hairlike. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. In transcription. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. 2. an "SOS response" occurs. or chromosomes.

connective. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. and compound. muscular. except for cartilage. 5. tubuloacinar. portion of urethra. 3. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. the study of tumors is called oncology. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. 2. simple. where it protects and secretes. oil. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. 2. 2. 3. 3. in kidneys and eyes. It does not occur on free surfaces. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. 2. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. 5. Depending on their function and structure. cell shapes include squamous (flat). Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. merocrine. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. 6. 2. noncancerous tumors are called benign. and no blood vessels (avascular). 2. and transitional (variable). It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. and lining some glandular ducts. It lines larger excretory ducts. It is found covering ovaries. Glandular Epithelium: 1. 2. parts of urethra. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. Epithelium has many cells. 3. Exocrine glands (sweat. cuboidal (cubelike). It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. pharynx. acinar. Connective Tissue: 1. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Many theories of aging have been proposed. Epithelial Tissue: 1. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. 3.1. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. 9. and epiglottis. stratified (several layers). columnar (rectangular). and a rich blood supply (vascular). but none successfully answers all questions. an extensive intercellular substance. 4. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Connective tissue protects. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. auditory tubes. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. and binds organs together. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. Functional classification includes holocrine. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It has few cells. 4. 7. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. and most upper respiratory structures. and apocrine glands. supports. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. and nervous. 8. little intracellular material. It can replace itself.

heat. and in the subcutaneous layer. ligaments. 3. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). allows movement. at the ends of bones. and swelling. tendons. and true vocal cords. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. serous. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. and aponeuroses. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. bone tissue. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. such as the digestive tract. auditory tubes. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. and external ear. are specialized for fat storage. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. pain. Adipose. 2. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. and vascular tissue. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. Adult Connective Tissue: 1.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. 5. 2. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. Tissue Inflammation . 6. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. It is found as a component of fascia. 2. Examples are: mucous. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. macrophages. membranes of organs. Elastic. It is flexible. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. elastic arteries.4. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). around body organs. 4. and Cardiac. 2. and cutaneous. and melanocytes). The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. cartilage. mast. spleen. Visceral (smooth). Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. in the nose. bronchial tubes.contraction. Membranes: 1. and provides support. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. sometimes loss of function occurs. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. elastic. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. and in respiratory structures. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. and Reticular. called adipocytes. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. o Serous membranes (pleura. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. Dense. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. trachea. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. Muscle tissue performs one major function . plasma. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. pericardium. and Iymph nodes. It provides strength. where it gives support.

and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. are the stratum basale. Conditions for Repair: 1. E. D. 2. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. Repair Process: 1. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. glands. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. • Hair: 1. and a hair follicle. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. 2. skin glands (sebaceous. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. • Glands: 1. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis.2. the process slows down with aging. granulation tissue is involved. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. carotene. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. black melanin. synthesis of vitamin D. some B. If the injury is superficial. 4. kinins. 3. 5. salts. 6. 5. The skin and its derivatives (hair. In most inflammations. and nails. 5. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . maintaining body temperature. dermal papillae. granulosum. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. 3. pus is produced. It performs the functions of protection. and several organic compounds. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. hair follicles. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. 2. and ceruminous). hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. and ducts of sweat glands. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. 2. 4. Tissue Repair: 1. sudoriferous. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. oil glands. if it cannot drain out of the body. spinosum. and parenchymal regeneration. brown melanin. arrectores pilorum muscles. The color of skin is due to melanin. The epidermal layers. 4. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. If damage is extensive. 3. an abscess develops. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. 2. The Integumentary System . a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. from deepest to most superficial. 8. Various vitamins (A. scab formation. and excretion of water. C. 7. hair follicles. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. serotonin. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. and pheomelanin (yellow). and root hair plexuses. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints.The Skin: Skin 1. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. 3. and Meissner's corpuscles. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. and corneum. nerves. The reticular region is dense. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. nerves. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. storage of chemical compounds. lucidum. receiving stimuli.

Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. and third-degree (fullthickness). They are found in the external auditory meatus. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. 4. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. and boils. regulating metabolic rate. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. or psychogenic factors. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. Depending on the depth of damage. As the perspiration evaporates. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Nails are hard. and blood cell production. 10. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. Histology: 1. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. and matrix. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. 9. hyponychium. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Nails: 1. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. root. 2. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. 6. replacing lost body fluids. 11. and skin grafting. systemic diseases. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. and areolae. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. 2. mineral storage. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. 3. lunula. raised plaques or papules. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. protection. The principal parts of a nail are the body. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. pimples. 2. 3. 7. 4. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. Homeostasis: 1. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. removing dead tissue. free edge. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. 2. 3. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. Most warts are benign. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. and covering wounds with temporary protection. second-degree (partialthickness). 8. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1.6F). 2. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. their ducts open into hair follicles. If environmental temperature is high. pubis.• palms and soles. The functions of the skeletal system include support. leverage. Disorders . Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. the skin is cooled. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. eponychium. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish.

Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. and irregular bones. and the epiphyses of long bones. 4. metaphysis. 5. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. Cartilage degenerates.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The two types of ossification. Functionally. 8. 3. hypertrophic cartilage. supports. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. 3. and calcified matrix. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. spongy bone is laid down first. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. This process is called remodeling. It forms most of the structure of short. compound. A fracture is any break in a bone. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. intramembranous and endochondral. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Normal growth depends on calcium. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. 2. 5. 2. Next. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. 4. proliferating cartilage. In both types of ossification. periosteum. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. 7. phosphorus.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). comminuted. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. displaced. 3. impacted. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. and vitamins (A. flat. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. and nondisplaced. Osteoblasts lay down bone. greenstick. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. 6. and endosteum. Colles'. articular cartilage. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. 8. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. compact bone protects. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. Disorders . and periosteum. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. Pott's. epiphyses (ends). except for the epiphyseal plate. where bone replaces cartilage. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. 2. medullary or marrow cavity. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. 9. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. transverse. marrow. Functionally. The types of fractures include: partial. and remodeling. complete. simple. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. forming a callus. 4. 2. C. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). 3. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. spiral. Homeostasis: 1. 7. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and resists stress. 6.

anterolaterals. lacrimal (2). The vertebral column. vertebral column. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. Condyle. and ethmoid. sphenoid. Skull: 1. foramen. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. It is composed of 22 bones. auditory ossicles. and maxilla. the sacrum (5. or irregular. thoracic vertebrae (12). Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). support. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. crest. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. They are lined by mucous membranes. bones are classified as long. hyoid bone. fused). inferior nasal conchae (2). On the basis of shape. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. 4. and vomer. ethmoid. zygomatic (2). muscle attachment. 5. 2. posterior. maxillae (2). parietal (2). 6. Hyoid Bone: 1. 3. 2. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The patella is an example. Vertebral Column: 1. meatus. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. facet. and spine. These curves give strength. and ribs. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. Examples are coronal. lumbar vertebrae (5).1. 1. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. sternum. fossa. and balance. Surface Markings: 1. 2. temporal (2). the sternum. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. fused) and the coccyx (4. head. 3. mandible. sphenoid. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. occipital. 3. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. 2. 3. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). short. 2. 2. Terms that describe markings include fissure. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. and squamosal sutures. palatine (2). Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. and posterolaterals. The major fontanels are the anterior. process. flat. 7. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. lambdoidal. tuberosity. sagittal. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7).

The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). 3. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. and the thoracic vertebrae. kyphosis. II. o Upper Extremities: 1. metacarpals. and L 2. and the bones of the lower extremities. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). and detail. and lordosis. ulna. 2. and phalanges. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. L l. a congenital defect. 2. Cuboid. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. and phalanges. shape. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. 2. 3. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform.The vertebra are similar in structure. Pisiform. the pelvic girdle. 2. 4. 2. Talus. is referred to as spina bifida. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. fibula. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . o Pelvic Girdle: 1. o Lower Extremities: 1. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. and ischium. 4. pubis. 3. vertebral arch. Capitate. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. the bones of the upper extremities. carpals. Triangular (Triquetrum). 2. Hamate (Unciform). o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. each consisting of a body. tarsals. Examples include scoliosis. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Navicular. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. 3. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. and Medial Cuneiform. the ribs and costal cartilages. metatarsals. Thorax: 1. 5. tibia. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. and seven processes. radius. Schaphoid (Navicular).

2. Fibrous Joints: 1. or synovial. articular cartilage. and muscle tension. or luxation. and muscles. cartilaginous. tendons. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). A dislocation. Synovial Joints: 1. biaxial. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. 5. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. supination and pronation. to provide support and leverage. and bursae. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. some also contain ligaments. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. 3. 2. All synovial joints are freely movable. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. angular movements. 3. 1. 2. joints are classified as fibrous. 6. and loss of function. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). 2. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. Bones held together by cartilage. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. ligaments. Disorders . Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. with no joint cavity. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. joints. and elevation and depression. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. with no joint cavity. 2. tension of ligaments. 3. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. 8. 2. hinge joints (elbow). A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. inversion and eversion. 2. 4.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. circumduction. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). pivot joints (radioulnar). Articulations: 1. protraction and retraction. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. 6. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). 5. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). rotation. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. articular discs. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). and a synovial membrane. swelling. or triaxial. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). are cartilaginous joints. are fibrous joints. 3. 7. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. Structurally. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula.arches.

4. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. deep. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. 2. Contraction . and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. Connective tissue components are epimysium. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. 3. 4. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. It is striated and involuntary. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. tropomyosin. 2. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. 2. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. 7. It is striated and voluntary. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. 4. maintenance of posture. and endomysium. and troponin. 5. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. 2. 6. contract. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. covering fasciculi. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. 2. or myoneural. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Energy for Contraction: 1. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. 3.without dislocation. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. 8. There are three types of fascia: superficial. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. 2. 3. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. Functions: 1. perimysium. The Motor Unit: 1. junction. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. 3. 2. sarcoplasmic reticulum. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Types: 1. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. and subserous. the neuron releases acetylcholine. nuclei. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. covering the entire muscle. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. Through contraction. Physiology of Contraction: 1. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. 3. and T tubules. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. triggering the contractile process. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. and heat production. covering individual fibers. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments.

less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. It is striated and involuntary. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. more blood capillaries. 2. or subthreshold. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. stimulus. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. it is called lumbago. Disorders . 3. 6. 3. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. 2. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. This muscle is found only in the heart. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. and related structures in the thigh. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. 2. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. isotonic. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. treppe. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. and stiffness of joints. stimulus. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. 4. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. 2. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. 3. tenderness. 3. cramps. 3. Abnormal contractions include spasms. If it occurs in the lumbar region. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. and isometric. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. or threshold. Kinds of Contractions: 1. 3. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. muscles. 2. 4. tetanus. Muscle Tone: 1. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. Unit it is paid back. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. and a large amount of myoglobin. convulsions. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis.2. each of which contracts as a functional unit. more mitochondria. 2. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. 2. 5. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. 2. The fibers are arranged in a network. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. and larger T tubules. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. 5. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. fibrillations. Homeostasis: 1. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. and tics. 3. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone.

4. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. 2. and unipolar. pennate. and the membrane is said to be polarized. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. 6. 2. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. 1. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. 2. convergent. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. microglia. 3. Around the time of birth. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. oligodendrocytes. origin and insertion. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. 5. location. 3. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. Neurons. 2. consist of a perikaryon or cell body.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. and minimal irritation. including motor neurons. 6. shape. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. and action. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. cardiac muscle tissue. the membrane is said to have an action potential. On the basis of structure. On the basis of function. and carry out phagocytosis. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. or nerve cells. The antagonist produces an opposite action. 2. 3. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. lateral side of the thigh. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. 2. neurons are multipolar. 4. 5. 2. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. and reacting to them. attach neurons to blood vessels. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. and ependyma. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. and usually a single axon. If. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. size. Intramuscular Injections: 1. and deltoid region of the arm. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. 3. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. interpreting them. bipolar. produce the myelin sheath. and glands. Neurons: 1. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. Nerve Impulse: 1. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. effort. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. number of origins (or heads). and resistance on the lever. and circular. second-class.

There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. cell body. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. 7. 6. 6. 2. posterior. or axon hillock. 5.travels from point to point along the membrane. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. cerebrospinal fluid. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. 6. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. and vertebral ligaments. 4. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. and lateral white columns. 3. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. According to the all-ornothing principle. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. posterior. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. 7. 2. arachnoid and pia mater. 2. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. 3. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. 3. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. 4. Structure in Cross Section: 1. 4. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. 5. meninges. central canal. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. Protection and Coverings: 1. 4. anterior. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. 6. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. 5. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. 5. 2. and lateral gray horns. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. 7. 3. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. anterior. and ascending and descending tracts.

A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. 2. 2. the Babinski sign. 8. is an example. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. and the abdominal reflex. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 1. respectively. Functions: 1. 3. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. association. brachial. • Distribution: 1. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. and epineurium. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. 4. and an effector. 2. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. constant segments of the skin. 5. and sacral plexuses. 4. lumbar. except for T 2-T 11. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. ventral ramus. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. 4. • Dermatomes: 1. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. tendon reflex. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. Wallerian degeneration. 5. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. Its basic components are a receptor. 2. The posterior root. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. 4. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves.2. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. 6. Following peripheral nerve damage. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. 3. 1. and rami communicantes. 5. 2. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. posterior root ganglion. The skin segments are called dermatomes.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. form networks of nerves called plexuses. and regeneration. 9. 2. A reflex is a quick. flexor reflex. meningeal branch. and crossed extensor reflex. such as the patellar reflex. 3. perineunum. a motor neuron. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. 7. a center. and motor neuron. the Achilles reflex. 3. • Composition and Coverings: 1. Disorders . Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. A stretch reflex. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. a sensory neuron.

It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 2. convulsions. Protection and Coverings: 1. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. 6. epilepsy. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. diencephalon. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. 2. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. 3. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. 2. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. 3. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. The Brain Stem: 1. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. 1. During embryological development. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. respiratory rate. 1. 2. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. or death. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. 2. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. and unconsciousness. and hiccuping. ventricles. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. vomiting. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. 2. and central canal. 1. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. Embryological Development: 1. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. coughing. mental retardation. 1. cells. The pons is superior to the medulla. permanent damage. 2. 2.1. or death of brain 5. 4. 4. which helps control respiration. sneezing. 1. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. it is called internal hydrocephalus. 3. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. 2. and cerebellum. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. cranial meninges. swallowing. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. The Diencephalon: 1. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. cerebrum. it is called external hydrocephalus. 3. vasoconstriction. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. 2. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. 4.

The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. except smell. 3. serotonin. and sulci. and reasoning. regulates food and fluid intake. 4. and occipital. 3. parietal. fissures. 9. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. and tumors. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. Brain Lateralization: 1. 2. 3. 3. infections. and generating mental images of sight. constricted vermis. endorphins. excite. 3. taste. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. 2. Its cortex contains convolutions. 1. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. 2. aspartic acid. temporal. 10. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. insight. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. The Cerebrum: 1. 3. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 2. either anatomically or functionally. The Cerebellum: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. gamma aminobutyric acid. 2. musical and artistic awareness. 7. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. dopamine. 1. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. 6. 3. imagination. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 2. 4. 1. touch. and smell. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. and dynorphin. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. 2. 2. 7. and glycine. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. They help to control muscular movements. space and pattern perception. 8. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. 6. 5.7. 2. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. spoken and written language. norepinephrine. glutamic acid. controls body temperature. numerical and scientific skills. 3. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. sound. 3. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 3. to the cerebral cortex. 1. 5. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. It controls the autonomic nervous system.

7. Glossophary ngeal . Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Palate. soft palate. larangeal muscles. Vagus Sensory. hearing and balance. also called strokes. 3. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. childbirth. 10.11. 6. Optic .The sense of vision. cerebellum. Disorders .Motor function of eye muscles. Motor. 2. Accessory Motor. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. 5. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. upper eyelid. 12. The Cranial Nerves: 1. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Tongue muscles. Facial Sensory. Trigeminal Sensory function. larynx. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. Impulse transmission is interrupted. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. 12. taste. 5. 2.Sensory. pharynx. . sensory. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Soft palate.Motor. pharyngeal muscles. thoracic and abdominal organs. 9. muscles of facial expression. nose. Depending on the form of the disease. cornea. thrombosis. 8. 6. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. or psychological malfunction. lower jaw. some neck and shoulder muscles. Oculomotor . Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia.The sense of smell. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Hypoglossal . Motor. Olfactory . 1. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. 4. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. taste. tongue muscles. 11. 3. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 7. or early infancy. Examples include angiotensin. or atherosclerosis. 4. 4. muscles of mastication. Scalp. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. cholecystokinin. 4. Vestibulococ hlear . etc. etc.Sensory. Motor function. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. forehead. 10. 8. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Motor function. or basal ganglia during fetal development. 11. upper teeth. inferior pharynx. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. 9. upper jaw. lower teeth. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles.

nociceptors. 4. General Senses . and vibration is the posterior column pathway. Classification of Receptors: 1. 4. 2. 13. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. 4. According to location. and chemoreceptors. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. 2. connective tissues. 3. Sensations: 1. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. Characteristics: 1. pressure. Receptors located in muscles. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. muscle spindles. and Pacinian corpuscles. and sometimes delirium. and pain. 2. end organs of Ruffini. and end organs of Ruffini. and third-order neurons. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Meissner's corpuscles. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. brain dysfunction. movement of body parts. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. vibration). In terms of simplicity or complexity. 4. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. 2. The neural pathway for light touch. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. 12. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. and body position. 2. and tendon organs. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. visceroceptors. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. and proprioceptors. second-order. Merkel's discs. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. 6. 2. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. 5.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. personality changes. tendons.muscle spasms and encephalitis. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. proprioception. Levels of Sensation: 1. conduction of the impulse to the brain. and acupuncture. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. 3. 2. they cause subconscious motor reactions. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. surgery. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. and liver damage. free nerve endings. electromagnetic receptors. 7. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. 5. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. thermoreceptors. 3. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors.

4. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. Motor Pathways: 1. 3. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. in particular by the cerebral cortex. 2. it consists of activated and long-term components. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. 2. 4. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. Integrative Functions: 1. It usually operates without conscious control. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). in general. tectospinal. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. 3. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. It is entirely motor. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. It is regulated by centers in the brain. cardiac muscle. afferent neuron. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. the hypothalamus. activities of smooth muscle. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). 4. 4. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. 3. 2. decrease in heart rate. On the basis of the transmitter produced. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). 2. Control by Higher Centers: 1. regulates visceral activities. 3. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. and plexuses. and to make childbirth easier. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 2. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. 4. to alleviate migraine headaches. 3. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. concerned with energy expenditure. Physiology: 1. and visceral effector. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. 5. association neuron. It has been used to control heart rate. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. anterior corticospinal. ganglia. and the medulla oblongata. and corticobulbar tracts.6. and vestibulospinal tracts. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. The autonomic nervous system. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. that is. Olfactory Sensations: 1. reduced metabolic rate. and glands. 3. 2. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. 2. or visceral efferent nervous system. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex.

(b) the middle ear (auditory tube. and the lacrimal apparatus. 5. and cerebral cortex.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. and the threshold of smell is low. Disorders . 5. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. 4. increase pressure in the endolymph. A sound impulse is then initiated. and iris). Substances to be smelled must be volatile. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. 3. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. 4. 2. constriction of the pupil. Visual Sensations: 1. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. sour. and cerebral cortex. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. accommodation of the lens. eyelids. thalamus. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. 5. 3. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. the optic chiasma.2. strike the basilar membrane. olfactory bulbs. 6. 6. the thalamus. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. 4. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). The four primary tastes are salt. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 7. and inverted image formation. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. lens. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. IX. 2. and the cortex. oval window. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. olfactory tracts. hypermetropia (farsightedness). medulla. 5. 2. eyelashes. set up waves in the perilymph. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. ciliary body. 8. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). pass through the ossicles. 4. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. 3. strike the oval window. 4. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 2. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. 7. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. VII. and round window). Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. and lipid-soluble. and bitter. water-soluble. and tympanic membrane). and (c) retina. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. Trachoma is a chronic. and vitreous humor. 8. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. 3. sweet. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). ossicles. aqueous humor. which destroys neurons of the retina. or vertical motion. 9. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. the organ of hearing. external auditory canal. which contains rods and cones. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. convergence. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. linear. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. 3. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). strike the tympanic membrane. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. 10. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. the optic tract. and X.

Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. nerve impulses. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. and acromegaly. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. 10. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. and contribute to reproductive processes. 13. Control of Hormonal Secretions . and regulating factors. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). 9. 3. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). 3. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). help regulate growth and development. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). 3. 12. 5. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). Chemistry of Hormones: 1. 11. On the basis of solubility. 15. 2. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 6. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. 14.Feedback Control: 1. 2. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. 2. Exocrine glands (sweat. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. giantism. sebaceous. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. Histologically. 7. 4.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. 8. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). 2. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. 16. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. 4. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. respond to stress. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries.

The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. 2. 3. 6. Histologically. 6. 4.Thyroid: 1.. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. and delta cells. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. 5. beta cells. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. Histologically. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. 4. exophthalmic goiter. 4. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. growth and development. and the reactivity of the nervous system. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. menstrual cycle. Histologically. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. 10. which secrete calcitonin (CT). Histologically. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. 2. Histologically. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. and serve as antiinflammatories. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. 5. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. 3. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. 2.g. beta cells secrete insulin. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. 2. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. glucocorticoids. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. zona ennin late. and lactation. myxedema. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). cortisol) promote normal metabolism. 5. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. and zona reticularis. Mineralocorticoids (e. Parathyroids: 1. They are released under stress. 9. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. and gonadocorticoids. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. Ovaries and Testes: 1. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. 6. Pancreas: 1. 3. help resist stress. 2.g. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). pregnancy. and parafollicular cells. 2. Secretion is controlled by CRF. 4. Glucocorticoids (e. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism.. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. Secretion is controlled by TRF. 8. 3. Cretinism. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood.

000 to 400. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. 2. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. 5. 3. Red blood cells live about 120 days. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. Thymus: 1. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. Normal blood contains 250.35 to 7. and enzymes. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. 38 degrees C (100. Components: 1. 3. eosinophils. wastes. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. consists of 91. 7. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. 4. pH.000/mm3. It protects against toxins and microbes. Erythrocyte formation. carbon dioxide. 4. and salinity. 2. body temperature.8 million/mm3. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. called plasma. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. and Iymph glands.5. and thrombocytes (platelets). granular leucocytes. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. the heart. 2. 2. neuroglial cells. It helps to regulate pH. and blood vessels. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). Functions: 1. thymic factor (TF). A healthy male has about 5. Blood transports oxygen. Erythrocytes: 1. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. 0. and water content of cells.000 to 9. a healthy female. 3. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. Plasma: 1. and platelets. Normal blood contains 5.5 to 5. globulins. foods. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. Thrombocytes: 1. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated.4 million/mm3 of blood.000/mm3. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. about 4. Leucocytes: 1. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. thymic humoral factor (THF). The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 2. nutrients. 2. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells).85 to 0. leucocytes (white blood cells). and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. 2. 4. 6. 2.pinealocytes. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. 4. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. Leucocytes are nucleated cells.5 percent water and 8. temperature.5 percent solutes. called erythropoiesis. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. Iymph vessels. The liquid portion of blood. Lymphocytes. 3. fibrinogen).90 NaCI.4 degrees F). 5. hormones. 6. 3.45. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins.

whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Disorders . 2. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 2. 4. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. respiratory gases. 2. 2. 10. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. 6. 3. In the ABO system. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. 11.g. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. and out through the aorta. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. 3. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. hemorrhagic. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic.. The Cardiovascular System . 3. Like plasma. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. 3. The parietal pericardium. In vascular spasm.Valves: 1. platelet plug formation. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. 2. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. 7. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. and blood coagulation. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. 4. encloses the heart. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. aplastic. hemolytic. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1.and hormones. It involves vascular spasm. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. 9. pernicious. and endocardium. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). Interstitial Fluid: 1. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). myocardium. In the Rh system. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. Anticoagulatants (e. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. 8. and sickle cell anemia. The cause is a virus. 2. These fluids are similar in chemical composition.The Heart: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. 4. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. 2. heparin) prevent clogging. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors.

Electrocardiogram: 1. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. bundle branches. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. determining the presence of several fetuses. Cardiac Cycle: 1.8 sec. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. 4. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. 5. 3. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute.4. 4. 3. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. 2. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). and T wave (ventricular repolarization). With an average heartbeat of 75/min. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. 4. aortic reflex. 4. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. 7. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 7. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. 5. 2. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. sodium. Cardiac Output: 1. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. 6. 2. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). atrioventricular (AV) node. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 6. 5. 2. 7. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). detecting the presence of fetal life. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. Conduction System: 1. and Purkinje fibers. Blood Supply: 1. temperature. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. and right heart (atrial) reflex. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. 3. 3. potassium). 3. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. 6. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. between the atria and their ventricles.

ener Arterioles: 1. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. 4. obesity. In severe shock. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. Veins: 1. Venules: 1. 3. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. 2. 2. As blood volume increases. 2. sex (gender and physical activity). Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. and genetic disposition.emotion. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. to correct some defects. fibrillation. 3. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. The heart becomes hypoxic. 4. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). Arteries carry blood away from the heart. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. some capillaries are continuous. and tunica externa. and to apply chemotherapy locally. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. diabetes mellitus. blood pressure increases. and age. 2. cigarette smoking. 4. septal defects. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. and premature contractions). and tetralogy of Fallot). Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. and therefore blood pressure. 3. 3. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. 2. high blood pressure. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. This network increases the surface area. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. Arteries: 1. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. valvular stenosis. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. and arrhythmias (heart block. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. 3. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. Capillaries: 1. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. lack of exercise. 4. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. others are fenestrated. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. 5. Disorders . 2. 2. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. 5. flutter.

and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. Other routes include the cerebral. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. 2. and liver functions are established.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . when lung. digestive. 2. and breathing. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. 2. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. 2. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). 2. and age. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. sex. and autoregulation. the arch of the aorta. and fetal circulation. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. 2. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. chemoreceptors. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. and the descending aorta. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. pulmonary. Disorders . Fetal Circulation: 1. temperature. At birth. 3. skeletal muscular contractions. 7. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. 2. Blood Reservoirs: 1. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Circulatory Routes: 1. chemicals. 3. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. 3. chemicals. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. 8. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. 9. 2. 3. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. emotions. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. and higher brain centers. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. intestines. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. 6. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. spleen. Systemic Circulation: 1. 3.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. They in turn empty into the right atrium. stomach. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors.

The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. saliva. called Iymphatics. and IgE). The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. unsaturated fatty acids. phagocytosis. 6. and kidneys. antimicrobial substances (interferon. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. chemical factors (gastric juice. lacrimal apparatus. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 5. mucus. Iymph nodes. Based on chemistry and structure. 2. pollen. 2. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. Lymph Circulation: 1. to Iymph capillaries. brain. and flow of urine). and Iymph organs. IgD. to the subclavian veins. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. They include the pharyngeal. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. 2. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. 3. microbial structures. Iymphatic vessels. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. 4. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. cilia. each with specific biological roles (IgG. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. 8. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. 4. when introduced into the body. 2. 3. 7. inflammation. palatine. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. IgM. and multivalence. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. 3. Antigens are chemical substances that. to Iymph trunks. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. Lymphatic Organs: 1. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. 3. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. and Iysozyme). Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. and properdin).1. 2. 2. 5. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. 4. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. 3. complement. mucous membranes. IgA. acid pH of skin. to Iymphatics. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. incompatible blood cells. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. Examples of antigens are microbes. 2. and fever. reactivity. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. 3. 9. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. and transplants. and lingual tonsils. epiglottis. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells.

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 12. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. 3. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. 2. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. and hives. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. 6. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. memory B cells recognize the original. sneezing. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. asthma. invading antigen. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. 4. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. crying. and multiple sclerosis (MS). thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. 10. 3. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. treatment. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. Coughing. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. 2. 5. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. 11. sighing. 4. During forced inspiration. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. laughing. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. detection of disease. myasthenia gravis. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. 2. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. 14. 13. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects.liver and spleen. yawning. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. preparing vaccines. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. eczema. 2. 7. rheumatic fever. 8. sobbing. they are important in diagnosis. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs.

functional residual.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and enlarged chest. the inflation reflex. C's of CPR are Airway. and minimal volumes. blood pressure. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. 2. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. assuming that the pressure remains constant. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli.Internal Respiration: 1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. temperature. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . External Respiration . 2. The A. 4. and apneustic area. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. division. 3. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. pCO2. and total. and Circulation. Disorders . It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. and function of the epithelial cells. expiratory reserve. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. both in the brain and outside. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. 2. 3. According to Dalton's law. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. temperature. 4. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. 2. compresses the lungs. Breathing. the sum of two or more volumes. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. 3. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. and irritation to the respiratory centers. inspiratory reserve. and excess mucus production. pain. 3. vital. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). inflated lungs.are tidal volume. B. and a rich blood supply. 3. 4. residual volume. In bronchogenic carcinoma. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. when the temperature remains constant. include inspiratory. 3. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. inflated alveoli. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. and DPG. 2. a large alveolar surface area. Pulmonary lung capacities. 6. pneumotaxic area. It is symbolized by p. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. 5. 2. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences.

Teeth: 1. liver. 3. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. and serosa (peritoneum). 2. root. peristalsis. falciform ligament. muscularis. salivary glands. absorption. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. lesser omentum. Organization: 1. 3. 2. 2. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. Digestive Processes: 1. 4. and defecation. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. and pancreas. lipid. Some papillae contain taste buds. Deglutition: 1. The tongue. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. together with its associated muscles. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. gallbladder. and accessory structures. 3. the hardest substance in the body. 9. 2. 5. mesocolon. 4. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. tongue. and cervix. It consists of a voluntary stage. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. submucosa. 8. 2. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. and greater omentum. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. 4. The teeth. or alimentary canal. Salivary Glands: 1. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. submandibular (submaxillary). Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. 2. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. 3. which aid mechanical digestion. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. 2. and tongue. 2. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The accessory structures include the teeth. and sublingual glands. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. 3. forms the floor of the oral cavity. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. mechanical and chemical digestion. or dentes. 4. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. lips. palates. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. 2.7.

Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. 2. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). hydrochloric acid. intrinsic factor. 2. Esophagus: 1. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). a protein-digesting enzyme. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. Absorption: 1. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). resynthesized to triglycerides. 2. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. and stomach gastrin. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Absorption: 1.Histology: 1. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. and alcohol. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). and transported as chylomicrons. 4. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. villi. 2. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. 2. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Pancreas: 1. The small intestine also absorbs water. 2. 2. 3. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. Gallbladder: 1. Small Intestine: Anatomy . The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. Among the substances absorbed are some water. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase).Histology: 1. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. and intestinal. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). The esophagus is a collapsible. and the microvilli. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. 3. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. gastric. and vitamins. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex).(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 3. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2. Stomach: Anatomy . terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). Hormones also assume a role. certain electrolytes and drugs. 3. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. Liver: 1. glands that produce mucus. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. electrolytes. 2. 2. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. 2. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. 2. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. 3. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase).

Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. 2. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. colon. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. The large intestine absorbs water. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. lipids. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. 3. 2. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. and non-A. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. Disorders . vitamins. Anabolic reactions use energy. 2. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. rectum. 2. peristalsis. 2.1. or kinking of the organ. 5. epithelial cells. Defecation: 1. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. 3. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. and mass peristalsis. 4. 10. colonoscopy. Feces consists of water. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. 4. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. . and anal canal. and vitamins. 12. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and barium x-ray. electrolytes. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. alveolar bone. During digestion. minerals. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. and water. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. 7. rather than enzymatic. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. a foreign body. action. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. inorganic salts. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. and cementum. act as building blocks in forming new body components. 6. and undigested foods. 3. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. 11. Types include hepatitis A. carcinoma of the cecum. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. 2. Its subdivisions include the cecum. 2. bacteria. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. Metabolism: 1. periodontal membrane. 9. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. proteins. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. stenosis. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. 8. hepatitis B. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation.

Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. In beta oxidation. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 2. 3. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. As a result of glycolysis. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. glucagon. coenzyme Q. 1 molecule of FADH2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. 3. and the electron transport chain. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. and growth hormone (GH). 4. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. 5. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. 2. When oxygen is in short supply. Electron Transport Chain: 1. 2. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. and cytochromes. 3. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. 6. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. thyroxine. Glucose Anabolism: 1. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. Lipid Metabolism: 1. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. 3. and I molecule of GTP. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. thromboplastin for blood clotting. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. the Krebs cycle. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. epinephrine. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. Lipid Catabolism: 1. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes.2. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. 2. During digestion. 4 molecules of NADH2. It is stimulated by cortisol. 2. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. Glycolysis: 1. Fat Storage: 1. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. 2. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. Glucose Catabolism: 1. 2. 3. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. 3. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. 3. under aerobic conditions. 3. Fate of Lipids: 1. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. 2. 4. recombined to form triglycerides.

Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. and K. conversion of glycerol into glucose. stored. During digestion. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. manganese. 3. D. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. and insulin. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. sulfur. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. 4. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. selenium. hormones. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. During the absorptive state. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. Lipid Anabolism . Inside cells. phosphorus. Many function in enzyme systems. Protein Metabolism: 1. Amino acids. hormones.Lipogenesis: 1. 3. fats. 2. and chromium. Minerals: 1. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Protein Catabolism: 1. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. iron. but an excess of ketone bodies. 2. 2. these conversions involve deamination. Before amino acids can be catabolized. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. 2. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. based on the needs of the body. and hydrogenation. 2. chlorine. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. potassium. 2. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. may cause acidosis. enter body cells by active transport. cobalt. 2. The process is stimulated by insulin. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. sodium. and proteins. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. Vitamins: 1. 3. or converted. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. copper.4. During the absorptive state. 3. 2. thyroxine. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. and body temperature. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). zinc. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. Protein Anabolism: 1. iodine. called ketosis. E. 2. Fate of Proteins: 1. fatty acids. the nervous system.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. and so forth. 2. snd ketane hadies. magnesium. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. decarboxylation. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. structural elements. Production of Body Heat: 1.

calyces. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. reduced perspiration. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. ureters. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). medulla. and perspiration. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . 4. and high body temperature. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. and renal fascia. profuse perspiration. 4. and sometimes mental retardation. 5. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. and K and calcium is inadequate. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. skeletal muscle contraction. pyramids. 2. distal convoluted tubule. and urethra. 3. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. 4. 5. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. and a pelvis. failure to grow. 2. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. Loss of Body Heat: 1. ascending limb of Henle. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. Internally. urinary bladder. proximal convoluted tubule. 5. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. 7. 4. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. nausea. stages include chill and crisis. and thyroxine production. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. descending limb of Henle. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. 2. lethargy. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. 3. and dizziness. 6. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. deereased metabolic rate. sympathetic stimulation. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. 4. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. adipose capsule. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. 4. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. D. cramps. 3. Physiology: 1. columns. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. 2. 3. 3. the kidneys consist of a cortex. papillae. loop of Henle. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. glomerulus. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1.

leucocytes. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. cerebrospinal fluid. and certain drugs. salts. urobilinogen. including water. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. diuretics. Gl tract fluids. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). Urethra: 1. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. 2. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. 5. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. uric acid. 6. turbidity. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. 5. 5. creatinine. Homeostasis: 1. pleural. 4. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. the rest by facultative reabsorption. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). glucose. erythrocytes. 7. 9. amino acids. It includes interstitial fluid. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions.6. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). primarily by peristalsis. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. ketone bodies. 11. glucose. nitrogenous wastes. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. blood concentration. pH. and fluids of the eyes and ears. 7. pericardial. odor. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. Chemically. casts. Included are ions. and fibrous coat. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . hippuric acid. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. 3. indican. bilirubin. and peritoneal fluids. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. 2. 4. 3. and a serous coat. 4. and ions. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. and ions. 8. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. and the glomerular filtrate. integument. Body Fluids: 1. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). and emotions. 2. Ureters: 1. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). the lungs. 3. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. Normally. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. Disorders . The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. muscularis. and specific gravity. 2. 2. temperature. synovial fluid. The solutes include urea. Histologically. plasma and Iymph. renal calculi. 10. ketone bodies. 8. 3. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. and microbes. Besides the kidneys. 2. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. Urinary Bladder: 1. In exchange. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition.

2. 5. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter).80. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. nerve impulse conduction.45. 8. and regulation of pH.45 and 8. especially extracellular fluid. 4. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. 3. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. It also functions in blood clotting. interstitial fluid. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. 3. 4. and heartbeat. At the venous end. increases pH. 4. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 4. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. lungs. 2. decreases pH. and kidney excretion.00. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. proper fluid movement between compartments. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. An increase in rate of respirations. and GI tract. 11. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. At the arterial end of a capillary. 3. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. phosphate. 2. and regulating pH. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. muscle contraction. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. Water is the largest single constituent in the body.35 to 7. fluid moves in the opposite direction. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. a decrease in rate. 4. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. 3. Under normal conditions. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. and protein. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. 3. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. 5. 7. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 6. Electrolytes: 1. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. 9. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. muscle contraction. 2. chemical transmitter release. muscle contraction. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7.1. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. respirations. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. skin. 2. Plasma.35 and 6. and fluid and electrolyte balance. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations.

membranous. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. in which sperm cells are made. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. 4.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. 5. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. and 7. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. Reproductive System: 1. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. bulbourethral glands. Ducts: 1. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). and maintenance of sex organs. seminal vesicles. stimulates bone growth. and spongy (cavernous). straight tubules. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. 2. and tail. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. II. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. Male Reproductive System: 1. 11. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. Testes: 1. sustentacular cells. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. 3. and penis. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. 6. 2. sperm maturation. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. 8. and efferent ducts. ductus deferens. 10. development. 3. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. and rete testis. urethra. which nourish sperm cells. ductus epididymis. 7. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. ejaculatory duct. 2. prostate gland. 12. 5. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. midpiece. protein anabolism. Testosterone controls the growth. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). 2. ducts (transport and store gametes). Accessory Glands: 9. 4. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. Scrotum: 1. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. 3. straight tubules. rete testis. 3. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. and interstitial endocrinocytes. 6. 2.

11. 8. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. ovulation. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. Ovaries: 1. mucus. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. middle myometrium. 4. and epithelial cells. During the postovulatory phase. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. 5. 4. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. development. 3. 3. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. uterus. vagina. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. tissue fluid. 2. They produce ova. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. 2. endometrial repair occurs. The penis is the male organ of copulation. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. Histologically. Penis: 1. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. and inner endometrium. and stimulate protein anabolism. 7. implantation of a fertilized ovum. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. 2. development of a fetus during pregnancy. discharge ova (ovulation). 2. III. 3. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. Estrogens stimulate the growth. 2. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. 9. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. on either side of the uterus. 4. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. During the menstrual phase. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10. 2. 5. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. During the preovulatory phase.nutrients. and vulva. The uterus is an inverted. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). Uterus: 1. and labor. . 6. 6. uterine tubes.

and greater and lesser vestibular glands. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Vagina: 1. 2. 11. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. and orgasm (climax). and sperm maturation. 5. abnormal bleeding. If fertilization and implantation do occur. 12. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. 10. and ova maturation. 2. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). 13. 4. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. It consists of the mons veneris. 2. pectoral muscles. 10. and tumors. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. 2. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). the cessation of the sexual cycles. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. genital herpes. 9. The removal of a malignant breast. enlarged prostate.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. lubrication. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. 3. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. Oogenesis: 1. 6. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. 3. dysmenorrhea. and the lower portion of the birth canal. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. lubrication. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. 2. The female role also involves erection. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. vestibule. It is said to be haploid (n). The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. 3. 12. Vulva: 1. 9. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. clitoris. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. labia majora. Mammary Glands: 1. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. 8. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. Sexual Intercourse: 1. Spermatogenisis: 1. 2. trichomoniasis. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. 8. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). 2. Perineum: 1. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. and orgasm. equatorial division. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. syphilis. vaginal and urethral orifices. labia minora. 7. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. 2. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). 7. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. equatorial division. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 2. Disorders . Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n).

implantation. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. 1. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. 5. 2. and birth. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . . 4. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. embryonic growth. Its various events are hormonally controlled. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. 2. fetal growth.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. 3. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm.

The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. sickle cell anemia. and smoking. 7. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. and delivery of the placenta. estrogens. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. Dominant genes control a particular trait. 5. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. 2. mechanical. and chemical). chorion. estrogens. Parturition and Labor: 1. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. 8.The morula develops into a blastocyst. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. 3. and contraception (natural. 2. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. chemicals and drugs. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. . alcohol. and progesterone. laparascopic technique). Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). Inheritance: 1. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. 3. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. 6. 3. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. and allantois. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. 3. amnion. 4. and protection. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. 4. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. Tay-Sachs disease. such as hemophilia. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. Birth Control: 6. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. 2. expulsion of the fetus. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. During the fetal period. 2. 2. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. and progesterone. Lactation: 1. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. microbes. 2. 2. During embryonic growth. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. 3. sterilization (vasectomy. 5. tubal ligation. 2. and Down's syndrome. protein anabolism. removal of wastes. mesoderm. Examples are infections. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders.

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