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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.

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Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.

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horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary

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accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a

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lipids. and genetic material (DNA). cilia. 3. and movement. comprising the chromosomes. and control. and helps export chemicals from the cell. and the mitotic spindle. Functionally. 2. 2. 4.13. 2. If the cell is injured. 2. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. maintenance. 2. They contain enzymes (e. 3. 3. Usually the largest organelle. membranous sacs called cisternae. The inner folds are called cristae. Peroxisomes: 1. Thus they are called "suicide packets.The Cytoskeleton: 1. karyolymph. centrioles. Nucleus: 1. transports substances intracellularly. Organelles: 1. In conjunction with the ER. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. 3. 3. 3. and form the structure of flagella. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. They support. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. nucleoli. provide movement. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. Cells without nuclei. such as mature red blood cells. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. Mitochondria: 1. 2. 2. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. 1. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. They are involved in muscular contraction. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. stores synthesized molecules. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. 3. carbohydrates." 4. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. 3. but smaller. 2. Cytoplasm: 1. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked.. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. and inorganic substances. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Functionally. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. Ribosomes: 1. It is located near the nucleus. do not grow or reproduce. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. repair. The ER provides mechanical support. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. 2. Microfilaments and Microtubules . support.g. They are formed from Golgi complexes. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. 2. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. which carry on phagocytosis.

reticular. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. they are called flagella. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. and mucus. 6. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. 2. 6. 3. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. 3. 2. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. 7. 3. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. 2. This involves transcription and translation. In response to DNA damage. 4. are fibrous. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. glycogen. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. 5. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. 3. lipids. anaphase. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Somatic Cell Division: 1. Gene Action . Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. 5. the DNA molecules. 3. which consist of rRNA and protein. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. Examples are melanin. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. Some. they are called cilia. If projections are few and long. metaphase. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. and telophase. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. 2. and elastic fibers. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. Cellular Inclusions: 1. DNA Polymerase is an example. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. 2. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). In transcription. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. are amorphous.DNA Repair: 1.Protein Synthesis: 1. Others. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. or chromosomes. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . "SOS" Genes . like collagenous. 2. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. 4. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. Cell Division: 1. Extracellular Materials: 1.2. If they are numerous and hairlike. 8. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. It consists of prophase. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. Flagella and Cilia: 1. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. 3. an "SOS response" occurs.

pharynx. connective. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. oil. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. and epiglottis. cell shapes include squamous (flat). 8. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. Glandular Epithelium: 1. except for cartilage. 3. little intracellular material. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. 5. 2. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. It lines larger excretory ducts. columnar (rectangular). and lining some glandular ducts. Many theories of aging have been proposed. where it protects and secretes. It has few cells. 2. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. muscular. 3. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. Depending on their function and structure. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. 2. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. supports. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. and no blood vessels (avascular).1. Connective tissue protects. and most upper respiratory structures. 3. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. 7. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. Functional classification includes holocrine. It can replace itself. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. Exocrine glands (sweat. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. in kidneys and eyes. and a rich blood supply (vascular). It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. 2. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. portion of urethra. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. noncancerous tumors are called benign. acinar. parts of urethra. the study of tumors is called oncology. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. and nervous. 3. and apocrine glands. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). 2. and binds organs together. stratified (several layers). 2. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. It is found covering ovaries. 2. and compound. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. Connective Tissue: 1. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). an extensive intercellular substance. 3. auditory tubes. It does not occur on free surfaces. merocrine. 9. tubuloacinar. but none successfully answers all questions. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Epithelium has many cells. 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . simple. Epithelial Tissue: 1. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. and transitional (variable). 5. cuboidal (cubelike). 4. 4.

spleen. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. and true vocal cords. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. pain. and cutaneous. membranes of organs. and in the subcutaneous layer. plasma. where it gives support. Elastic. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. 4. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1.contraction. called adipocytes. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. around body organs. 6. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. pericardium. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). and provides support. It is flexible. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. and vascular tissue. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. ligaments. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. macrophages. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. and melanocytes). Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. and swelling. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. Adipose. Muscle tissue performs one major function . An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. Examples are: mucous. cartilage. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. elastic arteries. bone tissue. and aponeuroses. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. tendons. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. at the ends of bones.4. auditory tubes. mast. 3. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. sometimes loss of function occurs. It is found as a component of fascia. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). 2. Membranes: 1. Dense. 2. elastic. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. 2. are specialized for fat storage. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. and in respiratory structures. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. It provides strength. and Reticular. 5. and external ear. serous. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). such as the digestive tract. 2. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. and Cardiac. 7. heat.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. bronchial tubes. and Iymph nodes. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. o Serous membranes (pleura. Tissue Inflammation . trachea. in the nose. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. allows movement. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. Visceral (smooth).

In most inflammations. The skin and its derivatives (hair. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. black melanin. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. 7. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. scab formation. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. brown melanin. • Glands: 1. and pheomelanin (yellow). The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. and corneum. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. and several organic compounds. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. The color of skin is due to melanin. If the injury is superficial. 5. 2. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. Repair Process: 1. and root hair plexuses. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. receiving stimuli. and ducts of sweat glands. It performs the functions of protection. 5. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. 4. 6. the process slows down with aging. • Hair: 1. Tissue Repair: 1. 4. and parenchymal regeneration. and a hair follicle. salts.2. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. and ceruminous). 3. sudoriferous. 2. The epidermal layers. some B. hair follicles. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. spinosum. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. if it cannot drain out of the body. 8. are the stratum basale. and nails. synthesis of vitamin D. dermal papillae. E. glands. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. 3. oil glands. D. and excretion of water. maintaining body temperature. 2. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. kinins. from deepest to most superficial. hair follicles. granulosum. skin glands (sebaceous. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. lucidum. The reticular region is dense. granulation tissue is involved. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. arrectores pilorum muscles. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. 5. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. storage of chemical compounds. 2. 3. pus is produced. serotonin. 3. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers.The Skin: Skin 1. and Meissner's corpuscles. The Integumentary System . 2. nerves. C. carotene. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). Conditions for Repair: 1. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. Various vitamins (A. 4. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. If damage is extensive. an abscess develops. nerves.

leverage. and areolae. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. 11. hyponychium. 3. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration.• palms and soles. 4. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. systemic diseases. Nails: 1. removing dead tissue. and blood cell production. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. lunula. free edge. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. pubis. regulating metabolic rate. 7. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. 8. The principal parts of a nail are the body. 3. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. and boils. or psychogenic factors. replacing lost body fluids. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. 3. and covering wounds with temporary protection. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. pimples. second-degree (partialthickness). 4. Most warts are benign. raised plaques or papules. root. Nails are hard. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. If environmental temperature is high. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. 2. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. 5. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. mineral storage. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and third-degree (fullthickness).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. Depending on the depth of damage. 2. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. 2. They are found in the external auditory meatus. protection. Disorders . Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. As the perspiration evaporates. and skin grafting. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. 2. Homeostasis: 1. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. Histology: 1. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes.6F). Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. 2. the skin is cooled. 10. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. their ducts open into hair follicles. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. The functions of the skeletal system include support. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. 6. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. 9. eponychium. and matrix.

The two types of ossification. transverse. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. 3. In both types of ossification. Next. phosphorus. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. greenstick. 5. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. Normal growth depends on calcium. impacted. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. Pott's. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. 8. 7. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. 4. and irregular bones. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. and nondisplaced. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. It forms most of the structure of short. This process is called remodeling. comminuted. marrow. 4. 2. 4. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. Disorders . 2. and vitamins (A. and calcified matrix. and resists stress.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Functionally. Cartilage degenerates. compact bone protects. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. hypertrophic cartilage. 3. articular cartilage. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. medullary or marrow cavity. complete. and periosteum. and endosteum. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. 6. and remodeling. flat. spiral. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. periosteum. 3. except for the epiphyseal plate. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. compound. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. Osteoblasts lay down bone. simple. Colles'. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. where bone replaces cartilage. metaphysis. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. A fracture is any break in a bone. and the epiphyses of long bones. intramembranous and endochondral. 6. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. 7. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. 2. epiphyses (ends). Homeostasis: 1. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. proliferating cartilage. The types of fractures include: partial. displaced. 5. 9. 3. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. 8. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. supports. 2. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . forming a callus. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. Functionally. spongy bone is laid down first. C.

The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. Skull: 1. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. fused). 2. and vomer. Surface Markings: 1. 2. temporal (2). The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels.1. The vertebral column. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. head. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. lambdoidal. 3. 3. parietal (2). the sternum. 6. crest. lumbar vertebrae (5). muscle attachment. meatus. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. sagittal. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. It is composed of 22 bones. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. or irregular. auditory ossicles. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. ethmoid. process. 7. 3. flat. short. lacrimal (2). anterolaterals. 2. The major fontanels are the anterior. 5. Condyle. hyoid bone. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . fused) and the coccyx (4. 2. 3. occipital. mandible. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. vertebral column. 1. the sacrum (5. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. Terms that describe markings include fissure. facet. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). Hyoid Bone: 1. 4. On the basis of shape. The patella is an example. and posterolaterals. 2. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. 2. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. and squamosal sutures. and balance. tuberosity. posterior. bones are classified as long. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. zygomatic (2). sphenoid. and ribs. Examples are coronal. inferior nasal conchae (2). palatine (2). They are lined by mucous membranes. These curves give strength. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. and ethmoid. support. and maxilla. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. sternum. foramen. and spine. sphenoid. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. thoracic vertebrae (12). fossa. maxillae (2). The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). Vertebral Column: 1.

ulna. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. pubis. 3. each consisting of a body. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Talus. vertebral arch. Cuboid. fibula. kyphosis. radius. and L 2. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. 2. 2. o Upper Extremities: 1. shape. 4.The vertebra are similar in structure. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). II. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). Navicular. 2. Thorax: 1. 2. Pisiform. tibia. Capitate. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. and Medial Cuneiform. and phalanges. a congenital defect. 2. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. Hamate (Unciform). The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. and the thoracic vertebrae. and the bones of the lower extremities. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. o Lower Extremities: 1. 3. L l. 4. the ribs and costal cartilages. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . metacarpals. metatarsals. and detail. 5. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. and phalanges. the bones of the upper extremities. and lordosis. 3. and seven processes. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. the pelvic girdle. is referred to as spina bifida. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. carpals. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. Triangular (Triquetrum). 3. tarsals. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). and ischium. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. Schaphoid (Navicular). 2. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Examples include scoliosis.

Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. articular cartilage. with no joint cavity. All synovial joints are freely movable. tendons. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. A dislocation. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). 2. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. 6. and a synovial membrane. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). circumduction. joints are classified as fibrous. and muscle tension. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). 2. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. 2. angular movements. ligaments. are fibrous joints. Bones held together by cartilage. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. 3. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. 3. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. Synovial Joints: 1. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. 8. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). Articulations: 1. or synovial. rotation. 1. 2. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). 4. 2. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. and muscles. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. articular discs. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. or triaxial. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). to provide support and leverage. 5. or luxation. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). inversion and eversion. 2. 5. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. some also contain ligaments. biaxial. joints.arches. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). cartilaginous. and elevation and depression. Disorders . hinge joints (elbow). 3. with no joint cavity. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. Fibrous Joints: 1. swelling. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. 6. 7. 2. Structurally. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. and bursae. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . protraction and retraction. pivot joints (radioulnar). and loss of function. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. supination and pronation. tension of ligaments. 4. are cartilaginous joints. 3. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue.

junction. nuclei. 3. or myoneural. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and endomysium. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. the neuron releases acetylcholine. contract. 4. deep. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. sarcoplasmic reticulum. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. 2. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. 8. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. 2. Functions: 1. triggering the contractile process. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. covering fasciculi. Energy for Contraction: 1. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. and subserous. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. 3. and T tubules. Types: 1. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. 2. perimysium. Through contraction. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. 2.without dislocation. 3. maintenance of posture. The Motor Unit: 1. 3. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. and troponin. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. 3. 2. tropomyosin. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. 7. Contraction . The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. 2. 4. 5. covering individual fibers. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. 3. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. covering the entire muscle. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. 6. Physiology of Contraction: 1. Connective tissue components are epimysium. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. 4. It is striated and voluntary. There are three types of fascia: superficial. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. 2. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. and heat production. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. It is striated and involuntary.

2. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. If it occurs in the lumbar region. more blood capillaries. and a large amount of myoglobin. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. 6. 2. and tics. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. fibrillations. 3. it is called lumbago. muscles. tetanus. and stiffness of joints. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. convulsions. 3. It is striated and involuntary. 3. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. 2. Homeostasis: 1. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. The fibers are arranged in a network. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 5. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. each of which contracts as a functional unit. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. stimulus. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. and isometric. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. 3. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. isotonic. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. Abnormal contractions include spasms. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. 2. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. 3. Kinds of Contractions: 1. tenderness. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. cramps. This muscle is found only in the heart. 2. treppe. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. 2. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. or subthreshold. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. 4. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and larger T tubules. stimulus. and related structures in the thigh. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. more mitochondria. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. Muscle Tone: 1. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. 4. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. or threshold. Disorders . 3. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. Unit it is paid back. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. 2. 3. 2. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature.2. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary.

2. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Intramuscular Injections: 1. attach neurons to blood vessels. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. 2. origin and insertion. the membrane is said to have an action potential. shape. 2. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. 3. neurons are multipolar. interpreting them. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. pennate. oligodendrocytes. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. Nerve Impulse: 1. On the basis of function. and ependyma. 2. 4. and resistance on the lever. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. and usually a single axon. and circular. including motor neurons. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. The antagonist produces an opposite action. effort. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. 2. location. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. size.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. 2. and unipolar. Neurons: 1. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. 3. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. and action. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. 1. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. and glands. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. cardiac muscle tissue. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. and reacting to them. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. 3. or nerve cells. number of origins (or heads). and deltoid region of the arm. and minimal irritation. second-class. 4. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. 2. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. 5. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. If. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. Neurons. and carry out phagocytosis. 5. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. 6. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. produce the myelin sheath. On the basis of structure. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. 6. bipolar. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. convergent. and the membrane is said to be polarized. microglia. 3. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. Around the time of birth. lateral side of the thigh. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system.

The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. 7. or axon hillock. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. posterior. and vertebral ligaments. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 6. cell body. 7. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. 2. 3. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. Protection and Coverings: 1. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. 6. Structure in Cross Section: 1. 5. 6.travels from point to point along the membrane. 3. and lateral gray horns. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. and lateral white columns. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. 4. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. 4. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. posterior. anterior. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. 5. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. cerebrospinal fluid. anterior. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. meninges. 4. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. 3. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. 2. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. central canal. 4. arachnoid and pia mater. 5. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 2. 3. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. According to the all-ornothing principle. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. and ascending and descending tracts. 6. 5. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. 2. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse.

Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and motor neuron. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. 5. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. Functions: 1. lumbar. 5. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. and rami communicantes. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. a motor neuron. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. association. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 6. 2. 4. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. 5. 1. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. and sacral plexuses. and regeneration. Following peripheral nerve damage. 4. 3. constant segments of the skin. 2. 2. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. 7. Disorders . a center. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. posterior root ganglion. Wallerian degeneration. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. 3. 8. flexor reflex. 5. form networks of nerves called plexuses. • Distribution: 1. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. The posterior root. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. and the abdominal reflex. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. respectively. brachial. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. 2. and an effector. • Composition and Coverings: 1. 4. 2. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). and crossed extensor reflex. Its basic components are a receptor. the Achilles reflex. 2. the Babinski sign. 4. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. ventral ramus. 3. 1. A stretch reflex. such as the patellar reflex. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia.2. a sensory neuron. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. and epineurium. is an example. A reflex is a quick. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. 3. 2. meningeal branch. perineunum. except for T 2-T 11. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. tendon reflex. • Dermatomes: 1. 9. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. The skin segments are called dermatomes.

which helps control respiration. 1. 3. 6. convulsions. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. 3. permanent damage. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. ventricles. 2. respiratory rate. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 2. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. mental retardation. cranial meninges. 3. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. 2. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. cerebrum. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. 2. cells. 3. 4. sneezing. and cerebellum. 4. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. it is called external hydrocephalus. swallowing. The Brain Stem: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2.1. 2. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. coughing. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. epilepsy. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. vasoconstriction. vomiting. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. or death of brain 5. The pons is superior to the medulla. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. 1. During embryological development. 2. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. or death. and central canal. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. Protection and Coverings: 1. 2. Embryological Development: 1. The Diencephalon: 1. 2. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. 1. diencephalon. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. and unconsciousness. 2. 1. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. it is called internal hydrocephalus. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. 3. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. 4. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. 1. and hiccuping.

either anatomically or functionally. 2. 4. and smell. and dynorphin. musical and artistic awareness. glutamic acid. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. temporal. constricted vermis. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. to the cerebral cortex. serotonin. taste. norepinephrine. Its cortex contains convolutions. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 2. 3. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 7. 2. insight. regulates food and fluid intake. and tumors. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. and generating mental images of sight. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. 3. 4. touch. 2. 1. imagination. dopamine. 3. 9. They help to control muscular movements. 2. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 2. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. parietal. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. Brain Lateralization: 1. except smell. fissures. 3. sound. gamma aminobutyric acid. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. space and pattern perception. spoken and written language. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. 2. 2. 6. 5. The Cerebrum: 1. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. 7. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. numerical and scientific skills. The Cerebellum: 1. 2. 3. 3. and occipital. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 1. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. 3. and sulci. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. infections. 1. endorphins. and reasoning. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. 1. 5. 10. 3. controls body temperature. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. and glycine. excite. It controls the autonomic nervous system. aspartic acid. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. 8.7. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. 3. 2. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 6.

5. tongue muscles. cerebellum. 11. etc. larynx. 8. taste. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. 4. cholecystokinin. Facial Sensory. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. Tongue muscles. the victim experiences degrees of motor.The sense of vision. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus.Motor. Trigeminal Sensory function. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. etc. larangeal muscles. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia.The sense of smell. Motor.Sensory. 7. inferior pharynx. 10. Disorders .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. nose. 9. pharyngeal muscles. thoracic and abdominal organs. Vestibulococ hlear . Hypoglossal . 7. Optic . Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. forehead. Scalp. Palate. upper eyelid. Olfactory . also called strokes. 6. Motor function. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. 4. 10. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. Impulse transmission is interrupted. The Cranial Nerves: 1. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Vagus Sensory. 9. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Glossophary ngeal . lower jaw.Motor function of eye muscles. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . sensory.11. Examples include angiotensin. Accessory Motor. muscles of mastication. thrombosis. 4. or early infancy. cornea. muscles of facial expression. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. or psychological malfunction. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. upper teeth. Depending on the form of the disease. 1. 12. pharynx. 3. lower teeth. soft palate. 12. taste. upper jaw. . Oculomotor . 4. 6. some neck and shoulder muscles. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. hearing and balance. or atherosclerosis. 5. or basal ganglia during fetal development. Motor. 3. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis.Sensory. 2. Motor function. 8. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Soft palate. childbirth. 2. 11. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language.

4. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. 2. Sensations: 1. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. The neural pathway for light touch. proprioception. conduction of the impulse to the brain. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. connective tissues. and proprioceptors. receptors are classified as exteroceptors.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. and third-order neurons. electromagnetic receptors. nociceptors. In terms of simplicity or complexity. pressure. General Senses . Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. 4. According to location. 2. and chemoreceptors. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. personality changes. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. 2. and pain. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. 2. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. movement of body parts. end organs of Ruffini. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. Classification of Receptors: 1. brain dysfunction. Merkel's discs. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. surgery. muscle spindles. and liver damage. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. 3. 3. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. 2. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. Meissner's corpuscles. vibration). 2. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. 6. and end organs of Ruffini. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. 13. 4. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. 12. 3. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. and sometimes delirium. Characteristics: 1. free nerve endings. 5. they cause subconscious motor reactions.muscle spasms and encephalitis. 7. tendons. thermoreceptors. 3. visceroceptors. 2. Receptors located in muscles. and tendon organs. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. 3. and acupuncture. Levels of Sensation: 1. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. and Pacinian corpuscles. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. 5. and body position. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. 4. second-order.

and glands. tectospinal. It has been used to control heart rate. and corticobulbar tracts. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). 3. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. 3. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. and the medulla oblongata. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. It is entirely motor. 2. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. 5. concerned with energy expenditure. Motor Pathways: 1. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. 2. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Physiology: 1. Integrative Functions: 1. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. 4. it consists of activated and long-term components. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. 3. the hypothalamus. decrease in heart rate. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. 3. It is regulated by centers in the brain. and plexuses. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. 3. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. Control by Higher Centers: 1. association neuron. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. It usually operates without conscious control. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. ganglia. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. reduced metabolic rate. 2. in general. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. in particular by the cerebral cortex. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. regulates visceral activities. that is. activities of smooth muscle. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. or visceral efferent nervous system. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). 2. and to make childbirth easier. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. 2. 4. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. The autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. anterior corticospinal. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. 3. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). Olfactory Sensations: 1. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. 4. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. cardiac muscle. to alleviate migraine headaches. afferent neuron. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). 4. 4. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways.6. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. and visceral effector. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. and vestibulospinal tracts. On the basis of the transmitter produced. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. 2. 2.

the organ of hearing.2. 4. 3. aqueous humor. VII. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). and the threshold varies with the taste involved. and cerebral cortex. and inverted image formation. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. 5. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. 2. the optic tract. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. 2. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. which destroys neurons of the retina. eyelashes. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. 8. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. eyelids. and (c) retina. and the cortex. and tympanic membrane). 4. constriction of the pupil. pass through the ossicles. and iris). Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. the optic chiasma. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). strike the oval window. which contains rods and cones. sour. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. convergence. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 6. set up waves in the perilymph. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. linear. medulla. and bitter. and the threshold of smell is low. thalamus. 4. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. and the lacrimal apparatus. 4. 3. 7. A sound impulse is then initiated. 5. oval window. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). lens. and lipid-soluble. 7. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 5. olfactory bulbs. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. 4. 9. olfactory tracts. 2. accommodation of the lens. 10. Trachoma is a chronic. strike the tympanic membrane. 3. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. and cerebral cortex. or vertical motion. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. 3. 5. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. ossicles. and round window). strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. the thalamus. and vitreous humor. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. strike the basilar membrane. IX. 6. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. Disorders . Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. ciliary body. and X. Visual Sensations: 1. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. water-soluble. external auditory canal. hypermetropia (farsightedness). (b) vascular tunic (choroid. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. The four primary tastes are salt. 3. 8. sweet. increase pressure in the endolymph. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows.

15. 7. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. 2. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). and contribute to reproductive processes. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 3. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 14. and acromegaly. giantism. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. 3. Histologically. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). 2. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. 6. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Exocrine glands (sweat. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). 2. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. 9. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. 11. 2. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. help regulate growth and development. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. Control of Hormonal Secretions . ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. 16. nerve impulses. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. 2. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. sebaceous. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). 4. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. 8. On the basis of solubility. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. 5. 13.Feedback Control: 1. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. and regulating factors. 12. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). 3. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. respond to stress. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). 10.

and serve as antiinflammatories. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. 2. 3. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .. which secrete calcitonin (CT). 3. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle.g. Ovaries and Testes: 1. myxedema. pregnancy. 3. Secretion is controlled by TRF. Histologically. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. growth and development. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. menstrual cycle. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). 6. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. 9. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Pancreas: 1. 10. 2. Parathyroids: 1. and lactation. 7. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). Cretinism. glucocorticoids. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. help resist stress. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. Secretion is controlled by CRF.Thyroid: 1. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. 2. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Histologically. 6. 2. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. 5. beta cells secrete insulin. Histologically. 8. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. and parafollicular cells. 5.. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. zona ennin late. 3. Mineralocorticoids (e. They are released under stress. 4. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. 2. 2. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. 4. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. Histologically. 4. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. 6. and delta cells. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. 4. exophthalmic goiter. and the reactivity of the nervous system. and zona reticularis. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. Glucocorticoids (e.g. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. Histologically. 5. beta cells. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. and gonadocorticoids. Insulin decreases blood sugar level.

Erythrocyte formation. called plasma. neuroglial cells. wastes. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 0. 5. It helps to regulate pH. thymic factor (TF). The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. consists of 91. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. 6.4 million/mm3 of blood. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.5.000/mm3. 3. 2. 2. 4. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions.000/mm3. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. 5. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. Thrombocytes: 1. and enzymes. Leucocytes: 1. and salinity. 3. the heart. 3. foods. Plasma: 1.85 to 0. leucocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports oxygen. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils.90 NaCI. called erythropoiesis. 2. globulins. 2. pH. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. and blood vessels.pinealocytes. 7. Normal blood contains 250.5 to 5. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). Red blood cells live about 120 days. fibrinogen). The cardiovascular system consists of blood.8 million/mm3. 38 degrees C (100.5 percent water and 8. 2.5 percent solutes. A healthy male has about 5. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). thymic humoral factor (THF).35 to 7. about 4.000 to 400. a healthy female. and platelets. Erythrocytes: 1. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. body temperature. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. 2. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). Functions: 1.45. and Iymph glands. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. 2. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. The liquid portion of blood. 4. Thymus: 1. 4. Normal blood contains 5. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. 3. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. 4. Components: 1. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. Iymph vessels. It protects against toxins and microbes. 2. eosinophils. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . nutrients.000 to 9. hormones. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. 3. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. and water content of cells. carbon dioxide. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. and thrombocytes (platelets). granular leucocytes. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. Lymphocytes. 6.4 degrees F). 3. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. temperature.

especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. Disorders . hemolytic. 8. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. 5. and blood coagulation. 3. 3. 4. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. 7. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. In the Rh system. Like plasma. In the ABO system. 4. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. and endocardium. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. The Cardiovascular System . 2. In vascular spasm. 4. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes.g. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. and out through the aorta. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes.The Heart: 1. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). 2. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. It involves vascular spasm. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1.Valves: 1. 11. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. The cause is a virus. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. 2. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. platelet plug formation. 2. respiratory gases. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. hemorrhagic. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. 10. 3. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. heparin) prevent clogging. myocardium.. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). 2. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. aplastic. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). 2. and sickle cell anemia. 6. pernicious. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. The parietal pericardium. encloses the heart. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. Interstitial Fluid: 1. 9. 2. Anticoagulatants (e. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count.and hormones.

Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart.4. and right heart (atrial) reflex. 4. sodium. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. determining the presence of several fetuses. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 4. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. Electrocardiogram: 1. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. 7. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. 5. 2. 5. 2. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). Cardiac Output: 1. Cardiac Cycle: 1. 6. temperature. atrioventricular (AV) node. 3. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. Conduction System: 1. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. bundle branches. 5. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). 2. aortic reflex. 3. 3. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. 6. between the atria and their ventricles. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. 7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .8 sec. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. 3. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. and Purkinje fibers. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). Blood Supply: 1. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. detecting the presence of fetal life. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. 2. 7. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. 4. 6. 3. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. potassium). 4. 2. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0.

some capillaries are continuous. This network increases the surface area. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. Venules: 1. and tunica externa. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. 4. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. 2. high blood pressure. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. 2. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. 2. 3. and to apply chemotherapy locally. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. sex (gender and physical activity). Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. Disorders . Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. diabetes mellitus. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. 3. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. 5. cigarette smoking. fibrillation. and arrhythmias (heart block. 3. obesity. and premature contractions). 5. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. others are fenestrated. 4. flutter. and genetic disposition. As blood volume increases. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. blood pressure increases. and age.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. to correct some defects. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction.ener Arterioles: 1. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. septal defects. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. and tetralogy of Fallot). valvular stenosis. lack of exercise. Arteries: 1. 4. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. In severe shock. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Veins: 1. 3. 2. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. and the shock cvcle is intensified. The heart becomes hypoxic. 3. 2. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. 4. 2. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. 2. 2. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. Capillaries: 1.emotion. 3. and therefore blood pressure. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .

2. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. 2. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. digestive. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. 2. 7. and higher brain centers. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. and age. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. skeletal muscular contractions. 3. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. intestines. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. 3. spleen. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. At birth. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. the arch of the aorta. Disorders . Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. 2. Circulatory Routes: 1. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. 8. pulmonary. Fetal Circulation: 1. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. 9. temperature. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. 3. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. and fetal circulation. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. chemicals. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. They in turn empty into the right atrium. when lung. chemicals.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. and breathing. Blood Reservoirs: 1. and liver functions are established. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. chemoreceptors. and autoregulation. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. and the descending aorta. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. Systemic Circulation: 1. 2. Other routes include the cerebral. sex. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. emotions. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. stomach. 2. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. 3. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. 2. 6. 2.

Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. and multivalence. 4. 3. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . microbial structures. 9. and fever. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. when introduced into the body. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. to Iymph trunks. cilia. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. mucous membranes. mucus. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. 8. and flow of urine). It also acts as a reservoir for blood. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. reactivity. 3. 3. and IgE). Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. IgD. to Iymph capillaries. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. and Iysozyme). and Iymph organs. 2. 6. IgM. 2. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. and kidneys. 2. 3. chemical factors (gastric juice. acid pH of skin. and transplants. 2.1. Lymphatic Organs: 1. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. inflammation. Iymphatic vessels. 5. Antigens are chemical substances that. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. antimicrobial substances (interferon. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. brain. 4. unsaturated fatty acids. IgA. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. incompatible blood cells. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Based on chemistry and structure. They include the pharyngeal. Lymph Circulation: 1. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 3. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. and properdin). 7. 2. 5. complement. saliva. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. phagocytosis. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. pollen. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. epiglottis. palatine. Iymph nodes. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. to Iymphatics. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. Examples of antigens are microbes. 2. and lingual tonsils. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. 4. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. lacrimal apparatus. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. 3. called Iymphatics. to the subclavian veins. each with specific biological roles (IgG. 2.

7. and hives. 3. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. During forced inspiration. 10. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. 2. eczema. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. 14. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. sobbing. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. sneezing. 5. 11. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. 12. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. 8. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them.liver and spleen. sighing. invading antigen. laughing. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. 4. preparing vaccines. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. myasthenia gravis. 2. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. and multiple sclerosis (MS). Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. they are important in diagnosis. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. memory B cells recognize the original. 4. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. detection of disease. 2. asthma. treatment. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. 2. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. 3. yawning. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. rheumatic fever. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). Coughing. 13. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. 6. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. crying. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases.

compresses the lungs. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 6. assuming that the pressure remains constant. According to Dalton's law. both in the brain and outside. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells.Internal Respiration: 1. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. vital. and total. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. 3. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. and enlarged chest. and DPG. Disorders . 2. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). External Respiration . and a rich blood supply. and function of the epithelial cells. 3. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. 4. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. the inflation reflex. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. 2. pCO2. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. 2. 3. and apneustic area. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. inflated alveoli. 4. 2. and excess mucus production. C's of CPR are Airway. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. 3. 3. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. and Circulation. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. temperature. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. the sum of two or more volumes. blood pressure. include inspiratory. Pulmonary lung capacities. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. residual volume. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. 5. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. In bronchogenic carcinoma. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. pain. and irritation to the respiratory centers. inflated lungs. B. 3. division. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. inspiratory reserve. temperature. a large alveolar surface area. 2. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. and minimal volumes.are tidal volume. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. 2. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. when the temperature remains constant. expiratory reserve. pneumotaxic area. 4. functional residual. Breathing. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. 2. It is symbolized by p. The A.

and greater omentum. and pancreas. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. peristalsis. 4. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). 2. submandibular (submaxillary). Some papillae contain taste buds. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. 2. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. lips. 2. root. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. 2. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. forms the floor of the oral cavity. 3. 2. the hardest substance in the body. and cervix. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. lipid. and defecation. Organization: 1. and serosa (peritoneum). submucosa. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. muscularis. which aid mechanical digestion. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. palates. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. mesocolon. mechanical and chemical digestion. absorption. It consists of a voluntary stage. 4. The tongue. Digestive Processes: 1. or alimentary canal. 9. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. gallbladder. Salivary Glands: 1. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. 5. Deglutition: 1. The accessory structures include the teeth. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. salivary glands. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. 2. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. together with its associated muscles. 8. Teeth: 1. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. 2. 3. 3. falciform ligament. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. lesser omentum. or dentes. and tongue. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. The teeth. 3. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. 4. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. tongue. and accessory structures. 2. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. and sublingual glands.7. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. 4. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. 2. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. liver.

intrinsic factor. 2. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Hormones also assume a role. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. 2. glands that produce mucus. Small Intestine: Anatomy . and stomach gastrin. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. The most important mechanism is local reflexes.Histology: 1. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. and the microvilli. hydrochloric acid. gastric. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Absorption: 1. 2. 3. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. certain electrolytes and drugs. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. 3. and alcohol. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats.Histology: 1. and vitamins. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. 2. 2. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Among the substances absorbed are some water. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). a protein-digesting enzyme. 2. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. and intestinal. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). resynthesized to triglycerides. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). Gallbladder: 1. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. 3. 4. 2. 3. 2. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). Esophagus: 1. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. The esophagus is a collapsible. 2. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. electrolytes. Pancreas: 1. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. 2. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. 2. Absorption: 1. Liver: 1. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). 2.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. and transported as chylomicrons. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. Stomach: Anatomy . terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. villi. 3. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. The small intestine also absorbs water.

Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. and vitamins. and anal canal. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. Its subdivisions include the cecum. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. alveolar bone. hepatitis B. 6. 9. 11. 3. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. 2. 3. rectum. Types include hepatitis A. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. minerals. stenosis. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. inorganic salts. rather than enzymatic. 2. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. During digestion. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. 5. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. peristalsis. and barium x-ray. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. 12. 4. 2. 2. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation.1. action. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. colonoscopy. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. The large intestine absorbs water. Defecation: 1. 10. and cementum. and mass peristalsis. electrolytes. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. 2. lipids. epithelial cells. Feces consists of water. periodontal membrane. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. 4. vitamins. carcinoma of the cecum. Disorders . act as building blocks in forming new body components. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. Metabolism: 1. or kinking of the organ. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. and undigested foods. Anabolic reactions use energy. proteins. 8. 2. colon. 2. . bacteria. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. and non-A. and water. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. a foreign body. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. 7. 5. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized.

fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. 2. 3. 2. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. 4. 3. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. Lipid Catabolism: 1. 4 molecules of NADH2. 3. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. 4. the Krebs cycle. under aerobic conditions. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. 2. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. Lipid Metabolism: 1. recombined to form triglycerides. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. 6. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. thromboplastin for blood clotting. During digestion. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. 2. 3. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. glucagon. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. 2. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. 5. and cytochromes. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. Fat Storage: 1. 1 molecule of FADH2. thyroxine. Glucose Anabolism: 1. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. Fate of Lipids: 1. Electron Transport Chain: 1. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and growth hormone (GH). The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. and I molecule of GTP. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. 2. 2. As a result of glycolysis. It is stimulated by cortisol. 3. 2. In beta oxidation. Glucose Catabolism: 1. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. Glycolysis: 1. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. and the electron transport chain. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. 3. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. When oxygen is in short supply. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. 3. epinephrine. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. coenzyme Q. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration.2.

During the absorptive state. selenium. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. Protein Catabolism: 1. and body temperature. manganese. hormones. magnesium. decarboxylation. copper. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. E. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. and proteins. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. Inside cells. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. Production of Body Heat: 1. conversion of glycerol into glucose. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. 3. Before amino acids can be catabolized. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. 2. fats. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). Protein Metabolism: 1. During the absorptive state. 2. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. snd ketane hadies. based on the needs of the body. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. 2. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. chlorine. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. phosphorus. iodine. Fate of Proteins: 1. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. 2. these conversions involve deamination. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. hormones. sulfur. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. cobalt. Amino acids. enter body cells by active transport. but an excess of ketone bodies. 2. Many function in enzyme systems. and hydrogenation. 4. 2. D. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. 3. 3. Minerals: 1. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. and so forth. iron. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. may cause acidosis. sodium. or converted. the nervous system. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. The process is stimulated by insulin. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. Lipid Anabolism . and chromium. 3. zinc. 2. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. and insulin. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. 2. potassium. During digestion. called ketosis. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. Vitamins: 1. Protein Anabolism: 1. 2. fatty acids. structural elements. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. thyroxine. stored.Lipogenesis: 1.4. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. and K. 2. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose.

and thyroxine production. ascending limb of Henle. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. columns. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. cramps. calyces. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. ureters. and dizziness. skeletal muscle contraction. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 4. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. 2. and sometimes mental retardation. 3. stages include chill and crisis. the kidneys consist of a cortex. profuse perspiration. Internally. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. and K and calcium is inadequate. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. and renal fascia. distal convoluted tubule. and a pelvis. and urethra. sympathetic stimulation. glomerulus. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. loop of Henle. adipose capsule. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. D. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. 6. proximal convoluted tubule. Loss of Body Heat: 1. 3. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. 4. deereased metabolic rate. 2. lethargy. medulla.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 4. Physiology: 1. descending limb of Henle. papillae. 2. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. 4. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. 3. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. 5. 2. 2. 3. 4. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. 7. 2. 3. nausea. 3. pyramids. and perspiration. 5. and high body temperature. urinary bladder. 5. 4. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. reduced perspiration. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. failure to grow. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema.

synovial fluid. ketone bodies. Included are ions. Histologically. 4. including water. bilirubin. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. Chemically. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. indican. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. primarily by peristalsis. 3. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. It includes interstitial fluid. glucose. 2. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. and microbes. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. Homeostasis: 1. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. glucose. casts. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. 7.6. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. urobilinogen.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. the rest by facultative reabsorption. diuretics. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. and fluids of the eyes and ears. and fibrous coat. pleural. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. 10. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. salts. 5. and peritoneal fluids. ketone bodies. amino acids. 2. and specific gravity. and a serous coat. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. and ions. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. muscularis. 6. The solutes include urea. plasma and Iymph. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. hippuric acid. pH. turbidity. Ureters: 1. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). creatinine. 3. the lungs. erythrocytes. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. 2. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). renal calculi. 8. integument. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). 9. Urinary Bladder: 1. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Body Fluids: 1. pericardial. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. 5. 11. 4. 8. 3. leucocytes. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. Disorders . 2. 2. cerebrospinal fluid. and certain drugs. 7. In exchange. odor. and the glomerular filtrate. 5. temperature. Gl tract fluids. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. Normally. uric acid. 2. nitrogenous wastes. Urethra: 1. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). and emotions. blood concentration. Besides the kidneys. 4. and ions. 3. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder.

Its principal effect is depression of the CNS.45 and 8. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. 4. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. Electrolytes: 1. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion.35 and 6. respirations. skin. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 9. especially extracellular fluid. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. 4. 3. and regulation of pH. and heartbeat. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. a decrease in rate. 3. 2. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. 4. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. and protein. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 2. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. and regulating pH. increases pH. 3. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. It also functions in blood clotting. muscle contraction. An increase in rate of respirations. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age.45. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). muscle contraction. chemical transmitter release. 6. interstitial fluid. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Acid-Base Balance: 1.35 to 7. 7. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. Water is the largest single constituent in the body.1. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate.00.80. proper fluid movement between compartments. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. fluid moves in the opposite direction. nerve impulse conduction. 10. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. 4. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. and fluid and electrolyte balance. At the arterial end of a capillary. 8. muscle contraction. 2. 5. 2. decreases pH. 2. and kidney excretion. 5. phosphate. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Plasma. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). Movement of Body Fluids: 1. and GI tract. At the venous end. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. lungs. 3. 4. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. 11. Under normal conditions.

Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. membranous. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. prostate gland. and tail. 3. and 7. 2. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. ductus deferens. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. 3. rete testis. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. midpiece. protein anabolism. sustentacular cells. Testosterone controls the growth. straight tubules. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. and penis. 8.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. seminal vesicles. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. Ducts: 1. 6. Testes: 1. 10. and interstitial endocrinocytes. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. development. 2. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. Reproductive System: 1. 11. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . ductus epididymis. urethra. 7. Scrotum: 1. II. ejaculatory duct. 6. 2. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. and efferent ducts. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. Accessory Glands: 9. 4. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). 7. 3. 3. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. 4. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. 5. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). straight tubules. 2. sperm maturation. 12. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. which nourish sperm cells. and rete testis. stimulates bone growth. and maintenance of sex organs. Male Reproductive System: 1. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. ducts (transport and store gametes). The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. in which sperm cells are made. 2. bulbourethral glands. 5. and spongy (cavernous).

Penis: 1. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. During the menstrual phase. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). 3. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. development of a fetus during pregnancy. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. The penis is the male organ of copulation. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. 9. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). and labor. 5. They produce ova. Estrogens stimulate the growth. Histologically. 2. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. development. 2. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. 4. 2. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . on either side of the uterus. During the preovulatory phase. 3. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. 2. tissue fluid. 7. implantation of a fertilized ovum. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. uterus. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. ovulation. endometrial repair occurs. 4. and stimulate protein anabolism. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. and inner endometrium. During the postovulatory phase. 4. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. mucus. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. vagina. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. 6. discharge ova (ovulation). and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. 3. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. 8. III. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. 6. .nutrients. middle myometrium. 2. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. Uterus: 1. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. Ovaries: 1. The uterus is an inverted. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. and epithelial cells. 5. 2. uterine tubes. and vulva. 11. 10. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem.

9. 11. 12. clitoris. and orgasm (climax). The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. Perineum: 1. If fertilization and implantation do occur. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. 10. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. dysmenorrhea. The removal of a malignant breast. 12. It consists of the mons veneris. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. and ova maturation. labia minora. 2. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. 4. Disorders . Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. the cessation of the sexual cycles. equatorial division. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. pectoral muscles. Oogenesis: 1. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. and the lower portion of the birth canal. It is said to be haploid (n). and greater and lesser vestibular glands. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. 9. and sperm maturation. 10. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 2. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 3. 8. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). 3. Vagina: 1. vaginal and urethral orifices.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. abnormal bleeding. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. 7. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. 5. 8. 2. and orgasm. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. lubrication. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. 13. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. 6. The female role also involves erection. 2. equatorial division. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Sexual Intercourse: 1. 2. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. trichomoniasis. 2. Vulva: 1. lubrication. Mammary Glands: 1. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. vestibule. enlarged prostate. 2. 7. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. genital herpes. and tumors. 2. syphilis. 2. Spermatogenisis: 1. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. labia majora. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection.

and birth. 1. Its various events are hormonally controlled. embryonic growth. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. 2. 3. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. implantation. . 5. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. 2. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. fetal growth.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. 4. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .

The primary germ layers-ectoderm. laparascopic technique). Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Lactation: 1. and smoking. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. estrogens. During embryonic growth. 2. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. 3. and delivery of the placenta. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. 2. During the fetal period. mechanical. and chemical). Parturition and Labor: 1. 3. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. 2. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. and progesterone. chemicals and drugs. 2. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. 3. and allantois. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. Birth Control: 6. expulsion of the fetus. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. 4. microbes. Tay-Sachs disease. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. tubal ligation. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. estrogens. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). sickle cell anemia. 6. 2. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. 2. 3. mesoderm. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. alcohol. and protection. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. 7. sterilization (vasectomy. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. and Down's syndrome. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. and contraception (natural. Inheritance: 1. chorion.The morula develops into a blastocyst. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. 2. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. 5. and progesterone. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. 4. removal of wastes. 2. amnion. 3. Dominant genes control a particular trait. 8. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. 1. such as hemophilia. . Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. protein anabolism. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). 5. Examples are infections.

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