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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
and genetic material (DNA). and control. provide movement. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. cilia. The ER provides mechanical support. 3. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Organelles: 1. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. 3. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. and movement. which carry on phagocytosis. Usually the largest organelle. such as mature red blood cells. The inner folds are called cristae. lipids. karyolymph. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes." 4. and inorganic substances. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. and the mitotic spindle. stores synthesized molecules. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. They are formed from Golgi complexes. maintenance. do not grow or reproduce. Microfilaments and Microtubules . 3. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. They are involved in muscular contraction. 3. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Thus they are called "suicide packets. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1.. 1. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. If the cell is injured. They support.g. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. repair. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Ribosomes: 1. Peroxisomes: 1. 3. 2. Nucleus: 1. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. 2. 3. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. but smaller. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. 3. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. They contain enzymes (e. Cells without nuclei. membranous sacs called cisternae. transports substances intracellularly. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. carbohydrates. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. Cytoplasm: 1. support.The Cytoskeleton: 1. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. 2. centrioles. 2. and form the structure of flagella. comprising the chromosomes. 2.13. In conjunction with the ER. 2. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. and helps export chemicals from the cell. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. Functionally. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. 2. It is located near the nucleus. nucleoli. 4. 2. Mitochondria: 1. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. 3. Functionally.
They assume an important role in cell reproduction. If they are numerous and hairlike. 5. In transcription. they are called flagella. DNA Polymerase is an example. 7. 3. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. 3. "SOS" Genes . 2. Others. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. and mucus. like collagenous. 8. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. anaphase. metaphase. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. reticular. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. 5. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis).2. 4. 2. lipids. 2. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. Cellular Inclusions: 1. are fibrous. mRNA associates with ribosomes. the DNA molecules. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. Some. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. 3. or chromosomes. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. are amorphous. 6. 4. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. It consists of prophase.Protein Synthesis: 1. an "SOS response" occurs. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. Somatic Cell Division: 1. 2. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). 3. they are called cilia. 3. Extracellular Materials: 1. and elastic fibers. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. which consist of rRNA and protein. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. Flagella and Cilia: 1. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Gene Action . Examples are melanin. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. In response to DNA damage. This involves transcription and translation. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. 3. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. glycogen. 2.DNA Repair: 1. If projections are few and long. Cell Division: 1. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. and telophase. 6.
3. and apocrine glands. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. and no blood vessels (avascular). parts of urethra. 2. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. and lining some glandular ducts. auditory tubes. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. 3. It does not occur on free surfaces. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. cell shapes include squamous (flat). including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. Many theories of aging have been proposed. 6. connective. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. 5. 2. stratified (several layers). columnar (rectangular). Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. It can replace itself. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. 3. 9. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. Connective Tissue: 1. merocrine. Connective tissue protects. and a rich blood supply (vascular). oil. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. 2. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. tubuloacinar. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. Glandular Epithelium: 1. 5. 8. Functional classification includes holocrine. 2. It is found covering ovaries. Exocrine glands (sweat. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. and binds organs together. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. Epithelium has many cells. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. and epiglottis. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). muscular. 3. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. little intracellular material. 2. 7. 3. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. 4. pharynx. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. Epithelial Tissue: 1. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. It has few cells. 4. and compound. simple. where it protects and secretes. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them.1. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. and most upper respiratory structures. in kidneys and eyes. Depending on their function and structure. 2. but none successfully answers all questions. and transitional (variable). Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. acinar. 2. It lines larger excretory ducts. cuboidal (cubelike). Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. and nervous. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. supports. the study of tumors is called oncology. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. except for cartilage. portion of urethra. noncancerous tumors are called benign. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. an extensive intercellular substance.
2. bronchial tubes. serous. and in respiratory structures. auditory tubes. and aponeuroses. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). Dense. in the nose. 2. and Cardiac. 3. mast. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. Muscle tissue performs one major function . o Serous membranes (pleura.4.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions.contraction. 6. Adipose. Membranes: 1. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. macrophages. and true vocal cords. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. Visceral (smooth). ligaments. 2. elastic arteries. such as the digestive tract. plasma. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. at the ends of bones. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. and in the subcutaneous layer. and Iymph nodes. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. It provides strength. sometimes loss of function occurs. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. 7. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. tendons. It is found as a component of fascia. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. pericardium. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. called adipocytes. bone tissue. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. elastic. Tissue Inflammation . around body organs. are specialized for fat storage. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. and melanocytes). trachea. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. and provides support. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. cartilage. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. heat. spleen. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. and external ear. 4. Examples are: mucous. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. Elastic. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and swelling. 5. where it gives support. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. 2. allows movement. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. pain. and cutaneous. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. and Reticular. membranes of organs. and vascular tissue. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). It is flexible. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. Adult Connective Tissue: 1.
and a hair follicle. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). lucidum. and parenchymal regeneration. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. some B. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. from deepest to most superficial. 8. If the injury is superficial. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. and pheomelanin (yellow). New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. synthesis of vitamin D. 4. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. Various vitamins (A. and nails. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. Repair Process: 1. and root hair plexuses. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. brown melanin. and ducts of sweat glands. 2. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. and corneum. 2. glands. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. D. an abscess develops. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. storage of chemical compounds. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. 7. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. pus is produced. serotonin. the process slows down with aging. 5. In most inflammations. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. scab formation. kinins. sudoriferous. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. if it cannot drain out of the body. and several organic compounds. receiving stimuli. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. and Meissner's corpuscles. black melanin. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. oil glands. 4. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. The color of skin is due to melanin. E.The Skin: Skin 1. are the stratum basale. The skin and its derivatives (hair. 4. • Glands: 1. 3. C. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. 3. Conditions for Repair: 1. It performs the functions of protection. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. skin glands (sebaceous. dermal papillae. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. 2. 2. nerves. 6. carotene. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. spinosum. 2. hair follicles.2. nerves. The epidermal layers. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. and excretion of water. salts. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. arrectores pilorum muscles. 5. If damage is extensive. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. • Hair: 1. The reticular region is dense. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. granulation tissue is involved. and ceruminous). 3. hair follicles. Tissue Repair: 1. maintaining body temperature. The Integumentary System . "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. 3. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. granulosum.
As the perspiration evaporates. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. and skin grafting. removing dead tissue. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. The functions of the skeletal system include support. 2. and third-degree (fullthickness). which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. 4. their ducts open into hair follicles. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. 7. eponychium. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. and matrix. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. 9. hyponychium. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. raised plaques or papules. replacing lost body fluids. second-degree (partialthickness). They are found in the external auditory meatus. 2. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. root. 2. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. 2. protection. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. 4. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. lunula. or psychogenic factors. 3. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. Most warts are benign. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. 2. Nails are hard. mineral storage. the skin is cooled. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. regulating metabolic rate. and boils. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. 10. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads.• palms and soles. The principal parts of a nail are the body. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. and blood cell production. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. pubis. 6. leverage. Depending on the depth of damage. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. pimples. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. 11. 8. Disorders . Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. 3. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1.6F). Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. 5. Nails: 1. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. Histology: 1. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. and areolae. and covering wounds with temporary protection. If environmental temperature is high. free edge. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. systemic diseases. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. Homeostasis: 1.
C. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. The two types of ossification. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. and periosteum. 5. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. comminuted. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. 6. Disorders . and the epiphyses of long bones. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. In both types of ossification. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. flat. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. periosteum. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. and vitamins (A. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. and nondisplaced. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. compact bone protects. proliferating cartilage. transverse. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Functionally. 4. articular cartilage. impacted. The types of fractures include: partial. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. This process is called remodeling. intramembranous and endochondral. complete. 2. Next. and remodeling. Homeostasis: 1. 8. 5. 3. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. spiral. and calcified matrix. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. supports.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Colles'. 7. forming a callus. 6. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. and endosteum. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. 3. epiphyses (ends). It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. metaphysis. greenstick.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). and irregular bones. 2. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. and resists stress. Normal growth depends on calcium. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. compound. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. where bone replaces cartilage. 2. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. simple. 2. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. Pott's. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. except for the epiphyseal plate. displaced. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. hypertrophic cartilage. 9. 8. 3. It forms most of the structure of short. 4. Osteoblasts lay down bone. A fracture is any break in a bone. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. Cartilage degenerates. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. phosphorus. 7. medullary or marrow cavity. marrow. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. 4. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. spongy bone is laid down first. Functionally. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them.
The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). facet. crest. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. Skull: 1. Hyoid Bone: 1. anterolaterals. Surface Markings: 1. inferior nasal conchae (2). short. support. mandible. 2. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. 5. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. auditory ossicles. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). and ribs. 2. sagittal. flat. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. 2. The patella is an example.1. sphenoid. 3. sternum. and ethmoid. thoracic vertebrae (12). Vertebral Column: 1. 1. the sacrum (5. or irregular. Terms that describe markings include fissure. They are lined by mucous membranes. 4. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. On the basis of shape. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. fossa. Examples are coronal. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. temporal (2). and vomer. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . foramen. maxillae (2). 2. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. process. vertebral column. bones are classified as long. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 3. parietal (2). and spine. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. head. 3. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. The major fontanels are the anterior. muscle attachment. lumbar vertebrae (5). and balance. It is composed of 22 bones. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. 7. ethmoid. fused). palatine (2). and posterolaterals. tuberosity. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. 3. zygomatic (2). and maxilla. 2. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. Condyle. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. meatus. lacrimal (2). the sternum. The vertebral column. and squamosal sutures. These curves give strength. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. lambdoidal. fused) and the coccyx (4. posterior. 2. sphenoid. occipital. hyoid bone. 6. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal.
2. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. 2. Examples include scoliosis. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). Schaphoid (Navicular). fibula. kyphosis. and Medial Cuneiform. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). and detail. 5. L l. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. metatarsals. tibia. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. and L 2. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. Capitate. Triangular (Triquetrum). 2. the ribs and costal cartilages. o Upper Extremities: 1. and phalanges. is referred to as spina bifida. and the bones of the lower extremities. Hamate (Unciform). Thorax: 1. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. the bones of the upper extremities. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. 3. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. carpals. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. 4. the pelvic girdle. Pisiform. and ischium. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. Navicular. 3. each consisting of a body. shape. tarsals. 2. 2. 2. a congenital defect. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and lordosis. vertebral arch. ulna. and seven processes. metacarpals. and phalanges. pubis.The vertebra are similar in structure. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. o Lower Extremities: 1. and the thoracic vertebrae. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. 4. radius. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. Talus. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). 3. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. II. Cuboid.
and loss of function. and muscle tension. and a synovial membrane. with no joint cavity. A dislocation. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. protraction and retraction. pivot joints (radioulnar). tension of ligaments. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. 3. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. supination and pronation. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. 3. 3. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. Fibrous Joints: 1. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. 8. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. or triaxial. Articulations: 1. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. 2. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . or luxation. some also contain ligaments. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). joints are classified as fibrous. All synovial joints are freely movable. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). are cartilaginous joints. 2. swelling. angular movements. and elevation and depression. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. ligaments. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). 2. 3. 2. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. with no joint cavity. and bursae. cartilaginous. rotation. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. 5. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). 4. to provide support and leverage. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. 6.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. or synovial. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. 1. articular cartilage. inversion and eversion. 5. Disorders . Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. tendons. and muscles. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. biaxial. joints. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. 2. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. 7. 2. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted.arches. Bones held together by cartilage. 4. 2. hinge joints (elbow). articular discs. circumduction. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). are fibrous joints. 6. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). Structurally. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. Synovial Joints: 1. saddle joints (carpometacarpal).
Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. nuclei. It is striated and voluntary. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. Types: 1. Contraction . 3. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. 6. covering the entire muscle. covering fasciculi. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. 7. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. and T tubules. 3. There are three types of fascia: superficial. 4. Connective tissue components are epimysium. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. 2. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. 3. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction.without dislocation. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. Functions: 1. It is striated and involuntary. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. perimysium. 4. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. 4. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. 3. or myoneural. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. 5. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. covering individual fibers. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. maintenance of posture. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . thick myofilaments consist of myosin. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. 2. junction. Energy for Contraction: 1. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. 2. The Motor Unit: 1. 2. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Physiology of Contraction: 1. and subserous. and troponin. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. and endomysium. 2. and heat production. the neuron releases acetylcholine. Through contraction. contract. 2. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. triggering the contractile process. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. tropomyosin. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. 3. deep. 8. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments.
cramps. 4. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. more blood capillaries. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. 2.2. Abnormal contractions include spasms. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. 5. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. Kinds of Contractions: 1. The fibers are arranged in a network. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. and stiffness of joints. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. 6. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. 3. 2. isotonic. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. 4. This muscle is found only in the heart. 2. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. treppe. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. 2. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. 3. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. It is striated and involuntary. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. If it occurs in the lumbar region. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. 3. Unit it is paid back. and larger T tubules. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. 3. 2. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. 3. stimulus. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. stimulus. 5. 3. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. 2. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. 3. muscles. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. tenderness. and related structures in the thigh. it is called lumbago. or threshold. fibrillations. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. or subthreshold. Disorders . The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. more mitochondria. and isometric. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. Muscle Tone: 1. convulsions. and tics. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. and a large amount of myoglobin. tetanus. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. 3. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. each of which contracts as a functional unit. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. Homeostasis: 1. 2.
The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. and action. and deltoid region of the arm. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. On the basis of function. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. Around the time of birth. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. the membrane is said to have an action potential. 2. 2. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. If. and ependyma. bipolar. 4. lateral side of the thigh. number of origins (or heads). shape. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. 3. 3. 5. neurons are multipolar. and circular. produce the myelin sheath. effort. including motor neurons. and resistance on the lever. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. pennate. 5. cardiac muscle tissue. 2. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. 4. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. and usually a single axon. 3. Neurons. The antagonist produces an opposite action. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. 2. 6. origin and insertion. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. microglia. size. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. Intramuscular Injections: 1. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. oligodendrocytes. On the basis of structure. second-class. and reacting to them. Neurons: 1. 2. and glands. 3. 1. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. or nerve cells. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. and carry out phagocytosis. and minimal irritation. attach neurons to blood vessels. and unipolar. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. 2. and the membrane is said to be polarized. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. Nerve Impulse: 1. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. convergent. interpreting them. 6. 2. location. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action.
3. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. 3. anterior. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. 7. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. 2. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. 6. 6. 6. 4. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. arachnoid and pia mater. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. According to the all-ornothing principle. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. 2. 3. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal.travels from point to point along the membrane. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. and ascending and descending tracts. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. cell body. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. posterior. 7. 4. Protection and Coverings: 1. posterior. 5. cerebrospinal fluid. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. 4. 7. 4. central canal. or axon hillock. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. 5. 3. and vertebral ligaments. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. 6. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. Structure in Cross Section: 1. and lateral white columns. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. meninges. and lateral gray horns. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. 5. anterior. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 2. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. 2. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord.
Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. form networks of nerves called plexuses. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. perineunum. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. and an effector. Its basic components are a receptor. brachial. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. a center. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. 9.2. and crossed extensor reflex. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. A stretch reflex. 6. such as the patellar reflex. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). • Distribution: 1. 4. The skin segments are called dermatomes. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. meningeal branch. 5. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. 7. 2. respectively. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 5. 2. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. 4. a motor neuron. 8. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. • Dermatomes: 1. 4. A reflex is a quick. Functions: 1. Following peripheral nerve damage. the Babinski sign. a sensory neuron. 2. 1. posterior root ganglion. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 1. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. tendon reflex. and sacral plexuses. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. except for T 2-T 11. is an example. 2. 2. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. and regeneration. ventral ramus. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. flexor reflex. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. 5. Wallerian degeneration. and epineurium. • Composition and Coverings: 1. the Achilles reflex. 5. Disorders . 2. 3. constant segments of the skin. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. association. The posterior root. 3. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. 3. 4. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. 2. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. 3. lumbar. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. and the abdominal reflex. and motor neuron. and rami communicantes.
and unconsciousness. 1. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. 3. sneezing. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. Protection and Coverings: 1. mental retardation. The Diencephalon: 1. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. 2. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. 2. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. 3. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. 3. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. The Brain Stem: 1. cerebrum.1. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. vasoconstriction. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 3. and central canal. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. 2. coughing. 4. it is called internal hydrocephalus. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. 4. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. 6. 2. it is called external hydrocephalus. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. cells. 2. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. or death. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. During embryological development. 2. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . epilepsy. Embryological Development: 1. diencephalon. convulsions. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. and hiccuping. vomiting. 3. permanent damage. 1. cranial meninges. or death of brain 5. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 1. 2. ventricles. 2. 1. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. The pons is superior to the medulla. respiratory rate. and cerebellum. 2. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. 1. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. 2. swallowing. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. 4. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. which helps control respiration.
numerical and scientific skills. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. musical and artistic awareness. 2. and tumors. 3. controls body temperature. Its cortex contains convolutions. parietal. 1. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. The Cerebrum: 1. 3. They help to control muscular movements. 2. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. 2. endorphins. regulates food and fluid intake. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. aspartic acid. imagination. touch. 3. 2. 3. 1. 3. and sulci. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. space and pattern perception. and glycine. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. 7. Brain Lateralization: 1. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins.7. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. spoken and written language. insight. and dynorphin. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. either anatomically or functionally. and smell. norepinephrine. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. temporal. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. 1. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 6. 2. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. 4. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. to the cerebral cortex. 2. 3. sound. 4. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. and occipital. glutamic acid. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. 10. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. dopamine. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. and generating mental images of sight. constricted vermis. 7. 3. 2. 2. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. infections. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. taste. except smell. 3. fissures. It controls the autonomic nervous system. 6. 2. excite. 2. 1. The Cerebellum: 1. serotonin. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. and reasoning. 5. 9. 3. gamma aminobutyric acid. 8. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 3.
12. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. 4. 5. 2. thrombosis. 8. etc. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Trigeminal Sensory function. Hypoglossal . taste. 12. 4. Optic . Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. Impulse transmission is interrupted. cornea. upper teeth. The Cranial Nerves: 1. upper eyelid. also called strokes. hearing and balance. 3. 4. Palate. or early infancy. Motor. or basal ganglia during fetal development.Sensory. 1. Accessory Motor. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. 6. Examples include angiotensin. 3. forehead. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. Glossophary ngeal . 4. muscles of facial expression. Oculomotor . larangeal muscles.Motor function of eye muscles. Olfactory . 11. sensory. tongue muscles. taste.11. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. inferior pharynx. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). 11. 6.The sense of vision. Soft palate. 5. Vagus Sensory. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia.The sense of smell. 9. 8. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus.Sensory. pharynx. or atherosclerosis. nose. some neck and shoulder muscles. childbirth. Tongue muscles. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. soft palate. Motor function. Vestibulococ hlear . are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. Depending on the form of the disease. Scalp.Motor. thoracic and abdominal organs. 2. upper jaw. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . or psychological malfunction. 7. etc. lower teeth. cerebellum. lower jaw. larynx. cholecystokinin. 10. Motor. Disorders . 10. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. . 9. muscles of mastication. pharyngeal muscles. Motor function.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Facial Sensory. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. 7.
and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. thermoreceptors. and pain. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. The neural pathway for light touch. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. 3. and sometimes delirium. free nerve endings. Meissner's corpuscles. surgery. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. visceroceptors. 2. 3. Sensations: 1. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. 5. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. Merkel's discs. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. In terms of simplicity or complexity. and third-order neurons. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. 3. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. 12. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. and Pacinian corpuscles. and chemoreceptors. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. According to location. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. end organs of Ruffini. pressure. 2. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. and proprioceptors. Characteristics: 1.muscle spasms and encephalitis. connective tissues. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. 3. vibration). receptors are classified as exteroceptors. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. Classification of Receptors: 1. tendons. proprioception. movement of body parts. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Receptors located in muscles. electromagnetic receptors. General Senses . conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. nociceptors. 6. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. 2. 4. brain dysfunction. and tendon organs. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 2. 5. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. they cause subconscious motor reactions. 13. and liver damage. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. 2. second-order. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. conduction of the impulse to the brain. 4. 2. and body position. Levels of Sensation: 1.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. 2. muscle spindles. and end organs of Ruffini. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. personality changes. and acupuncture. 4. 7. 4. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body.
2. 2. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. and corticobulbar tracts. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column).6. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. 3. to alleviate migraine headaches. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. 4. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. 4. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. Motor Pathways: 1. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. afferent neuron. concerned with energy expenditure. 2. or visceral efferent nervous system. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. in particular by the cerebral cortex. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). 4. and vestibulospinal tracts. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. and glands. decrease in heart rate. 2. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. association neuron. 3. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. Integrative Functions: 1. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. activities of smooth muscle. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. 2. and the medulla oblongata. 3. 5. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. Control by Higher Centers: 1. reduced metabolic rate. 4. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. the hypothalamus. It is entirely motor. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. it consists of activated and long-term components. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). Olfactory Sensations: 1. and plexuses. The autonomic nervous system. regulates visceral activities. in general. It is regulated by centers in the brain. that is. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. anterior corticospinal. ganglia. tectospinal. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. and visceral effector. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. It usually operates without conscious control. It has been used to control heart rate. 3. and to make childbirth easier. 2. 3. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. 2. cardiac muscle. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. On the basis of the transmitter produced. 3. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. Physiology: 1.
water-soluble. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). increase pressure in the endolymph. 7. 5. and the threshold of smell is low. which destroys neurons of the retina. the optic tract. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. thalamus. and vitreous humor. 6. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. lens. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. strike the tympanic membrane. 4. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and round window). The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. which contains rods and cones. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). 5. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. 5. or vertical motion. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. and iris). 9. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. and cerebral cortex. and inverted image formation. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). 3. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). VII. and the lacrimal apparatus. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. 3. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. 3. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. A sound impulse is then initiated. 8. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. pass through the ossicles. 4. oval window. and (c) retina. aqueous humor. hypermetropia (farsightedness). 4. The four primary tastes are salt. and X. ciliary body. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. and cerebral cortex. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. convergence. Trachoma is a chronic. 4. 6. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. and lipid-soluble. 4. sweet. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. olfactory bulbs. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. 7. Visual Sensations: 1. 2. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. 8. eyelids. and tympanic membrane). strike the basilar membrane. 5. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. sour. and bitter. the organ of hearing. linear. and the cortex. the thalamus. 3. IX.2. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. medulla. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. set up waves in the perilymph. ossicles. the optic chiasma. 10. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. Disorders . 3. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. accommodation of the lens. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. olfactory tracts. constriction of the pupil. external auditory canal. 2. 2. strike the oval window. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. eyelashes.
5. 15. 3. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. Exocrine glands (sweat. 2. 8. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. 16. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). 6. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. respond to stress. help regulate growth and development. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. Control of Hormonal Secretions . OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. and contribute to reproductive processes. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. 3. 14. 10. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 4. nerve impulses. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. 9. 2. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH).Feedback Control: 1. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 7. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. 2. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. 4. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). 12. 2. 11. and acromegaly. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 3. 13. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). sebaceous. On the basis of solubility. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Histologically. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). 2. giantism. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. and regulating factors. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself.
and delta cells. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. beta cells secrete insulin. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. Secretion is controlled by TRF. Histologically. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 6. 7. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. 5. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. 2. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. and gonadocorticoids. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. Histologically. Pancreas: 1. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. 3. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Mineralocorticoids (e. Histologically. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. 8. 3. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. and zona reticularis. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood.. 2. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. Secretion is controlled by CRF. 10. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. 5. Glucocorticoids (e. 4. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells.g. 4. 3. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. They are released under stress. help resist stress.. glucocorticoids. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. 2. beta cells. zona ennin late. Cretinism. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. 2. 3. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. and the reactivity of the nervous system. and lactation. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. Parathyroids: 1. 6. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. menstrual cycle. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. 4. exophthalmic goiter. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. and parafollicular cells. Insulin decreases blood sugar level.g. pregnancy. which secrete calcitonin (CT). Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. 4. Ovaries and Testes: 1. Alpha cells secrete glucagon.Thyroid: 1. 5. myxedema. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. and serve as antiinflammatories. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). growth and development. 2. 6. 2. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. Histologically. Histologically. 9.
nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. nutrients.90 NaCI. and water content of cells. 38 degrees C (100. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. 2. 6. and thrombocytes (platelets). Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. and enzymes. 5. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. 3. The cardiovascular system consists of blood.4 degrees F). hormones. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. called plasma. body temperature. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. foods. Iymph vessels. Functions: 1. It helps to regulate pH. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers.pinealocytes. The liquid portion of blood. It protects against toxins and microbes. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. carbon dioxide.85 to 0. 3. fibrinogen). Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. Blood transports oxygen. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. called erythropoiesis. 2. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. 2. Red blood cells live about 120 days. about 4. 2. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis.35 to 7.5 percent solutes. Plasma: 1. Thrombocytes: 1. and Iymph glands. 2. 3. 6. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. and salinity. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells.000/mm3. 7. 2. eosinophils. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. 3. 2. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection.45. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. thymic factor (TF). 5. pH. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. temperature. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. leucocytes (white blood cells). This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. 4. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . globulins.5. 2. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis.5 to 5.000 to 9. the heart. 4.5 percent water and 8. 4. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone).000/mm3. Normal blood contains 5. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. a healthy female. and platelets. granular leucocytes. Erythrocytes: 1. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. Erythrocyte formation. wastes. Leucocytes: 1. 4. 3. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs.4 million/mm3 of blood. A healthy male has about 5. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. Normal blood contains 250. neuroglial cells. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. consists of 91.000 to 400. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. 3.8 million/mm3. Components: 1. Thymus: 1. 0. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. Lymphocytes. and blood vessels. thymic humoral factor (THF). Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei.
2. The cause is a virus. and endocardium.Valves: 1. 9. 6. 2. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. 3.The Heart: 1. 3. 4. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. 8. myocardium. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. 3. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Disorders . 2. 7.and hormones. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. 3. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. 2. Like plasma. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. platelet plug formation. In the ABO system. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. 4. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. It involves vascular spasm. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. encloses the heart. and sickle cell anemia. 2. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. aplastic. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. The parietal pericardium. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). heparin) prevent clogging. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). Anticoagulatants (e. 2. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. Interstitial Fluid: 1.g. hemolytic. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. In vascular spasm. The Cardiovascular System . In the Rh system. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. 11. 4. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). and out through the aorta. respiratory gases. and blood coagulation. 2. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. 10.. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. pernicious. hemorrhagic. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities.
6. 5. 2. 6. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. between the atria and their ventricles. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 2. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). Cardiac Output: 1. 7. 5. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. 4. Cardiac Cycle: 1. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. 3. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). 2. 5. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. Blood Supply: 1. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. and right heart (atrial) reflex. detecting the presence of fetal life. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. 2. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. 3. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. sodium.4. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. determining the presence of several fetuses. Conduction System: 1. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). atrioventricular (AV) bundle. 6. and Purkinje fibers. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. 2. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. aortic reflex. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. potassium). 3. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. Electrocardiogram: 1. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure.8 sec. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. 3. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. 4. temperature. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. bundle branches. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. atrioventricular (AV) node. 7. 3. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. 7. 4. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve.
5. valvular stenosis. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. obesity. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. flutter. to correct some defects. 2. 2. Capillaries: 1. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. others are fenestrated. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. sex (gender and physical activity). 3. 2. Arteries: 1. and arrhythmias (heart block. and tetralogy of Fallot). 3. 3. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. The heart becomes hypoxic. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. 2. They drain blood from capillaries into veins.emotion. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. diabetes mellitus. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. and age. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. 5. Veins: 1. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. fibrillation. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. 2. and to apply chemotherapy locally.ener Arterioles: 1. and premature contractions). Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. high blood pressure. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. Disorders . Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. and genetic disposition. 4. some capillaries are continuous. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. and tunica externa. This network increases the surface area. 2. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). 3. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. 2. 3. 4. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. cigarette smoking. septal defects. 3. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. lack of exercise. and therefore blood pressure. blood pressure increases. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. 4. Venules: 1. In severe shock. 4. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. As blood volume increases. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries.
8. 2. 3. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. Circulatory Routes: 1. and the descending aorta. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. 2. 6. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. and autoregulation. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. chemoreceptors. and liver functions are established. chemicals. digestive. 3. and fetal circulation. 2. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . when lung. 3. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. and age. temperature. intestines. chemicals. emotions. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. pulmonary. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. 2. Blood Reservoirs: 1. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. 2. the arch of the aorta. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. 2. 3. Systemic Circulation: 1. 3. At birth. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. 2. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. 7. skeletal muscular contractions. sex. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. and breathing. Disorders . Fetal Circulation: 1. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. Other routes include the cerebral. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. stomach. They in turn empty into the right atrium. spleen. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. 9. 2. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. and higher brain centers.
Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. 2. mucous membranes. IgM. 7. and properdin). which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. 4. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. unsaturated fatty acids. to Iymph capillaries. Examples of antigens are microbes. and transplants. 3. brain. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. 9. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 2. lacrimal apparatus. when introduced into the body. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. 3. 3. to Iymphatics. IgA. Lymph Circulation: 1. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. 2. 3. chemical factors (gastric juice. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. antimicrobial substances (interferon. microbial structures. cilia. 2. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. It also acts as a reservoir for blood.1. phagocytosis. IgD. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. 4. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. Iymphatic vessels. 5. and Iymph organs. epiglottis. each with specific biological roles (IgG. Lymphatic Organs: 1. 2. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. complement. They include the pharyngeal. to Iymph trunks. 6. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. saliva. acid pH of skin. incompatible blood cells. Based on chemistry and structure. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. 3. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. and flow of urine). The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. and multivalence. 5. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. 2. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. inflammation. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. mucus. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. to the subclavian veins. 2. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. and lingual tonsils. and Iysozyme). and fever. reactivity. 8. and kidneys. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. Iymph nodes. 3. and IgE). Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. called Iymphatics. 4. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. palatine. pollen. Antigens are chemical substances that.
sighing. treatment. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. eczema. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. 6. 13. 14. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant.liver and spleen. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. sobbing. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. 12. Coughing. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. rheumatic fever. preparing vaccines. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. 7. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. myasthenia gravis. 2. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. During forced inspiration. 5. asthma. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . crying. 2. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. 2. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. sneezing. 8. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. memory B cells recognize the original. 11. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. they are important in diagnosis. and multiple sclerosis (MS). Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. yawning. 4. 3. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. 3. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. laughing. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. and hives. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. 10. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. invading antigen. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. detection of disease. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. 2. 4.
Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. include inspiratory. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). According to Dalton's law. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. 2. and excess mucus production. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and DPG. Pulmonary lung capacities. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). blood pressure. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. and total. 3. expiratory reserve. assuming that the pressure remains constant. temperature. 2. 4. the inflation reflex. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. 3. 2. and a rich blood supply.Internal Respiration: 1. and enlarged chest. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). temperature. and Circulation. 5. the sum of two or more volumes.are tidal volume. 4. 6. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. both in the brain and outside. 2. inspiratory reserve. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. a large alveolar surface area. and minimal volumes. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. inflated alveoli. pain. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. The A. inflated lungs. when the temperature remains constant. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . residual volume. 2. Breathing. pneumotaxic area. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. pCO2. 3. 3. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. and function of the epithelial cells. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. division. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). 2. vital. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. External Respiration . and irritation to the respiratory centers. Disorders . Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. C's of CPR are Airway. 4. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. functional residual. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. 3. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. In bronchogenic carcinoma. compresses the lungs. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. 2. and apneustic area. It is symbolized by p. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. B. 3.
salivary glands. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. and serosa (peritoneum). tongue. Organization: 1. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. 2. Deglutition: 1. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. forms the floor of the oral cavity. muscularis. 4. 2. mechanical and chemical digestion. 4. The tongue. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. It consists of a voluntary stage. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. 2. 2. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. or alimentary canal. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. palates. Some papillae contain taste buds. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. 2. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. peristalsis. and cervix. root. submucosa. Salivary Glands: 1. lipid. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. 3. 2. 8. 2. The teeth. and pancreas. The accessory structures include the teeth. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. and tongue. 3. Digestive Processes: 1. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. gallbladder. 5. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. and greater omentum. mesocolon. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. submandibular (submaxillary). The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. 9. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. lips. 2. liver. 3. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Teeth: 1. the hardest substance in the body. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). 3. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. absorption. and accessory structures. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. which aid mechanical digestion. falciform ligament. together with its associated muscles. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. and defecation. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. lesser omentum. or dentes. 4. 4. 2.7. 3. and sublingual glands.
proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). and vitamins. The esophagus is a collapsible. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). a protein-digesting enzyme. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Liver: 1.Histology: 1. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. gastric. Pancreas: 1. and transported as chylomicrons. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). 2. villi. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. and alcohol. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). glands that produce mucus. Absorption: 1. 2. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. and the microvilli.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. resynthesized to triglycerides. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. 3. 3. Stomach: Anatomy . and intestinal. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. Esophagus: 1. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. and stomach gastrin. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. 2. 2. 2. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. 4. 2. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. 2. The small intestine also absorbs water. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. hydrochloric acid. Gallbladder: 1. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). The most important mechanism is local reflexes. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. 3. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). 2. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Among the substances absorbed are some water. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). 3. intrinsic factor. 2. Absorption: 1. electrolytes. 2. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. Hormones also assume a role. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK).Histology: 1. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). 3. 2. certain electrolytes and drugs. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Small Intestine: Anatomy . Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves.
Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. 3. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. peristalsis. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. 2. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. inorganic salts. 11. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. minerals. 3. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. Metabolism: 1. and cementum. 6. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. and non-A. and anal canal. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. and water. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. rectum. and mass peristalsis. and undigested foods. The large intestine absorbs water. and vitamins. action. 4. 2. Feces consists of water. 3. bacteria. epithelial cells. During digestion. periodontal membrane. 2. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. alveolar bone. lipids. stenosis. colon. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon.1. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. 7. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. vitamins. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. 12. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. colonoscopy. 5. . act as building blocks in forming new body components. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. 5. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. and barium x-ray. Its subdivisions include the cecum. Defecation: 1. electrolytes. 4. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. Anabolic reactions use energy. rather than enzymatic. 8. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. a foreign body. 2. 9. hepatitis B. proteins. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. 2. Types include hepatitis A. carcinoma of the cecum. Disorders . 10. or kinking of the organ.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy.
Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. 3. 4. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. 2. 3. Fate of Lipids: 1. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. glucagon. In beta oxidation. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. and the electron transport chain. 3. recombined to form triglycerides. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. When oxygen is in short supply. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. As a result of glycolysis. 3. 3. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. 3. 6. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. 1 molecule of FADH2. 4 molecules of NADH2. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. under aerobic conditions. epinephrine. 2. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). 3. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid.2. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. Lipid Metabolism: 1. 2. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. 4. Electron Transport Chain: 1. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. Glucose Anabolism: 1. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 2. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. thromboplastin for blood clotting. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. and I molecule of GTP. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. coenzyme Q. and growth hormone (GH). 2. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. the Krebs cycle. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Glucose Catabolism: 1. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Lipid Catabolism: 1. Fat Storage: 1. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. 2. 3. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. 2. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. and cytochromes. 2. thyroxine. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. It is stimulated by cortisol. During digestion. Glycolysis: 1. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. 5.
During the absorptive state. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. enter body cells by active transport. During the absorptive state. may cause acidosis. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. 2. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. E.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. decarboxylation. sodium. 3. D. and chromium. magnesium. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. phosphorus. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. these conversions involve deamination. 2. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. based on the needs of the body. 3. and insulin. iron. During digestion. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. manganese. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. Protein Anabolism: 1. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. fats.Lipogenesis: 1. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. cobalt. iodine. but an excess of ketone bodies. 2. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Production of Body Heat: 1. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. 2. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. 2. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism.4. copper. 2. conversion of glycerol into glucose. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. Protein Metabolism: 1. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. and so forth. 2. Lipid Anabolism . Many function in enzyme systems. Minerals: 1. potassium. 2. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Inside cells. Before amino acids can be catabolized. and body temperature. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. or converted. fatty acids. 3. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. Amino acids. Protein Catabolism: 1. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. 4. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. and K. Fate of Proteins: 1. The process is stimulated by insulin. thyroxine. and hydrogenation. and proteins. the nervous system. sulfur. 2. selenium. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. snd ketane hadies. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. zinc. hormones. stored. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. hormones. structural elements. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). chlorine. 3. Vitamins: 1. called ketosis. 2.
and K and calcium is inadequate. and urethra. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. 4. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. glomerulus. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. lethargy. distal convoluted tubule. 5. 4. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. 2. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. 2. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. skeletal muscle contraction. and sometimes mental retardation. deereased metabolic rate. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. 6. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. adipose capsule. and thyroxine production. cramps. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. descending limb of Henle. nausea. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. 3. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. and renal fascia. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. ascending limb of Henle. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. 3. 3. columns. 2. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. failure to grow. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and a pelvis. 3. Loss of Body Heat: 1. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. Internally. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . 4. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. 3. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. ureters. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. 2. and perspiration. and dizziness. medulla. 7. proximal convoluted tubule. pyramids. Physiology: 1. reduced perspiration. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. 3. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. stages include chill and crisis. 4. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. 4. D. urinary bladder. calyces.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 4. 5.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). sympathetic stimulation. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. 2. profuse perspiration. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. and high body temperature. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). the kidneys consist of a cortex. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. 5. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. loop of Henle. papillae.
Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. and certain drugs. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. salts. 2. 10. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. pleural. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. pH. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. including water. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. Urinary Bladder: 1. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. synovial fluid. 7. hippuric acid. ketone bodies. creatinine. and a serous coat. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). Body Fluids: 1. glucose. and specific gravity. Gl tract fluids. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). the rest by facultative reabsorption. and ions. and fluids of the eyes and ears. 8. 2. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. 2. 2. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. and emotions. bilirubin. temperature. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. indican. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 9. Urethra: 1.6. plasma and Iymph. Ureters: 1. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. 4. 3. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. blood concentration. renal calculi. 5. primarily by peristalsis. 2. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). Included are ions. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. 5. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. pericardial. 7. 4. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. It includes interstitial fluid. erythrocytes. Normally. Histologically. the lungs. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The solutes include urea. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. Besides the kidneys. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. amino acids. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. Chemically. and fibrous coat. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. and microbes. muscularis. 6. ketone bodies. 3. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). leucocytes. Homeostasis: 1. diuretics. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. nitrogenous wastes. In exchange. Disorders . 3. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. urobilinogen. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. turbidity. integument. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. glucose. 4. and peritoneal fluids. uric acid. and ions. odor. cerebrospinal fluid. 2. 5. 8. casts. 11. and the glomerular filtrate.
Under normal conditions. 4. especially extracellular fluid. 11. 2.1. and fluid and electrolyte balance. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. 2. Electrolytes: 1. 4. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). At the arterial end of a capillary. muscle contraction. fluid moves in the opposite direction. and kidney excretion. 7. phosphate. 5. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. 9. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. At the venous end. 2. 3.00. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .80.35 to 7. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. 8. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. 3. nerve impulse conduction. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. respirations. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. 4. decreases pH. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. and heartbeat.45. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). 5. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. and regulating pH. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. increases pH. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. Plasma. 3. 2. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. An increase in rate of respirations. 3. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes.35 and 6. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). 2. and protein. skin. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. 4. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions.45 and 8. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. and regulation of pH. a decrease in rate. lungs. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. and GI tract. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. 6. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. muscle contraction. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. 3. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. muscle contraction. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. chemical transmitter release. 4. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. interstitial fluid. It also functions in blood clotting. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. proper fluid movement between compartments. 10.
and maintenance of sex organs. ejaculatory duct. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. 2. membranous. ductus deferens. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. 4. Scrotum: 1. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. ductus epididymis. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. rete testis. Accessory Glands: 9. 5. 2. Testes: 1. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. ducts (transport and store gametes). development. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. 6. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. Ducts: 1. 2. prostate gland. and rete testis. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. 5. sustentacular cells. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. and spongy (cavernous). The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). seminal vesicles. straight tubules. Testosterone controls the growth. which nourish sperm cells. 3. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). 8. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. and interstitial endocrinocytes. bulbourethral glands. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. 3. 7. Male Reproductive System: 1. 11. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. 6. midpiece. in which sperm cells are made. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. 3. 10. sperm maturation. 7. and efferent ducts. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. and 7. 12. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. 3. Reproductive System: 1. 2. urethra. protein anabolism. and tail. straight tubules. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. stimulates bone growth. 2. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. and penis. II. 4.
A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. endometrial repair occurs. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. 5. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. 3. 2. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. The uterus is an inverted. Histologically. development. Ovaries: 1. 9. and inner endometrium. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. 2. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. Penis: 1. uterus. middle myometrium. . on either side of the uterus. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .nutrients. 2. They produce ova. and labor. 10. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. uterine tubes. 3. development of a fetus during pregnancy. discharge ova (ovulation). vagina. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. ovulation. 4. III. During the menstrual phase. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. The penis is the male organ of copulation. 3. and vulva. 2. tissue fluid. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. During the preovulatory phase. 2. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. and epithelial cells. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. 4. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. 5. 6. 6. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. mucus. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. Estrogens stimulate the growth. 4. 11. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. and stimulate protein anabolism. 2. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. 8. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. 7. Uterus: 1. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. During the postovulatory phase. implantation of a fertilized ovum.
7.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. If fertilization and implantation do occur. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. equatorial division. Sexual Intercourse: 1. 6. 9. clitoris. 3. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 8. syphilis. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). lubrication. lubrication. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. Vagina: 1. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. 2. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. 10. and orgasm (climax). and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). the cessation of the sexual cycles. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. Vulva: 1. dysmenorrhea.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. enlarged prostate. 9. 10. and the lower portion of the birth canal. It consists of the mons veneris. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. 2. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. labia minora. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. Perineum: 1. Mammary Glands: 1. 2. 7. and orgasm. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 2. and ova maturation. 5. equatorial division. The removal of a malignant breast. 11. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 12. and sperm maturation. vestibule. 2. Disorders . abnormal bleeding. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. vaginal and urethral orifices. 2. 2. labia majora. 3. pectoral muscles. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. 12. Spermatogenisis: 1. It is said to be haploid (n). 3. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. 4. 2. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. trichomoniasis. genital herpes. 13. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. and tumors. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. The female role also involves erection. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. 8. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 2. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. Oogenesis: 1.
. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. 3. and birth. embryonic growth. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. 1. 2. 4. 2. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. fetal growth. implantation. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Its various events are hormonally controlled. 5. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization.
such as hemophilia. 3. 2. 5. and delivery of the placenta. mechanical. 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. 2. During the fetal period. 8. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). estrogens. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. During embryonic growth. mesoderm. estrogens. 3. Lactation: 1. and progesterone. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. 4. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. . Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. 2. Tay-Sachs disease. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. microbes. 2. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. chorion. protein anabolism. and chemical). Birth Control: 6. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. removal of wastes. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. and protection. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). 2. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. and allantois. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. 6. amnion. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. tubal ligation. alcohol. 7. 3. laparascopic technique). 2. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). and Down's syndrome. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. 4. Examples are infections. 2. Parturition and Labor: 1. chemicals and drugs. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. sterilization (vasectomy. expulsion of the fetus.The morula develops into a blastocyst. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. Dominant genes control a particular trait. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. 3. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. and contraception (natural. and smoking. and progesterone. 5. sickle cell anemia. Inheritance: 1. 2.
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