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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
They are involved in muscular contraction. 2." 4. Functionally. such as mature red blood cells. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. 3. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. 2. 1.13. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. 2. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. centrioles. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. karyolymph. carbohydrates. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. and control. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. In conjunction with the ER. Cytoplasm: 1. repair. Nucleus: 1. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Organelles: 1. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. They are formed from Golgi complexes. but smaller. 2. and form the structure of flagella.. nucleoli. They contain enzymes (e. and helps export chemicals from the cell. 2. stores synthesized molecules. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. and genetic material (DNA). support. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. If the cell is injured. 3. 3. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. comprising the chromosomes. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. The ER provides mechanical support. They support. do not grow or reproduce. and inorganic substances. 3. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. and the mitotic spindle. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. 3. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. maintenance. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Ribosomes: 1. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. which carry on phagocytosis.The Cytoskeleton: 1. Functionally. 3. provide movement. cilia. The inner folds are called cristae. Usually the largest organelle. exchanges materials with cytoplasm.g. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. 2. and movement. 3. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. 2. lipids. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. Thus they are called "suicide packets. Mitochondria: 1. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. 2. 2. Microfilaments and Microtubules . 2. transports substances intracellularly. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Cells without nuclei. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. 3. 4. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. membranous sacs called cisternae. Peroxisomes: 1. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. It is located near the nucleus.
It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. In transcription. Some. 2.Protein Synthesis: 1. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. anaphase. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. 2. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. which consist of rRNA and protein. 4. It consists of prophase. and telophase. 2. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. they are called cilia. 2. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. DNA Polymerase is an example.DNA Repair: 1. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. are fibrous. lipids. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. and elastic fibers. an "SOS response" occurs. glycogen. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. or chromosomes. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. 2. 7. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). 4. 3. metaphase. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. they are called flagella. Somatic Cell Division: 1. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. 6. If they are numerous and hairlike. Gene Action . 3. 6. Flagella and Cilia: 1. 8. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. 3. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. mRNA associates with ribosomes. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. Extracellular Materials: 1. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. 5. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. 3. Cellular Inclusions: 1.2. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. Cell Division: 1. 2. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. "SOS" Genes . Others. This involves transcription and translation. 5. the DNA molecules. like collagenous. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. 3. If projections are few and long. are amorphous. 3. and mucus. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. reticular. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. Examples are melanin. In response to DNA damage. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA).
A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. the study of tumors is called oncology. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. 5. noncancerous tumors are called benign. muscular. and apocrine glands. auditory tubes. Epithelium has many cells. and no blood vessels (avascular). It can replace itself. little intracellular material. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. 3. cuboidal (cubelike). 4. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. supports. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. and a rich blood supply (vascular). 4. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Many theories of aging have been proposed. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. It is found covering ovaries. tubuloacinar. 2. 2. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. 6. and nervous. and binds organs together. pharynx. cell shapes include squamous (flat). and transitional (variable). oil. 2. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. acinar. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. in kidneys and eyes. Functional classification includes holocrine. 2. 2. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. 3. where it protects and secretes. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys.1. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. 3. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. and compound. It lines larger excretory ducts. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It does not occur on free surfaces. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. except for cartilage. 3. simple. Glandular Epithelium: 1. 9. Depending on their function and structure. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. and most upper respiratory structures. Exocrine glands (sweat. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. columnar (rectangular). connective. and epiglottis. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. 2. 5. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. portion of urethra. merocrine. Connective Tissue: 1. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. 3. 8. 7. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. Epithelial Tissue: 1. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. It has few cells. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. and lining some glandular ducts. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. stratified (several layers). parts of urethra. an extensive intercellular substance. but none successfully answers all questions. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. 2. Connective tissue protects. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching.
membranes of organs. where it gives support. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. 7. spleen. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. bone tissue. and Iymph nodes. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. and Cardiac. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. 3. and cutaneous. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. and true vocal cords. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. heat. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. auditory tubes. and in the subcutaneous layer. cartilage. elastic arteries. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without).4. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. pericardium. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . serous. It is found as a component of fascia. Examples are: mucous. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). pain. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. and aponeuroses. and vascular tissue. are specialized for fat storage. 2. It provides strength. 5. Tissue Inflammation . Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. Membranes: 1. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions.contraction. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. o Serous membranes (pleura. Muscle tissue performs one major function . 6. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. bronchial tubes.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. and external ear. around body organs. and provides support. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. trachea. 2. elastic. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. 2. Elastic. Dense. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). and Reticular. mast. macrophages. in the nose. such as the digestive tract. tendons. allows movement. 4. at the ends of bones. It is flexible. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. Visceral (smooth). An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. and swelling. called adipocytes. 2. and melanocytes). sometimes loss of function occurs. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. and in respiratory structures. ligaments. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Adipose. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. plasma.
2. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. The color of skin is due to melanin. • Hair: 1. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. and Meissner's corpuscles. and several organic compounds. 5. and root hair plexuses. 2. The epidermal layers. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. If the injury is superficial. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. pus is produced. carotene. Conditions for Repair: 1. Various vitamins (A. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. 3. and parenchymal regeneration. an abscess develops. granulation tissue is involved. Tissue Repair: 1. 7. arrectores pilorum muscles. 4. synthesis of vitamin D.The Skin: Skin 1. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. nerves. spinosum. 8. some B. lucidum. The Integumentary System . kinins. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. The skin and its derivatives (hair. 5. Graying is due to the loss of melanin.2. glands. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. hair follicles. 4. and ceruminous). 2. 2. sudoriferous. It performs the functions of protection. and pheomelanin (yellow). and a hair follicle. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. nerves. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. 3. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). maintaining body temperature. hair follicles. black melanin. brown melanin. Repair Process: 1. 5. 3. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. and nails. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. skin glands (sebaceous. are the stratum basale. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. C. If damage is extensive. oil glands. granulosum. and ducts of sweat glands. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. storage of chemical compounds. receiving stimuli. The reticular region is dense. 6. and excretion of water. D. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. 3. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . dermal papillae. if it cannot drain out of the body. In most inflammations. salts. 4. scab formation. serotonin. 2. and corneum. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. E. • Glands: 1. the process slows down with aging. from deepest to most superficial.
• palms and soles. and blood cell production. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. free edge. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. their ducts open into hair follicles. mineral storage. and skin grafting. 5. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. 2. 2. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. Disorders . Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. Depending on the depth of damage. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. As the perspiration evaporates. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. The functions of the skeletal system include support. 11. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. leverage. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. root. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 7. systemic diseases. hyponychium. and covering wounds with temporary protection. or psychogenic factors. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. 3. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. If environmental temperature is high. removing dead tissue. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Nails are hard. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. raised plaques or papules. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. and areolae. 2. 10. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. replacing lost body fluids. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. protection. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. Histology: 1. The principal parts of a nail are the body. 8. 2. and matrix. 6. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. 3. and third-degree (fullthickness). 9. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Most warts are benign. regulating metabolic rate. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. lunula. the skin is cooled. eponychium. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. Nails: 1. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. 3. 4. pimples. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. Homeostasis: 1. second-degree (partialthickness). and boils. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . They are found in the external auditory meatus. pubis.6F). 4.
while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. 2. where bone replaces cartilage. compact bone protects. and endosteum. The two types of ossification. and remodeling. metaphysis. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. 6. 2. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. A fracture is any break in a bone. hypertrophic cartilage. Normal growth depends on calcium. Functionally. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. 8. 3. 7. 8. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. flat. except for the epiphyseal plate. C. proliferating cartilage. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. 7. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. 3. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . spiral. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. and resists stress. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. medullary or marrow cavity. 2. Homeostasis: 1. Colles'. compound. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. The types of fractures include: partial. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. transverse. comminuted. It forms most of the structure of short. 4. forming a callus. 2. simple. marrow. and nondisplaced. and the epiphyses of long bones. epiphyses (ends). phosphorus. Next. impacted. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. displaced. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. Pott's. 5. articular cartilage. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. complete. 3. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. Osteoblasts lay down bone. 4. and vitamins (A. and irregular bones. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. and calcified matrix. greenstick. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. Disorders . 4. intramembranous and endochondral. 9. supports. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). Functionally. In both types of ossification. 3. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. and periosteum. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. Cartilage degenerates. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. This process is called remodeling. 6. spongy bone is laid down first. 5. periosteum. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support.
Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. palatine (2). The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. Examples are coronal. ethmoid. the sacrum (5. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). thoracic vertebrae (12). and maxilla. The major fontanels are the anterior. or irregular. 3. It is composed of 22 bones. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .1. facet. sternum. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. They are lined by mucous membranes. 3. fossa. and spine. zygomatic (2). auditory ossicles. fused). fused) and the coccyx (4. 2. On the basis of shape. muscle attachment. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. inferior nasal conchae (2). and posterolaterals. bones are classified as long. meatus. posterior. head. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. anterolaterals. Terms that describe markings include fissure. and vomer. 2. lacrimal (2). Hyoid Bone: 1. vertebral column. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. 2. 2. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). parietal (2). flat. 3. sagittal. lumbar vertebrae (5). Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. maxillae (2). Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. crest. 7. The vertebral column. occipital. 2. and ethmoid. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. Vertebral Column: 1. and ribs. and squamosal sutures. lambdoidal. 2. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. support. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. sphenoid. The patella is an example. temporal (2). short. 3. mandible. and balance. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. Condyle. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. Surface Markings: 1. These curves give strength. tuberosity. 1. 4. 6. hyoid bone. Skull: 1. sphenoid. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. the sternum. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. process. foramen. 5. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone.
2. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. Triangular (Triquetrum). and seven processes. and ischium. Hamate (Unciform). The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. Examples include scoliosis. vertebral arch. Talus. pubis. 4. tarsals. and Medial Cuneiform. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. Pisiform.The vertebra are similar in structure. 2. L l. ulna. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). and the thoracic vertebrae. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. each consisting of a body. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. o Upper Extremities: 1. 3. shape. kyphosis. o Lower Extremities: 1. and detail. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). II. Thorax: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. Navicular. fibula. Capitate. 2. and lordosis. 3. a congenital defect. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. 4. and phalanges. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. and phalanges. tibia. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. the bones of the upper extremities. 3. 2. and the bones of the lower extremities. and L 2. Schaphoid (Navicular). carpals. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. metacarpals. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. radius. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. the ribs and costal cartilages. the pelvic girdle. 3. 2. 2. is referred to as spina bifida. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. 5. metatarsals. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Cuboid.
and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). angular movements. 2. hinge joints (elbow). the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). and muscle tension. 2. and a synovial membrane. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. 7. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. and bursae. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . joints are classified as fibrous. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. 2. All synovial joints are freely movable. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. 6. 2. 6. with no joint cavity. or luxation. 2. Disorders .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 8. 5. swelling. joints. and elevation and depression. circumduction. 3. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). 2. 3. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. with no joint cavity. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. protraction and retraction. articular discs. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. 4. 2. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). Male and Female Skeletons: 1. and loss of function. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. tendons. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). or triaxial. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. 5. biaxial. Articulations: 1. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. and muscles. ligaments. rotation. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. Fibrous Joints: 1. 3. are cartilaginous joints. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). or synovial. 1. cartilaginous. Synovial Joints: 1. 3. supination and pronation. Structurally.arches. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. articular cartilage. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. 4. are fibrous joints. some also contain ligaments. inversion and eversion. tension of ligaments. to provide support and leverage. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. Bones held together by cartilage. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. pivot joints (radioulnar). A dislocation.
and troponin. 4. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. 8. Through contraction. 2. deep. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. Physiology of Contraction: 1. covering individual fibers. Functions: 1. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. Types: 1. It is striated and voluntary. 3. sarcoplasmic reticulum.without dislocation. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. 2. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and heat production. and T tubules. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. There are three types of fascia: superficial. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. maintenance of posture. The Motor Unit: 1. 3. 2. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. Energy for Contraction: 1. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. tropomyosin. perimysium. 3. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. or myoneural. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. Contraction . Connective tissue components are epimysium. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. covering fasciculi. 3. 3. covering the entire muscle. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. contract. and endomysium. 5. 4. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. 2. nuclei. and subserous. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. It is striated and involuntary. triggering the contractile process. 3. 2. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. 4. 2. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. junction. 6. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. 7. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. the neuron releases acetylcholine.
Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. 4. The fibers are arranged in a network. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. Abnormal contractions include spasms. 2. 6. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. Unit it is paid back. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and tics. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. and larger T tubules. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. 2. and a large amount of myoglobin. tenderness. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. 3. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. or threshold. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. and stiffness of joints. 2. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. and isometric. 2. stimulus. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. cramps. 5. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. It is striated and involuntary. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. or subthreshold. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. each of which contracts as a functional unit. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. it is called lumbago. 3. 2.2. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. Kinds of Contractions: 1. Disorders . 2. 2. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. 3. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. If it occurs in the lumbar region. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. convulsions. 3. isotonic. 5. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. stimulus. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. 3. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. muscles. fibrillations. Homeostasis: 1. 3. more blood capillaries. This muscle is found only in the heart. 3. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. and related structures in the thigh. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. treppe. tetanus. more mitochondria. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. 3. Muscle Tone: 1. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit.
and reacting to them. 3. The antagonist produces an opposite action. bipolar. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. 2. effort. and carry out phagocytosis. and unipolar. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. and the membrane is said to be polarized. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. 4. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. Intramuscular Injections: 1. and deltoid region of the arm. and glands. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. 6. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. second-class. interpreting them. 1. shape. 5. and ependyma. cardiac muscle tissue. Neurons: 1. convergent. 5. and minimal irritation. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. origin and insertion. number of origins (or heads). pennate. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. 2. 2. On the basis of structure. 2. 3. 2. oligodendrocytes. produce the myelin sheath. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. and resistance on the lever. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. location. Around the time of birth. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. microglia. Nerve Impulse: 1. size. lateral side of the thigh. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. Neurons. or nerve cells. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. and action. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. 2. the membrane is said to have an action potential. 6. 2. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. and usually a single axon. including motor neurons. On the basis of function. attach neurons to blood vessels. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. neurons are multipolar. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. 4.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. 3. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. If. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. and circular. 3.
Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. meninges. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. anterior. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. and lateral white columns. 4. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 5. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. Structure in Cross Section: 1. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. posterior. and ascending and descending tracts. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. 6. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period.travels from point to point along the membrane. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. 3. arachnoid and pia mater. 5. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. According to the all-ornothing principle. and vertebral ligaments. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. posterior. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. cerebrospinal fluid. 2. or axon hillock. 4. cell body. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. 3. 7. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. Protection and Coverings: 1. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. 2. 7. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. 4. central canal. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 5. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. 4. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. 3. 6. anterior. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. 6. 6. 2. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. 5. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. 2. 7. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. and lateral gray horns. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters.
and the abdominal reflex. association. Functions: 1. 3. 5. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. and regeneration. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and epineurium.2. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. and motor neuron. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. flexor reflex. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. 1. a center. the Babinski sign. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. 4. 8. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. • Distribution: 1. tendon reflex. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. lumbar. meningeal branch. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. The skin segments are called dermatomes. and rami communicantes. 2. 2. posterior root ganglion. Disorders . A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. form networks of nerves called plexuses. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. 3. and crossed extensor reflex. 2. and sacral plexuses. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. A stretch reflex. a motor neuron. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. constant segments of the skin. brachial. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. 5. 2. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. perineunum. • Dermatomes: 1. and an effector. 2. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. is an example. 7. 1. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. A reflex is a quick. a sensory neuron. such as the patellar reflex. Its basic components are a receptor. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. 9. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. 4. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 6. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. ventral ramus. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. 4. except for T 2-T 11. the Achilles reflex. respectively. • Composition and Coverings: 1. 5. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. The posterior root. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). 3. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 2. Wallerian degeneration. 4. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. 5. Following peripheral nerve damage.
the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. cells. The pons is superior to the medulla. 2. 2. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. 2. 1. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. 2. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. cranial meninges. and unconsciousness. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. which helps control respiration. 2. 3. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. 1. or death of brain 5. 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. ventricles. 4. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. The Diencephalon: 1. 2. it is called internal hydrocephalus. and central canal. convulsions. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. 4. 2. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. vomiting. 3. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. 4. 3. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. it is called external hydrocephalus. 6. cerebrum. vasoconstriction. respiratory rate. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV.1. 2. swallowing. 1. or death. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. Protection and Coverings: 1. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. The Brain Stem: 1. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. epilepsy. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. 1. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. coughing. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. 3. 3. 2. mental retardation. During embryological development. permanent damage. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. and cerebellum. sneezing. Embryological Development: 1. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. diencephalon. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. and hiccuping. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. 2.
space and pattern perception. and smell. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. 5. 2. 2. regulates food and fluid intake. infections. 3. Brain Lateralization: 1. and reasoning. 3. 8. Its cortex contains convolutions. 1. and dynorphin. endorphins. fissures. 6. and tumors. 3. 5. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. 1. 9. numerical and scientific skills. dopamine. 3. 4. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 7. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. excite. 1. norepinephrine. to the cerebral cortex. They help to control muscular movements. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate.7. 10. temporal. constricted vermis. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. 2. either anatomically or functionally. touch. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. The Cerebrum: 1. It controls the autonomic nervous system. taste. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. 2. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. and glycine. The Cerebellum: 1. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. gamma aminobutyric acid. imagination. sound. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. glutamic acid. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 2. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. and generating mental images of sight. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. serotonin. 2. insight. 3. 3. aspartic acid. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. 2. spoken and written language. 3. 2. and occipital. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. except smell. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. 2. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. and sulci. 2. 3. musical and artistic awareness. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. controls body temperature. parietal. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. 1. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. 3. 7. 3. 6.
some neck and shoulder muscles. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. muscles of mastication. 3. Soft palate. pharynx. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system.Motor function of eye muscles. tongue muscles. 7. 8. 4. sensory.Sensory. upper jaw.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. pharyngeal muscles. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. 4. 4. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. Accessory Motor. hearing and balance. 10. The Cranial Nerves: 1. Trigeminal Sensory function. upper eyelid. 10. Hypoglossal . Palate. or early infancy. 11.Sensory. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. 8. cornea. 4. 9. 9. 2. upper teeth. etc. cerebellum. 6. or psychological malfunction. also called strokes. Motor. Optic . Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. or atherosclerosis. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. 6. . childbirth. Tongue muscles. muscles of facial expression. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. 12. nose. Examples include angiotensin. lower jaw.The sense of vision. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). soft palate. Glossophary ngeal . Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2.The sense of smell. Scalp. thoracic and abdominal organs. 2. etc. 11. Motor. Facial Sensory. Motor function. 5. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. forehead. Disorders . 1. thrombosis. Depending on the form of the disease. cholecystokinin. 3. Impulse transmission is interrupted.Motor. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. larangeal muscles. Oculomotor . Vagus Sensory. Olfactory . Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. 5. 12. larynx. Vestibulococ hlear . lower teeth. Motor function. inferior pharynx. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . taste. 7. taste. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. or basal ganglia during fetal development. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language.11. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. the victim experiences degrees of motor.
The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. nociceptors. 2. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. 6. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. General Senses . vibration). In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. muscle spindles. visceroceptors. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. 7. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. 3. and proprioceptors. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 4. 3. and pain. 13. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. end organs of Ruffini. 12. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. and Pacinian corpuscles. they cause subconscious motor reactions. 3. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. The neural pathway for light touch. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. tendons. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. personality changes. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. and end organs of Ruffini. 5. 4. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. Classification of Receptors: 1. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. free nerve endings. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. 3. and liver damage. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. and chemoreceptors. According to location. 2. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. Meissner's corpuscles. conduction of the impulse to the brain. surgery. and tendon organs. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. 2. In terms of simplicity or complexity. Receptors located in muscles. thermoreceptors. 4. and third-order neurons. Characteristics: 1. and acupuncture. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. Levels of Sensation: 1. 4. Merkel's discs. connective tissues. 3. electromagnetic receptors. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). 2.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. pressure. 2. 5.muscle spasms and encephalitis. proprioception. and sometimes delirium. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. Sensations: 1. 2. and body position. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. second-order. movement of body parts. brain dysfunction.
it consists of activated and long-term components. and to make childbirth easier. and visceral effector. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. association neuron. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. and the medulla oblongata. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. ganglia. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. It is regulated by centers in the brain. in general. 3. and corticobulbar tracts. On the basis of the transmitter produced. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. 3. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). anterior corticospinal. 4. 3. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. that is. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. 2. or visceral efferent nervous system. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. afferent neuron. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 5. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. 2. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. tectospinal. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. reduced metabolic rate. in particular by the cerebral cortex. 2. Olfactory Sensations: 1. 2. 2. Motor Pathways: 1. 3. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. The autonomic nervous system. Control by Higher Centers: 1. 4. to alleviate migraine headaches. 4. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. the hypothalamus. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. activities of smooth muscle. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. concerned with energy expenditure. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. It usually operates without conscious control. It is entirely motor. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. 3. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. 4. Physiology: 1. It has been used to control heart rate. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. regulates visceral activities. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). Integrative Functions: 1. and glands. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. 2. 3.6. decrease in heart rate. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. and plexuses. 2. 4. and vestibulospinal tracts. cardiac muscle.
Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. the thalamus. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. and cerebral cortex. 2. sweet. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). and round window). 5. and bitter. increase pressure in the endolymph. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). 9. 4. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 4. convergence. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. 4. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. pass through the ossicles. 2. A sound impulse is then initiated. and (c) retina. olfactory bulbs. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. set up waves in the perilymph. hypermetropia (farsightedness). Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. aqueous humor. water-soluble. 7. the optic tract. and iris). (b) vascular tunic (choroid. 5. 6. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. and the lacrimal apparatus. 8. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. and X. and vitreous humor. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. 3. and tympanic membrane). The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. The four primary tastes are salt. constriction of the pupil. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. 10. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. Disorders . thalamus. olfactory tracts. Trachoma is a chronic. linear. and inverted image formation. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. 3. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. 2. 6. sour. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. or vertical motion. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. strike the basilar membrane. eyelashes.2. 4. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. VII. 4. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. Visual Sensations: 1. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. 5. accommodation of the lens. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. which destroys neurons of the retina. and the cortex. and lipid-soluble. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. medulla. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. ossicles. 2. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). oval window. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. 3. external auditory canal. IX. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. 8. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. 3. 7. lens. strike the oval window. eyelids. the organ of hearing. strike the tympanic membrane. which contains rods and cones. 3. and the threshold of smell is low. and cerebral cortex. ciliary body. the optic chiasma.
The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. Exocrine glands (sweat. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. 15. 4. 5. 2. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. 13. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). 14. Chemistry of Hormones: 1.Feedback Control: 1. 16. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. 9. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). Hormones help regulate the internal environment. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). 2. and regulating factors. 8. 7. 2. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. giantism. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). 3. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). 3. help regulate growth and development. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. 10. and acromegaly. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH).The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. On the basis of solubility. 3. 12. 11. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. Control of Hormonal Secretions . 6. 2. 4. respond to stress. sebaceous. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Histologically. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. and contribute to reproductive processes. 2. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. nerve impulses. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP.
and delta cells. Cretinism. 5. menstrual cycle. 5. Parathyroids: 1. Mineralocorticoids (e. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Pancreas: 1. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands.g. help resist stress. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 2. Secretion is controlled by CRF. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. 2. 3. pregnancy. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. 6. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. Ovaries and Testes: 1. exophthalmic goiter. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Secretion is controlled by TRF.Thyroid: 1. growth and development. and lactation. Histologically. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. 10. beta cells. myxedema. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. and gonadocorticoids. They are released under stress. and zona reticularis. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 3. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. Glucocorticoids (e. zona ennin late. 7. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. 2. and serve as antiinflammatories. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Histologically. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. and the reactivity of the nervous system. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. 6. 4. 2.. 9. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. 8.. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. 3. Histologically. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. 4. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. 4. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. 2. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. glucocorticoids. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. 6. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. beta cells secrete insulin. 2. Histologically. which secrete calcitonin (CT). and parafollicular cells. 4. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 5. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. 3. Histologically.g. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells.
Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. 4. Lymphocytes. the heart. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin.35 to 7. 2. hormones. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. thymic factor (TF). leucocytes (white blood cells). fibrinogen). A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. 38 degrees C (100. It protects against toxins and microbes.000/mm3. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. 5. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days.5 percent water and 8. Iymph vessels. It helps to regulate pH.5 to 5. 5. 6. about 4. nutrients. 2. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). 0. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. 2. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). neuroglial cells. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. and salinity. 4. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis.45. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .85 to 0. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. Normal blood contains 250. 3. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. called plasma. 2.5. globulins.000/mm3. Thrombocytes: 1. Functions: 1. 3. Erythrocyte formation. 7. The liquid portion of blood. 3. temperature. A healthy male has about 5. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. and Iymph glands. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. consists of 91. 2. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. granular leucocytes. Normal blood contains 5. 3. foods. Red blood cells live about 120 days. and thrombocytes (platelets). Leucocytes: 1. and enzymes. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. Plasma: 1. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. eosinophils.5 percent solutes. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances.4 degrees F). 6. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. body temperature. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. wastes. 3. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. pH. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. called erythropoiesis. 2. Components: 1.4 million/mm3 of blood.8 million/mm3. Blood transports oxygen.90 NaCI. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. and blood vessels. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. 3. 2. 4. and platelets.000 to 9. 4. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. 2. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Thymus: 1.pinealocytes. and water content of cells. a healthy female. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. Erythrocytes: 1. carbon dioxide. thymic humoral factor (THF).000 to 400.
A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. and blood coagulation. 9. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . It involves vascular spasm. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus.and hormones. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. In the ABO system. hemolytic. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium.Valves: 1. In the Rh system. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. pernicious. platelet plug formation. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count.g. 5. aplastic. The Cardiovascular System . and out through the aorta. 2. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. 8.. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Like plasma. 2. encloses the heart. The parietal pericardium. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. 4. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). Disorders . through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). 4. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. 6. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. respiratory gases.The Heart: 1. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Anticoagulatants (e. 2. hemorrhagic. myocardium. 2. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. 10. In vascular spasm. Interstitial Fluid: 1. 7. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. 11. 3. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. 2. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. The cause is a virus. heparin) prevent clogging. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. and endocardium. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. 4. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. 3. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. and sickle cell anemia. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. 3. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). 2. 2. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes.
The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure.4. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. aortic reflex. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. bundle branches. between the atria and their ventricles. detecting the presence of fetal life. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. 2. Conduction System: 1. 4. 7. 4. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 3. sodium. 3. 4. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. 6. Cardiac Cycle: 1. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 6. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. 5. 5. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. Electrocardiogram: 1. Cardiac Output: 1. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). atrioventricular (AV) node. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. 3. 4. 7. 3. temperature. 2. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. 3. 2. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). Blood Supply: 1. and right heart (atrial) reflex. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. 2. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. potassium). The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. and Purkinje fibers. 2. 6. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. 7. determining the presence of several fetuses. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus.8 sec. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles).
2. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. high blood pressure. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. and age. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. and tunica externa. The heart becomes hypoxic. Veins: 1.emotion. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. 4. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. and to apply chemotherapy locally. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. and tetralogy of Fallot). fibrillation. diabetes mellitus. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. and arrhythmias (heart block. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. 2. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood.ener Arterioles: 1. cigarette smoking. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. 3. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. 2. valvular stenosis. septal defects. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. 2. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. and genetic disposition. blood pressure increases. some capillaries are continuous. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). 5. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. 3. 2. Disorders . 2. Arteries: 1. obesity. Venules: 1. to correct some defects. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. 4. As blood volume increases. This network increases the surface area. In severe shock. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. 3. flutter. 2. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. and premature contractions). tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). 3. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. lack of exercise. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. 2. 3. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. 3. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. sex (gender and physical activity). prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. others are fenestrated. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. Capillaries: 1. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. 4. 5. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. and therefore blood pressure. 4.
valves in veins (especially in the extremities). Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. 3. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. chemicals. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. 2. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. 2. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. 2. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. 8. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. stomach. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. Fetal Circulation: 1. 7. 3. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. and autoregulation. and breathing. and liver functions are established. intestines. 2. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. Circulatory Routes: 1. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. when lung. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. temperature. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. 2. 9. 3. the arch of the aorta.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. chemoreceptors. Systemic Circulation: 1. 2. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. sex. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. Other routes include the cerebral. pulmonary. spleen. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. and higher brain centers. 2. chemicals. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. 3. 2. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. At birth.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. Disorders . 3. Blood Reservoirs: 1. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. and fetal circulation. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. skeletal muscular contractions. emotions. 6. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. and the descending aorta. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. digestive. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. They in turn empty into the right atrium. and age. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries.
4. mucous membranes. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. antimicrobial substances (interferon. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. 3. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. chemical factors (gastric juice. unsaturated fatty acids. 2. 2. each with specific biological roles (IgG. 3. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. 2.1. pollen. epiglottis. to Iymph capillaries. and lingual tonsils. brain. 6. Based on chemistry and structure. 3. to the subclavian veins. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. Iymph nodes. mucus. 3. 2. and transplants. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. and flow of urine). and fever. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. when introduced into the body. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. 4. 9. and properdin). 2. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. saliva. 5. Lymphatic Organs: 1. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. acid pH of skin. Iymphatic vessels. called Iymphatics. 8. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. 4. cilia. and multivalence. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. phagocytosis. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. and Iysozyme). Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . IgM. Antigens are chemical substances that. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. microbial structures. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. 3. IgA. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. Lymph Circulation: 1. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. inflammation. 2. and kidneys. 5. incompatible blood cells. complement. IgD. Examples of antigens are microbes. reactivity. to Iymphatics. 2. palatine. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. 3. to Iymph trunks. and Iymph organs. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. 7. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. and IgE). lacrimal apparatus. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. They include the pharyngeal. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements.
2. detection of disease. rheumatic fever. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. 4. 2. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. During forced inspiration. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. they are important in diagnosis. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. 6. 12. preparing vaccines. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. treatment. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. asthma. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration.liver and spleen. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. 5. 3. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. eczema. 14. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. 11. and multiple sclerosis (MS). and hives. 2. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. 3. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. memory B cells recognize the original. 7. myasthenia gravis. laughing. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. sneezing. 2. invading antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 4. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. sobbing. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. crying. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. yawning. sighing. 8. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. Coughing. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. 13.
2. pain. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. and minimal volumes. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. include inspiratory. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). temperature. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. temperature.Internal Respiration: 1. inflated alveoli. 3. division. According to Dalton's law.are tidal volume. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. assuming that the pressure remains constant. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. compresses the lungs. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). 6. a large alveolar surface area. the inflation reflex. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. and Circulation. vital. In bronchogenic carcinoma. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. and function of the epithelial cells. and irritation to the respiratory centers. expiratory reserve. pneumotaxic area. 3. 3. It is symbolized by p. 4. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . inflated lungs. and total. when the temperature remains constant. B. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. 3. 3. 4. and DPG. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. 2. and a rich blood supply. the sum of two or more volumes. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. pCO2. blood pressure. The A. both in the brain and outside. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. Breathing. 2. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. and excess mucus production. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. C's of CPR are Airway. 2. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. 2. External Respiration . residual volume. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. 2. 4. 3. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. 2. and enlarged chest. Disorders . and apneustic area. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. inspiratory reserve. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. 5. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). Pulmonary lung capacities. functional residual. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries.
3. and defecation. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. lipid. mesocolon. Some papillae contain taste buds. 2. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. salivary glands. 2. peristalsis. 2. Digestive Processes: 1. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. The teeth. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. Salivary Glands: 1. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. and tongue. 5. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. and sublingual glands. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. 4. 2. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. and pancreas. 9. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. 3. the hardest substance in the body. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. 2. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. forms the floor of the oral cavity. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. and serosa (peritoneum). The tongue. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). which aid mechanical digestion. absorption. tongue. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. or dentes. lesser omentum.7. falciform ligament. mechanical and chemical digestion. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. 2. 3. 4. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. Teeth: 1. It consists of a voluntary stage. palates. Organization: 1. The accessory structures include the teeth. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. or alimentary canal. and cervix. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. 2. 4. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. submandibular (submaxillary). lips. 2. submucosa. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. 3. root. muscularis. liver. 3. 2. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. together with its associated muscles. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. Deglutition: 1. and accessory structures. and greater omentum. gallbladder. 8. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. 4.
3. 2. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). The esophagus is a collapsible. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). 3. and stomach gastrin. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. and transported as chylomicrons. gastric. 2. Absorption: 1. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. Pancreas: 1. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. a protein-digesting enzyme. and the microvilli. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. Esophagus: 1. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. hydrochloric acid. Stomach: Anatomy . 2. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. 3. The small intestine also absorbs water.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). Liver: 1. 2. 2. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). 3. 2. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. and alcohol. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. glands that produce mucus. 2. 2. resynthesized to triglycerides. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. 4.Histology: 1. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. and vitamins. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. 2. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). 3. Among the substances absorbed are some water. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. certain electrolytes and drugs. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. Small Intestine: Anatomy . Gallbladder: 1. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). villi. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. 2. 2. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. Hormones also assume a role. and intestinal. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Absorption: 1. intrinsic factor. 2. electrolytes. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Digestion in the Stomach: 1. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter.Histology: 1. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase).
periodontal membrane. Metabolism: 1. 2. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. and cementum. carcinoma of the cecum. lipids. Anabolic reactions use energy. 7. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. minerals. and mass peristalsis. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. and vitamins. 2. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae.1. The large intestine absorbs water.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. inorganic salts. 3. proteins. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. 6. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. colon. action. peristalsis. 11. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. 2. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. 2. During digestion. vitamins. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. Its subdivisions include the cecum. epithelial cells. or kinking of the organ. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. electrolytes. and non-A. 10. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. 3. 12. stenosis. 9. 3. 8. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. alveolar bone. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. 5. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. hepatitis B. a foreign body. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Defecation: 1. rectum. and undigested foods. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. bacteria. and water. colonoscopy. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . act as building blocks in forming new body components. 2. rather than enzymatic. . 4. Disorders . it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. 2. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. 5. 4. 2. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. Types include hepatitis A. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. and anal canal. and barium x-ray. Feces consists of water.
5. epinephrine. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. 3. 3. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. 3. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). under aerobic conditions. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. Glucose Anabolism: 1. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. and cytochromes. 2. 2. 4. Lipid Metabolism: 1. 2. Lipid Catabolism: 1. 3. the Krebs cycle. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. glucagon. As a result of glycolysis. 3. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. and growth hormone (GH). 6. 3. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. Glucose Catabolism: 1. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. 2. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. 2. 4 molecules of NADH2. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. and the electron transport chain. and I molecule of GTP. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. 1 molecule of FADH2. 3. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 2. thromboplastin for blood clotting. 2. 2. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. recombined to form triglycerides. Electron Transport Chain: 1. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .2. Fat Storage: 1. 4. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Glycolysis: 1. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. During digestion. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. 3. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. When oxygen is in short supply. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. In beta oxidation. coenzyme Q. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. Fate of Lipids: 1. thyroxine. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. It is stimulated by cortisol. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue.
decarboxylation. stored. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. zinc. Inside cells. chlorine. Production of Body Heat: 1. and hydrogenation. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. called ketosis. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. snd ketane hadies. Fate of Proteins: 1. but an excess of ketone bodies. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. hormones. Protein Metabolism: 1. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. 2. 2. Amino acids. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. or converted. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. thyroxine. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells.Lipogenesis: 1. and body temperature. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. During the absorptive state. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. Vitamins: 1. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. and so forth. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein.4. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. sodium. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 4. iron. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. 2. these conversions involve deamination. the nervous system. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. Before amino acids can be catabolized. based on the needs of the body. 3. D. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. 2. 2. fatty acids. magnesium. E. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. and chromium. enter body cells by active transport. may cause acidosis. 2. During the absorptive state. During digestion. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. manganese. 3.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. conversion of glycerol into glucose. hormones. 2. 3. cobalt. Lipid Anabolism . potassium. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. and K. and proteins. Protein Catabolism: 1. phosphorus. structural elements. iodine. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. and insulin. Protein Anabolism: 1. Many function in enzyme systems. Minerals: 1. 2. copper. fats. selenium. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. sulfur. The process is stimulated by insulin. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. 3. 2.
Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. profuse perspiration. medulla. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. 2. 3. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . failure to grow. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. pyramids. lethargy. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. ascending limb of Henle. stages include chill and crisis. glomerulus. and thyroxine production. ureters. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. 3. 4. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. 4. 2. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. 4. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. sympathetic stimulation. and renal fascia. calyces. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. papillae. and K and calcium is inadequate. loop of Henle. adipose capsule. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. and dizziness. 7. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. 3. reduced perspiration. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. proximal convoluted tubule. Loss of Body Heat: 1. and perspiration.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. 3. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. 6. Physiology: 1. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. deereased metabolic rate. 5. descending limb of Henle. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. columns. 2. distal convoluted tubule. 3. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. skeletal muscle contraction. Internally. and sometimes mental retardation. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. 2. urinary bladder. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. and urethra.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 4. 2. and a pelvis. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. nausea. 4. D. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. and high body temperature. the kidneys consist of a cortex. 2. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. cramps. 5. 5.
including water. and a serous coat. and fibrous coat. cerebrospinal fluid. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. bilirubin. and ions. 7. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. Gl tract fluids. erythrocytes. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. Urethra: 1. pH. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. the rest by facultative reabsorption. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. plasma and Iymph. 10. and peritoneal fluids. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. ketone bodies. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. uric acid. 3. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. renal calculi.6. and specific gravity. 9. 6. blood concentration. 5. salts. odor. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. indican. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. 4. turbidity. and microbes. casts. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. 8. Besides the kidneys. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. and ions. and emotions. creatinine. and the glomerular filtrate. glucose. 5. In exchange. and fluids of the eyes and ears. 7. Ureters: 1. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. Urinary Bladder: 1. Normally. synovial fluid. 4. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. Chemically. 5. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. Body Fluids: 1. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). Histologically. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. temperature. primarily by peristalsis. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. muscularis. urobilinogen. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. glucose.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 3. 2. Homeostasis: 1. 2. 2. ketone bodies. pericardial. and certain drugs. 3. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. leucocytes. The solutes include urea. 11. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. 3. 2. Included are ions. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). pleural. Disorders . amino acids. nitrogenous wastes. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. integument. hippuric acid. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. 4. diuretics. 8. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. It includes interstitial fluid. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. 2. the lungs.
Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). 7. Plasma. muscle contraction. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. At the arterial end of a capillary. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. 3. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. 3. respirations. fluid moves in the opposite direction. and heartbeat. a decrease in rate.45 and 8. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. and regulating pH. 5. muscle contraction. 4. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. 9. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age.00. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). lungs. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. and fluid and electrolyte balance. proper fluid movement between compartments. 4. 4. Under normal conditions. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .35 and 6. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. It also functions in blood clotting. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 3. 4. interstitial fluid.1. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. 2. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. 2. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. and protein. nerve impulse conduction. At the venous end. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. An increase in rate of respirations. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. especially extracellular fluid. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. muscle contraction. 2. 4. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. and GI tract. phosphate. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. and kidney excretion. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. 5. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). 6.45. 8. 10. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. skin. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. 11. Electrolytes: 1. and regulation of pH. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. 2.80.35 to 7. increases pH. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. chemical transmitter release. 3. 3. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. decreases pH. 2. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT.
The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. Reproductive System: 1. ductus epididymis. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. straight tubules.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. 11. stimulates bone growth. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. II. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). 6. ducts (transport and store gametes). and interstitial endocrinocytes. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. 2. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. and rete testis. 4. membranous. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . bulbourethral glands. Male Reproductive System: 1. 3. and tail. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). 7. ejaculatory duct. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. which nourish sperm cells. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. 3. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. 8. and spongy (cavernous). 4. and efferent ducts. Testes: 1. and maintenance of sex organs. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. 2. prostate gland. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. 2. rete testis. 6. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. 12. in which sperm cells are made. 2. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. and penis. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. 3. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. protein anabolism. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. 2. Testosterone controls the growth. straight tubules. sustentacular cells. Ducts: 1. Scrotum: 1. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. 3. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. 5. 10. ductus deferens. development. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. midpiece. and 7. 5. seminal vesicles. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. sperm maturation. urethra. Accessory Glands: 9. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. 7.
vagina.nutrients. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. mucus. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. on either side of the uterus. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. Uterus: 1. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. . Histologically. uterine tubes. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. uterus. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. 3. and stimulate protein anabolism. tissue fluid. Ovaries: 1. 10. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. 4. 2. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. and epithelial cells. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. 6. 5. implantation of a fertilized ovum. 2. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. 11. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. 9. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. During the postovulatory phase. 2. During the menstrual phase. 3. development of a fetus during pregnancy. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. and inner endometrium. 8. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. discharge ova (ovulation). 4. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. Penis: 1. The penis is the male organ of copulation. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. ovulation. 2. 2. 7. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. 6. III. 3. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. 2. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. and vulva. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. They produce ova. During the preovulatory phase. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. 5. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. endometrial repair occurs. and labor. middle myometrium. development. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. Estrogens stimulate the growth. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. The uterus is an inverted.
the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 11. Vulva: 1. Sexual Intercourse: 1. 8. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10. 9. 5.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. and the lower portion of the birth canal. abnormal bleeding. lubrication. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. 2. 10. 9. Disorders . 2. and sperm maturation. 3. 3. Vagina: 1. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. 2. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. Oogenesis: 1. 13. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. 2. Perineum: 1. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). 6. the cessation of the sexual cycles. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 12. clitoris. 3. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. 12. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. labia majora. lubrication. pectoral muscles. equatorial division. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. and ova maturation. Spermatogenisis: 1. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). dysmenorrhea. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. 7. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. vaginal and urethral orifices. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. 2. 2. 8. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. trichomoniasis. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. Mammary Glands: 1. 2. 4. If fertilization and implantation do occur.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. syphilis. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. genital herpes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. and tumors. and orgasm. labia minora. vestibule. and orgasm (climax). enlarged prostate. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. 2. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. The removal of a malignant breast. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. It is said to be haploid (n). 2. The female role also involves erection. It consists of the mons veneris. equatorial division. 7.
and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. 2. 2. Its various events are hormonally controlled. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. fetal growth.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 1. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. 3. 5. . The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. embryonic growth. 4. and birth. implantation.
mesoderm. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. 3. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. 3. tubal ligation. 3. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. 2. 4. 2. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). estrogens.The morula develops into a blastocyst. and delivery of the placenta. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. and allantois. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . mechanical. 2. Examples are infections. estrogens. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). 1. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. chorion. chemicals and drugs. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. and protection. 2. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. sterilization (vasectomy. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. Lactation: 1. 3. Tay-Sachs disease. 6. protein anabolism. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. 5. Birth Control: 6. and progesterone. 7. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. sickle cell anemia. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. and chemical). and progesterone. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. . The primary germ layers-ectoderm. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. During embryonic growth. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. such as hemophilia. expulsion of the fetus. and Down's syndrome. 2. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. 2. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. 4. and contraception (natural. 2. and smoking. alcohol. 8. 3. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. laparascopic technique). Dominant genes control a particular trait. Parturition and Labor: 1. removal of wastes. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. amnion. microbes. 5. Inheritance: 1. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. 2. During the fetal period.
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