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• Anatomy and Physiology When in the anatomical position, the subject stands

erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are


placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are
1. Anatomy is the study of structure
turned forward.
and the relationship among structures.
 Types of anatomy include: Anatomical Names:
o Surface Anatomy Regional names are terms given to specific regions
(form and markings of surface features) of the body for reference. Examples of regional
o Gross Anatomy names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest),
(macroscopic) brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and
o Systemic or gluteal (buttock).
Systematic anatomy (systems)
o Regional Anatomy Directional Terms:
(regions) 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship
o Developmental of one part of the body to another.
Anatomy (development from 2. Commonly used directional terms are:
fertilization to adulthood) o superior (toward the head or upper
o Embryology part of a structure)
(development from fertilized egg o inferior (away from the head or
through eighth week in utero) toward the lower part of a structure)
o Pathological o anterior (near or at the front of the
Anatomy (disease) body)
o Histology (tissues) o posterior (near or at the back of the
o Cytology (cells) body)
o Radiographic o medial (nearer the midline of the
Anatomy (x-rays). body or a structure)
2. Physiology is the study of how o lateral (near or towards the side of
body structures function. It is based upon the the body or a structure)
concepts o intermediate (between a medial and
of biochemistry. lateral structure)
o ipsilateral (on the same side of the
Levels of Structural Organization: body)
1. The human body consists of several levels o contralateral (on the opposite side
of structural organization; among these are of the body)
the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, o proximal (nearer the attachment of
system, and organismic levels. an extremity to the trunk or a structure)
2. Cells are the basic structural and functional o distal (farther from the attachment
units of an organism. of an extremity to the trunk or a
3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly structure)
specialized cells and their intercellular o superficial (toward or on the surface
material that perform certain special of the body)
functions. o deep (away from the surface of the
4. Organs are structures of definite form and body)
function composed o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall
of two or more different tissues. of a body cavity)
5. Systems consist of associations of organs o visceral (pertaining to the covering
that have a common function.
of an organ).
6. The human organism is a collection of
structurally and functionally integrated
Planes and Sections:
systems.
Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to
7. The systems of the human body are the
divide the body or organs into definite areas. A
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous,
midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane
endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic,
through the midline of the body that divides the
respiratory, digestive, urinary, and
body or organs into equal right and left sides, a
reproductive.
sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the
midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs
Structural Plan:
into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal)
1. The human body has certain general
plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or
characteristics.
sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into
2. Among the characteristics are a backbone,
anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal
a tube within a tube organization, and
(transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground
bilateral symmetry.
and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and
frontal planes that divides the body or organs into
Anatomical Position:
superior and inferior portions.

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34
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts horizontal and vertical lines through the
through body structures. They are named according umbilicus.
to the plane on which the cut is made and include 2. The names of the four abdominopelvic
cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ),
sections. left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower
quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant
Body Cavities: (LLQ).
1. Spaces in the body that contain internal
organs are called cavities. Homeostasis:
2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the
principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity
internal environment (extracellular fluid) of
contains the brain and spinal cord. The
the body remains relatively constant in
organs of the ventral cavity are collectively
terms of chemical composition,
called the viscera.
temperature, and pressure.
3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the
2. All body systems attempt to maintain
cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and
homeostasis.
the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains
3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the
the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal
nervous and endocrine systems.
nerves.
4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the
Stress and Homeostasis:
diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and
a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus
5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural that creates a change in the internal
cavities and a mediastinum, which includes environment.
the pericardial cavity. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic
6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue mechanisms attempt to counteract the
between the pleurae of the lungs that effects of the stress and bring the condition
extends from the sternum to the vertebral back to normal.
column; it contains all contents of the
thoracic cavity, except the lungs. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure:
7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted
superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic by blood as it presses against and attempts
cavity by an imaginary line extending from to stretch the walls of arteries. It is
the symphysis pubis to the sacral determined by the rate and force of the
promontory. heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial
8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the resistance.
stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase.
gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and blood pressure also increases; pressure-
most of the large intestine. sensitive nerve cells in certain arteries
9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the inform the brain, and the brain responds by
urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and sending impulses that decrease heartbeat,
internal female and male reproductive thus decreasing blood pressure back to
structures. normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes
the brain to send impulses that dilate
arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease
blood pressure back to normal.
3. Any circular situation in which information
about the status of something is continually
fed back to a control region is called a
Abdominopelvic Regions: feedback system.
1. To describe the location of organs easily, 4. A negative feedback system is one in
the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided which the reaction of the body (output)
into nine regions by drawing four imaginary counteracts the stress (input) in order to
lines. maintain homeostasis; most feedback
2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic systems of the body are negative. A
regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, positive feedback system is one in which
left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, the output intensifies the input; the system
left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac is usually destructive.
(inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal).
Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level:
Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is
1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic maintained by the actions of two different
abnormality in clinical studies, the pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon.
abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by
four quadrants by passing imaginary increasing sugar uptake by cells and
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accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in Chemical Reactions:
the liver and skeletal muscles. 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination
3. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by of reactants to produce a new molecule.
accelerating the rate of sugar released from The reactions are anabolic: bonds are
glycogen by the liver. formed.
2. In decomposition reactions, a substance
breaks down into other substances. The
reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken.
Measuring the Human Body: 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement
1. Various kinds of measurements are of one atom or atoms by another atom or
important in understanding the human atoms.
body. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can
2. Examples of such measurements include revert to the original combining molecules.
organ dimensions and weight, physiological 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition
response time, and amount of medication to reactions that occur within an organism is
be administered. referred to as metabolism.
3. Measurements utilized in scientific 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is
procedures are given in metric units. needed. When bonds are broken, energy is
released. This is known as chemical bond
energy.
• Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Elements:
• Matter is anything that occupies space and Chemical Compounds and Life Processes:
has mass. It is made up of building units
1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon,
called chemical elements.
contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition,
• Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and dissolve readily in water.
make up 96 percent of body weight. These
2. Organic substances always contain
elements together with phosphorus and
carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic
calcium make up 99 percent of total body
substances contain covalent bonds and
weight.
many are insoluble in water.
Structure of Atoms:
Inorganic Compounds:
1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are
called atoms. 1. Water is the most abundant substance in
2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains the body. It is an excellent solvent and
protons and neutrons, and orbiting suspending medium, participates in
electrons moving in energy levels. chemical reactions, absorbs and releases
heat slowly, and lubricates.
3. The total number of protons of an atom is
its atomic number. This number is equal 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into
to the number of electrons in the atom. ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a
base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes
Atoms and Molecules: into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are
positively charged ions; anions are
1. The electrons are the part of an atom that
negatively charged ions.
actively participate in chemical reactions.
3. The pH of different parts of the body must
2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or remain fairly constant for the body to
more combined atoms. A molecule remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7
containing two or more different kinds of represents neutrality. Values below 7
atoms is a compound. indicate acid solutions, and values above 7
indicate alkaline solutions.
Chemical Bonds: 4. The pH values of different parts of the body
• In an ionic bond, outer energy level are maintained by buffer systems, which
electrons are transferred from one atom to usually consist of a weak acid and a weak
another. The transfer forms ions, whose base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+
unlike charges attract each other and form ions and excess OH- ions in order to
ionic bonds. maintain pH homeostasis.
• In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of
pairs of outer-energy level electrons. Organic Compounds:
• Hydrogen bonding provides temporary 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that
bonding between certain atoms within large provide most of the energy needed for life.
complex molecules such as proteins and They may be monosaccharides,
nucleic acids. disaccharides, or polysaccharides.
Carbohydrates, and other organic

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molecules, are joined together to form phospholipid bilayer with integral and
larger molecules with the loss of water by a peripheral proteins.
process called dehydration synthesis. In the Functions:
reverse process called digestion or a. Functionally, the plasma membrane
hydrolysis, large molecules are broken facilitates contact with other cells,
down into smaller ones by the addition of provides receptors, and mediates
water. the passage of materials.
2. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds b. The membrane's selectively
that includes the fats, phospholipids, permeable nature restricts the
steroids, vitamins E and K, and passage of certain substances.
prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, Substances can pass through the
provide energy, and are stored. membrane depending on their
Prostaglandins mimic the effects of molecular size, lipid solubility,
hormones and are involved in the electrical charges, and the presence
inflamitory response and the modulation of of carriers.
hormonal responses.
3. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. Movement of Materials Across Plasma
Membranes:
They give structure to the body, regulate
processes, provide protection, help muscles 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic
to contract, transport substances, and serve energy of individual molecules.
as enzymes. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of
4. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and molecules or ions from an area of higher
ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids concentration to an area of lower
consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and concentration until an equilibrium is
phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix reached.
and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules,
differs in structure and chemical such as glucose, combine with a carrier to
composition from DNA and is mainly become soluble in the phospholipid portion
concerned with protein synthesis reactions. of the membrane.
5. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through
major energy storing molecule of living a selectively permeable membrane from an
things. When its energy is liberated, it is area of higher water concentration to an
decomposed to adenosine diphosphate area of lower water concentration.
(ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells
the energy supplied by various maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic
decomposition reactions, particularly of solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a
glucose. hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation.
6. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely 6. Filtration is the movement of water and
related to ATP and assumes a function in dissolved substances across a selectively
certain hormonal reactions within the cell. permeable membrane by pressure.
7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles
→ CELLS across a selectively permeable membrane
The Generalized Animal Cell: and involves the separation of small
1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and molecules from large molecules.
functional unit of the body. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP
2. A generalized cell is a composite that by the cell.
represents various cells of the body.
9. Active transport is the movement of ions
3. Cytology is the science concerned with the across a cell membrane from lower to
study of cells. higher concentration.
4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma
(cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles,
10. Endocytosis in the movement of
substances through plasma membranes in
and inclusions. Extracellular materials are
which the membrane surrounds the
manufactured by the cell and deposited
substance, encloses it, and brings it into the
outside the plasma membrane.
cell.
Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid
1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds particles by pseudopodia. It is an important
process used by white blood cells to destroy
the cell and separates it from other cells
bacteria that enter the body.
and the external environment.
2. It is composed primarily of proteins and 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by
phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic the plasma membrane. In this process, the
model, the membrane consists of a liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

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13. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the 1. The Golgi complex consists
selective uptake of large molecules and of four to eight stacked,
particles by cells. membranous sacs called cisternae.
2. In conjunction with the ER,
Cytoplasm: the Golgi complex secretes proteins
1. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell and lipids and synthesizes and
secretes glycoproteins.
that contains organelles and inclusions.
3. It is particularly prominent
2. It is composed mostly of water plus
in secretory cells such as those in
proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and
the pancreas or salivary glands.
inorganic substances. The chemicals in
Mitochondria:
cytoplasm are either in solution or in a
1. Mitochondria consist of a
colloid (suspended) form.
smooth outer membrane and a
3. Functionally, cytoplasm is the medium in
folded inner membrane surrounding
which chemical reactions occur.
the interior matrix. The inner folds
are called cristae.
Organelles:
2. The mitochondria are called
1. Organelles are specialized
"powerhouses of the cell" because
portions of the cell that carry on
ATP is produced in them.
specific activities.
3. Today mitochondria are
2. They assume specific roles
generally considered to be
in cellular growth, maintenance,
endosymbionts rather than simply
repair, and control.
cellular organelles.
Nucleus:
Lysosomes:
1. Usually the largest
1. Lysosomes are spherical
organelle, the nucleus controls
structures that contain digestive
cellular activities and contains the
enzymes. They are formed from
genetic information.
Golgi complexes.
2. Cells without nuclei, such as
2. They are found in large
mature red blood cells, do not grow
numbers in white blood cells, which
or reproduce.
carry on phagocytosis.
3. The parts of the nucleus
3. If the cell is injured,
include the nuclear membrane,
Iysosomes release enzymes and
karyolymph, nucleoli, and genetic
digest the cell. Thus they are called
material (DNA), comprising the
"suicide packets."
chromosomes.
4. Lysosomes are also involved
4. Chromosomes consist of
in bone removal and remodeling.
DNA and histones and consist of
Peroxisomes:
subunits called nucleosomes.
1. Peroxisomes are similar in
Ribosomes:
structure to Iysosomes, but smaller.
1. Ribosomes are granular
2. They contain enzymes (e.g.,
structures consisting of ribosomal
catalase) involved in the
RNA and ribosomal proteins.
metabolism of hydrogen peroxide.
2. They occur free (singly or in
Microfilaments and Microtubules - The
clusters) or in conjunction with
Cytoskeleton:
endoplasmic reticulum.
1. Together microfilaments
3. Functionally, ribosomes are
and microtubules form the
the sites of protein synthesis.
cytoskeleton.
Endoplasmic Reticulum:
2. Microfilaments are rodlike
1. The ER is a network of
structures consisting of the protein
parallel membranes continuous with
actin or myosin. They are involved
the plasma membrane and nuclear
in muscular contraction, support,
membrane.
and movement.
2. Granular or rough ER has
3. Microtubules are cylindrical
ribosomes attached to it. Agranular
structures consisting of the protein
or smooth ER does not contain
tubulin. They support, provide
ribosomes.
movement, and form the structure
3. The ER provides mechanical
of flagella, cilia, centrioles, and the
support, conducts intracellular
mitotic spindle.
nerve impulses in muscle cells,
Centrosome and Centrioles:
exchanges materials with
1. The dense area of
cytoplasm, transports substances
cytoplasm containing the centrioles
intracellularly, stores synthesized
is called a centrosome. It is located
molecules. and helps export
near the nucleus.
chemicals from the cell.
Golgi Complex (Golgi Body):

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2. Centrioles are paired separate and equal nuclei following
cylinders arranged at right angles to their replication.
one another. They assume an 4. It consists of prophase,
important role in cell reproduction. metaphase, anaphase, and
Flagella and Cilia: telophase.
1. These cellular projections 5. Cytokinesis begins in late
have the same basic structure and anaphase and terminates in
are used in movement. telophase.
2. If projections are few and 6. A cleavage furrow forms at
long, they are called flagella. If they the cell's equator and progresses
are numerous and hairlike, they are inward, cutting through the cell to
called cilia. form two separate portions of
3. The flagellum on a sperm cytoplasm.
cell moves the entire cell. The cilia Gene Action - Protein Synthesis:
on cells of the respiratory tract 1. Most of the cellular
move foreign matter trapped in machinery is concerned with
mucus along the cell surfaces synthesizing proteins.
toward the throat for elimination. 2. Cells make proteins by
Cellular Inclusions: translating the genetic information
1. Cell inclusions are chemical encoded in DNA into specific
substances produced by cells. They proteins. This involves transcription
are usually organic and may have and translation.
recognizable shapes 3. In transcription, genetic
2. Examples are melanin, information encoded in DNA is
glycogen, lipids, and mucus. copied by a strand of messenger
Extracellular Materials: RNA (mRNA); the DNA strand that
1. These are all the substances serves as the template is called the
that lie outside the cell membrane. sense strand.
2. They provide support and a 4. DNA also synthesizes
medium for the diffusion of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template
nutrients and wastes. or transfer RNA (tRNA).
3. Some, like hyaluronic acid 5. The process of using the
and chondroitin sulfate, are information in the nitrogen base
amorphous. Others, like sequence of mRNA to dictate the
collagenous, reticular, and elastic amino acid sequence of a protein is
fibers, are fibrous. known as translation.
Cell Division: 6. mRNA associates with
1. Cell division is the process ribosomes, which consist of rRNA
by which cells reproduce and protein.
themselves. It consists of nuclear 7. Specific amino acids are
division and cytoplasmic division attached to molecules of tRNA.
(cytokinesis). Another portion of the tRNA has a
2. Cell division that results in triplet of bases called an anticodon;
the production of sperm and eggs is a codon is a segment of three bases
called reproductive cell division and of mRNA.
consists of a nuclear division called 8. tRNA delivers a specific
meiosis and cytokinesis. amino acid to the codon; the
3. Cell division that results in ribosome moves along an mRNA
an increase in body cells is called strand as amino acids are joined to
somatic cell division and involves a form a growing polypeptide.
nuclear division called mitosis and "SOS" Genes - DNA Repair:
cytokinesis. 1. The structure of DNA is
Somatic Cell Division: vulnerable to damage by harmful
1. Prior to mitosis and radiations and various chemicals.
cytokinesis, the DNA molecules, or 2. Damage could lead to
chromosomes, replicate themselves cellular malfunction that might lead
so the same chromosomal to cancer.
complement can be passed on to 3. In response to DNA damage,
future generations of cells. an "SOS response" occurs; certain
2. A cell carrying on such genes produce enzymes that repair
every life process except division is genetic damage. DNA Polymerase is
said to be in interphase or an example.
metabolic interphase. Cells and Aging:
3. Mitosis is the distribution of
two sets of chromosomes into

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1. Aging is a progressive ovaries, in kidneys and eyes, and
failure of the body's homeostatic lining some glandular ducts.
adaptive responses. 4. Nonciliated simple columnar
2. Many theories of aging have epithelium lines most of the
been proposed, including digestive tract. Specialized cells
genetically programmed cessation containing microvilli perform
of cell division and excessive absorption. Goblet cells perform
immune responses, but none secretion of mucus. In a few
successfully answers all questions. portions of the respiratory tract, the
3. All of the various body cells are ciliated to move foreign
systems exhibit definitive and particles trapped in mucus out of
sometimes extensive changes with the body.
aging 5. Stratified squamous
Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances epithelium is protective. It lines the
1. Cancerous tumors are upper digestive tract and vagina
referred to as malignant; and forms the outer layer of skin.
noncancerous tumors are called 6. Stratified cuboidal
benign; the study of tumors is called epithelium is found in adult sweat
oncology. glands, portion of urethra, pharynx,
2. The spread of cancer from and epiglottis.
its primary site is called metastasis. 7. Stratified columnar
3. Carcinogens include epithelium protects and secretes. It
environmental agents and viruses. is found in the male urethra and
Tissues large excretory ducts.
Types of Tissues 8. Transitional epithelium lines
1. A tissue is a group of similar cells the urinary bladder and is capable
and their intercellular substance of stretching.
specialized for a particular function. 9. Pseudostratified epithelium
2. Depending on their function and has only one layer but gives the
structure, the various tissues of the appearance of many. It lines larger
body are classified into four excretory ducts, parts of urethra,
principal types: epithelial, auditory tubes, and most upper
connective. muscular. and nervous. respiratory structures, where it
Epithelial Tissue: protects and secretes.
1. Epithelium has many cells, Glandular Epithelium:
little intracellular material, and no 1. A gland is a single cell or a
blood vessels (avascular). It is mass of epithelial cells adapted for
attached to connective tissue by a secretion.
basement membrane. It can replace 2. Exocrine glands (sweat, oil,
itself. and digestive glands) secrete into
2. The subtypes of epithelium ducts or directly onto a free surface.
include covering and lining 3. Structural classification
epithelium and glandular includes unicellular and multicellular
epithelium. glands. Multicellular glands are
Covering and Lining Epithelium: further classified as tubular, acinar,
1. Layers are arranged as tubuloacinar, simple, and
simple (one layer), stratified compound.
(several layers), and 4. Functional classification
pseudostratified (one layer that includes holocrine, merocrine, and
appears as several); cell shapes apocrine glands.
include squamous (flat), cuboidal 5. Endocrine glands secrete
(cubelike), columnar (rectangular), hormones directly into the blood.
and transitional (variable). Connective Tissue:
2. Simple squamous 1. Connective tissue is the
epithelium is adapted for diffusion most abundant body tissue. It has
and filtration and is found in lungs few cells, an extensive intercellular
and kidneys. Endothelium lines the substance, and a rich blood supply
heart and blood vessels. (vascular), except for cartilage. It
Mesothelium lines the thoracic and does not occur on free surfaces.
abdominopelvic cavities and covers 2. The intercellular substance
the organs within them. determines the tissue's qualities.
3. Simple cuboidal epithelium 3. Connective tissue protects,
is adapted for secretion and supports, and binds organs
absorption. It is found covering together.

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4. Connective tissue is bronchial tubes. and true
classified into two principal types: vocal cords.
embryonic and adult. o Reticular connective
Embryonic Connective Tissue: tissue consists of interlacing
1. Mesenchyme forms all other reticular fibers and forms
connective tissues. the stroma of the liver,
2. Mucous connective tissue is spleen, and Iymph nodes.
found in the umbilical cord of the 3. Cartilage has a jellylike
fetus, where it gives support. matrix containing collagenous and
Adult Connective Tissue: elastic fibers and chondrocytes.
1. Adult connective tissue is 4. The growth of cartilage is
connective tissue that exists in the accomplished by interstitial growth
newborn and that does not change (from within) and appositional
after birth. It is subdivided into growth (from without).
several kinds: connective tissue 5. Hyaline cartilage is found in
proper, cartilage, bone tissue, and the embryonic skeleton, at the ends
vascular tissue. of bones, in the nose, and in
2. Connective tissue proper respiratory structures. It is flexible,
has a more or less fluid intercellular allows movement, and provides
material, and a typical cell is the support.
fibroblast. Five examples of such 6. Fibrocartilage connects the
tissues may be distinguished: pelvic bones and the vertebrae. It
Loose, Adipose, Dense, Elastic, and provides strength.
Reticular. 7. Elastic cartilage maintains
o Loose (areolar) the shape of organs such as the
connective tissue is one of larynx, auditory tubes, and external
the most widely distributed ear.
connective tissues in the Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue:
body. Its intercellular 1. Muscle tissue performs one
substance (hyaluronic acid) major function - contraction. There
contains fibers (collagenous, are three types of muscle tissue:
elastic, and reticular) and Skeletal (striated), Visceral
various cells (fibroblasts, (smooth), and Cardiac.
macrophages, plasma, 2. Nervous tissue is specialized
mast, and melanocytes). to conduct electrical impulses.
Loose connective tissue is Membranes:
found in all mucous 1. An epithelial membrane is
membranes, around body an epithelial layer overlying a
organs, and in the connective tissue layer. Examples
subcutaneous layer. are: mucous, serous, and
o Adipose tissue is a cutaneous.
form of loose connective o Mucous membranes
tissue in which the cells, line cavities that open to
called adipocytes, are the exterior, such as the
specialized for fat storage. It digestive tract.
is found in the o Serous membranes
subcutaneous layer and (pleura, pericardium,
around various organs. peritoneum) line closed
o Dense (collagenous) cavities and cover the
connective tissue has a organs in the cavities.
close packing of fibers These membranes consist
(regularly or irregularly of parietal and visceral
arranged). It is found as a portions.
component of fascia, o The cutaneous
membranes of organs, membrane is the skin.
tendons, ligaments, and 2. Synovial membranes line
aponeuroses. joint cavities and do not contain
o Elastic connective epithelium.
tissue has a predominance Tissue Inflammation - An Attempt to Restore
of freely branching elastic Homeostasis:
fibers that give it a yellow 1. Damage to a tissue causes
color. It is found in the an inflammatory response
cartilages of the larynx, characterized by redness, pain,
elastic arteries, trachea, heat, and swelling; sometimes loss
of function occurs.

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2. The inflammatory response continuous cell division and produce
is initiated by histamine, serotonin, all other layers.
kinins, and prostaglandins released 5. The dermis consists of a
by damaged tissue. They cause papillary region and a reticular
vasodilation and increased region. The papillary region is loose
permeability of blood vessels. connective tissue containing blood
3. Further cell injury is vessels, nerves, hair follicles,
prevented by phagocytes. These dermal papillae, and Meissner's
include neutrophils (microphages) corpuscles. The reticular region is
and macrophages. dense, irregularly arranged
4. The role of fibrin is to isolate connective tissue containing
the infected area. adipose tissue, hair follicles, nerves,
5. In most inflammations, pus oil glands, and ducts of sweat
is produced; if it cannot drain out of glands.
the body, an abscess develops. 6. Lines of cleavage indicate
Tissue Repair: the direction of collagenous fiber
1. Tissue repair is the bundles in the dermis and are
replacement of damaged or considered during surgery.
destroyed cells by healthy ones. 7. The color of skin is due to
2. It begins during the active melanin, carotene, and blood in
phase of inflammation and is not capillaries in the dermis.
completed until after harmful 8. Epidermal ridges increase
substances in the inflamed area friction for better grasping ability
have been neutralized or removed. and provide the basis for
Repair Process: fingerprints and footprints.
1. If the injury is superficial, Epidermal Derivatives:
tissue repair involves pus removal Epidermal derivatives are structures developed
(if pus is present), scab formation, from the embryonic epidermis.
and parenchymal regeneration. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair, skin
2. If damage is extensive, glands (sebaceous, sudoriferous, and ceruminous),
granulation tissue is involved. and nails.
Conditions for Repair: • Hair:
1. Nutrition is important to 1. Hairs are epidermal
tissue repair. Various vitamins (A, growths that function in
some B, D, C, E, and K) and a protection.
protein rich diet are needed. 2. Hair consists of a
2. Adequate circulation of shaft above the surface, a
blood is needed. root that penetrates the
3. The tissues of young people dermis and subcutaneous
repair rapidly and efficiently, the layer, and a hair follicle.
process slows down with aging. 3. Associated with
The Integumentary System - The Skin: hairs are sebaceous glands,
Skin arrectores pilorum muscles,
1. The skin and its derivatives and root hair plexuses.
(hair, glands, and nails) constitute 4. Hair color is due to
the integumentary system. combinations of various
2. The skin is one of the larger amounts of the three hair
organs of the body. It performs the pigments, black melanin,
functions of protection, maintaining brown melanin, and
body temperature, preventing pheomelanin (yellow).
excessive loss of inorganic and Graying is due to the loss of
organic materials, receiving stimuli, melanin.
storage of chemical compounds, 5. New hairs develop
synthesis of vitamin D, and from cell division of the
excretion of water, salts, and matrix in the bulb; hair
several organic compounds. replacement and growth
3. The principal parts of the occurs in a cyclic pattern.
skin are the outer epidermis and "Male-pattern" baldness is
inner dermis. The dermis overlies caused by androgens and
the subcutaneous layer. heredity.
4. The epidermal layers, from • Glands:
deepest to most superficial, are the 1. Sebaceous (oil)
stratum basale, spinosum, glands are usually
granulosum, lucidum, and corneum. connected to hair follicles;
The basale and spinosum undergo they are absent in the

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
palms and soles. Sebaceous metabolic rate, and regulating
glands produce sebum skeletal muscle contractions.
which moistens hairs and Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
waterproofs the skin. 1. Pruritus or itching is a
Enlarged sebaceous glands common skin problem that may be
may produce blackheads, related to skin disorders, systemic
pimples, and boils. diseases, or psychogenic factors.
2. Sudoriferous 2. Acne is an inflammation of
(sweat) glands are sebaceous glands.
distinguished as apocrine 3. Impetigo is a superficial skin
and eccrine. Apocrine sweat infection caused by bacteria and
glands are limited in characterized by pustules that
distribution to the skin of become crusted and rupture.
the axilla, pubis, and 4. Systemic lupus
areolae; their ducts open erythematosus (SLE) is an
into hair follicles. Eccrine autoimmune disease of connective
sweat glands have an tissue.
extensive distribution; their 5. Psoriasis is a chronic skin
ducts terminate at pores at disease characterized by reddish,
the surface of the raised plaques or papules.
epidermis. Sudoriferous 6. Decubitus ulcers are caused
glands produce perspiration, by a chronic deficiency of blood to
which carries small amounts tissues subjected to prolonged
of wastes to the surface and pressure.
assists in maintaining body 7. Warts are uncontrolled
temperature. growths of epithelial skin cells
3. Ceruminous glands caused by a virus. Most warts are
are modified sudoriferous benign.
glands that secrete 8. Cold sores (fever blisters)
cerumen. They are found in are lesions caused by type l herpes
the external auditory simplex virus. The dormant infection
meatus. is triggered by certain stimuli.
• Nails: 9. Sunburn is a skin injury
1. Nails are hard, resulting from prolonged exposure
keratinized epidermal cells to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of
over the dorsal surfaces of sunlight.
the terminal portions of the 10. Skin cancer can be caused
fingers and toes. by excessive exposure to sunlight.
2. The principal parts 11. Tissue damage that
of a nail are the body, free destroys protein is called a burn.
edge, root, lunula, Depending on the depth of damage,
eponychium, hyponychium, skin burns are classified as first-
and matrix. Cell division of degree, second-degree (partial-
the matrix cells produces thickness), and third-degree (full-
new nails. thickness). Burn treatment may
Homeostasis: include cleansing the wound,
1. One of the functions of the removing dead tissue, replacing lost
skin is the maintenance of the body fluids, and covering wounds
normal body temperature of 37C with temporary protection, and skin
(98.6F). grafting.
2. If environmental The Skeletal System:
temperature is high, skin receptors The Skeletal System:
sense the stimulus (heat) and 1. The skeletal system consists
generate impulses that are of all bones attached at joints and
transmitted to the brain. The brain cartilage between joints.
then causes the sweat glands to 2. The functions of the skeletal
produce perspiration. As the system include support, protection.
perspiration evaporates, the skin is leverage, mineral storage, and
cooled. blood cell production.
3. The skin-cooling response is Histology:
a negative feedback mechanism. 1. Osseous tissue consists of
4. Temperature maintenance widely separated cells surrounded
is also accomplished by adjusting by large amounts of intercellular
blood flow to the skin, regulating substance. The intercellular
substance contains collagenous

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
fibers and abundant around the outer surface of the
hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). bone.
2. Parts of a typical long bone 8. In both types of ossification,
are the diaphysis (shaft), epiphyses spongy bone is laid down first.
(ends), metaphysis, articular Compact bone is later reconstructed
cartilage, periosteum, medullary or from spongy bone.
marrow cavity, and endosteum. Homeostasis:
3. Compact (dense) bone 1. The homeostasis of bone
consists of Haversian systems with growth and development depends
little space between them. Compact on a balance between bone
bone lies over spongy bone and formation and resorption.
composes most of the bone tissue 2. Old bone is constantly
of the diaphyses. Functionally, destroyed by osteoclasts, while new
compact bone protects, supports, bone is constructed by osteoblasts.
and resists stress. This process is called remodeling.
4. Spongy (cancellous) bone 3. Normal growth depends on
consists of trabeculae surrounding calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins
many red marrow-filled spaces. It (A, C, and D) and is controlled by
forms most of the structure of short, hormones that are responsible for
flat, and irregular bones, and the bone mineralization and resorption.
epiphyses of long bones. Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
Functionally, spongy bone stores 1. Rickets is a vitamin D
marrow and provides some support. deficiency in children in which the
Ossification Bone Formation: body does not absorb calcium and
1. Bone forms by a process phosphorus. The bones soften and
called ossification or osteogenesis, bend under the body's weight.
which begins when mesenchymal 2. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D
cells become transformed into deficiency in adults that leads to
osteoblasts. demineralization.
2. The process begins during 3. Osteoporosis is a decrease
the sixth or seventh week of in the amount and strength of bone
embryonic life and continues tissue due to decreases in hormone
throughout adulthood. The two output.
types of ossification, 4. Paget's disease is the
intramembranous and irregular thickening and softening of
endochondral, involve the bones, apparently related to an
replacement of a preexisting imbalance between osteoclast and
connective tissue with bone. osteoblast activities.
3. Intramembranous 5. Osteomyelitis is a term for
ossification occurs within fibrous the infectious diseases of bones,
membranes of the embryo and the marrow, and periosteum. It is
adult. frequently caused by
4. Endochondral ossification staphylococcus bacteria.
occurs within a cartilage model. The 6. A fracture is any break in a
primary ossification center of a long bone.
bone is in the diaphysis. Cartilage 7. The types of fractures
degenerates, leaving cavities that include: partial, complete, simple,
merge to form the marrow cavity. compound, comminuted,
Osteoblasts lay down bone. Next, greenstick, spiral, transverse,
ossification occurs in the epiphyses, impacted, Pott's, Colles', displaced,
where bone replaces cartilage, and nondisplaced.
except for the epiphyseal plate. 8. Fracture repair consists of
5. The anatomical zones of the forming a fracture hematoma,
epiphyseal plate are the zones of forming a callus, and remodeling.
reserve cartilage, proliferating 9. Treatment by pulsating
cartilage, hypertrophic cartilage, electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has
and calcified matrix. provided dramatic results in healing
6. Because of the activity of fractures that would otherwise not
the epiphyseal plate, the diaphysis have mended properly. Its
of a bone increases in length by application for limb regeneration
appositional growth. and stopping the growth of tumor
7. Bone grows in diameter as a cells is being investigated.
result of the addition of new bone Types of Bones:
tissue by periosteal osteoblasts

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
1. On the basis of shape, mandible, lacrimal
bones are classified as long, short, (2), palatine (2),
flat, or irregular. inferior nasal
2. Wormian or sutural bones conchae (2), and
are found between the sutures of vomer.
certain cranial bones. Sesamoid 6. Paranasal
bones develop in tendons or sinuses are cavities
ligaments. The patella is an in bones of the skull
example. that communicate
Surface Markings: with the nasal
1. Markings are areas on the cavity. They are
surfaces of bones. lined by mucous
2. Each marking is structured membranes. The
for a specific function-joint cranial bones
formation, muscle attachment, or containing the
passage of nerves and blood paranasal sinuses
vessels. are the frontal,
3. Terms that describe sphenoid, ethmoid,
markings include fissure, foramen, and maxilla.
meatus, fossa, process. Condyle, 7. The
head, facet, tuberosity, crest, and foramina of the skull
spine. bones provide
Divisions of the Skeletal System: passages for nerves
The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton and blood vessels.
I. The axial 2. Hyoid Bone:
skeleton consists of bones 1. The hyoid
arranged along the longitudinal bone is a U-shaped
axis. The parts of the axial skeleton bone that does not
are the skull, hyoid bone, auditory articulate with any
ossicles, vertebral column, sternum, other bone.
and ribs. 2. It supports
1. Skull: the tongue and
1. The skull provides
consists of the attachment for
cranium and the some of its muscles.
face. It is composed 3. Vertebral Column:
of 22 bones. 1. The
2. Sutures are vertebral column,
immovable joints the sternum, and
between bones of the ribs constitute
the skull. Examples the skeleton of the
are coronal, sagittal, trunk.
lambdoidal, and 2. The bones
squamosal sutures. of the adult
3. Fontanels vertebral column
are membrane-filled are the cervical
spaces between the vertebrae (7),
cranial bones of thoracic vertebrae
fetuses and infants. (12), lumbar
The major fontanels vertebrae (5), the
are the anterior, sacrum (5, fused)
posterior, and the coccyx (4,
anterolaterals, and fused).
posterolaterals. 3. The
4. The 8 vertebral column
cranial bones contains primary
include the frontal, curves (thoracic and
parietal (2), sacral) and
temporal (2), secondary curves
occipital, sphenoid, (cervical and
and ethmoid. lumbar). These
5. The 14 curves give
facial bones are the strength, support,
nasal (2), maxillae and balance.
(2), zygomatic (2),

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
4. The 1. Each
vertebra are similar pectoral or shoulder
in structure, each girdle consists of a
consisting of a body, clavicle and
vertebral arch, and scapula.
seven processes. 2. Each
Vertebra in the attaches an upper
different regions of extremity to the
the column vary in trunk.
size, shape, and o Upper
detail. Extremities:
4. Thorax: 1. The bones
1. The thoracic of each upper
skeleton consists of extremity include
the sternum, the the humerus, ulna,
ribs and costal radius, carpals,
cartilages, and the metacarpals, and
thoracic vertebrae. phalanges.
2. The thorax 2. The carpals
protects vital organs are the: Lunate
in the chest area. (semilunar), Hamate
5. Disorders - (Unciform),
Homeostatic Imbalances: Triangular
1. Protrusion of (Triquetrum),
the nucleus Pisiform, Schaphoid
pulposus of an (Navicular),
intervertebral disc Capitate, Trapezoid
posteriorly or into (Lesser
an adjacent multangular), and
vertebral body is Trapezium (Greater
called a herniated Multangular).
(slipped) disc. o Pelvic Girdle:
2. Exaggeratio 1. The pelvic
n of a normal curve girdle consists of
of the vertebral two coxal bones
column is called a hipbones.
curvature. Examples 2. It attaches
include scoliosis, the lower
kyphosis, and extremities to the
lordosis. trunk at the sacrum.
3. The 3. 3. Each
imperfect union of coxal bone consists
the vertebral of three fused
laminae at the components-ilium,
midline, a pubis, and ischium.
congenital defect, is o Lower
referred to as spina Extremities:
bifida. 1. The bones
4. Fractures of of each lower
the vertebral extremity include
column most often the femur, tibia,
involve T 12, L l, fibula, tarsals,
and L 2. metatarsals, and
II. The appendicular skeleton phalanges.
consists of the bones of the girdles 2. The tarsals
and the upper and lower are: Calcaneus,
extremities. The parts of the Talus, Navicular,
appendicular skeleton are the Cuboid, Lateral
shoulder girdles, the bones of the Cuneiform
upper extremities, the pelvic girdle, Intermediate
and the bones of the lower Cuneiform, and
extremities. Medial Cuneiform.
o Pectoral 3. The bones
(Shoulder) Girdles: of the foot are
arranged in two

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
arches, the of soft parts, tension of ligaments,
longitudinal arch and muscle tension.
and the transverse 4. Types of movements at
arch, to provide synovial joints include gliding
support and movements, angular movements,
leverage. rotation, circumduction, inversion
Male and Female Skeletons: and eversion, protraction and
1. The male bones are retraction, supination and
generally larger and heavier than pronation, and elevation and
female bones and have more depression.
prominent markings for muscle 5. Types of synovial joints
attachment. include gliding joints (wrist bones),
2. The female pelvis is hinge joints (elbow), pivot joints
adapted for pregnancy and (radioulnar), ellipsoidal joints
childbirth. (radiocarpal), saddle joints
Articulations: (carpometacarpal), and ball-and-
1. A joint or articulation is a socket joints (shoulder and hip).
point of contact between two or 6. A joint may be described
more bones. according to the number of planes
2. Functional classification of of movement it allows as nonaxial,
joints is based on the degree of biaxial, or triaxial.
movement permitted. Joints may be Selected Articulations of the Body:
synarthroses (Nonmovable), 1. The humeroscapular
amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable), (shoulder joint) is formed by the
or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). humerus and scapula.
3. Structural classification is 2. The coxal (hip) joint is
based on the presence of a joint formed by the femur and coxal
cavity and type of connecting bone.
tissue. Structurally, joints are 3. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint
classified as fibrous, cartilaginous, is formed by the patella and femur
or synovial. and by the tibia and femur.
Fibrous Joints: Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
1. Bones held by fibrous 1. Rheumatism is a painful
connective tissue, with no joint state of supporting body structures
cavity, are fibrous joints. such as bones, ligaments, tendons,
2. These joints include joints, and muscles.
immovable sutures (found in the 2. Arthritis refers to several
skull), slightly movable disorders characterized by
syndesmoses (such as the inflammation of joints, often
tibiofibular articulation), and accompanied by stiffness of
immovable gomphoses (roots of adjacent structures.
teeth in alveoli of mandible and 3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
maxilla). refers to inflammation of a joint
Cartilaginous Joints: accompanied by pain, swelling, and
1. 1. Bones held together by loss of function.
cartilage, with no joint cavity, are 4. Osteoarthritis is a
cartilaginous joints. degenerative joint disease
2. 2. These joints include characterized by deterioration of
immovable synchondroses united articular cartilage and spur
by hyaline cartilage (temporary formation.
cartilage between diaphysis and 5. Gouty arthritis is a condition
epiphyses) and partially movable in which sodium urate crystals are
symphyses united by fibrocartilage deposited in the soft tissues of
(the symphysis pubis). joints and eventually destroy the
Synovial Joints: tissues.
1. Synovial joints contain a 6. Bursitis is an acute or
joint (synovial) cavity, articular chronic inflammation of bursae.
cartilage, and a synovial membrane; 7. A dislocation, or luxation, is
some also contain ligaments, a displacement of a bone from its
articular discs, and bursae. joint; a partial dislocation is called
2. All synovial joints are freely subluxation.
movable. 8. A sprain is the forcible
3. Movements at synovial wrenching or twisting of a joint with
joints are limited by the apposition partial rupture to its attachments

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
without dislocation, while a strain is and troponin; thick myofilaments
the stretching of a muscle. consist of myosin.
The Muscular System: Contraction - Sliding Filament Theory:
Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. A nerve impulse travels
1. Excitability is the property over the sarcolemma and enters the
of receiving and responding to T tubules and sarcoplasmic
stimuli. reticulum.
2. Contractility is the ability to 2. The nerve impulse leads to
shorten and thicken, contract. the release of calcium ions from the
3. Extensibility is the ability to sarcoplasmic reticulum, triggering
be stretched or extended. the contractile process.
4. Elasticity is the ability to 3. Actual contraction is
return to original shape after brought about when the thin
contraction or extension. myofilaments of a sarcomere slide
Functions: toward each other.
1. Through contraction, muscle The Motor Unit:
tissue performs the three important 1. A motor neuron transmits
functions of motion, maintenance of the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for
posture, and heat production. contraction.
Types: 2. The region of the
1. Skeletal muscle tissue is sarcolemma under the terminal
attached to bones. It is striated and branch of an axon of a motor
voluntary. neuron that is specialized to receive
2. Visceral muscle tissue is the nerve impulse is the motor end
located in viscera. It is nonstriated plate.
(smooth) and involuntary. 3. The area of contact
3. Cardiac muscle tissue forms between a motor neuron and
the walls of the heart. It is striated muscle fiber is a neuromuscular, or
and involuntary. myoneural, junction.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 4. A motor neuron and the
1. The term fascia is applied to muscle fibers it stimulates form a
a sheet or broad band of fibrous motor unit.
connective tissue underneath the Physiology of Contraction:
skin or around muscles and organs 1. When a nerve impulse
of the body. There are three types reaches the motor end plate, the
of fascia: superficial, deep, and neuron releases acetylcholine,
subserous. which transmits the impulse to the
2. Connective tissue motor end plate and then into the T
components are epimysium, tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
covering the entire muscle; 2. This releases calcium ions
perimysium, covering fasciculi; and that activate myosin, catalyzing the
endomysium, covering individual breakdown of ATP, and bind
fibers. tropomyosin-troponin complex, so
3. Tendons and aponeuroses that actin of thin myofilaments can
are extensions of connective tissue attach to myosin cross bridges of
beyond the muscle cells to attach thick myofilaments.
the muscle to bone or other muscle. 3. The energy released from
4. Nerves convey impulses for the breakdown of ATP causes the
muscular contraction. sliding of the myofilaments.
5. Blood provides nutrients Energy for Contraction:
and oxygen for contraction. 1. The immediate direct
6. Skeletal muscle consists of source of energy for muscle
fibers covered by a sarcolemma. contraction is ATP.
The fibers contain sarcoplasm, 2. A reserve supply of ATP may
nuclei, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and be built up by storage of excess in
T tubules. Muscle fibers are thick myofilaments or by anaerobic
individual muscle cells. combination with creatine to form
7. Each fiber contains creatine phosphate, which breaks
myofibrils that consist of thin and down to produce ATP when muscles
thick myofilaments. The contract strenuously.
myofilaments are All-or-Nothing Principle:
compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. 1. Muscle fibers of a motor unit
8. Thin myofilaments are contract to their fullest extent or not
composed of actin, tropomyosin, at all.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
2. The weakest stimulus of which contracts as a functional
capable of causing contraction is a unit.
liminal, or threshold, stimulus. 5. Intercalated discs provide
3. A stimulus not capable of strength and aid impulse
inducing contraction is a subliminal, conduction.
or subthreshold, stimulus. Smooth Muscle Tissue:
Kinds of Contractions: 1. Smooth muscle is
1. The various kinds of nonstriated and involuntary.
contractions are twitch, treppe, 2. Visceral smooth muscle is
tetanus, isotonic, and isometric. found in the walls of viscera. The
2. A record of a contraction is fibers are arranged in a network.
called a myogram. The refractory Individual cells are generally spindle
period is the time right after a shaped.
contraction when a muscle has 3. Multiunit smooth muscle is
temporarily lost excitability. Skeletal found in blood vessels and the eye.
muscles have a short refractory The fibers operate singly rather
period. Cardiac muscle has a long than as a unit.
refractory period. Homeostasis:
3. Summation of twitches is 1. Oxygen debt is the amount
the increased strength of a of O2 needed to convert
contraction resulting from the accumulated lactic acid into CO2
application of a second stimulus and H20. It occurs during strenuous
before the muscle has completely exercise and is paid back by
relaxed after a previous stimulus. continuing to breathe rapidly after
Muscle Tone: exercising. Unit it is paid back, the
1. A sustained partial homeostasis between muscular
contraction of portions of a skeletal activity and oxygen requirements is
muscle results in muscle tone. not restored.
2. Tone is essential for 2. Muscle fatigue results from
maintaining posture. diminished availability of oxygen
3. Flaccidity is a condition of and toxic effects of carbon dioxide
less than normal tone. Atrophy is a and lactic acid built up during
wasting away or decrease in size; exercise.
hypertrophy is an enlargement or 3. The heat given off during
overgrowth. muscular contraction maintains the
Types of Muscle Fibers: homeostasis of body temperature.
1. The duration of contraction Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
of various muscles of the body 1. Fibrosis is the formation of
varies with the functions of the fibrous tissue where it normally
muscles in maintaining does not exist; it frequently occurs
homeostasis. in damaged muscle tissue.
2. Fast or white muscles have 2. Fibrositis is an infiammation
an extensive sarcoplasmic of fibrous tissue. If it occurs in the
reticulum. lumbar region, it is called lumbago.
3. Slow or red muscles have 3. "Charleyhorse" refers to
smaller fibers, more blood pain, tenderness, and stiffness of
capillaries, and a large amount of joints, muscles, and related
myoglobin. structures in the thigh.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 4. Muscular dystrophy is a
1. This muscle is found only in hereditary disease of muscles
the heart. It is striated and characterized by degeneration of
involuntary. individual muscle cells.
2. The cells are quadrangular 5. Myasthenia gravis is a
and usually contain a single disease characterized by great
centrally placed nucleus. muscular weakness and fatigability
3. Compared to skeletal resulting from improper
muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue neuromuscular transmission.
has more sarcoplasm, more 6. Abnormal contractions
mitochondria, less well-developed include spasms, cramps,
sarcoplasmic reticulum, and larger T convulsions, fibrillations. and tics.
tubules. Myofilaments are not How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement:
arranged in discrete myofibrils. 1. Skeletal muscles produce
4. The fibers branch freely to movement by pulling on bones.
form two continuous networks, each 2. The attachment to the
stationary bone is the origin. The

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
attachment to the movable bone is • Neuroglia:
the insertion. 1. Neuroglia are
3. Bones serve as levers and specialized tissue cells that
joints as fulcrums. The lever is support neurons, attach
acted on by two different forces: neurons to blood vessels,
resistance and effort. produce the myelin sheath,
4. Levers are categorized into and carry out phagocytosis.
three types-first-class, second-class, 2. Neuroglial cells
and third-class-according to the include astrocytes,
position of the fulcrum, effort, and oligodendrocytes, microglia,
resistance on the lever. and ependyma.
5. Fascicular arrangements • Neurons:
include parallel, convergent, 1. Neurons, or nerve
pennate, and circular. cells, consist of a perikaryon
6. The agonist or prime mover or cell body, dendrites that
produces the desired action. The pick up stimuli and convey
antagonist produces an opposite impulses to the cell body,
action. The synergist assists the and usually a single axon.
agonist bv reducing unnecessary The axon transmits
movement. impulses from the neuron to
Naming Skeletal Muscles: the dendrites or cell body of
1. Skeletal muscles are named another neuron or to an
on the basis of distinctive criteria: effector organ of the body.
direction of fibers, location, size, 2. On the basis of
number of origins (or heads), shape, structure, neurons are
origin and insertion, and action. multipolar, bipolar, and
Intramuscular Injections: unipolar.
1. 1. Advantages of 3. On the basis of
intramuscular injections are prompt function, sensory (afferent)
absorption, use of larger doses than neurons transmit impulses
can be given cutaneously, and to the central nervous
minimal irritation. system; association neurons
2. 2. Common sites for transmit impulses to other
intramuscular injections are the neurons, including motor
buttock, lateral side of the thigh, neurons; and motor
and deltoid region of the arm. (efferent) neurons transmit
The Nervous System impulses to effectors.
The Nervous System: Physiology:
1. The nervous system Regeneration:
controls and integrates all body 1. Around the time of birth, the
activities by sensing changes, nerve cell body loses its mitotic
interpreting them, and reacting to apparatus and is no longer able to
them. divide.
2. The central nervous system 2. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders)
consists of the brain and spinal that have a neurilemma are capable
cord. of regeneration. If, however a nerve
3. The peripheral nervous cell body is distorted there will be
system is classified into an afferent no regeneration.
system and an efferent system. Nerve Impulse:
4. The efferent system is 1. The nerve impulse is the
subdivided into a somatic nervous body's quickest way of controlling
system and an autonomic nervous and maintaining homeostasis.
system. 2. The membrane of a
5. The somatic nervous system nonconducting neuron is positive
consists of efferent neurons that outside and negative inside due to
conduct impulses from the central the operation of the sodium-
nervous system to skeletal muscle potassium pump. This difference in
tissue. charge is called a resting potential,
6. The autonomic nervous and the membrane is said to be
system contains efferent neurons polarized.
that convey impulses from the 3. When a stimulus causes the
central nervous system to smooth inside of the cell membrane to
muscle tissue. cardiac muscle become positive and the outside
tissue. and glands. negative, the membrane is said to
Histology: have an action potential, which

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
travels from point to point along the 4. A ganglion is a collection of
membrane. The traveling action cell bodies outside the central
potential is a nerve impulse. The nervous system.
ability of a neuron to respond to a 5. A tract is a bundle of fibers
stimulus and convert it into a nerve of similar function in the central
impulse is called excitability. nervous system.
4. Restoration of the resting 6. A nucleus is a mass of nerve
potential is called repolarization. cell bodies and dendrites in the gray
The period of time during which the matter of the brain and spinal cord.
membrane recovers is called the 7. A horn or column is an area
refractory period. of gray matter in the spinal cord.
5. According to the all-or- Spinal Cord:
nothing principle, if a stimulus is General Features:
strong enough to generate an 1. The spinal cord begins as a
action potential, the impulse travels continuation of the medulla
at a constant and maximum oblongata and terminates at about
strength for the existing conditions. the second lumbar vertebra.
6. Nerve impulse conduction in 2. It contains cervical and
which the impulse jumps from node lumbar enlargements which serve
to node is called salitatory as points of origin for nerves to the
conduction. extremities.
7. Fibers with larger diameters 3. The tapered portion of the
conduct impulses faster than those spinal cord is the conus medullaris,
with smaller diameters. from which arise the filum terminale
Conduction Across Synapses: and cauda equina.
1. Impulse conduction can 4. The spinal cord is partially
occur from one neuron to another or divided into right and left sides by
from a neuron to an effector. the anterior median fissure and
2. The junction between posterior median sulcus.
neurons is called a synapse. 5. The gray matter in the
3. At a synapse there is only spinal cord is divided into horns and
one-way impulse conduction from a the white matter into funiculi or
presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic columns.
dendrite, cell body, or axon hillock. 6. In the center of the spinal
4. An excitatory transmitter- cord is the central canal, which runs
receptor interaction is one that can the length of the spinal cord and
lower (make less negative) the contains cerebrospinal fluid.
postsynaptic neuron's membrane 7. There are ascending
potential so that a new impulse can (sensory) tracts and descending
be generated across the synapse. (motor) tracts.
5. An inhibitory transmitter- Protection and Coverings:
receptor interaction is one that can 1. The spinal cord is protected
raise (make more negative) the by the vertebral canal, meninges,
postsynaptic neuron's membrane cerebrospinal fluid, and vertebral
potential and thus inhibit an ligaments.
impulse at a synapse. 2. The meninges are three
6. It is thought that the coverings that run continuously
transmitter that causes excitation in around the spinal cord and brain:
a major portion of the central dura mater, arachnoid and pia
nervous system is acetylcholine. An mater.
enzyme called acetylcholinesterase 3. Removal of cerebrospinal
inactivates acetylcholine. fluid from the subarachnoid space
Grouping of Neural Tissue: or ventricle is called a spinal
1. White matter is an (lumbar) puncture. The procedure is
aggregation of myelinated axons used to diagnose pathologies and to
and associated neuroglia. introduce antibiotics.
2. Gray matter is a collection Structure in Cross Section:
of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or 1. Parts of the spinal cord
unmyelinated axons along with observed in cross section are the
associated neuroglia. gray commissure; central canal;
3. A nerve is a bundle of nerve anterior, posterior, and lateral gray
fibers outside the central nervous horns; anterior, posterior, and
system. lateral white columns; and
ascending and descending tracts.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
2. The spinal cord conveys function (motor and
sensory and motor information by sensory).
way of the ascending and 2. Spinal nerves are
descending tracts, respectively. covered by endoneurium,
Functions: perineunum, and
1. A major function of the epineurium.
spinal cord is to convey sensory • Distribution:
impulses from the periphery to the 1. 1. Branches of a
brain and to conduct motor spinal nerve include the
impulses from the brain to the dorsal ramus, ventral
periphery. ramus, meningeal branch,
2. Another function is to serve and rami communicantes.
as a reflex center. The posterior 2. 2. The ventral rami
root, posterior root ganglion, and of spinal nerves, except for
anterior root are involved in T 2-T 11, form networks of
conveying an impulse. nerves called plexuses.
3. A reflex arc is the shortest 3. 3. Emerging from
route that can be taken by an the plexuses are nerves
impulse from a receptor to an bearing names that are
effector. Its basic components are a often descriptive of the
receptor, a sensory neuron, a general regions they supply
center, a motor neuron, and an or the course they take.
effector. 4. 4. The principal
4. A reflex is a quick, plexuses are called the
involuntary response to a stimulus cervical, brachial, lumbar,
that passes along a reflex arc. and sacral plexuses.
Reflexes represent the body's 5. 5. Nerves T 2-T 11
principal mechanisms for do not form plexuses and
responding to changes in the are called intercostal
internal and external environment. nerves. They are distributed
5. Somatic spinal reflexes directly to the structures
include the stretch reflex, tendon they supply in the
reflex, flexor reflex, and crossed ntercostals spaces.
extensor reflex. • Dermatomes:
6. A two-neuron or 1. 1. All spinal nerves
monosynaptic reflex arc contains except Cl innervate specific,
one sensory and one motor neuron. constant segments of the
A stretch reflex, such as the patellar skin. The skin segments are
reflex, is an example. called dermatomes.
7. A polysynaptic reflex arc 2. 2. Knowledge of
contains a sensory, association, and dermatomes helps a
motor neuron. A withdrawal or physician to determine
flexor reflex and a crossed extensor which segment of the spinal
reflex are examples. cord or spinal nerve is
8. Stretch and flexor reflexes malfunctioning.
are ipsilateral. The crossed extensor Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
reflex is controlateral. 1. Complete or partial severing
9. Among clinically important of the spinal cord is called
somatic reflexes are the patellar transection. It may result in
reflex, the Achilles reflex, the quadriplegia or paraplegia. Partial
Babinski sign, and the abdominal transection is followed by a period
reflex. of loss of reflex activity called
Spinal Nerves: areflexia.
• The 31 pairs of spinal 2. Following peripheral nerve
nerves are named and numbered damage, repair is accomplished by
according to the region and level of an axon reaction, Wallerian
the spinal cord from which they degeneration, and regeneration.
emerge. 3. Inflammation of nerves is
• Composition and known as neuritis.
Coverings: 4. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve
1. Spinal nerves are and its branches is called sciatica.
attached to the spinal cord 5. Shingles is acute infection
by means of a posterior root of peripheral nerves.
and an anterior root. All The Brain:
spinal nerves are mixed

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
1. Embryological cells. Interruption of the
Development: mother's blood supply to a
1. 1. During child during childbirth
embryological development, before it can breathe may
brain vesicles are formed result in paralysis, mental
and serve as forerunners of retardation, epilepsy, or
various parts of the brain. death.
2. 2. The diencephalon 3. 3. Glucose
develops into the thalamus deficiency may produce
and hypothalamus, the dizziness, convulsions, and
telencephalon forms the unconsciousness.
cerebrum, the 4. 4. The blood-brain
mesencephalon develops barrier (BBB) is a concept
into the midbrain, the that explains the differential
myelencephalon forms the rates of passage of certain
medulla, and the materials from the blood
metencephalon develops into the brain.
into the pons and 5. The Brain Stem:
cerebellum. 1. 1. The medulla
2. Protection and oblongata is continuous with
Coverings: the upper part of the spinal
1. 1. The principal cord. It contains nuclei that
parts of the brain are the are reflex centers for
brain stem, diencephalon, regulation of heart rate,
cerebrum, and cerebellum. respiratory rate,
2. 2. The brain is vasoconstriction,
protected by the cranial swallowing, coughing,
bones, cranial meninges, vomiting, sneezing, and
and cerebrospinal fluid hiccuping. It also contains
3. Cerebrospinal Fluid: the nuclei of origin for
1. Cerebrospinal fluid cranial nerves VIII (cochlear
is formed in the choroid and vestibular branches)
plexuses and circulates through XII.
through the subarachnoid 2. 2. The pons is
space, ventricles, and superior to the medulla. It
central canal. Most of the connects the spinal cord
fluid is absorbed by the with the brain and links
arachnoid villi of the parts of the brain with one
superior sagittal sinus. another. It relays impulses
2. Cerebrospinal fluid from the cerebral cortex to
protects by serving as a the cerebellum related to
shock absorber. It also voluntary skeletal
circulates nutritive movements. It contains the
substances from the blood. nuclei for cranial nerves V
3. The accumulation of through VII and the
cerebrospinal fluid in the vestibular branch of VIII.
head is called The reticular formation of
hydrocephalus. If the fluid the pons contains the
accumulates in the pneumotaxic center. which
ventricles, it is called helps control respiration.
internal hydrocephalus. If it 3. 3. The midbrain
accumulates in the connects the pons and
subarachnoid space, it is diencephalon. It conveys
called external motor impulses from the
hydrocephalus. cerebrum to the cerebellum
4. Blood Supply to the and cord, sensory impulses
Brain: from cord to thalamus, and
1. 1. The blood supply regulates auditory and
to the brain is via the circle visual reflexes. It also
of Willis. contains the nuclei of origin
2. 2. Any interruption for cranial nerves III and IV.
of the oxygen supply to the 6. The Diencephalon:
brain can result in 1. 1. The diencephalon
weakening, permanent consists of the thalamus
damage, or death of brain and hypothalamus.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
2. 2. The thalamus is diagnose epilepsy,
superior to the midbrain and infections, and tumors.
contains nuclei that serve 8. Brain Lateralization:
as relay stations for all 1. 1. Recent research
sensory impulses, except indicates that the two
smell, to the cerebral hemispheres of the brain
cortex. It also registers are not bilaterally
conscious recognition of symmetrical, either
pain and temperature and anatomically or functionally.
some awareness of crude 2. 2. The left
touch and pressure. hemisphere is more
3. 3. The important for right-handed
hypothalamus is inferior to control, spoken and written
the thalamus. It controls the language, numerical and
autonomic nervous system, scientific skills, and
connects the nervous and reasoning.
endocrine systems, controls 3. 3. The right
body temperature, hemisphere is more
regulates food and fluid important for left-handed
intake, and maintains the control, musical and artistic
waking state and sleep awareness, space and
patterns. pattern perception, insight,
7. The Cerebrum: imagination, and generating
1. 1. The cerebrum is mental images of sight,
the largest part of the brain. sound, touch, taste, and
Its cortex contains smell.
convolutions, fissures, and 9. The Cerebellum:
sulci. 1. 1. The cerebellum
2. 2. The cerebral occupies the inferior and
lobes are named the frontal, posterior aspects of the
parietal, temporal, and cranial cavity. It consists of
occipital. two hemispheres and a
3. 3. The white matter central, constricted vermis.
is under the cortex and 2. 2. It is attached to
consists of myelinated the brain stem by three
axons running in three pairs of cerebellar
principal directions. peduncles.
4. 4. The basal ganglia 3. 3. The cerebellum
are paired masses of gray functions in the coordination
matter in the cerebral of skeletal muscles and the
hemispheres. They help to maintenance of normal
control muscular muscle tone and body
movements. equilibrium.
5. 5. The limbic system 10. Transmitter Substances
is found in the cerebral in the Brain:
hemispheres and 1. 1. Over 40 different
diencephalon. It functions in substances are known or
emotional aspects of suspected transmitter
behavior and memory. substances in the brain that
6. 6. The motor areas can facilitate, excite, or
of the cerebral cortex are inhibit postsynaptic
the regions that govern neurons.
muscular movement. The 2. 2. Examples of
sensory areas are transmitter substances
concerned with the include acetylcholine,
interpretation of sensory norepinephrine, dopamine,
impulses. The association serotonin, glutamic acid,
areas are concerned with aspartic acid, gamma
emotional and intellectual aminobutyric acid, and
processes. glycine.
7. 7. Brain waves 3. 3. Peptide chemical
generated by the cerebral messengers that act as
cortex are recorded as an natural pain killers in the
EEG. They may be used to body are enkephalins,
endorphins, and dynorphin.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
4. 4. Other peptides pharynx, some neck
serve as hormones or other and shoulder
regulators of physiological muscles.
responses. Examples 12. Hypoglossal
include angiotensin, - Motor, Tongue
cholecystokinin, and muscles.
regulating factors produced 12. Disorders - Homeostatic
by the hypothalamus. Imbalances:
11. The Cranial Nerves: 1. Poliomyelitis is a
1. Twelve pairs of viral infection that results in
cranial nerves originate paralysis.
from the brain. The pairs 2. Cerebral palsy
are named primarily on the refers to a group of motor
basis of distribution and disorders caused by
numbered by order of damage to motor centers of
attachment to the brain. the cerebral cortex,
The cranial nerves and their cerebellum, or basal ganglia
major functions are: during fetal development,
1. 1. Olfactory childbirth, or early infancy.
- The sense of smell. 3. Parkinsonism is a
2. Optic - The progressive degeneration of
sense of vision. the basal ganglia of the
3. Oculomotor cerebrum resulting in
- Motor function of insufficient dopamine.
eye muscles. 4. Multiple sclerosis
4. Trochlear - (MS) is the destruction of
Motor function of myelin sheaths of the
eye muscles. neurons of the central
5. Trigeminal - nervous system. Impulse
Sensory function. transmission is interrupted.
Scalp, forehead, 5. Epilepsy results
nose, upper eyelid, from irregular electrical
cornea, Palate, discharges of brain cells and
upper jaw, upper may be diagnosed by an
teeth, lower jaw, EEG. Depending on the form
lower teeth, etc. of the disease, the victim
Motor function, experiences degrees of
muscles of motor, sensory, or
mastication. psychological malfunction.
6. Abduscens - 6. Cerebrovascular
Motor function of accidents (CVAs), also
eye muscles. called strokes, are brain
7. . Facial - tissue destruction due to
Sensory, taste. hemorrhage, thrombosis, or
Motor function, atherosclerosis.
muscles of facial 7. Dyslexia involves an
expression, etc. inability of an individual to
8. Vestibulococ comprehend written
hlear - Sensory, language.
hearing and 8. Tay-Sachs disease is
balance. an inherited disorder that
9. Glossophary involves neurological
ngeal - Sensory, degeneration of the CNS
taste. Motor, because of excessive
pharyngeal muscles. amounts of ganglioside
10. Vagus - Gm2.
Sensory, inferior 9. Headaches are of
pharynx, larynx, two types: intracranial and
thoracic and extracranial.
abdominal organs. 10. Irritation of the
Motor, soft palate, trigeminal nerve is known
larangeal muscles, as trigeminal neuralgia.
tongue muscles. 11. Rabies is an acute
11. Accessory - viral infection that produces
Motor, Soft palate,

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
muscle spasms and corpuscles, and end organs of
encephalitis. Ruffini. Receptors for pressure are
12. Reye’s syndrome free nerve endings, end organs of
(RS) is characterized by Ruffini, and Pacinian corpuscles.
vomiting, brain dysfunction, Receptors for vibration are
and liver damage. Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian
13. Senility (dementia) corpuscles.
is a disorder of the elderly 3. Pain receptors are located
that involves widespread in nearly every body tissue.
intellectual impairment, 4. Two kinds of pain
personality changes, and recognized in the parietal lobe of
sometimes delirium. the cortex are somatic and visceral.
Sensations: 5. Referred pain is felt in the
1. Sensation is a state of skin near or away from the organ
awareness of external and internal sending pain impulses.
conditions of the body. 6. Phantom pain is the
2. The prerequisites for sensation of pain in a limb that has
sensation are reception of a been amputated.
stimulus, conversion of the stimulus 7. Pain impulses may be
into a nerve impulse by a receptor, inhibited by drugs, surgery, and
conduction of the impulse to the acupuncture.
brain, and translation of the impulse Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations:
into a sensation by a region of the 1. Receptors located in
brain. muscles, tendons, and joints convey
Characteristics: impulses related to muscle tone,
1. Projection occurs when the movement of body parts, and body
brain refers a sensation to the point position.
of stimulation. 2. The receptors include joint
2. Adaptation is the loss of kinesthetic receptors, muscle
sensation even though the stimulus spindles, and tendon organs.
is still applied. Levels of Sensation:
3. An afterimage is the 1. Sensory fibers terminating
persistence of a sensation even in the lower brain stem bring about
though the stimulus is removed. far more complex motor reactions
4. Modality is the property by than simple spinal reflexes.
which one sensation is distinguished 2. When sensory impulses
from another. reach the lower brain stem, they
Classification of Receptors: cause subconscious motor
1. According to location, reactions.
receptors are classified as 3. Sensory impulses that reach
exteroceptors, visceroceptors, and the thalamus can be localized
proprioceptors. crudely in the body.
2. On the basis of type of 4. When sensory impulses
stimulus detected, receptors are reach the cerebral cortex, we
classified as mechanoreceptors, experience precise localization
thermoreceptors, nociceptors, Sensory Pathways:
electromagnetic receptors, and 1. Sensory information from all
chemoreceptors. parts of the body terminates in a
3. In terms of simplicity or specific area of the somatosensory
complexity, simple receptors are cortex.
associated with general senses and 2. In the posterior column
complex receptors are associated pathway and the spinothalamlc
with special senses. pathway there are first-order,
General Senses - Cutaneous Sensations: second-order, and third-order
1. Cutaneous sensations neurons.
include tactile sensations (touch, 3. The neural pathway for pain
pressure, vibration), and temperature is the lateral
thermoreceptive sensations (heat spinothalamic pathway.
and cold), and pain. Receptors for 4. The neural pathway for
these sensations are located in the crude touch and pressure is the
skin, connective tissues, and the anterior spinothalamic pathway.
ends of the gastrointestinal tract. 5. The neural pathway for light
2. Receptors for touch are root touch, proprioception, and vibration
hair plexuses, free nerve endings, is the posterior column pathway.
Merkel's discs, Meissner's

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
6. The pathways to the 5. Autonomic ganglia are
cerebellum are the anterior and classified as sympathetic trunk
posterior spinocerebellar tracts. ganglia (on sides of spinal column),
Motor Pathways: prevertebral ganglia (anterior to
1. The muscles of all parts of spinal column), and terminal ganglia
the body are controlled by a specific (near or inside visceral effectors).
area of the motor cortex. Physiology:
2. Voluntary motor impulses 1. Autonomic fibers release
are conveyed from the brain chemical transmitters at synapses.
through the spinal cord along the On the basis of the transmitter
pyramidal pathways and the produced, these fibers may be
extrapyramidal pathways. classified as cholinergic or
3. Pyramidal pathways include adrenergic.
the lateral corticospinal, anterior 2. Cholinergic fibers release
corticospinal, and corticobulbar acetylcholine. Adrenergic fibers
tracts. produce norepinephrine.
4. Major extrapyramidal tracts 3. Sympathetic responses are
are the rubrospinal, tectospinal, and widespread and, in general,
vestibulospinal tracts. concerned with energy expenditure.
Integrative Functions: Parasympathetic responses are
1. Memory is defined as the restricted and are typically
ability to recall thoughts; it consists concerned with energy restoration
of activated and long-term and conservation.
components. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes:
2. Sleep and wakefulness are 1. A visceral autonomic reflex
integrative functions that are adjusts the activity of a visceral
controlled by the reticular activating effector.
system (RAS). 2. A visceral autonomic reflex
3. Nonrapid eye movement arc consists of a receptor, afferent
(NREM) sleep consists of four stages neuron, association neuron, visceral
identified by EEG recordings. efferent preganglionic neuron,
4. Most dreaming occurs visceral efferent postganglionic
during rapid eye movement (REM) neuron, and visceral effector.
sleep. Control by Higher Centers:
Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous 1. The hypothalamus controls
Systems: and integrates the autonomic
1. The autonomic nervous nervous system. It is connected to
system, or visceral efferent nervous both the sympathetic and the
system, regulates visceral activities, parasympathetic divisions.
that is, activities of smooth muscle, 2. Biofeedback is a process in
cardiac muscle, and glands. which people learn to monitor
2. It usually operates without visceral functions and to control
conscious control. them consciously. It has been used
3. It is regulated by centers in to control heart rate, to alleviate
the brain, in particular by the migraine headaches, and to make
cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, childbirth easier.
and the medulla oblongata. 3. Yoga is a higher
4. The somatic efferent consciousness achieved through a
nervous system produces conscious fully rested and relaxed body and a
movement in skeletal muscles. fully awake and relaxed mind.
Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 4. Transcendental meditation
1. The autonomic nervous (TM) produces the following
system consists of visceral efferent physiological responses: decreased
neurons organized into nerves, oxygen consumption and carbon
ganglia, and plexuses. dioxide elimination, reduced
2. It is entirely motor. All metabolic rate, decrease in heart
autonomic axons are efferent fibers. rate, increase in the intensity of
3. Efferent neurons are alpha brain waves, a sharp
preganglionic (with myelinated decrease in the amount of lactic
axons) and postganglionic (with acid in the blood, and an increase in
unmyelinated axons). the skin's electrical resistance.
4. The autonomic system Olfactory Sensations:
consists of two principal divisions: 1. The receptors for olfaction
sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and are in the nasal epithelium.
parasympathetic (craniosacral).

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
2. Substances to be smelled 1. The ear consists of three
must be volatile, water-soluble, and anatomical subdivisions: (a) the
lipid-soluble. external or outer ear (pinna,
3. Two theories that explain external auditory canal, and
how olfactory cells respond to tympanic membrane), (b) the
primary sensations are the chemical middle ear (auditory tube, ossicles,
theory and physical theory. oval window, and round window),
4. Adaptation to odors occurs and (c) the internal or inner ear
quickly, and the threshold of smell (bony labyrinth and membranous
is low. labyrinth). The internal ear contains
5. Olfactory cells convey the spiral organ, the organ of
impulses to olfactory nerves, hearing.
olfactory bulbs, olfactory tracts, and 2. Sound waves enter the
cerebral cortex. external auditory canal, strike the
Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: tympanic membrane, pass through
1. The receptors for gustation the ossicles, strike the oval window,
are located in taste buds. set up waves in the perilymph,
2. Substances to be tasted strike the vestibular membrane and
must be in solution in saliva. scala tympani, increase pressure in
3. The four primary tastes are the endolymph, strike the basilar
salt, sweet, sour, and bitter. membrane, and stimulate hairs on
4. Adaptation to taste occurs the spiral organ. A sound impulse is
quickly, and the threshold varies then initiated.
with the taste involved. 3. Static equilibrium is the
5. Gustatory cells convey orientation of the body relative to
impulses to cranial nerves V, VII, IX, the pull of gravity. The maculae of
and X, medulla, thalamus, and the utricle and saccule are the
cerebral cortex. sense organs of static equilibrium.
Visual Sensations: 4. Dynamic equilibrium is the
1. Accessory structures of the maintenance of body position in
eyes include the eyebrows, eyelids, response to movement. The cristae
eyelashes, and the lacrimal in the semicircular ducts are the
apparatus. sense organs of dynamic
2. The eye is constructed of equilibrium.
three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
and cornea), (b) vascular tunic 1. Cataract is the loss of
(choroid, ciliary body, and iris), and transparency of the lens or capsule.
(c) retina, which contains rods and 2. Glaucoma is abnormally
cones. high intraocular pressure, which
3. The anterior cavity contains destroys neurons of the retina.
aqueous humor; the posterior cavity 3. Conjunctivitis is an
contains vitreous humor. inflammation of the conjunctiva.
4. The refractive media of the 4. Trachoma is a chronic,
eye are the cornea, aqueous humor, contagious inflammation of the
lens, and vitreous humor. conjunctiva.
5. Retinal image formation 5. Deafness is the lack of the
involves refraction of light, sense of hearing or significant
accommodation of the lens, hearing loss.
constriction of the pupil, 6. Labyrinthine disease is
convergence, and inverted image basically a malfunction of the inner
formation. ear that has a variety of causes.
6. Improper refraction may 7. Meniere's syndrome is the
result from myopia malfunction of the inner ear that
(nearsightedness), hypermetropia may cause deafness and loss of
(farsightedness), and astigmatism equilibrium.
(corneal or lens abnormalities). 8. Impacted cerumen is an
7. Rods and cones develop abnormal amount of earwax in the
generator potentials and ganglion external auditory canal.
cells initiate nerve impulses. 9. Otitis media is an acute
8. Impulses from ganglion cells infection of the middle ear cavity.
are conveyed through the retina to 10. Motion sickness is a
the optic (II) nerve, the optic functional disorder precipitated by
chiasma, the optic tract. the repetitive angular, linear, or vertical
thalamus, and the cortex. motion.
Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: The Endocrine System and Glands

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
The Endocrine System and Glands: produce prolactin (PRL); TSH cells
1. Both the endocrine and that secrete thyroid-stimulating
nervous systems assume a role in hormone (TSH); gonadotroph cells
maintaining homeostasis. that synthesize follicle-stimulating
2. Hormones help regulate the hormone (FSH) and luteinizing
internal environment, respond to hormone (LH); and corticotroph-
stress, help regulate growth and lipotroph cells that secrete
development, and contribute to adrenocorticotropin hormone
reproductive processes. (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating
3. Exocrine glands (sweat, hormone (MSH).
sebaceous, digestive) secrete their 5. GH stimulates body growth
products through ducts into body through somatomedins and
cavities or onto body surfaces. insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and
4. Endocrine glands secrete is controlled by GHIF (growth
hormones into the blood. hormone inhibiting factor or
Chemistry of Hormones: somatostatin) and GHRF (growth
1. On the basis of solubility, hormone releasing factor).
hormones are classified as water 6. Disorders associated with
soluble and lipid-soluble. improper levels of GH are pituitary
2. Cells that respond to the dwarfism, giantism, and
effects of hormones are called acromegaly.
target cells. 7. TSH regulates thyroid gland
Mechanism of Hormonal Action: activities and is controlled by TRF
1. Water-soluble hormones (thyrotropin releasing factor).
exert their effects by interacting 8. ACTH regulates the
with plasma membrane receptors; activities of the adrenal cortex and
some utilize cyclic AMP as a second is controlled by CRF (corticotropin
messenger. releasing factor).
2. Lipid-soluble hormones 9. FSH regulates the activities
exert their effects by interacting of the ovaries and testes and is
directly with genes. controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin
3. Prostaglandins (PG) can releasing factor).
increase or decrease cyclic AMP 10. LH regulates female and
formation and thus modulate male reproductive activities and is
hormone responses that use cyclic controlled by GnRF.
AMP. 11. PRL helps initiate milk
Control of Hormonal Secretions - Feedback secretion and is controlled by PIF
Control: (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF
1. A negative feedback control (prolactin releasing factor).
mechanism prevents 12. MSH increases skin
overproduction or underproduction pigmentation and is controlled by
of a hormone. MRF (melanocyte-stimulating
2. Hormone secretions are hormone releasing factor) and MIF
controlled by levels of circulating (melanocyte-stimulating hormone
hormone itself, nerve impulses, and inhibiting factor).
regulating factors. 13. The neural connection
Pituitary (Hypophysis): between the hypothalamus and
1. The pituitary is located in neurohypophysis is via the
the sella turcica of the skull and is hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract.
differentiated into the 14. Hormones made by the
adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe hypothalamus and stored in the
and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT
neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe (stimulates contraction of uterus
and nervous portion). and ejection of milk) and
2. Hormones of the antidiuretic hormone or ADH
adenohypophysis are released or (stimulates water reabsorption by
inhibited by regulating factors the kidneys and arteriole
produced by the hypothalamus. constriction).
3. The blood supply to the 15. OT secretion is controlled by
adenohypophysis is from the uterine distension and sucking
superior hypophyseal arteries. during nursing; ADH is controlled
4. Histologically, the primarily by water concentration.
adenohypophysis consists of growth 16. A disorder associated with
hormone cells that produce growth dysfunction of the neurohypophysis
hormone (GH); prolactin cells that is diabetes insipidus.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
Thyroid: 5. A dysfunction related to
1. The thyroid gland is located aldosterone secretion is
below the larynx. aldosteronism.
2. Histologically, the thyroid 6. Glucocorticoids (e.g.,
consists of thyroid follicles cortisol) promote normal
composed of follicular cells, which metabolism, help resist stress, and
secrete the thyroid hormones serve as antiinflammatories.
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine Secretion is controlled by CRF.
(T3), and parafollicular cells, which 7. Disorders associated with
secrete calcitonin (CT). glucocorticoid secretion are
3. Thyroid hormones are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s
synthesized from iodine and syndrome.
tyrosine within thyroglobulin and 8. Gonadocorticoids secreted
carried in the blood with plasma by the adrenal medulla have
proteins, mostly thyroxine-binding minimal effects. Excessive
globulin (TBG). production results in adrenogenital
4. Thyroid hormones regulate syndrome.
the rate of metabolism, growth and 9. Medullary secretions are
development, and the reactivity of epinephrine and norepinephrine
the nervous system. Secretion is (NE) which produce effects similar
controlled by TRF. to sympathetic responses. They are
5. Cretinism, myxedema, released under stress.
exophthalmic goiter, and simple 10. Tumors of medullary
goiter are disorders associated with chromaffin cells are called
dysfunction of the thyroid gland. pheochromocytomas.
6. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the Pancreas:
blood level of calcium. Secretion is 1. The pancreas is posterior
controlled by its own level in blood. and slightly inferior to the stomach.
Parathyroids: 2. Histologically, it consists of
1. The parathyroids are islets of Langerhans (endocrine
embedded on the posterior surfaces cells) and acini (enzyme-producing
of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. cells). Three types of cells in the
2. Histologically, the endocrine portion are alpha cells,
parathyroids consist of principal and beta cells, and delta cells.
oxyphil cells. 3. Alpha cells secrete
3. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) glucagon, beta cells secrete insulin,
regulates the homeostasis of and delta cells secrete growth
calcium and phosphate by hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or
increasing blood calcium level and somatostatin.
decreasing blood phosphate level. 4. Glucagon increases blood
Secretion is controlled by its own sugar level. Secretion is controlled
level in blood. by its own level in the blood.
4. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa 5. Insulin decreases blood
cystica are disorders associated sugar level. Secretion is controlled
with the parathyroid glands. by its own level in the blood.
Adrenals (Suprarenals): 6. Disorders associated with
1. The adrenal glands are insulin production are diabetes
located superior to the kidneys. mellitus and hyperinsulinism.
They consist of an outer cortex and Ovaries and Testes:
inner medulla. 1. Ovaries are located in the
2. Histologically, the cortex is pelvic cavity and produce sex
divided into a zona glomerulosa, hormones related to development
zona ennin late, and zona and maintenance of female sexual
reticularis; the medulla consists of characteristics. menstrual cycle,
chromaffin cells. pregnancy, and lactation.
3. Cortical secretions are 2. Testes lie inside the
mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, scrotum and produce sex hormones
and gonadocorticoids. related to the development and
4. Mineralocorticoids (e.g., maintenance of male sexual
aldosterone) increase sodium and characteristics.
water reabsorption and decrease Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri):
potassium reabsorption. Secretion is 1. The pineal is attached to the
controlled by the ennin-angiotensin roof of the third ventricle.
pathway and blood level of 2. Histologically, it consists of
potassium. secretory parenchymal cells called

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
pinealocytes, neuroglial cells, and 2. The function of red blood
scattered preganglionic sympathetic cells is to transport oxygen and
fibers. Calcified deposits are carbon dioxide.
referred to as brain sand. 3. Red blood cells live about
3. It secretes melatonin 120 days. A healthy male has about
(possibly regulates reproductive 5.4 million/mm3 of blood; a healthy
activities by inhibiting gonadotropic female, about 4.8 million/mm3.
hormones) and 4. Erythrocyte formation,
adrenoglomerulotropin (may called erythropoiesis, occurs in
stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete adult red marrow of certain bones.
aldosterone). 5. A reticulocyte count is a
Thymus: diagnostic test that indicates the
1. The thymus is a bilobed rate of erythropoiesis.
Iymphatic gland located in the 6. A hematocrit measures the
superior mediastinum posterior to percentage of red blood cells in
the sternum and between the lungs. whole blood.
2. Hormones secreted are: Leucocytes:
Thymosin, thymic humoral factor 1. Leucocytes are nucleated
(THF), thymic factor (TF), and cells. Two principal types are
thymopoietin which promotes the granular (neutrophils, eosinophils,
maturation of T cells. basophils) and agranular
The Cardiovascular System: (Iymphocytes and monocytes).
Blood: 2. The general function of
Physical Characteristics: leucocytes is to combat
1. The cardiovascular system inflammation and infection.
consists of blood, the heart, and Neutrophils and monocytes
blood vessels. The Iymphatic (wandering macrophages) do so
system consists of Iymph, Iymph through phagocytosis.
vessels, and Iymph glands. 3. Eosinophils and basophils
2. Physical characteristics of are involved in combating allergic
blood include viscosity, 4.5 to 5.5; reactions.
temperature, 38 degrees C (100.4 4. Lymphocytes, in response
degrees F); pH, 7.35 to 7.45; and to the presence of foreign
salinity, 0.85 to 0.90 NaCI. Blood substances called antigens,
constitutes about 8 percent of body differentiate into tissue plasma cells
weight. which produce antibodies.
Functions: Antibodies attach to the antigens
1. Blood transports oxygen, and render them harmless. This
carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, antigen-antibody response combats
hormones, and enzymes. infection and provides immunity.
2. It helps to regulate pH, body 5. A differential count is a
temperature, and water content of diagnostic test in which white blood
cells. cells are enumerated.
3. It prevents excessive fluid 6. White blood cells usually
loss through clotting. live for only a few hours or a few
4. It protects against toxins days. Normal blood contains 5,000
and microbes. to 9,000/mm3.
Components: Thrombocytes:
1. The formed elements in 1. Thrombocytes are disc-
blood include erythrocytes (red shaped structures without nuclei.
blood cells), leucocytes (white blood 2. They are formed from
cells), and thrombocytes (platelets). megakaryocytes and are involved in
2. Blood cells are formed by a clotting.
process called hemopoiesis. 3. Normal blood contains
3. Red bone marrow (myeloid 250,000 to 400,000/mm3.
tissue) is responsible for producing Plasma:
red blood cells, granular leucocytes, 1. The liquid portion of blood,
and platelets; Iymphoid tissue and called plasma, consists of 91.5
myeloid tissue produce agranular percent water and 8.5 percent
leucocytes. solutes.
Erythrocytes: 2. Principal solutes include
1. Erythrocytes are biconcave proteins (albumins, globulins,
discs without nuclei and containing fibrinogen), nonprotein nitrogen
hemoglobin. (NPN) substances, foods, enzymes

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
and hormones, respiratory gases, 1. Interstitial fluid bathes body
and electrolytes cells, whereas Iymph is found in
Hemostasis: Iymphatic vessels.
1. Hemostasis refers to the 2. These fluids are similar in
prevention of blood loss. chemical composition. They differ
2. It involves vascular spasm, chemically from plasma in that both
platelet plug formation, and blood contain less protein and a variable
coagulation. number of leucocytes. Like plasma,
3. In vascular spasm, the they contain no platelets or
smooth muscle of a blood vessel erythrocytes.
wall contracts to stop bleeding. Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
4. Platelet plug formation 1. Anemia is a decreased
involves the clumping of platelets to erythrocyte count or hemoglobin
stop bleeding. deficiency. Kinds of anemia include
5. A clot is a network of nutritional, pernicious, hemorrhagic,
insoluble protein (fibrin) in which hemolytic, aplastic, and sickle cell
formed elements of blood are anemia.
trapped. 2. Polycythemia is an
6. The chemicals involved in abnormal increase in the number of
clotting are known as coagulation erythrocytes.
factors. There are two kinds: plasma 3. Infectious mononucleosis is
and platelet coagulation factors. characterized by an elevated white
7. Blood clotting involves two cell count, especially Iymphocytes
pathways: the intrinsic and the and mononucleocytes. The cause is
extrinsic. a virus.
8. Normal coagulation also 4. Leukemia is the
involves clot retraction (tightening uncontrolled production of white
of the clot) and fibrinolysis blood cells that interferes with
(dissolution of the clot). normal clotting and vital body
9. Clotting in an unbroken activities.
blood vessel is called thrombosis. A The Cardiovascular System - The Heart:
thrombus that moves from its site of 1. The heart is situated
origin is called an embolus. obliquely between the lungs in the
10. Anticoagulatants (e.g., mediastinum.
heparin) prevent clogging. 2. About two-thirds of its mass
11. Clinically important clotting is to the left of the midline.
tests are clotting time (time Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac)
required for blood to coagulate), 1. The parietal pericardium,
bleeding time (time required for the consisting of an outer fibrous layer
cessation of bleeding from a small and an inner serous layer, encloses
skin puncture), and prothrombin the heart.
time (time required for the blood to 2. Between the serous
coagulate, which depends on the pericardium and the epicardium is
amount of prothrombin in the blood the pericardial cavity, a space filled
sample). with pericardial fluid that prevents
Blood Grouping (Typing): friction between the two
1. ABO and Rh systems are membranes.
based on antigen-antibody Wall – Chambers – Vessels - Valves:
responses. 1. The wall of the heart has
2. In the ABO system, three layers: epicardium,
agglutinogens (antigens) A and B myocardium, and endocardium.
determine blood type. Plasma 2. The chambers include two
contains agglutinins (antibodies) upper atria and two lower
that clump agglutinogens which are ventricles.
foreign to the individual. 3. The blood flows through the
3. In the Rh system, heart from the superior and inferior
individuals whose erythrocytes have venae cavae and the coronary sinus
Rh agglutinogens are classified as to the right atrium, through the
Rh+. Those who lack the antigen tricuspid valve to the right ventricle,
are Rh-. through the pulmonary trunk to the
4. A disorder due to Rh lungs, through the pulmonary veins
incompatibility between mother and into the left atrium, through the
fetus is called erythroblastosis bicuspid valve to the left ventricle,
fetalis. and out through the aorta.
Interstitial Fluid:

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
4. Valves prevent backflow of 1. Blood flows through the
blood in the heart. heart from an area of higher to
5. Atrioventricular (AV) valves, lower pressure.
between the atria and their 2. The pressure developed is
ventricles, are the tricuspid valve on related to the size and volume of a
the right side of the heart and the chamber.
bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. 3. A cardiac cycle consists of
6. The chordae tendineae and the systole (contraction) and
their muscles keep the flaps of the diastole (relaxation) of both atria
valves pointing in the direction of plus the systole and diastole of both
blood flow. ventricles followed by a short
7. The two arteries that leave pause.
the heart both have a semilunar 4. The movement of blood
valve. through the heart is controlled by
Conduction System: the opening and closing of the
1. The conduction system valves and the contraction and
consists of nervous tissue relaxation of the myocardium.
specialized for impulse conduction. 5. With an average heartbeat
2. Components of this system of 75/min, a complete cardiac cycle
are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker), requires 0.8 sec.
atrioventricular (AV) node, 6. The first sound (lubb)
atrioventricular (AV) bundle, bundle represents the closing of the
branches, and Purkinje fibers. atrioventricular valves. The second
Electrocardiogram: sound (dupp) represents the closing
1. The record of electrical of semilunar valves.
changes during each cardiac cycle 7. A peculiar sound is called a
is referred to as an murmur.
electrocardiogram (ECG). Cardiac Output:
2. A normal ECG consists of a 1. Cardiac output (CO) is the
P wave (spread of impulse from SA amount of blood ejected by the left
node over atria), QRS wave (spread ventricle into the aorta per minute.
of impulse through ventricles), and It is calculated as follows: CO =
T wave (ventricular repolarization). stroke volume x beats per minute.
The P-R interval represents the 2. Stroke volume (SV) is the
conduction time from the beginning amount of blood ejected by a
of atrial excitation to the beginning ventricle during each systole.
of ventricular excitation. The S-T 3. Stroke volume (SV) depends
segment represents the time on how much blood enters a
between the end of the spread of ventricle during diastole (end-
the impulse through the ventricles diastolic volume) and how much
and repolarization of the ventricles. blood is left in a ventricle following
3. 3. The ECG is invaluable in its systole (end systolic volume).
diagnosing abnormal cardiac 4. The maximum percentage
rhythms and conduction patterns, that cardiac output can be
detecting the presence of fetal life, increased above normal is cardiac
determining the presence of several reserve.
fetuses, and following the course of 5. Heart rate and strength of
recovery from a heart attack. contraction may be increased by
4. 4. An artificial pacemaker sympathetic stimulation from the
may be used to restore an abnormal cardioacceleratory center in the
cardiac rhythm. medulla and decreased by
Blood Supply: parasympathetic stimulation from
1. The coronary (cardiac) the cardioinhibitory center in the
circulation takes oxygenated blood medulla.
through the arterial system of the 6. Pressoreceptors are nerve
myocardium. cells that respond to changes in
2. Deoxygenated blood returns blood pressure. They act on the
to the right atrium via the coronary cardiac centers in the medulla
sinus. through three reflex pathways:
3. Complications of this carotid sinus reflex, aortic reflex,
system are angina pectoris and and right heart (atrial) reflex.
myocardial infarction. 7. Other influences on heart
Cardiac Cycle: rate include chemicals (epinephrine,
sodium, potassium), temperature,

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
emotion, sex (gender and physical 2. Through constriction and
activity), and age. dilation they assume a key role in
Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: regulating blood flow from arteries
1. Shock results when cardiac into capillaries.
output is reduced or blood volume Capillaries:
decreases to the point where body 1. Capillaries are microscopic
tissues become hypoxic. blood vessels through which
2. Mild shock is compensated materials are exchanged between
by vasoconstriction and water blood and tissue cells; some
retention. capillaries are continuous, others
3. In severe shock, venous are fenestrated.
return is diminished and cardiac 2. Capillaries branch to form
output decreases. The heart an extensive capillary network
becomes hypoxic, prolonged throughout the tissue. This network
vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of increases the surface area, allowing
other organs, and the shock cvcle is a rapid exchange of large quantities
intensified. of materials.
Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances: 3. Precapillary sphincters
1. Risk factors in heart disease regulate blood flow through
include high blood cholesterol, high capillaries.
blood pressure, cigarette smoking, 4. Microscopic blood vessels in
obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes the liver are called sinusoids.
mellitus, and genetic disposition. Venules:
2. The immediate causes of 1. Venules are small vessels
heart disease are inadequate that continue from capillaries and
coronary blood supply, anatomical merge to form veins.
disorders (patent ductus arteriosus, 2. They drain blood from
septal defects, valvular stenosis, capillaries into veins.
and tetralogy of Fallot), and Veins:
arrhythmias (heart block, flutter, 1. Veins consist of the same
fibrillation, and premature three tunics as arteries, but have
contractions). less elastic tissue and smooth
3. Congestive heart failure muscle.
(CHF) results when the heart cannot 2. They contain valves to
supply the oxygen demands of the prevent back flow of blood.
body. 3. Weak valves can lead to
4. Cardiac catheterization varicose veins or hemorrhoids.
permits physicians to determine 4. Vascular (venous) sinuses
heart disorders and pressures, to are veins with very thin walls.
correct some defects, and to apply Physiology of Circulation:
chemotherapy locally. Blood Flow and Blood Pressure:
5. Hypothermia (deliberate 1. Blood flows from regions of
body cooling) and the heart-lung higher to lower pressure. The
bypass permit open-heart surgery. established pressure gradient is
Arteries: from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries
1. Arteries carry blood away (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25
from the heart. Their wall consists mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm
of a tunica interna, tunica media Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to
(which maintains elasticity and veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae
contractility), and tunica externa. (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm
2. Large arteries are referred Hg).
to as elastic (conducting) arteries 2. Any factor that increases
and medium-sized arteries are cardiac output increases blood
called muscular (distributing) pressure.
arteries. 3. As blood volume increases,
3. Many arteries anastomose- blood pressure increases.
the distal ends of two or more 4. Peripheral resistance is
vessels unite. An alternate blood determined by blood viscosity and
route from an anastomosis is called blood vessel diameter. Increased
collateral circulation. Arteries that viscosity and vasoconstriction
do not anastomose are called end increase peripheral resistance and
art.ener thus increase blood pressure.
Arterioles: 5. Factors that determine
1. Arterioles are small arteries heart rate and force of contraction,
that deliver blood to capillaries. and therefore blood pressure, are

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
the autonomic nervous system Circulatory Routes:
through the cardiac center. 1. The largest circulatory route
chemicals, temperature, emotions, is the systemic circulation.
sex, and age. 2. Two of the many
6. Factors that regulate blood subdivisions of the systemic
pressure by acting on blood vessels circulation are the coronary
include the vasomotor center in the (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic
medulla together with portal circulation.
pressoreceptors, chemoreceptors, 3. Other routes include the
and higher brain centers; chemicals; cerebral, pulmonary, and fetal
and autoregulation. circulation.
7. The movement of water and Systemic Circulation:
dissolved substances (except 1. The systemic circulation
proteins) through capillaries by takes oxygenated blood from the
diffusion is dependent on left ventricle through the aorta to all
hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. parts of the body including lung
8. The near equilibrium at the tissue.
arterial and venous ends of a 2. The aorta is divided into the
capillary by which fluids exit and ascending aorta, the arch of the
enter is called Starling's law of the aorta, and the descending aorta.
capillaries. Each section gives off arteries that
9. Blood return to the heart is branch to supply the whole body.
maintained by several factors 3. Blood is returned to the
including increasing velocity of heart through the systemic veins.
blood in veins, skeletal muscular All the veins of the systemic
contractions, valves in veins circulation flow into either the
(especially in the extremities), and superior or inferior venae cavae or
breathing. the coronary sinus. They in turn
Blood Reservoirs: empty into the right atrium.
1. Systemic veins are Hepatic Portal Circulation:
collectively called blood reservoirs. 1. The hepatic portal
2. They store blood which circulation collects blood from the
through vasoconstriction can move veins of the pancreas, spleen,
to other parts of the body if the stomach, intestines, and gallbladder
need arises. and directs it into the hepatic portal
3. The principal reservoirs are vein of the liver.
the veins of the abdominal organs 2. This circulation enables the
(liver and spleen) and skin. liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify
Checking Circulation – Pulse: harmful substances in the blood.
1. Pulse is the alternate Pulmonary Circulation:
expansion and elastic recoil of an 1. The pulmonary circulation
artery with each heartbeat. It may takes deoxygenated blood from the
be felt in any artery that lies near right ventricle to the lungs and
the surface or over a hard tissue. returns oxygenated blood from the
2. A normal rate is between 70 lungs to the left atrium.
and 80 beats per minute. 2. It allows blood to be
Measurement of Blood Pressure: oxygenated for systemic circulation.
1. Blood pressure is the Fetal Circulation:
pressure exerted by blood on the 1. The fetal circulation
wall of an artery when the left involves the exchange of materials
ventricle undergoes systole and between fetus and mother.
then diastole. It is measured by the 2. The fetus derives its oxygen
use of a sphygmomanometer. and nutrients and eliminates its
2. Systolic blood pressure is carbon dioxide and wastes through
the force of blood recorded during the maternal blood supply by
ventricular contraction. Diastolic means of a structure called the
blood pressure is the force of blood placenta.
recorded during ventricular 3. At birth, when lung,
relaxation. The average blood digestive, and liver functions are
pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. established, the special structures
3. Pulse pressure is the of fetal circulation are no longer
difference between systolic and needed.
diastolic pressure. It averages 40 Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
mm Hg and provides information
about the condition of arteries.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
1. An aneurysm is a sac plasma cells. It also acts as a
formed by an outpocketing of a reservoir for blood.
portion of an arterial or venous wall. 3. The thymus gland functions
2. Coronary artery disease in immunity by processing T cells
(CAD) refers to an inadequate blood and stimulating B cells to develop
supply to the heart muscle. Two into antibody-producing plasma
principal causes are atherosclerosis cells.
and coronary artery spasm. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease:
3. Atherosclerosis is a process 1. The ability to ward off
in which fatty substances are disease using a number of defenses
deposited in the walls of arteries. is called resistance. Lack of
4. Coronary artery spasm is resistance is called susceptibility.
caused by a sudden contraction of 2. Nonspecific resistance
the smooth muscle in an arterial refers to a wide variety of body
wall that produces vasoconstriction. responses against a wide range of
5. Hypertension is high blood pathogens.
pressure and may damage the 3. Nonspecific resistance
heart, brain, and kidneys. includes mechanical factors (skin,
The Lymphatic System: mucous membranes, lacrimal
Lymphatic Vessels: apparatus, saliva, mucus, cilia,
1. The Iymphatic system epiglottis, and flow of urine),
consists of Iymph, Iymphatic chemical factors (gastric juice, acid
vessels, Iymph nodes, and Iymph pH of skin, unsaturated fatty acids,
organs. and Iysozyme), antimicrobial
2. Lymphatic vessels begin as substances (interferon,
blind-ended Iymph capillaries in complement. and properdin),
tissue spaces between cells. phagocytosis, inflammation, and
3. Lymph capillaries merge to fever.
form larger vessels, called Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease):
Iymphatics, which ultimately 1. Specific resistance to
converge into the thoracic duct or disease involves the production of a
right Iymphatic duct. specific Iymphocyte or antibody
4. Lymphatics have thinner against a specific antigen and is
walls and more valves than veins. called immunity.
Structure of Lymph Nodes: 2. Antigens are chemical
1. Lymph nodes are oval substances that, when introduced
structures located along Iymphatics. into the body, stimulate the
2. Lymph enters nodes production of antibodies that react
through afferent Iymphatic vessels with the antigen.
and exits through efferent 3. Examples of antigens are
Iymphatic vessels. microbes, microbial structures,
3. Lymph passing through the pollen, incompatible blood cells, and
nodes is processed by transplants.
macrophages. 4. Antigens are characterized
Lymph Circulation: by immunogenicity, reactivity, and
1. The passage of Iymph is multivalence.
from interstitial fluid, to Iymph 5. Antibodies are proteins
capillaries, to Iymphatics, to Iymph produced in response to antigens.
trunks, to the thoracic duct or right 6. Based on chemistry and
Iymphatic trunk, to the subclavian structure, antibodies are
veins. distinguished into five principal
2. Lymph flows as a result of classes, each with specific biological
skeletal muscle contractions and roles (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE).
respiratory movements. It is also 7. Antibodies consist of heavy
aided by valves in the Iymphatics. and light chains of amino acids and
Lymphatic Organs: variable and constant portions.
1. Tonsils are masses of 8. Cellular immunity refers to
Iymphoid tissue embedded in destruction of antigens by T cells
mucous membranes. They include and humoral immunity refers to
the pharyngeal, palatine, and destruction of antigens by
lingual tonsils. antibodies.
2. The spleen functions as a 9. T cells are processed in the
Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of thymus gland; B cells may be
bacteria and worn-out cells and processed in bone marrow, fetal
production of Iymphocytes and

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
liver and spleen, or gutassociated Karposi’s sarcoma and
Iymphoid tissue. Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia.
10. T cells consist of The Respiratory System:
subpopulations: killer T cells destroy Pulmonary Ventilation:
antigens directly; helper T cells help 1. Pulmonary ventilation or
B cells to produce antibodies; breathing consists of inspiration and
suppressor T cells help to regulate expiration.
the immune response; and memory 2. The movement of air into
T cells initiate response to and out of the lungs depends on
subsequent invasions by the pressure changes governed in part
antigen. by Boyle's law, which states that the
11. B cells develop into volume of a gas varies inversely
antibody-producing plasma cells with pressure assuming that
under the influence of thymic temperature is constant.
hormones; memory B cells 3. Inspiration occurs when
recognize the original, invading intrapulmonic pressure falls below
antigen. atmospheric pressure. Contraction
12. The anamnestic response of the diaphragm and external
provides the basis for immunization intercostal muscles increases the
against certain diseases. size of the thorax, thus decreasing
13. Cancer cells contain tumor- the intrapleural pressure so that the
specific antigens and are frequently lungs expand. Expansion of the
destroyed by the body's immune lungs decreases intrapulmonic
system (immunologic surveillance); pressure, so that air moves along
some cancer cells escape detection the pressure gradient from the
and destruction, a phenomenon atmosphere into the lungs.
called immunologic escape. 4. Expiration occurs when
14. Monoclonal antibodies are intrapulmonic pressure is higher
pure antibodies produced by fusing than atmospheric pressure.
a B cell with a tumor cell; they are Relaxation of the diaphragm and
important in diagnosis, detection of external intercostal muscles
disease, treatment, preparing increases intrapleural pressure lung
vaccines, and countering rejection volume decreases, and
by transplants and autoimmune intrapulmonic pressure increases so
diseases. that air moves from the lungs to the
Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: atmosphere.
1. Hypenensitivity is 5. During forced inspiration,
overreactivity to an antigen. accessory muscles of inspiration
Localized anaphylactic reactions (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes)
include hay fever, asthma, eczema, are also used.
and hives; acute anaphylaxis is a 6. Forced expiration employs
severe reaction with systemic contraction of the internal
effects. intercostals and abdominal muscles.
2. Tissue rejection of a 7. Compliance is the ease with
transplanted tissue or organ which the lungs and thoracic wall
involves antibody production expand.
against the proteins (antigens) in 8. The walls of the respiratory
the transplant. It may be overcome passageways offer some resistance
with immunosuppressive drugs. to breathing.
3. Autoimmune diseases result Modified Respiratory Movements:
when the body does not recognize 1. Modified respiratory
“self” antigens and produces movements are used to express
antibodies against them. Several emotions and to clear air
human autoimmune diseases are passageways.
rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic 2. Coughing, sneezing,
lupus erythematosus (SLE), sighing, yawning, sobbing, crying,
rheumatic fever, hemolytic and laughing, and hiccuping are types of
pernicious anemias, myasthenia modified respiratory movements.
gravis, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities:
4. Acquired immune deficiency 1. Air volumes exchanged
syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s during breathing and rate of
immunity by decreasing the number respiration are measured with a
of T cells and revening the ratio of spirometer.
helper T cells to suppressor T cells. 2. Among the pulmonary air
AIDS victims frequently develop volumes exchanged in ventilation

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
are tidal volume, inspiratory 1. The respiratory center
reserve, expiratory reserve, residual consists of a medullary rhythmicity
volume, and minimal volumes. area (inspiratory and expiratory
3. Pulmonary lung capacities, area), pneumotaxic area, and
the sum of two or more volumes, apneustic area.
include inspiratory, functional 2. The inspiratory area has an
residual, vital, and total. intrinsic excitability that sets the
4. The minute volume of basic rhythm of respiration.
respiration is the total air taken in 3. The pneumotaxic and
during I minute (tidal volume times apneustic areas coordinate the
12 respirations per minute). transition between inspiration and
Exchange of Respiratory Gases: expiration.
1. The partial pressure of a gas Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity:
is the pressure exerted by that gas 1. Respirations may be
in a mixture of gases. It is modified by a number of factors,
symbolized by p. both in the brain and outside.
2. Charles' law indicates that 2. Among the modifying
the volume of a gas is directly factors are cortical influences, the
proportional to its absolute inflation reflex, chemical stimuli (02
temperature, assuming that the and CO2 levels), blood pressure,
pressure remains constant. temperature, pain, and irritation to
3. According to Dalton's law, the respiratory centers.
each gas in a mixture of gases Intervention in Respiratory Crises:
exerts its own pressure as if all the 1. Cardiopulmonary
other gases were not present. resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial
4. Henry's law states that the reestablishment of respiration and
quantity of a gas that will dissolve in circulation. The A, B, C's of CPR are
a liquid is proportional to the partial Airway, Breathing, and Circulation.
pressure of the gas and its solubility 2. The abdominal thrust
coefficient, when the temperature (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid
remains constant. procedure used in case of food
External Respiration - Internal Respiration: choking. It consists of an abdominal
1. In internal and external thrust that elevates the diaphragm,
expiration 02 and CO2 move from compresses the lungs, and
areas of their higher partial increases air pressure in the
pressure to areas of their lower bronchial tree.
partial pressure. Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
2. External respiration is the 1. In bronchogenic carcinoma,
exchange of gases between alveoli bronchial epithelial cells are
and pulmonary blood capillaries. It replaced by cancer cells after
is aided by a thin alveolar capillary constant irritation has disrupted the
membrane, a large alveolar surface normal growth, division, and
area, and a rich blood supply. function of the epithelial cells.
3. Internal respiration is the 2. Nasal polyps are growths of
exchange of gases between tissue mucous membrane in the nasal
blood capillaries and tissue cells. cavity.
Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 3. Bronchial asthma occurs
1. In each 100 ml of when spasms of smooth muscle in
oxygenated blood, 3 percent of the bronchial tubes result in partial
02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 closure of air passageways
percent is carried with hemoglobin inflammation, inflated alveoli, and
as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). excess mucus production.
2. The association of oxygen 4. Emphysema is
and hemoglobin is affected by PO2, characterized by deterioration of
pCO2, temperature, and DPG. alveoli leading to loss of their
3. In each 100 ml of elasticity. Symptoms are reduced
deoxygenated blood, 7 percent of expiratory volume, inflated lungs,
CO2 is dissolved in plasma, 23 and enlarged chest.
percent combines with hemoglobin 5. Pneumonia is an acute
as carbaminohemoglobin, and 70 inflammation or infection of alveoli.
percent is converted to the 6. Tuberculosis is an
bicarbonate ion. inflammation of pleura and lungs
Control of Respiration: produced by the organism
Nervous Control: Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
7. Infant respiratory distress mesocolon, falciform ligament,
syndrome (RDS) is an infant lesser omentum, and greater
disorder in which surfactant is omentum.
lacking and alveolar ducts and Mouth (Oral Cavity):
alveoli have a glassy appearance. 1. The mouth is formed by the
8. Sudden infant death cheeks, palates, lips, and tongue,
syndrome (SIDS) has recently been which aid mechanical digestion.
linked to laryngospasm, possibly 2. The vestibule is the space
triggered by a viral infection of the between the cheeks and lips and
upper respiratory tract. teeth and gums.
9. Coryza (common cold) is 3. The oral cavity proper
caused by viruses and is usually not extends from the vestibule to the
accompanied by a fever, whereas fauces
influenza (flu) is usually Tongue:
accompanied by a fever. 1. The tongue, together with
Digestive System: its associated muscles, forms the
Regulation of Food Intake: floor of the oral cavity. It is
1. Food intake is regulated by composed of skeletal muscle
two sensations: hunger and covered with mucous membrane.
appetite. 2. The upper surface and sides
2. The control centers for food of the tongue are covered with
intake (appetite center and satiety papillae. Some papillae contain
center) are located in the taste buds.
hvpothalamus. Salivary Glands:
Digestive Processes: 1. The major portion of saliva
1. Food is prepared for use by is secreted by the salivary glands,
cells by five basic activities: which lie outside the mouth and
ingestion, peristalsis, mechanical pour their contents into ducts that
and chemical digestion, absorption, empty into the oral cavity.
and defecation. 2. There are three pairs of
2. Chemical digestion is a salivary glands: the parotid,
series of catabolic reactions that submandibular (submaxillary), and
break down the large carbohydrate, sublingual glands.
lipid, and protein molecules of food 3. Saliva lubricates food and
into molecules that are usable by starts the chemical digestion of
body cells. carbohydrates.
3. Mechanical digestion 4. Salivation is entirely under
consists of movements that aid nervous control.
chemical digestion. Teeth:
4. Absorption is the passage of 1. The teeth, or dentes, project
end products of digestion from the into the mouth and are adapted for
digestive tract into blood or Iymph mechanical digestion.
for distribution to cells. 2. A typical tooth consists of
Organization: three principal portions: crown, root,
1. The organs of digestion are and cervix.
usually divided into two main 3. Teeth are composed
groups: those composing the primarily of dentin covered by
gastrointestinal (GI) tract, or enamel, the hardest substance in
alimentary canal, and accessory the body.
structures. 4. There are two dentitions-
2. The GI tract is a continuous deciduous and permanent.
tube running through the ventral Digestion in the Mouth:
body cavity from the mouth to the 1. Through mastication food is
anus. mixed with saliva and shaped into a
3. The accessory structures bolus.
include the teeth, tongue, salivary 2. Salivary amylase converts
glands, liver, gallbladder, and polysaccharides (starches) to
pancreas. disaccharides (maltose).
4. The basic arrangement of Deglutition:
tissues in the alimentary canal from 1. Deglutition or swallowing
the inside outward is the mucosa, moves a bolus from the mouth to
submucosa, muscularis, and serosa the stomach.
(peritoneum). 2. It consists of a voluntary
5. Extensions of the stage, pharyngeal stage
peritoneum include the mesentery,

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
(involuntarv) and esophageal stage duct system to the gallbladder for
(involuntarv). storage.
Esophagus: 2. Bile's contribution to
1. The esophagus is a digestion is the emulsification of
collapsible, muscular tube that neutral fats.
connects the pharynx to the 3. Bile secretion is regulated
stomach. by nervous and hormonal
2. It passes a bolus into the mechanisms.
stomach by peristalsis. Gallbladder:
3. It contains an upper and 1. The gallbladder stores and
lower esophageal sphincter. concentrates bile.
Stomach: 2. Bile is ejected into the
Anatomy - Histology: common bile duct under the
1. The stomach begins at the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK).
bottom of the esophagus and ends Small Intestine:
at the pyloric sphincter. Anatomy - Histology:
2. Adaptations of the stomach 1. The small intestine extends
for digestion include rugae; glands from the pyloric sphincter to the
that produce mucus, hydrochloric ileocecal valve.
acid, a protein-digesting enzyme, 2. It is highly adapted for
intrinsic factor, and stomach digestion and absorption. Its glands
gastrin; and a three-layered produce enzymes and mucus, and
muscularis for efficient mechanical the microvilli, villi, and plicae
movement. circulares of its wall provide a large
Digestion in the Stomach: surface area for digestion and
1. Mechanical digestion absorption.
consists of mixing waves. 3. Intestinal enzymes break
2. Chemical digestion consists down foods inside epithelial cells of
of the conversion of proteins into the mucosa
peptides by pepsin. Intestinal Digestion:
Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. Intestinal enzymes break
1. Gastric secretion is down maltose to glucose (maltase),
regulated by nervous and hormonal sucrose to glucose and fructose
mechanisms. (sucrase), lactose to glucose and
2. Stimulation occurs in three galactose (lactase), terminal amino
phases: cephalic (reflex), gastric, acids at the amino ends of peptides
and intestinal. (aminopeptidase), dipeptides to
Absorption: amino acids (dipeptidase), and
1. The stomach wall is nucleotides to pentoses and
impermeable to most substances. nitrogen bases (nucleases).
2. Among the substances 2. Mechanical digestion in the
absorbed are some water, certain small intestine involves
electrolytes and drugs, and alcohol. segmentation and peristalsis.
Pancreas: Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion:
1. The pancreas is connected 1. The most important
to the duodenum via the pancreatic mechanism is local reflexes.
and accessory ducts. 2. Hormones also assume a
2. Pancreatic juice contains role.
enzymes that digest starch to Absorption:
maltose (pancreatic amylase), 1. Absorption is the passage of
proteins to peptides (trypsin and the end products of digestion from
chymotrypsin), terminal amino acids the alimentary canal into the blood
at the carboxyl ends of peptides or Iymph.
(carboxypolypeptidase), neutral fats 2. Long-chain fatty acids and
to fatty acids and monoglycerides monoglycerides are absorbed as
(pancreatic lipase), and nucleotides part of micelles, resynthesized to
to pentoses and nitrogen bases triglycerides, and transported as
(nucleases). chylomicrons.
3. Pancreatic secretion is 3. Chylomicrons are taken up
regulated by nervous and hormonal by the lacteal of a villus.
mechanisms. 4. The small intestine also
Liver: absorbs water, electrolytes, and
1. Hepatic cells of the liver vitamins.
produce bile that is transported by a Large Intestine:
Anatomy – Histology:

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
1. The large intestine extends are replaced by fibrous or adipose
from the ileocecal valve to the anus. connective tissue.
2. Its subdivisions include the 9. Hepatitis is an inflammation
cecum, colon, rectum, and anal of the liver. Types include hepatitis
canal. A; hepatitis B; and non-A, non-B
3. The mucosa contains (NANB) hepatitis.
numerous goblet cells and the 10. The fusion of individual
muscularis consists of taeniae coli. crystals of cholesterol is the
Digestion in the large Intestine: beginning of 95 percent of all
1. Mechanical movements of gallstones. Gallstones can cause
the large intestine include haustral obstruction to the outflow of bile in
churning, peristalsis, and mass any portion of the duct system.
peristalsis. 11. Anorexia nervosa is a
2. The last stages of chemical disorder characterized by a
digestion occur in the large psychologically induced loss of
intestine through bacterial, rather appetite.
than enzymatic, action. Substances 12. Bulimia is a binge-purge
are further broken down and some syndrome of behavior in which
vitamins are synthesized. uncontrollable overeating is
Absorption and Feces Formation: followed by forced vomiting or
1. The large intestine absorbs overdoses of laxatives.
water, electrolytes, and vitamins. Metabolism:
2. Feces consists of water, 1. . Nutrients are chemical
inorganic salts, epithelial cells, substances in food that provide
bacteria, and undigested foods. energy, act as building blocks in
Defecation: forming new body components, or
1. The elimination of feces assist in the functioning of various
from the large intestine is called body processes.
defecation. 2. There are six major classes
2. Defecation is a reflex action of nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids,
aided by voluntary contractions of proteins, minerals, vitamins, and
the diaphragm and abdominal water.
muscles. 3. Metabolism refers to all
Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances: chemical reactions of the body and
1. Dental caries are started by has two phases: catabolism and
acid-producing bacteria that reside anabolism.
in dental plaque. 4. Catabolism is the term for
2. Periodontal diseases are decomposition reactions that
characterized by inflammation and provide energy.
degeneration of gingivae, alveolar 5. Anabolism consists of a
bone, periodontal membrane, and series of synthetic reactions
cementum. whereby small molecules are built
3. Peritonitis is inflammation of up into larger ones that form the
the peritoneum. body's structural and functional
4. Peptic ulcers are craterlike components. Anabolic reactions use
lesions that develop in the mucous energy.
membrane of the alimentary canal Carbohydrate Metabolism:
in areas exposed to gastric juice. 1. During digestion,
5. Appendicitis is an polysaccharides and disaccharides
inflammation of the vermiform are converted to monosaccharides,
appendix resulting from obstruction which are absorbed through
of the lumen of the appendix by capillaries in villi and transported to
inflammation, a foreign body, the liver via the hepatic portal vein.
carcinoma of the cecum, stenosis, 2. Carbohydrate metabolism is
or kinking of the organ. primarily concerned with glucose
6. Tumors of the metabolism.
gastrointestinal tract may be Fate of Carbohydrates:
detected by sigmoidoscopy, 1. Some glucose is oxidized by
colonoscopy, and barium x-ray. cells to provide energy; it moves
7. Diverticulitis is inflammation into cells by facilitated diffusion and
of diverticula in the colon. becomes phosphorylated to
8. Cirrhosis is a condition in glucose-6-phosphate; insulin
which parenchymal cells of the liver stimulates glucose movement into
damaged by chronic inflammation cells.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
2. Excess glucose can be 3. The conversion of glycogen
stored by the liver and skeletal back to glucose is called
muscles as glycogen or converted glycogenolysis.
to fat. 4. It occurs between meals
3. Glucose excreted in the and is stimulated by glucagon and
urine can produce glycosuria. epinephrine.
Glucose Catabolism: 5. Gluconeogenesis is the
1. Glucose oxidation is also conversion of fat and protein
called cellular respiration. molecules into glucose. It is
2. The complete oxidation of stimulated by cortisol, thyroxine,
glucose to C02 and H20 involves epinephrine, glucagon, and growth
glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the hormone (GH).
electron transport chain. 6. Glycerol may be converted
Glycolysis: to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and
1. Glycolysis refers to the some amino acids may be
breakdown of glucose into two converted to pyruvic acid.
molecules of pyruvic acid. Lipid Metabolism:
2. When oxygen is in short 1. During digestion, fats are
supply, pyruvic acid is converted to ultimately broken down into fatty
lactic acid; under aerobic acids and monoglycerides.
conditions, pyruvic acid enters the 2. Long-chain fatty acids and
Krebs cycle. monoglycerides are carried in
3. As a result of glycolysis, micelles for entrance into villi,
there is a net production of 2 digested to glycerol and fatty acids
molecules of ATP in epithelial cells, recombined to
Krebs Cycle: form triglycerides, and transported
1. Pyruvic acid is prepared for by chylomicrons through the
entrance into the Krebs cycle by lacteals of villi into the thoracic
conversion to a two-carbon duct.
compound (acetyl group) followed Fate of Lipids:
by the addition of coenzyme A to 1. Some fats may be oxidized
form acetyl coenzyme A. to produce ATP.
2. The Krebs cycle involves 2. Some fats are stored in
decarboxylations and oxidations adipose tissue.
and reductions of various organic 3. 3. Other lipids are used as
acids. structural molecules or to
3. Each molecule of pyruvic synthesize essential molecules.
acid that enters the Krebs cycle Examples include phospholipids of
produces 3 molecules of C02, 4 plasma membranes, lipoproteins
molecules of NADH2, 1 molecule of that transport cholesterol,
FADH2, and I molecule of GTP. thromboplastin for blood clotting,
4. The energy originally in and cholesterol used to synthesize
glucose and then pyruvic acid is bile salts and steroid hormones.
primarily in the reduced coenzymes Fat Storage:
NADH2 and FADH2. 1. Fats are stored in adipose
Electron Transport Chain: tissue, mostly in the subcutaneous
1. The electron transport chain layer.
is a series of oxidation-reduction 2. Adipose cells contain lipases
reactions in which the energy in that catalize the deposition of fats
NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and from chylomicrons and hydrolyze
transferred to ATP for storage. fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
2. The carrier molecules Lipid Catabolism:
involved include FAD, coenzyme Q, 1. Fat is released from depots
and cytochromes. and split into fatty acids and
3. The electron transport chain glycerol under the influence of
yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. growth hormone (GH).
Glucose Anabolism: 2. Glycerol can be converted
1. The conversion of glucose into glucose by conversion into
to glycogen for storage in the liver glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate.
and skeletal muscle is called 3. In beta oxidation, carbon
glycogenesis. The process occurs in atoms are removed in pairs from
the liver and is stimulated by insulin fatty acid chains; the resulting
2. The body can store about molecules of acetyl coenzyme A
500 g of glycogen. enters the Krebs cycle.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
4. The formation of ketone the body are satisfied by nutrients
bodies by the liver is a normal already present in the body.
phase of fatty acid catabolism, but 4. The major concern of the
an excess of ketone bodies, called body during the postabsorptive
ketosis, may cause acidosis. state is to maintain normal blood
Lipid Anabolism - Lipogenesis: glucose level. This involves
1. The conversion of glucose conversion of liver and skeletal
or amino acids into lipids is called muscle glycogen into glucose,
lipogenesis. The process is conversion of glycerol into glucose,
stimulated by insulin. and conversion of amino acids into
2. The intermediary links in glucose. The body also switches
lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde- from glucose oxidation to fatty acid
3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. oxidation.
Protein Metabolism: Regulation of Metabolism:
1. During digestion, proteins 1. Absorbed nutrients may be
are hydrolyzed into amino acids oxidized, stored, or converted,
2. Amino acids are absorbed based on the needs of the body.
by the capillaries of villi and enter 2. The pathway taken by a
the liver via the hepatic portal vein. particular nutrient is enzymatically
Fate of Proteins: controlled and is regulated by
1. Amino acids, under the hormones.
influence of growth hormone (GH) Minerals:
and insulin, enter body cells by 1. Minerals are inorganic
active transport. substances that help regulate body
2. Inside cells, amino acids are processes.
synthesized into proteins that 2. Minerals known to perform
function as enzymes, hormones, essential functions are calcium,
structural elements, and so forth. phosphorus, sodium, chlorine,
Very little protein is used as a potassium, magnesium, iron, sulfur,
source of energy. iodine, manganese, cobalt, copper,
Protein Catabolism: zinc, selenium, and chromium.
1. Before amino acids can be Vitamins:
catabolized, they must be converted 1. Vitamins are organic
to substances that can enter the nutrients that maintain growth and
Krebs cycle; these conversions normal metabolism. Many function
involve deamination, in enzyme systems.
decarboxylation, and 2. Fat-soluble vitamins are
hydrogenation. absorbed with fats and include A, D,
2. Amino acids may also be E, and K.
converted into glucose, fatty acids, 3. Water-soluble vitamins are
snd ketane hadies. absorbed with water and include the
Protein Anabolism: B vitamins and vitamin C.
1. Protein synthesis is Metabolism and Body Heat:
stimulated by growth hormone 1. A Calorie is the amount of
(GH), thyroxine, and insulin. energy required to raise the
2. The process is directed by temperature of 1,000 g of water 1C
DNA and RNA and carried out in the from 14 to 15C.
ribosomes of cells. 2. The Calorie is the unit of
Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) heat used to express the caloric
States: value of foods and to measure the
1. During the absorptive state, body’s metabolic rate.
ingested nutrients enter the blood 3. The apparatus used to
and Iymph from the GI tract. determine the caloric value of foods
2. During the absorptive state, is called a calorimeter.
most blood glucose is used by body Production of Body Heat:
cells for oxidation. Glucose 1. Most body heat is a result of
transported to the liver is converted oxidation of the food we eat. The
to glycogen or fat. Most fat is stored rate at which this heat is produced
in adipose tissue. Amino acids in is known as the metabolic rate.
liver cells are converted to 2. Metabolic rate is affected by
carbohydrate, fats, and proteins. exercise, the nervous system,
3. During the postabsorptive hormones, and body temperature.
(fasting) state, absorption is 3. Measurement of the
complete and the energy needs of metabolic rate under basal

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
conditions is called the basal 4. Celiac disease is a condition
metabolic rate (BMR). in which the ingestion of gluten
Loss of Body Heat: causes morphological changes in
1. Radiation is the transfer of the small intestinal mucosa
heat as infrared heat rays from one resulting in malabsorption.
object to another without physical 5. Kwashiorkor is a protein
contact. deficiency disorder characterized by
2. Conduction is the transfer of hypoprotein edema, lethargy,
body heat to a substance or object failure to grow, and sometimes
in contact with the body. mental retardation.
3. Convection is the transfer of Urinary System:
body heat by the movement of air Urinary System:
that has been warmed by the body. 1. The primary function of the
4. Evaporation is the urinary system is to regulate the
conversion of a liquid to a vapor. concentration and volume of blood
Body Temperature Regulation: by removing and restoring selected
1. A normal body temperature amounts of water and solutes.
is maintained by a delicate balance 2. The filtering unit of a
between heat-production and heat- nephron is the endothelial-capsular
loss mechanisms. membrane. It consists of the
2. The hypothalamic glomerular endothelium.
thermostat is the preoptic area. 3. The organs of the urinary
3. Mechanisms that produce system are the kidneys, ureters,
heat are vasoconstriction, urinary bladder, and urethra.
sympathetic stimulation, skeletal 4. The extensive flow of blood
muscle contraction, and thyroxine through the kidney begins in the
production. renal artery and terminates in the
4. Mechanisms of heat loss renal vein.
include vasodilation, deereased 5. The kidneys are
metabolic rate, decreased skeletal retroperitoneal organs attached to
muscle contraction, and the posterior abdominal wall.
perspiration. 6. Three layers of tissue
Body Temperature Abnormalities: surround the kidneys: renal capsule,
1. Fever is an abnormally high adipose capsule, and renal fascia.
body temperature caused by 7. Internally, the kidneys
pyrogens; stages include chill and consist of a cortex, medulla,
crisis. pyramids, papillae, columns,
2. Heat cramp is painful calyces, and a pelvis.
skeletal muscle contractions due to Physiology:
loss of salt and water. 1. The nephron is the
3. Sunstroke results in functional unit of the kidneys.
decreased blood flow to skin, 2. Each juxtamedullary
reduced perspiration, and high body nephron consists of a glomerular
temperature. Fluid therapy and capsule, glomerulus, proximal
body cooling are indicated. convoluted tubule, descending limb
4. Heat exhaustion results in a of Henle, loop of Henle, ascending
normal or below normal body limb of Henle, distal convoluted
temperature, profuse perspiration, tubule.
nausea, cramps, and dizziness. Rest 3. The primary force behind
and salt tablets are indicated glomerular filtration is hydrostatic
Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances: pressure.
1. Obesity is defined as a body 4. Filtration of blood depends
weight 10 to 20 percent above on the force of glomerular blood
desirable standard as the result of hydrostatic pressure in relation to
excessive accumulation of fat. two opposing forces: capsular
Causes are regulatory or metabolic. hydrostatic pressure and blood
2. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a colloid osmotic pressure. This
genetic error of metabolism relationship is called eflfective
characterized by an elevation of filtration pressure (Peff).
phenylalanine in the blood. 5. If glomerular blood
3. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm
disease of the exocrine glands in Hg, renal suppression occurs
which absorption of vitamins A, D, because the glomerular blood
and K and calcium is inadequate. hydrostatic pressure exactly equals
the opposing pressures.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
6. Most substances in plasma function is to store urine prior to
are filtered by the glomerular micturition.
capsule. Normally, blood cells and 2. Histologically, the urinary
most proteins are not filtered. bladder consists of a mucosa (with
7. Tubular reabsorption retains rugae), a muscularis (detrusor
substances needed by the body, muscle), and a serous coat.
including water, glucose, amino 3. A lack of control over
acids, and ions. The maximum of a micturition is called incontinence
substance that can be absorbed is failure to void urine is referred to as
called tubular maximum. retention.
8. About 80 percent of the Urethra:
reabsorbed water is returned by 1. The urethra is a tube
obligatory reabsorption, the rest by leading from the floor of the urinary
facultative reabsorption. bladder to the exterior.
9. Chemicals not needed by 2. Its function is to discharge
the body are discharged into the urine from the body.
urine by tubular secretion. Included Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances:
are ions, nitrogenous wastes, and 1. Gout is a high level of uric
certain drugs. acid in the blood.
10. The kidneys help maintain 2. Glomerulonephritis is an
blood pH by excreting H+ and inflammation of the glomeruli of the
NH4+ ions. In exchange, the kidney.
kidneys conserve sodium 3. Pyelitis is an inflammation
bicarbonate. of the kidney pelvis and calyces;
11. The ability of the kidneys to pyelonephritis is an interstitial
produce either hyperosmotic or inflammation of one or both
hyposmotic urine is based on the kidneys.
countercurrent multiplier 4. Cystitis is an inflammation
mechanism. of the urinary bladder.
Homeostasis: 5. Nephrosis leads to protein
1. Besides the kidneys, the in the urine due to glomerular
lungs, integument, and alimentary membrane permeability.
canal assume excretory functions. 6. Polycystic disease is an
2. Urine volume is influenced inherited kidney disease in which
by blood pressure, blood nephrons are deformed.
concentration, temperature, 7. Filtering blood through an
diuretics, and emotions. artificial device is called
3. The physical characteristics hemodialysis.
of urine evaluated in a urinalysis 8. The kidney machine filters
(UA) are color, odor, turbidity, pH, the blood of wastes and adds
and specific gravity. nutrients; a recent variation is
4. Chemically, normal urine called continuous ambulatory
contains about 95 percent water peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).
water and 5 percent solutes. The Body Fluids:
solutes include urea, creatinine, uric 1. Body fluid is water and its
acid, hippuric acid, indican, ketone dissolved substances.
bodies, salts, and ions. 2. About two-thirds of the
5. Abnormal constituents body's fluid is located in cells and is
diagnosed through urinalysis called intracellular fluid (ICF).
include albumin, glucose, 3. The other third is called
erythrocytes, leucocytes, ketone extracellular fluid (ECF). It includes
bodies, bilirubin, urobilinogen, interstitial fluid, plasma and Iymph,
casts, renal calculi, and microbes. cerebrospinal fluid, Gl tract fluids,
Ureters: synovial fluid, and fluids of the eyes
1. The ureters are partially and ears, pleural, pericardial, and
retroperitoneal and consist of a peritoneal fluids, and the glomerular
mucosa, muscularis, and fibrous filtrate.
coat. 4. Fluid balance means that
2. The ureters transport urine the various body compartments
from the renal pelvis to the urinary contain the required amount of
bladder, primarily by peristalsis. water.
Urinary Bladder: 5. Fluid balance and
1. The urinary bladder is electrolyte balance are inseparable.
posterior to the symphysis pubis. Its Water:

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
1. Water is the largest single also required for the synthesis of
constituent in the body, varying nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer
from 45 to 75 percent of body reactions. Its level is controlled by
weight depending on amount of fat PTH and CT.
present and age. 11. Magnesium is primarily an
2. Primary sources of fluid intracellular electrolyte that
intake are ingested liquids and activates several enzyme systems.
foods and water produced by Its level is controlled by
catabolism. aldosterone.
3. Avenues of fluid output are Movement of Body Fluids:
the kidneys, skin, lungs, and GI 1. At the arterial end of a
tract. capillary, fluid moves from plasma
4. The stimulus for fluid intake into interstitial fluid. At the venous
is dehydration resulting in thirst end, fluid moves in the opposite
sensations. Under normal direction.
conditions, fluid output is adjusted 2. The state of near
by aldosterone and ADH. equilibrium at the arterial and
Electrolytes: venous ends of a capillary between
1. Electrolytes are chemicals filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus
that dissolve in body fluids and that picked up by the Iymphatic
dissociate into either cations system is referred to as Starling's
(positive ions) or anions (negative law of the capillaries.
ions). 3. Fluid movement between
2. Electrolyte concentration is interstitial and intracellular
expressed in milliequivalents per compartments depends on the
liter (meq/liter). movement of sodium and potassium
3. Electrolytes have a greater and the secretion of aldosterone
effect on osmosis than and ADH.
nonelectrolytes. 4. Fluid imbalance may lead to
4. Plasma, interstitial fluid, and edema and overhydrahon (water
intracellular fluid contain varying intoxication).
kinds and amounts of electrolytes. Acid-Base Balance:
5. Electrolytes are needed for 1. The overall acid-base
normal metabolfm, proper fluid balance of the body is maintained
movement between compartments, by controlling the H+ concentration
and regulation of pH. of body fluids, especially
6. Sodium is the most extracellular fluid.
abundant extracellular ion. It is 2. The normal pH of
involved in nerve impulse extracellular fluid is 7.35 to 7.45.
transmission, muscle contraction, 3. Homeostasis of pH is
and fluid and electrolyte balance. Its maintained by buffers, respirations,
level is controlled by aldosterone. and kidney excretion.
7. Chloride is mainly an 4. The important buffer
extracellular anion. It assumes a systems include: carbonic acid-
role in regulating osmotic pressure bicarbonate, phosphate,
and forming HCI. Its level is hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin, and
controlled indirectly by aldosterone. protein.
8. Potassium is the most 5. An increase in rate of
abundant cation in intracellular respirations, increases pH; a
fluid. It is involved in maintaining decrease in rate, decreases pH.
fluid volume, nerve impulse Acid Base Imbalances:
conduction, muscle contraction, and 1. Acidosis is a blood pH
regulating pH. Its level is controlled between 7.35 and 6.80. Its principal
by aldosterone. effect is depression of the CNS.
9. Calcium is principally an 2. Alkalosis is a blood pH
extracellular ion that is a structural between 7.45 and 8.00. Its principal
component of bones and teeth. It effect is overexcitability of the CNS.
also functions in blood clotting, 3. Respiratory acidosis is
chemical transmitter release, caused by hypoventilation;
muscle contraction, and heartbeat. metabolic acidosis results from an
Its level is controlled by parathyroid abnormal increase in acid metabolic
hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). products (other than CO2) and loss
10. Phosphate is principally an of bicarbonate.
intracellular ion that is a structural 4. Respiratory alkalosis is
component of bones and teeth. It is caused by hyperventilation,

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
metabolic alkalosis results from sperm maturation; and
nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess stimulates development of
intake of alkaline drugs. male secondary sex
Reproductive System: characteristics.
1. Reproduction is the process by 7. Inhibin is produced by
which genetic material is passed on sustentacular cells. Its
from one generation to the next. inhibition of FSH helps to
2. The organs of reproduction are regulate the rate of
grouped as: gonads (produce spermatogenesis.
gametes), ducts (transport and 3. Ducts:
store gametes), and accessory 1. The duct system of the
glands (produce materials that testes includes the
support gametes). seminiferous tubules,
3. The male structures of reproduction straight tubules, and rete
include the testes, ductus testis.
epididymis, ductus deferens, 2. Sperm are transported out
ejaculatory duct, urethra, seminal of the testes through the
vesicles, prostate gland, efferent ducts.
bulbourethral glands, and penis. 3. The ductus epididymis is
II. Male Reproductive System: lined by stereocilia and is
1. Scrotum: the site of sperm maturation
1. The scrotum is a cutaneous and storage.
outpouching of the 4. The ductus deferens stores
abdomen that supports the sperm and propels them
testes. toward the urethra during
2. It regulates the temperature ejaculation.
of the testes by contraction 5. Alteration of the ductus
of the dartos to elevate deferens to prevent
them closer to the pelvic fertilization is called
cavity. vasectomy.
2. Testes: 6. The ejaculatory ducts are
1. The testes are oval-shaped formed by the union of the
glands (gonads) in the ducts from the seminal
scrotum containing vesicles and ductus
seminiferous tubules, in deferens and eject
which sperm cells are made; spermatozoa into the
sustentacular cells, which prostatic urethra.
nourish sperm cells; and 7. 7. The male urethra is
interstitial endocrinocytes, subdivided into three
which produce the male sex portions: prostatic,
hormone testosterone. membranous. and spongy
2. Failure of the testes to (cavernous).
descend is called 8. Accessory Glands:
cryptorchidism. 9. The seminal vesicles
3. Mature spermatozoa consist secrete an alkaline, viscous
of a head, midpiece, and fluid that constitutes about
tail. Their function is to 60 percent of the volume of
fertilize an ovum. semen and contributes to
4. Spermatozoa are moved sperm viability.
through the testes through 10. The prostate gland secretes
the seminiferous tubules, an alkaline fluid that
straight tubules, rete testis, constitutes about 13 to 33
and efferent ducts. percent of the volume of
5. At puberty GnRF stimulates semen and contributes to
anterior pituitary secretion sperm motility.
of FSH and LH. FSH initiates 11. The bulbourethral glands
spermatogenesis and LH secrete mucus for
assists spermatogenesis lubrication and a substance
and stimulates production that neutralizes urine.
of testosterone. 12. Semen (seminal fluid) is a
6. Testosterone controls the mixture of spermatozoa and
growth, development, and accessory gland secretions
maintenance of sex organs; that provide the fluid in
stimulates bone growth, which spermatozoa are
protein anabolism, and transported, provide

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
nutrients, and neutralize the 2. The menstrual and ovarian
acidity of the male urethra cycles are controlled by
and female vagina. GnRF, which stimulates the
4. Penis: release of FSH and LH.
1. The penis is the male organ 3. FSH stimulates the initial
of copulation. development of ovarian
2. Expansion of its blood follicles and secretion of
sinuses under the influence estrogens by the ovaries. LH
of sexual excitation ie ealled stimulates further
erection development of ovarian
III. Female Reproductive System: follicles, ovulation, and the
1. The female organs of reproduction secretion of estrogens and
include the ovaries (gonads), progesterone by the
uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and ovaries.
vulva. 4. Estrogens stimulate the
2. The mammary glands are growth, development, and
considered as part of the maintenance of female
reproductive svstem. reproductive structures;
3. Ovaries: stimulate the development
1. The ovaries are female of secondary sex
gonads located in the upper characteristics; regulate
pelvic cavity, on either side fluid and electrolyte
of the uterus. balance; and stimulate
2. They produce ova, protein anabolism.
discharge ova (ovulation), 5. Progesterone works with
and secrete female sex estrogens to prepare the
hormones (estrogens and endometrium for
progesterone). implantation and the
4. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: mammary glands for milk
1. The uterine tubes transport secretion.
ova from the ovaries to the 6. Relaxin relaxes the
uterus and are the normal symphysis pubis and helps
sites of fertilization. dilate the uterine cervix to
2. Implantation outside the facilitate delivery.
uterus (pelvic or tubular) is 7. During the menstrual phase,
called an ectopic the functionalis layer of the
pregnancy. endometrium is shed with a
5. Uterus: discharge of blood, tissue
1. The uterus is an inverted, fluid, mucus, and epithelial
pear-shaped organ that cells. Primary follicles
functions in menstruation, develop into secondary
implantation of a fertilized follicles.
ovum, development of a 8. During the preovulatory
fetus during pregnancy, and phase, endometrial repair
labor. occurs. A secondary follicle
2. The uterus is normally held develops into a Graafian
in position by a series of follicle. Estrogens are the
ligaments. dominant ovarian
3. Histologically, the uterus hormones.
consists of an outer 9. Ovulation is the rupture of a
perimetrium, middle Graafian follicle and the
myometrium, and inner release of an ovum into the
endometrium. pelvic cavity brought about
6. Endocrine Regulations - by inhibition of FSH and
Menstruation and Ovarian release of LH.
Cycles: 10. During the postovulatory
1. The function of the phase, the endometrium
menstrual cycle is to thickens in anticipation of
prepare the endometrium implantation. Progesterone
each month for the is the dominant ovarian
reception of a fertilized egg. hormone.
The ovarian cycle is 11. . If fertilization and
associated with the implantation do not occur,
maturation of an ovum each the corpus luteum
month. degenerates and low levels

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
of estrogens and trichomoniasis, and nongonococcal
progesterone initiate urethritis (NGU).
another menstrual and 2. Conditions that affect the prostate are
ovarian cycle. prostatitis, enlarged prostate, and tumors.
12. If fertilization and 3. Impotence is the inability of the male to
implantation do occur, the attain or hold an erection long enough for
corpus luteum is maintained intercourse.
by placental HCG and the 4. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm
corpus luteum and placenta to fertilize an ovum.
secrete estrogens and 5. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea,
progesterone to support dysmenorrhea, abnormal bleeding, and
pregnancy and breast premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
development for lactation. 6. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes
13. The female climacteric is widespread homeostatic imbalances and is
the time immediately before a reaction to toxins produced by
menopause, the cessation Staphylococcus aureus.
of the sexual cycles. 7. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid.
7. Vagina: 8. Endometriosis refers to the growth of
1. The vagina is a passageway uterine tissue outside the uterus.
for the menstrual flow, the 9. Female infertility is the inability of the
receptacle for the penis female to conceive.
during sexual intercourse, 10. The mammary glands are susceptible to
and the lower portion of the benign fibroadenomas and malignant
birth canal. tumors. The removal of a malignant breast,
2. It is capable of considerable pectoral muscles, and Iymph nodes is called
distension to accomplish its a radical mastectomy.
functions. 11. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap
8. Vulva: test.
1. The vulva is a collective 12. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to
term for the external bacterial infection of Delvic oraans.
genitals of the female. Gamete Formation:
2. It consists of the mons Diploid and Haploid Cells:
veneris, labia majora, labia 1. Ova and sperm are collectively called
minora, clitoris, vestibule, gametes or sex cells and are produced in
vaginal and urethral gonads.
orifices, and greater and 2. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by
lesser vestibular glands. mitosis, the process in which each daughter
9. Perineum: cell receives the full complement of 23
1. The perineum is a diamond- chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes).
shaped area at the inferior Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n).
end of the trunk between 3. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in
the thighs and buttocks. which the pairs of chromosomes are split so
2. An incision in the perineal that the mature gamete has only 23
skin prior to delivery is chromosomes. It is said to be haploid (n).
called an episiotomy. Spermatogenisis:
10. Mammary Glands: 1. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. It
1. The mammary glands are results in the formation of four haploid
modified sweat glands spermatozoa.
(branched tubuloalveolar) 2. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of
over the pectoralis major reduction division, equatorial division, and
muscles. Their function is to sperm maturation.
secrete and eject milk Oogenesis:
(lactation). 1. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. It results in
2. Mammary gland the formation of a single haploid ovum.
development is dependent 2. The oogenesis sequence consists of
on estrogens and reduction division, equatorial division, and
progesterone. ova maturation.
3. Milk secretion is due to Sexual Intercourse:
mainly PRL and milk 1. The role of the male in the sex act involves
ejection is stimulated by OT. erection, lubrication, and orgasm.
Disorders - Homeostatic Imbalances: 2. The female role also involves erection,
1. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are lubrication, and orgasm (climax).
diseases spread by sexual contact and Pregnancy:
include gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes,

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
1. Pregnancy is a sequence of events that
includes fertilization, implantation,
embryonic growth, fetal growth, and birth.
2. Its various events are hormonally
controlled.
Fertilization and Implantation:
1. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the
ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent
union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form
a zygote.
2. . Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase
and proteinases produced by sperm.
3. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum.
4. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called
cleavage, and the cells produced by
cleavage are called blastomeres.
5. The solid mass of cells produced by
cleavage is a morula.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


34
1. Methods include removal of gonads and
6. The morula develops into a blastocyst, a uterus, sterilization (vasectomy, tubal
hollow ball of cells differentiated into a ligation, laparascopic technique), and
trophectoderm (future embryonic contraception (natural, mechanical, and
membranes) and inner cell mass (future chemical).
embryo). 2. Contraceptive pills of the combination type
7. The attachment of a blastocyst to the contain estrogens and progesterone in
endometrium is called implantation. concentrations that decrease the secretion
8. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit
endometrium ovulation.
Embryonic Development: Inheritance:
1. During embryonic growth, the primary germ 1. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary
layers and embryonic membranes are traits from one generation to another.
formed and the placenta is functioning. 2. The genetic makeup of an organism is
2. The primary germ layers-ectoderm, called its genotype. The traits expressed are
mesoderm, and endoderm-form all tissues called its phenotype.
of the developing organism. 3. Dominant genes control a particular trait;
3. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac, expression of recessive genes is inhibited
amnion, chorion, and allantois. by dominant genes.
4. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged 4. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic
through the placenta. fluid. It can be used to diagnose inherited
5. During the fetal period, organs established biochemical defects and chromosomal
by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. disorders, such as hemophilia, Tay-Sachs
Hormones of Pregnancy: disease, sickle cell anemia, and Down's
1. Pregnancy is maintained by human syndrome.
chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), estrogens, 5. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal
and progesterone. abnormality characterized by mental
2. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) retardation and retarded physical
stimulates secretion and breast development.
development, protein anabolism, and 6. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of
glucose and fatty acid catabolism. the male at fertilization.
3. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and
helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the
end of pregnancy.
Parturition and Labor:
1. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in
the uterus is called gestation.
2. Parturition refers to birth and is
accompanied by a sequence of events
called labor.
3. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the
cervix, expulsion of the fetus, and delivery
of the placenta.
Adjustments of the Infant at Birth:
1. The fetus depends on the mother for
oxygen and nutrients, removal of wastes,
and protection.
2. Following birth the respiratory and
cardiovascular systems undergo changes in
adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life.
Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo
and Fetus:
1. The developing embryo and fetus is
susceptible to many potential hazards that
can be transmitted from the mother.
2. Examples are infections, microbes,
chemicals and drugs, alcohol, and smoking.
Lactation:
1. Lactation refers to the secretion and
ejection of milk by the mammary glands.
2. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL),
estrogens, and progesterone.
3. . Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT).
Birth Control:

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34