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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
lipids. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. 2. 3. The ER provides mechanical support. Organelles: 1. Cells without nuclei. 3. 2. They are involved in muscular contraction.The Cytoskeleton: 1. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. 3. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. They are formed from Golgi complexes. 2. The inner folds are called cristae. stores synthesized molecules. and helps export chemicals from the cell. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. 2. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. Usually the largest organelle. and inorganic substances. membranous sacs called cisternae. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Ribosomes: 1. 3. 2.g. Thus they are called "suicide packets. 2. and control. Functionally. carbohydrates. do not grow or reproduce. Nucleus: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . cilia. 1. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. and genetic material (DNA). Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. Functionally. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. and form the structure of flagella. but smaller. such as mature red blood cells." 4. repair. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. centrioles.13. which carry on phagocytosis. 2. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. 2. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. comprising the chromosomes. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. support. 3. and movement. They support. provide movement. Microfilaments and Microtubules .. 4. transports substances intracellularly. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. Mitochondria: 1. Cytoplasm: 1. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. karyolymph. 3. Peroxisomes: 1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. 2. In conjunction with the ER. 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. It is located near the nucleus. They contain enzymes (e. 3. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. maintenance. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. and the mitotic spindle. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. nucleoli. If the cell is injured. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. 3.
Extracellular Materials: 1. Examples are melanin. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. which consist of rRNA and protein. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. 2. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and mucus. In response to DNA damage. mRNA associates with ribosomes. 3. like collagenous. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Flagella and Cilia: 1. are amorphous. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. It consists of prophase. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. Cellular Inclusions: 1. reticular. an "SOS response" occurs. 3. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. 2. 8. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. they are called flagella. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. they are called cilia. 3. Gene Action . Some.Protein Synthesis: 1. 2. 3. glycogen. and telophase. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. the DNA molecules. 6. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. This involves transcription and translation. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. lipids. 4. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. 3. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). are fibrous. Somatic Cell Division: 1. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. In transcription. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. metaphase. 2. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. "SOS" Genes . Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. or chromosomes. 5. 4. 2. anaphase. 5. and elastic fibers. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. 7. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). If they are numerous and hairlike.DNA Repair: 1.2. 6. If projections are few and long. Cell Division: 1. 2. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. DNA Polymerase is an example. Others. 3.
simple. muscular. 7. and no blood vessels (avascular). 4. 5. 3. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses.1. 2. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. Connective tissue protects. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. and most upper respiratory structures. 2. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. 3. It is found covering ovaries. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. 8. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. 6. 3. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. where it protects and secretes. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. 2. Depending on their function and structure. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Epithelium has many cells. Epithelial Tissue: 1. auditory tubes. 2. supports. 2. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. and lining some glandular ducts. Glandular Epithelium: 1. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. and apocrine glands. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. columnar (rectangular). Exocrine glands (sweat. an extensive intercellular substance. Many theories of aging have been proposed. 2. pharynx. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . merocrine. stratified (several layers). noncancerous tumors are called benign. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. and binds organs together. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. parts of urethra. portion of urethra. 3. It can replace itself. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. but none successfully answers all questions. cuboidal (cubelike). the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. 9. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. 5. tubuloacinar. and transitional (variable). Tissues Types of Tissues 1. little intracellular material. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. 4. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. and epiglottis. oil. acinar. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). It does not occur on free surfaces. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. 3. It has few cells. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. except for cartilage. Connective Tissue: 1. and compound. cell shapes include squamous (flat). the study of tumors is called oncology. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. and a rich blood supply (vascular). in kidneys and eyes. Functional classification includes holocrine. and nervous. It lines larger excretory ducts. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. connective. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. 2.
Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. trachea. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. 2. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. Muscle tissue performs one major function . ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. heat. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. and melanocytes). Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. elastic. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. and aponeuroses. pain. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. and provides support. Adipose. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). and in respiratory structures. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. where it gives support. Tissue Inflammation . Adult Connective Tissue: 1. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. 2. and swelling. mast. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. sometimes loss of function occurs. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. It is flexible. and external ear. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. bone tissue. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. Visceral (smooth). 2. serous. 4. around body organs. allows movement. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). tendons. in the nose. elastic arteries. bronchial tubes. o Serous membranes (pleura. 7. Dense.4. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. 3. ligaments. plasma. at the ends of bones. and Reticular. such as the digestive tract. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. It is found as a component of fascia. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. are specialized for fat storage. 6.contraction. spleen. called adipocytes. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. 2. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. pericardium. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. cartilage. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. and Iymph nodes. It provides strength. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. and vascular tissue. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. Membranes: 1. Examples are: mucous. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. and cutaneous. and Cardiac. and in the subcutaneous layer. membranes of organs. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. and true vocal cords. 5. macrophages. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Elastic. auditory tubes.
Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. the process slows down with aging. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. If the injury is superficial. glands. The skin and its derivatives (hair. 4. and several organic compounds. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. C. 3. and Meissner's corpuscles. D. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. spinosum. E. and parenchymal regeneration. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. 6. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. • Glands: 1. synthesis of vitamin D. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. granulosum. arrectores pilorum muscles. storage of chemical compounds. and pheomelanin (yellow). Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles.The Skin: Skin 1. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. nerves. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. 2. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. Various vitamins (A. if it cannot drain out of the body. lucidum. 2. from deepest to most superficial. 3. 2. scab formation. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). oil glands. Repair Process: 1. hair follicles. It performs the functions of protection. carotene. Tissue Repair: 1. serotonin. an abscess develops. The epidermal layers.2. skin glands (sebaceous. If damage is extensive. 2. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. some B. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. 8. 4. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. salts. kinins. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. • Hair: 1. 5. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. and excretion of water. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. brown melanin. and root hair plexuses. are the stratum basale. 5. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. hair follicles. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. nerves. Conditions for Repair: 1. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. 3. In most inflammations. 5. The reticular region is dense. and corneum. 3. receiving stimuli. and ceruminous). maintaining body temperature. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. 4. 2. The Integumentary System . dermal papillae. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. and a hair follicle. granulation tissue is involved. sudoriferous. 7. black melanin. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. and nails. and ducts of sweat glands. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. The color of skin is due to melanin. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . pus is produced.
protection. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. As the perspiration evaporates. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. lunula. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. the skin is cooled. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. mineral storage. The functions of the skeletal system include support. replacing lost body fluids. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. 3. Most warts are benign. regulating metabolic rate. pubis. and blood cell production. raised plaques or papules. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. Disorders . Histology: 1. 7. 4. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight.6F). and matrix.• palms and soles. Nails: 1. hyponychium. 2. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. root. 5. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. The principal parts of a nail are the body. and areolae. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. pimples. leverage. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. They are found in the external auditory meatus. and skin grafting. 3. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. 9. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. and covering wounds with temporary protection. systemic diseases. 2. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. Nails are hard. If environmental temperature is high. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. and boils. removing dead tissue. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. or psychogenic factors. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. eponychium. 11. Homeostasis: 1. 2. 8. 4. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. Depending on the depth of damage. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. 6. free edge. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. second-degree (partialthickness). and third-degree (fullthickness). 2. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. 10. their ducts open into hair follicles. 3.
Colles'. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. flat. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. transverse. epiphyses (ends). Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and periosteum. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. 4. 6. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). Osteoblasts lay down bone. articular cartilage. supports. 3. 4. displaced. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. Functionally. 3. and vitamins (A. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. 8. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. and resists stress. 3. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. 5. and endosteum. compact bone protects. Disorders . 9. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. intramembranous and endochondral. In both types of ossification. 2. proliferating cartilage. medullary or marrow cavity. complete. where bone replaces cartilage. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. marrow. except for the epiphyseal plate. 4. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. 2. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. simple. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. Normal growth depends on calcium. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. C. comminuted. The two types of ossification. 2. This process is called remodeling. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. A fracture is any break in a bone. 2. and the epiphyses of long bones. forming a callus. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. Homeostasis: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and nondisplaced. Pott's. phosphorus. 8. greenstick. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. and calcified matrix. and remodeling. 5. periosteum. metaphysis. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. 6. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. hypertrophic cartilage. spiral. Next. Functionally. impacted. and irregular bones. compound. It forms most of the structure of short. 7. 7. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. spongy bone is laid down first. 3. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. The types of fractures include: partial. Cartilage degenerates.
vertebral column. auditory ossicles. sagittal. crest. ethmoid. Hyoid Bone: 1. lambdoidal. 3. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. 4. flat. Vertebral Column: 1. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. and squamosal sutures. It is composed of 22 bones. Terms that describe markings include fissure. short. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. 6. The vertebral column. sphenoid. fused). Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. sternum. the sacrum (5. maxillae (2). Condyle. 2. or irregular. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). zygomatic (2). and maxilla. and vomer. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. On the basis of shape. hyoid bone. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. anterolaterals. and posterolaterals. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal.1. and balance. and spine. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the sternum. 7. process. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). The major fontanels are the anterior. 3. thoracic vertebrae (12). 2. palatine (2). meatus. and ethmoid. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. tuberosity. 2. occipital. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. They are lined by mucous membranes. 5. posterior. foramen. Skull: 1. The patella is an example. facet. mandible. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. fossa. head. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. and ribs. These curves give strength. lacrimal (2). 1. sphenoid. fused) and the coccyx (4. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. 3. muscle attachment. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. parietal (2). Surface Markings: 1. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). bones are classified as long. temporal (2). 2. support. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. Examples are coronal. 2. lumbar vertebrae (5). The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. 3. inferior nasal conchae (2).
The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. 4. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. Examples include scoliosis. and lordosis. a congenital defect. Pisiform. and phalanges. 2. o Lower Extremities: 1. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. and L 2. tibia. 3. L l. 2. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. and phalanges. 2. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). the bones of the upper extremities. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Triangular (Triquetrum). The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. vertebral arch. and the bones of the lower extremities. Hamate (Unciform). 2. 2. metatarsals. pubis. II. and the thoracic vertebrae. Capitate. 3. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. the pelvic girdle. kyphosis. 3. the ribs and costal cartilages. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. Talus. fibula. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. carpals. Navicular. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). and Medial Cuneiform. 4. shape. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and detail. and ischium. 2. 5. Schaphoid (Navicular). metacarpals. ulna. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. Cuboid. tarsals.The vertebra are similar in structure. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. each consisting of a body. 3. radius. o Upper Extremities: 1. Thorax: 1. and seven processes. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. is referred to as spina bifida.
Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. Synovial Joints: 1. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). 8.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and muscle tension. cartilaginous. 4. 5. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). 2. or synovial. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. some also contain ligaments. All synovial joints are freely movable. Articulations: 1. 6. and loss of function. 3. joints. 3. 2. tendons. inversion and eversion. A dislocation. or luxation. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. articular discs. ligaments. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. and bursae. 7. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). 4. circumduction. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. joints are classified as fibrous. swelling. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. and a synovial membrane. Disorders . articular cartilage. Structurally. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. with no joint cavity. tension of ligaments. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). angular movements. Fibrous Joints: 1. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. and muscles. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. 3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. biaxial. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. 5. are cartilaginous joints. supination and pronation. and elevation and depression. are fibrous joints. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. 2. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). 2. to provide support and leverage. 6. protraction and retraction. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). 2. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). 2. or triaxial. with no joint cavity. Bones held together by cartilage. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. 3. 1. hinge joints (elbow).arches. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. pivot joints (radioulnar). rotation. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. 2. 2. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation).
or myoneural. sarcoplasmic reticulum. covering the entire muscle. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It is striated and voluntary. the neuron releases acetylcholine. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. and heat production. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. perimysium. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. Through contraction. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.without dislocation. Contraction . It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. junction. covering fasciculi. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. 4. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. and endomysium. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. 3. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. 3. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. covering individual fibers. Functions: 1. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. and troponin. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. 2. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. 6. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. 3. tropomyosin. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. and T tubules. Energy for Contraction: 1. There are three types of fascia: superficial. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. contract. 2. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. 3. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. maintenance of posture. deep. 3. Connective tissue components are epimysium. 2. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. 2. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. 2. 3. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. 8. Types: 1. The Motor Unit: 1. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. triggering the contractile process. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. 5. 2. It is striated and involuntary. nuclei. 4. and subserous. 7. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. Physiology of Contraction: 1. 4.
Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. and related structures in the thigh. stimulus. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. This muscle is found only in the heart. If it occurs in the lumbar region. 3. 5. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. The fibers are arranged in a network. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. more mitochondria. Homeostasis: 1. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. tenderness. 2. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. muscles. It is striated and involuntary. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. 2. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. 3. tetanus. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. each of which contracts as a functional unit. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. 5. and larger T tubules. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Abnormal contractions include spasms. 2. stimulus. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and isometric. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. 2. and stiffness of joints. 3. more blood capillaries. or subthreshold. Muscle Tone: 1. Disorders .2. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. isotonic. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. treppe. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. 4. convulsions. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. 3. Kinds of Contractions: 1. 2. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. and tics. it is called lumbago. Unit it is paid back. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. 2. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. 2. 4. or threshold. cramps. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. 3. 2. 3. and a large amount of myoglobin. 6. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. fibrillations. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. 3.
Physiology: Regeneration: 1. 2. and deltoid region of the arm. attach neurons to blood vessels. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. 2. 2. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. and usually a single axon. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. number of origins (or heads). association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. 4. 3. origin and insertion. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. and glands. oligodendrocytes. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. 2. and carry out phagocytosis. bipolar. and unipolar. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. microglia. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. lateral side of the thigh. second-class. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. Neurons: 1. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. size. or nerve cells. and resistance on the lever. 3. Nerve Impulse: 1. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. 2. location. 3. pennate. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. including motor neurons. 6. 3. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. 2. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. The antagonist produces an opposite action. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. 4. convergent. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. and ependyma. Intramuscular Injections: 1. Neurons. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. On the basis of function. On the basis of structure. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. 5. and circular. neurons are multipolar. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. 5. and the membrane is said to be polarized. effort. and minimal irritation. shape. 1. produce the myelin sheath. and reacting to them. If. 2. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. and action. 6. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. the membrane is said to have an action potential. cardiac muscle tissue. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. Around the time of birth. interpreting them.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion.
5. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. 6. 6. 5. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. and vertebral ligaments. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. 7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. arachnoid and pia mater. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. and lateral white columns. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. 4. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. 5. 3. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. According to the all-ornothing principle. 6. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. 7. and ascending and descending tracts. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. or axon hillock. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. meninges. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. 3. cerebrospinal fluid. 4. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. Structure in Cross Section: 1. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. and lateral gray horns. 2. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. posterior. 2. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. 5. anterior. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. posterior. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. cell body. 2. 6. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. 4. 3.travels from point to point along the membrane. Protection and Coverings: 1. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. 4. 7. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. 2. central canal. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. 3. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. anterior. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts.
Following peripheral nerve damage. ventral ramus. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. and crossed extensor reflex. form networks of nerves called plexuses. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. brachial. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 2. a motor neuron. tendon reflex. The skin segments are called dermatomes. the Babinski sign. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. such as the patellar reflex. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. and an effector. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. a sensory neuron. 2. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. 2. except for T 2-T 11. • Dermatomes: 1. association. A stretch reflex. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. 2. constant segments of the skin. is an example. 2. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. 1. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. and regeneration. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. 2. 3. and rami communicantes. perineunum. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. a center. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. meningeal branch. and epineurium. 4. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. 7. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. lumbar. A reflex is a quick. 9. 4. 2. Disorders . flexor reflex. the Achilles reflex. 3. 5. and motor neuron. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. Wallerian degeneration. The posterior root. posterior root ganglion. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. 5. 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. 5. 3. 4. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. and the abdominal reflex. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. 5. 8. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. 6. respectively. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). • Composition and Coverings: 1. • Distribution: 1. Its basic components are a receptor.2. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 4. Functions: 1. and sacral plexuses.
brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. and hiccuping. 2. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. 4. coughing. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. it is called external hydrocephalus. 1. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. 1. 2. Protection and Coverings: 1. diencephalon. vasoconstriction. cerebrum. 3. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus.1. 3. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. 1. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The Diencephalon: 1. respiratory rate. it is called internal hydrocephalus. permanent damage. 2. cells. The Brain Stem: 1. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. 2. 1. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. which helps control respiration. swallowing. 1. 4. The pons is superior to the medulla. 2. cranial meninges. ventricles. 3. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. mental retardation. or death of brain 5. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. and central canal. 3. 2. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. 2. or death. 6. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. epilepsy. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. During embryological development. 4. and unconsciousness. 2. 3. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. sneezing. and cerebellum. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. 2. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. convulsions. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. Embryological Development: 1. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. vomiting. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood.
imagination. 3. 1. 1. 7. 2. gamma aminobutyric acid. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. infections. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. 8. musical and artistic awareness. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 9. aspartic acid. 5. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. touch. 2. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. temporal. 3. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. and sulci. The Cerebellum: 1. glutamic acid. spoken and written language. norepinephrine. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 3. endorphins. 6. sound. regulates food and fluid intake. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. Its cortex contains convolutions. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. The Cerebrum: 1. 5. taste. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. 2.7. numerical and scientific skills. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. 10. to the cerebral cortex. and reasoning. 2. and tumors. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. 2. 3. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. 3. 2. It controls the autonomic nervous system. 3. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. and dynorphin. 3. parietal. space and pattern perception. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. and glycine. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. dopamine. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. and occipital. 3. except smell. and generating mental images of sight. insight. 2. 4. 4. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. They help to control muscular movements. 1. excite. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. constricted vermis. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. 1. 2. 2. 3. 6. Brain Lateralization: 1. either anatomically or functionally. serotonin. fissures. 3. 2. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. and smell. controls body temperature. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons.
Palate. 2. Examples include angiotensin. Depending on the form of the disease. Motor function. 6. Impulse transmission is interrupted. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. 10. or early infancy. Accessory Motor. Vagus Sensory. Optic . Scalp. 3. thoracic and abdominal organs. 7. tongue muscles. muscles of mastication. Motor. 4. some neck and shoulder muscles. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system.The sense of smell.11. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. or psychological malfunction. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. 12. upper teeth. nose. 2. forehead. 1. upper jaw. cholecystokinin. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. pharyngeal muscles. Glossophary ngeal . or atherosclerosis. Motor. inferior pharynx. sensory. 4. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Oculomotor . The Cranial Nerves: 1. Trigeminal Sensory function. Tongue muscles. 8. Motor function. 3.Motor function of eye muscles. 5. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. soft palate. larangeal muscles. taste. thrombosis. Soft palate. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. muscles of facial expression. upper eyelid. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. 10. 4. 5. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. 9. childbirth. cornea. also called strokes. 11.Sensory. etc. 9. Facial Sensory. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. cerebellum. larynx. 12.Sensory. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. Disorders .The sense of vision. taste. lower teeth.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. 11. . Vestibulococ hlear . Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Olfactory . lower jaw. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). etc. 6. or basal ganglia during fetal development. 8. Hypoglossal .Motor. 7. hearing and balance. pharynx.
In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. and end organs of Ruffini. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. 2. end organs of Ruffini. and third-order neurons. The neural pathway for light touch. 3. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. and proprioceptors. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. vibration).Cutaneous Sensations: 1. 4. personality changes. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. and sometimes delirium. Characteristics: 1. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. second-order. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. Levels of Sensation: 1. and acupuncture. Receptors located in muscles. nociceptors. brain dysfunction. Classification of Receptors: 1. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. 12. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .muscle spasms and encephalitis. and liver damage. and body position. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. surgery. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. 7. and chemoreceptors. 2. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. In terms of simplicity or complexity. free nerve endings. connective tissues. 2. tendons. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. 5. General Senses . pressure. 13. thermoreceptors. conduction of the impulse to the brain. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. and pain. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 6. 3. 2. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. 3. 2. muscle spindles. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. electromagnetic receptors. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. visceroceptors. proprioception. and Pacinian corpuscles. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. 4. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. 2. movement of body parts. 4. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. and tendon organs. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. Meissner's corpuscles. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Sensations: 1. 3. Merkel's discs. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. 5. they cause subconscious motor reactions. 4. 3. According to location.
5. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. and visceral effector. Motor Pathways: 1. anterior corticospinal. 3. activities of smooth muscle. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. On the basis of the transmitter produced. and glands. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). to alleviate migraine headaches. tectospinal. Integrative Functions: 1. 2. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. Control by Higher Centers: 1. 3. and corticobulbar tracts. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It usually operates without conscious control. it consists of activated and long-term components. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. 2. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 3. regulates visceral activities. and plexuses. the hypothalamus. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. reduced metabolic rate. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. ganglia. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. in general. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). Sympathetic responses are widespread and. Olfactory Sensations: 1. or visceral efferent nervous system. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. 2. It is regulated by centers in the brain. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. association neuron. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). and vestibulospinal tracts. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. 4. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. Physiology: 1. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. and to make childbirth easier. 3. afferent neuron. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. 2. 2. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. 2. 4. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. It is entirely motor. that is. 4. The autonomic nervous system. cardiac muscle. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. It has been used to control heart rate. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. 4. decrease in heart rate. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. and the medulla oblongata. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. concerned with energy expenditure. 3. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). 3. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. 4. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. in particular by the cerebral cortex.6.
the optic chiasma. and X. olfactory tracts. 3. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. the thalamus. 6. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. 3. and the cortex. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. and the threshold of smell is low. olfactory bulbs. which destroys neurons of the retina. and iris). ciliary body. 4. and vitreous humor. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. set up waves in the perilymph. hypermetropia (farsightedness). 10. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 2. 4. 4. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). ossicles. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. 5. and bitter. oval window. 2. pass through the ossicles. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. Visual Sensations: 1. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. 8. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. and cerebral cortex. the optic tract. 3. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. and cerebral cortex. and round window). Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. external auditory canal. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. 9. and inverted image formation. strike the tympanic membrane. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. lens. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. 6. 3. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 4. sweet. Disorders . 5. 7. and (c) retina. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. increase pressure in the endolymph. 3. constriction of the pupil. 2. strike the oval window. water-soluble. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. aqueous humor. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and the lacrimal apparatus. strike the basilar membrane. 8. and lipid-soluble. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. The four primary tastes are salt. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. A sound impulse is then initiated. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. eyelids. thalamus. the organ of hearing. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. which contains rods and cones. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. eyelashes. or vertical motion. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). VII. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . IX. 7. 5. medulla. Trachoma is a chronic. 5. and tympanic membrane).2. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. linear. 2. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. accommodation of the lens. 4. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). Substances to be smelled must be volatile. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). sour. convergence.
OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. 14. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. 3. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. Histologically. 2. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). On the basis of solubility. 3. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. sebaceous. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. 4. 10. 11. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). 2. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). 3. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. 13. 15. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. and regulating factors. 16. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). 8. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). nerve impulses. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. respond to stress. 2. 9. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. 2. 2. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. Control of Hormonal Secretions . 12. help regulate growth and development. 7. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). and acromegaly. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 6. 4. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). and contribute to reproductive processes. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. 5. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Chemistry of Hormones: 1.Feedback Control: 1. giantism. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. Exocrine glands (sweat. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract.
Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins.g. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. Ovaries and Testes: 1. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. 3. and serve as antiinflammatories. 4. They are released under stress. 3. Mineralocorticoids (e. 7. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. help resist stress. and lactation. glucocorticoids. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. and delta cells. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. 2. and zona reticularis. growth and development. and gonadocorticoids. 3. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. 10. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. 2. 4. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. which secrete calcitonin (CT). 4. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. 5. Histologically. beta cells. zona ennin late. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. 2. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. 6. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. exophthalmic goiter. Parathyroids: 1. beta cells secrete insulin. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. Histologically. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. 5. Histologically. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. myxedema.. 8. 3. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 9. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. 2. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. 6. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. pregnancy. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. Histologically. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). 2. 5. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. Glucocorticoids (e. and the reactivity of the nervous system. Secretion is controlled by CRF. menstrual cycle. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Cretinism. Histologically.g. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx.Thyroid: 1. 6. 4. 2.. and parafollicular cells. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Secretion is controlled by TRF. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Pancreas: 1.
2. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. Functions: 1. Red blood cells live about 120 days. 4. It helps to regulate pH.000/mm3. Lymphocytes.pinealocytes. and platelets. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). 2. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). The cardiovascular system consists of blood. globulins. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. wastes. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. called plasma. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. 4. 5. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. 2. foods. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis.5. a healthy female. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. leucocytes (white blood cells). 6.90 NaCI. and blood vessels. 3.5 percent solutes.5 percent water and 8. called erythropoiesis. Leucocytes: 1. 0. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. eosinophils.4 million/mm3 of blood.35 to 7. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . pH. The liquid portion of blood. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. 5. 38 degrees C (100. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils.5 to 5. A healthy male has about 5. fibrinogen). and water content of cells.8 million/mm3. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. hormones. and Iymph glands. 3. and salinity.000 to 9. nutrients. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. 2. Thrombocytes: 1. Erythrocyte formation. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 2. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. thymic factor (TF). Blood transports oxygen. Plasma: 1.000/mm3. It protects against toxins and microbes. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. Iymph vessels. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. Erythrocytes: 1. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. body temperature. 2. 3. 7. Normal blood contains 5. consists of 91. 2. carbon dioxide. Components: 1. Normal blood contains 250. the heart. 3. neuroglial cells.45.000 to 400. 4. about 4. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. and enzymes. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. 6. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. Thymus: 1. and thrombocytes (platelets). The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.85 to 0. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. granular leucocytes. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. 3. 2. thymic humoral factor (THF). 3. 4. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. temperature. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated.4 degrees F).
4. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. aplastic. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles.g. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. encloses the heart. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. and endocardium. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Anticoagulatants (e. 6. and out through the aorta. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. Like plasma. 2. myocardium. 7. 11. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. 5. and blood coagulation. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. 4. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. hemolytic. pernicious. 9. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. The parietal pericardium. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. 3. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). 4. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. 8. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. 2. 3. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. 3. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. Interstitial Fluid: 1. 2. 2. and sickle cell anemia. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate.Valves: 1. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss.and hormones. 10. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. 2. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). In vascular spasm. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. heparin) prevent clogging. 2. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. Disorders . Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. hemorrhagic. In the Rh system. platelet plug formation. In the ABO system.. It involves vascular spasm. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. The Cardiovascular System . Kinds of anemia include nutritional. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. The cause is a virus. 3. respiratory gases.The Heart: 1.
3. temperature. 2.8 sec. Cardiac Cycle: 1. 3. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). detecting the presence of fetal life. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. aortic reflex. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. Conduction System: 1. atrioventricular (AV) node. and Purkinje fibers. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. 4. Cardiac Output: 1. Blood Supply: 1. 7. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. bundle branches. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). Atrioventricular (AV) valves. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . sodium. Electrocardiogram: 1. determining the presence of several fetuses. between the atria and their ventricles. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. 6. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. 5. 2. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. 2. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 2. 3. 2. 3. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. 7. 7. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. 4. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 5. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). and right heart (atrial) reflex. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. 6. potassium). 4. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns.4. 4. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. 5. 3. 6. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure.
Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. and age. Capillaries: 1. As blood volume increases. and tunica externa. 2. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. sex (gender and physical activity). They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood.emotion. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. 4. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. 2. and the shock cvcle is intensified. lack of exercise. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. 3. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. and tetralogy of Fallot). but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. 4. cigarette smoking. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Arteries: 1. septal defects. 3. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. This network increases the surface area. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. 4. and premature contractions). and arrhythmias (heart block. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. valvular stenosis. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. 3. 3. 2. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. 2. Venules: 1. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. blood pressure increases. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). others are fenestrated. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. 4. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. and genetic disposition. fibrillation. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. flutter. 5. and therefore blood pressure. The heart becomes hypoxic. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. obesity. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. diabetes mellitus. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. 2. some capillaries are continuous. 2. Veins: 1. 2. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. In severe shock. to correct some defects. and to apply chemotherapy locally.ener Arterioles: 1. 3. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. 5. high blood pressure. 2. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. Disorders . Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol.
and autoregulation. spleen. Disorders . Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. 6. 2. 3. and the descending aorta. 8. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. and liver functions are established. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. 3. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. 2. Fetal Circulation: 1. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. 9. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. 2. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. and fetal circulation. 7. 3. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. 3. 2.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. chemoreceptors. 2. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. chemicals. stomach. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. the arch of the aorta. Blood Reservoirs: 1. intestines. and breathing. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. sex.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. temperature. 3. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. Circulatory Routes: 1. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. emotions. and higher brain centers. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. digestive. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. chemicals. At birth. and age. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. skeletal muscular contractions. They in turn empty into the right atrium. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. when lung. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. 2. pulmonary. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. Other routes include the cerebral. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. Systemic Circulation: 1. 2. valves in veins (especially in the extremities).
epiglottis. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. acid pH of skin. Examples of antigens are microbes. pollen. to Iymph capillaries. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. Lymphatic Organs: 1. mucous membranes. Antigens are chemical substances that. 3. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. 3. 2. mucus. cilia. and flow of urine). inflammation. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. 2. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. 5. to Iymphatics. chemical factors (gastric juice. 2. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. 3. incompatible blood cells. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. to the subclavian veins. to Iymph trunks. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. 4. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions.1. unsaturated fatty acids. and transplants. and multivalence. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. 4. 3. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. microbial structures. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. and fever. and Iysozyme). An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. complement. They include the pharyngeal. 2. Iymphatic vessels. 3. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. lacrimal apparatus. when introduced into the body. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. Iymph nodes. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. reactivity. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. 6. 3. IgD. Lymph Circulation: 1. Based on chemistry and structure. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. phagocytosis. brain. 2. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. IgM. and IgE). 7. called Iymphatics. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. 2. 4. 5. 2. 9. and lingual tonsils. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. saliva. 8. and Iymph organs. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. antimicrobial substances (interferon. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. each with specific biological roles (IgG. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. palatine. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. IgA. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. and kidneys. and properdin). Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens.
3. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. memory B cells recognize the original. 13. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. they are important in diagnosis. Coughing. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). eczema. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. invading antigen. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). 14. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. asthma. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. 3. sobbing. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. 4. 12. and multiple sclerosis (MS). 4. 2. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. 2. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. 8. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. crying. detection of disease. sneezing. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. 6. 11. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. and hives. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. rheumatic fever. myasthenia gravis. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. laughing. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. treatment. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration.liver and spleen. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. During forced inspiration. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. preparing vaccines. sighing. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. 10. yawning. 2. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. 7. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. 2. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. 5.
3. and irritation to the respiratory centers. inspiratory reserve. 6. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. and function of the epithelial cells. and Circulation. temperature.Internal Respiration: 1. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. pain. 3. C's of CPR are Airway. 2. Breathing. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. 2. 5. and enlarged chest. residual volume. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. include inspiratory.are tidal volume. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. and excess mucus production. 2. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. division. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. 2. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. temperature. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. 3. a large alveolar surface area. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. and minimal volumes. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. pneumotaxic area. 3. inflated lungs. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. In bronchogenic carcinoma.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. B. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Disorders . pCO2. compresses the lungs. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). 4. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . assuming that the pressure remains constant. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. and apneustic area. 2. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. 2. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). when the temperature remains constant. both in the brain and outside. and total. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. 2. 3. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. the inflation reflex. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. expiratory reserve. According to Dalton's law. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. 3. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. functional residual. 4. blood pressure. Pulmonary lung capacities. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. and a rich blood supply. inflated alveoli. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. the sum of two or more volumes. It is symbolized by p. External Respiration . vital. and DPG. The A. 4.
2. lipid. and serosa (peritoneum). 5. together with its associated muscles. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. submucosa. liver. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. the hardest substance in the body. root. 4. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. 4. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. lips. gallbladder. peristalsis. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. which aid mechanical digestion. The accessory structures include the teeth. 8. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. The tongue. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. Deglutition: 1. absorption. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. 3. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. mesocolon. The teeth. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. mechanical and chemical digestion. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. 2. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. 3. Some papillae contain taste buds. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. It consists of a voluntary stage. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and accessory structures. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. 3.7. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. 2. 2. Organization: 1. and greater omentum. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. 9. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. Digestive Processes: 1. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. Teeth: 1. falciform ligament. Salivary Glands: 1. and pancreas. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. palates. forms the floor of the oral cavity. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). and tongue. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. 4. and sublingual glands. 2. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. 2. 2. salivary glands. lesser omentum. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. and cervix. and defecation. submandibular (submaxillary). or dentes. 4. 3. tongue. 3. 2. muscularis. or alimentary canal. 2. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel.
(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). intrinsic factor. gastric. Absorption: 1. The small intestine also absorbs water. villi. Absorption: 1. Gallbladder: 1. 3.Histology: 1. 4. and vitamins. Esophagus: 1. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). and stomach gastrin. 3. hydrochloric acid. 2. Among the substances absorbed are some water. Liver: 1. and alcohol. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Small Intestine: Anatomy . The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. resynthesized to triglycerides. 2. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption.Histology: 1. 2. 2. and the microvilli. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. 2. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. and transported as chylomicrons. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). glands that produce mucus. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. 2. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Stomach: Anatomy . Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. 2. and intestinal. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). a protein-digesting enzyme. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. 2. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. The esophagus is a collapsible. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). 3. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. 3. 2. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. electrolytes. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. 2. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Hormones also assume a role. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). 3. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. 2. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). 2. certain electrolytes and drugs. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. Pancreas: 1. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .
Types include hepatitis A. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. rather than enzymatic. electrolytes. 5. Defecation: 1. 2. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 12. action. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. hepatitis B. 2. colon. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. and vitamins. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. stenosis. The large intestine absorbs water. peristalsis. or kinking of the organ. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. Feces consists of water. 7. and non-A. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. . minerals. and mass peristalsis. proteins. a foreign body. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. Disorders . epithelial cells. 3. and undigested foods. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. and barium x-ray. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. 9. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. and water. 6. 5. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. act as building blocks in forming new body components.1. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. periodontal membrane. colonoscopy. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. 8. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. Its subdivisions include the cecum. 2. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. and cementum. Metabolism: 1. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. inorganic salts. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. 2. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. 10. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. 3. 2. 2. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. bacteria.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and anal canal. Anabolic reactions use energy. During digestion. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. vitamins. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. 4. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. rectum. alveolar bone. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. 4. 2. carcinoma of the cecum. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. 3. lipids. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. 11.
Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. 3. 5. 1 molecule of FADH2. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. 2. 4 molecules of NADH2. glucagon. 2. As a result of glycolysis. 2. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). 2. Fate of Lipids: 1. Fat Storage: 1. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. 4. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. It is stimulated by cortisol. Glucose Catabolism: 1. 2. and I molecule of GTP. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. 3. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. coenzyme Q. and cytochromes. thromboplastin for blood clotting. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. Lipid Catabolism: 1. In beta oxidation. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. recombined to form triglycerides. 2. 3. and the electron transport chain. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. thyroxine. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. epinephrine. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. 3. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. Glycolysis: 1. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. and growth hormone (GH). 3. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. When oxygen is in short supply. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. 2. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. 4. 6. 2. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. 3. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue.2. 3. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Glucose Anabolism: 1. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. Electron Transport Chain: 1. the Krebs cycle. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. During digestion. Lipid Metabolism: 1. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. 3. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. under aerobic conditions.
D. and chromium. selenium. these conversions involve deamination. Production of Body Heat: 1. snd ketane hadies. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. conversion of glycerol into glucose. 3. and so forth. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . During digestion. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. and hydrogenation. Protein Catabolism: 1. and proteins. enter body cells by active transport. or converted. decarboxylation. Inside cells. Many function in enzyme systems. Vitamins: 1. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. and body temperature.4. sulfur. thyroxine. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. Protein Anabolism: 1. During the absorptive state. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. 2. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue.Lipogenesis: 1. but an excess of ketone bodies. sodium. During the absorptive state. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. stored. Fate of Proteins: 1. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. 3. Before amino acids can be catabolized. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. 2. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. chlorine. the nervous system. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. 2. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. 2. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. The process is stimulated by insulin. manganese. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). 2. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. 2. hormones. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. 3. and K. copper. 2. 2. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. based on the needs of the body. structural elements. 4. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. hormones. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. Lipid Anabolism . fats. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. Amino acids.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. may cause acidosis. zinc. E. 3. 2. called ketosis. and insulin. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. Minerals: 1. iron. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. fatty acids. iodine. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. Protein Metabolism: 1. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. 2. magnesium. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. cobalt. phosphorus. potassium. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin.
sympathetic stimulation. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. 3. 2. 3. 4. calyces. and K and calcium is inadequate. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. and high body temperature. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. nausea. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. 2. and urethra. Internally. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. 3. 4. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . descending limb of Henle. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. deereased metabolic rate. loop of Henle. urinary bladder. 2. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. 2. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. and sometimes mental retardation.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. ascending limb of Henle. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. reduced perspiration. D. and thyroxine production. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. papillae. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. 3. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. columns. proximal convoluted tubule. and dizziness. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. 5. failure to grow. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. 5. 4. and renal fascia. lethargy. 3. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. adipose capsule. distal convoluted tubule. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. Loss of Body Heat: 1. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. skeletal muscle contraction. 2. 4. 4. pyramids. ureters. glomerulus. the kidneys consist of a cortex. cramps. and perspiration. 7. profuse perspiration. medulla. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. Physiology: 1. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. and a pelvis. stages include chill and crisis.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. 2. 6. 4. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. 3.
The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. and a serous coat. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. 11. ketone bodies. glucose. and specific gravity. and microbes. pH. Histologically. salts. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. glucose. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. indican. Included are ions. plasma and Iymph. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). 2. and fluids of the eyes and ears. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. 4. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. 2. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. Chemically. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. 2. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. 5. and ions. Normally. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). pericardial. 3. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. Homeostasis: 1. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. 3. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. the rest by facultative reabsorption. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. Besides the kidneys. 4. and certain drugs. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. casts. amino acids. 2. 4. Gl tract fluids. Urinary Bladder: 1. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. uric acid. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. 7. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. It includes interstitial fluid.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. primarily by peristalsis. bilirubin. nitrogenous wastes. and peritoneal fluids. blood concentration. 9. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. 6. renal calculi. 7. erythrocytes. 2. synovial fluid. Disorders . 8. 2. hippuric acid. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. Body Fluids: 1. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). odor. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. 8. including water. creatinine. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. The solutes include urea. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention.6. and ions. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. integument. the lungs. ketone bodies. and the glomerular filtrate. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. diuretics. 3. 3. Ureters: 1. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. pleural. muscularis. leucocytes. 5. In exchange. temperature. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. urobilinogen. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). 10. cerebrospinal fluid. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). and fibrous coat. and emotions. Urethra: 1. 5. turbidity.
and protein. increases pH. interstitial fluid. lungs.35 and 6. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. nerve impulse conduction. An increase in rate of respirations. 3. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. phosphate. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys.80.1. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. 2. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. and heartbeat. 5. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7.00. 2. Electrolytes: 1. 8. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems.45 and 8. a decrease in rate. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. proper fluid movement between compartments. 4. muscle contraction. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. decreases pH. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). fluid moves in the opposite direction. 9. 4. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. and GI tract. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. 4. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. and kidney excretion. 6. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). 3. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. 3. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. especially extracellular fluid. 4. and fluid and electrolyte balance. muscle contraction. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 7. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). respirations. 4. chemical transmitter release. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 10. 5. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. and regulating pH. Plasma. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 2. It also functions in blood clotting. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). Acid-Base Balance: 1. 3. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. 2. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. 3. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. and regulation of pH. At the arterial end of a capillary. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. At the venous end. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes.35 to 7. 11. 2.45. skin. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. Under normal conditions. muscle contraction.
Accessory Glands: 9. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. 3. and spongy (cavernous). ductus epididymis. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. Male Reproductive System: 1. straight tubules. 10. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. ejaculatory duct. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). Reproductive System: 1. II. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. 12. 6. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. 7. 11. 3. 7. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Ducts: 1. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. Testes: 1. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. Scrotum: 1. development. 2. and efferent ducts. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. and interstitial endocrinocytes. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. and rete testis. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. in which sperm cells are made. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. rete testis. 2. 4. urethra. ducts (transport and store gametes). Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. which nourish sperm cells. 2. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. straight tubules. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. 4. and maintenance of sex organs. 5. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. 3. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. ductus deferens. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. and penis. 2. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. stimulates bone growth. seminal vesicles. prostate gland. sperm maturation. midpiece. bulbourethral glands. sustentacular cells. membranous. and tail. and 7. 5. Testosterone controls the growth. protein anabolism. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. 6. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. 3.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. 2. 8.
Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. tissue fluid. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. 8. 7. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. 11. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. and vulva. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). . They produce ova. 4. Penis: 1. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. 4.nutrients. Histologically. mucus. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . uterine tubes. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. 9. The uterus is an inverted. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. development. 3. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. 5. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. Estrogens stimulate the growth. 5. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). 2. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. development of a fetus during pregnancy. III. 6. middle myometrium. on either side of the uterus. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. 2. ovulation. 3. and stimulate protein anabolism. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. endometrial repair occurs. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. and epithelial cells. 3. The penis is the male organ of copulation. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. 2. 10. During the preovulatory phase. During the postovulatory phase. implantation of a fertilized ovum. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. and labor. vagina. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. uterus. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. 4. Ovaries: 1. Uterus: 1. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. and inner endometrium. During the menstrual phase. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. 2. 2. discharge ova (ovulation). 6. 2. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH.
the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). 7. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. 13. 2. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. 7. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. Sexual Intercourse: 1. clitoris. and sperm maturation. 2. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. Vulva: 1. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. Oogenesis: 1. 10. 2. vestibule. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. and orgasm. abnormal bleeding. Disorders . 11. 5. Mammary Glands: 1. The female role also involves erection. 2. 8. and ova maturation. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. 3. 3. enlarged prostate. 12. It is said to be haploid (n). the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. 6. vaginal and urethral orifices. the cessation of the sexual cycles. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. syphilis. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. 4. 2. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Perineum: 1. dysmenorrhea. 2. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. 9. 2. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. equatorial division.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. 10. It consists of the mons veneris. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. 3. If fertilization and implantation do occur. pectoral muscles. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. and the lower portion of the birth canal. and tumors. lubrication. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 12. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n).of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. lubrication. labia minora. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The removal of a malignant breast. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. labia majora. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). genital herpes. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. and orgasm (climax). The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. 2. 8. Vagina: 1. Spermatogenisis: 1. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. 2. trichomoniasis. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 9. equatorial division. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division.
. 1. embryonic growth. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. 2. 4.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. and birth. implantation. fetal growth. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. 3. Its various events are hormonally controlled. 2. 5. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage.
. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. 1. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. and Down's syndrome. and chemical). alcohol. sterilization (vasectomy. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. mesoderm. and progesterone. 2. 2. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. 5. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). and protection. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. chorion. Tay-Sachs disease. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. Lactation: 1. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. 3. protein anabolism. 3. Birth Control: 6. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. estrogens. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. Examples are infections. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). 3. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. mechanical. such as hemophilia. 2. 8. chemicals and drugs. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. 3. 2. and contraception (natural. expulsion of the fetus. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). 2. tubal ligation. 6. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. 5. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. amnion. 2. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. 4. Parturition and Labor: 1. laparascopic technique). Inheritance: 1. removal of wastes. sickle cell anemia. and allantois. 2. and delivery of the placenta. estrogens. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. During the fetal period. 2. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. During embryonic growth. 7. microbes. 3. and progesterone. 4. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. Dominant genes control a particular trait. and smoking.The morula develops into a blastocyst.