• 1.

Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.



Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.


horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary




accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.








molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a



maintenance.The Cytoskeleton: 1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. and genetic material (DNA). Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. In conjunction with the ER. 3. 3. 3. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Thus they are called "suicide packets. and inorganic substances. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. It is located near the nucleus. 2. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. 3. Ribosomes: 1. Functionally. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. 3.g. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. 2. support. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and helps export chemicals from the cell. Cytoplasm: 1. which carry on phagocytosis. Mitochondria: 1. They contain enzymes (e. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. and the mitotic spindle. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. carbohydrates. and form the structure of flagella. They support. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. do not grow or reproduce. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. stores synthesized molecules. lipids. They are formed from Golgi complexes. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. provide movement. transports substances intracellularly. Cells without nuclei. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. such as mature red blood cells. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. membranous sacs called cisternae. but smaller. comprising the chromosomes. 1. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. Peroxisomes: 1. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. 2. 2. Nucleus: 1. centrioles. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. 3. 2. 3. Organelles: 1. repair. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. 2. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. and control. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. Microfilaments and Microtubules . 3. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. 2. and movement.. 2. If the cell is injured. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Functionally. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. cilia.13. The inner folds are called cristae. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. Usually the largest organelle. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. karyolymph. 4. 2. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis." 4. They are involved in muscular contraction. nucleoli. 2. The ER provides mechanical support.

2. Some. 5. DNA Polymerase is an example. lipids. Examples are melanin. 6. If projections are few and long. If they are numerous and hairlike. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. an "SOS response" occurs. are fibrous. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. and mucus. This involves transcription and translation. Somatic Cell Division: 1. 3. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. 4. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. In response to DNA damage. 5.2. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. and elastic fibers. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. the DNA molecules. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. 3. 2. 3. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. Gene Action . anaphase. which consist of rRNA and protein. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. or chromosomes. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. 3. Extracellular Materials: 1. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. In transcription. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. they are called flagella. It consists of prophase.Protein Synthesis: 1. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. Flagella and Cilia: 1. 7. 2. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. 2. "SOS" Genes . Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . reticular. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. are amorphous. 2. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. and telophase. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. 3. Cellular Inclusions: 1. glycogen. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide.DNA Repair: 1. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. like collagenous. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. metaphase. they are called cilia. 4. 2. Cell Division: 1. 3. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). 6. 8. Others. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon.

including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. acinar. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. in kidneys and eyes. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. Epithelial Tissue: 1. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. It lines larger excretory ducts. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. cuboidal (cubelike). 2. columnar (rectangular). and no blood vessels (avascular). Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. Connective Tissue: 1. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. 5. supports. It does not occur on free surfaces. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. 2. Exocrine glands (sweat. simple. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. 6. 2. Many theories of aging have been proposed. muscular. pharynx. It has few cells. 3. and transitional (variable). It can replace itself. parts of urethra. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. tubuloacinar. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. 3. 2. little intracellular material. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. 3. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. and a rich blood supply (vascular). cell shapes include squamous (flat). and binds organs together. an extensive intercellular substance. 2. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. 7. 2. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. except for cartilage. and nervous. stratified (several layers). but none successfully answers all questions. 8. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. and most upper respiratory structures. and apocrine glands. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. and epiglottis. and lining some glandular ducts. 9. and compound. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. portion of urethra. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. 2. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. 3. It is found covering ovaries. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. oil. auditory tubes. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. 4. the study of tumors is called oncology. merocrine. noncancerous tumors are called benign. Functional classification includes holocrine. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption.1. Glandular Epithelium: 1. connective. Depending on their function and structure. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. 3. 5. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. Connective tissue protects. where it protects and secretes. Epithelium has many cells. 4.

serous. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. in the nose. and Iymph nodes. 2. Membranes: 1. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. bone tissue. and external ear. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. 7. tendons. heat. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). and aponeuroses. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes.contraction. It is found as a component of fascia. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. 2. plasma. trachea. 4. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. and Cardiac. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). sometimes loss of function occurs. 2. at the ends of bones. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. 6. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1.4. cartilage. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. ligaments. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. 3. bronchial tubes. It provides strength. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. allows movement. Dense. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. are specialized for fat storage. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. called adipocytes. pericardium. Examples are: mucous. Tissue Inflammation . Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. and true vocal cords. and provides support. Visceral (smooth). and in respiratory structures. Elastic. and swelling. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. macrophages. such as the digestive tract. where it gives support. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. elastic arteries. elastic. and Reticular. o Serous membranes (pleura. It is flexible. around body organs. membranes of organs. auditory tubes. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. 5. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. and in the subcutaneous layer. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). Muscle tissue performs one major function . mast. and vascular tissue. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. pain. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. and cutaneous. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. and melanocytes). Adipose. spleen.

and corneum. 4. 5. 3. C. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. an abscess develops. If the injury is superficial. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. oil glands. • Glands: 1. 7. spinosum. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. Tissue Repair: 1. 2. 6. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. hair follicles. salts. serotonin. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. 2. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. D. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. granulation tissue is involved. In most inflammations. If damage is extensive. and root hair plexuses. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. 3. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. 4. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. skin glands (sebaceous. if it cannot drain out of the body. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. The epidermal layers. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. arrectores pilorum muscles. nerves. 8. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. Various vitamins (A. synthesis of vitamin D. • Hair: 1. and nails. 2. and a hair follicle. 2.The Skin: Skin 1. hair follicles. nerves. The skin and its derivatives (hair. black melanin. glands. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. Conditions for Repair: 1.2. dermal papillae. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . are the stratum basale. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. Repair Process: 1. sudoriferous. The color of skin is due to melanin. 5. carotene. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. and ducts of sweat glands. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. and parenchymal regeneration. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. storage of chemical compounds. the process slows down with aging. 4. receiving stimuli. and Meissner's corpuscles. 3. kinins. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. lucidum. granulosum. and pheomelanin (yellow). Adequate circulation of blood is needed. and several organic compounds. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. It performs the functions of protection. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. 2. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. and excretion of water. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. some B. brown melanin. from deepest to most superficial. The reticular region is dense. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. The Integumentary System . maintaining body temperature. E. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. scab formation. 5. pus is produced. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. 3. and ceruminous).

and matrix. their ducts open into hair follicles.• palms and soles. and blood cell production. 2. and covering wounds with temporary protection. Homeostasis: 1. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. If environmental temperature is high. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Disorders . leverage. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. The principal parts of a nail are the body. second-degree (partialthickness).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 11. 6. protection. Nails: 1. and boils. hyponychium. and areolae. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. mineral storage. or psychogenic factors. 2. They are found in the external auditory meatus. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. Depending on the depth of damage. and skin grafting. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. 3. pimples. As the perspiration evaporates. 5. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. and third-degree (fullthickness). 2. 2. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. replacing lost body fluids. 7. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. lunula. 3. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. 4. Most warts are benign. removing dead tissue. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. regulating metabolic rate. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. 4. 8. raised plaques or papules. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. systemic diseases. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .6F). Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. eponychium. The functions of the skeletal system include support. Nails are hard. free edge. 3. 9. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. 10. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. the skin is cooled. pubis. Histology: 1. 2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. root. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish.

Normal growth depends on calcium. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. 7. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. The types of fractures include: partial. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. periosteum. and calcified matrix. supports. articular cartilage. spongy bone is laid down first. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. except for the epiphyseal plate. epiphyses (ends). and nondisplaced. Pott's. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. 7. metaphysis.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). 6. spiral. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. and endosteum. 2. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. greenstick.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. Osteoblasts lay down bone. Disorders . intramembranous and endochondral. 8. 3. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. phosphorus. Homeostasis: 1. forming a callus. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). 3. Functionally. where bone replaces cartilage. The two types of ossification. It forms most of the structure of short. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. 9. C. 5. compound. 2. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. 3. Colles'. Functionally. 8. complete. 6. and irregular bones. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. This process is called remodeling. marrow. 4. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. impacted. 4. simple. and remodeling. Cartilage degenerates. proliferating cartilage. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. displaced. and periosteum. transverse. comminuted. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. 2. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. In both types of ossification. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. Next. medullary or marrow cavity. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. A fracture is any break in a bone. flat. 2. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. and resists stress. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. and the epiphyses of long bones. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. and vitamins (A. 4. 5. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. compact bone protects. 3. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . hypertrophic cartilage.

zygomatic (2). Condyle. sphenoid. ethmoid. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. sternum. thoracic vertebrae (12). sagittal. foramen. fused) and the coccyx (4. tuberosity. and balance. 2. 2. The vertebral column. anterolaterals. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. and posterolaterals. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). They are lined by mucous membranes. temporal (2). palatine (2). The patella is an example. hyoid bone. or irregular. It is composed of 22 bones. parietal (2). The skull consists of the cranium and the face. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. and ethmoid. muscle attachment. crest. auditory ossicles. Skull: 1. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. and squamosal sutures. the sacrum (5. short. 2. 1. and maxilla. lambdoidal. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. 2. 3. and ribs. occipital. Examples are coronal. facet. 3. process. 3. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. and spine. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Surface Markings: 1. maxillae (2). Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. and vomer. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. bones are classified as long. 6. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. flat. fused). These curves give strength. vertebral column. 2. posterior. meatus. On the basis of shape.1. 4. inferior nasal conchae (2). The major fontanels are the anterior. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. support. the sternum. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. sphenoid. fossa. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 3. lumbar vertebrae (5). Vertebral Column: 1. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). lacrimal (2). Terms that describe markings include fissure. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. mandible. 7. 5. Hyoid Bone: 1. head. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants.

The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. the bones of the upper extremities. metacarpals. shape. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. and the bones of the lower extremities. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. tibia. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. 5. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. radius. Navicular. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. is referred to as spina bifida. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. 2. vertebral arch. tarsals. and ischium. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. L l. and the thoracic vertebrae. each consisting of a body. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Capitate. ulna. the pelvic girdle. metatarsals. o Lower Extremities: 1. o Upper Extremities: 1. 3. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. Schaphoid (Navicular). 3. Cuboid. and lordosis. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. 2. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular).The vertebra are similar in structure. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). and phalanges. 2. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. 3. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. II. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. Hamate (Unciform). It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Thorax: 1. and phalanges. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. 2. 2. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 4. Pisiform. pubis. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. kyphosis. Talus. and seven processes. Triangular (Triquetrum). a congenital defect. Examples include scoliosis. the ribs and costal cartilages. and Medial Cuneiform. carpals. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. and L 2. fibula. and detail. 3. 2. 4.

slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip).arches. 2. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. rotation. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. circumduction. 5. and loss of function. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. biaxial. with no joint cavity. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. 2. Bones held together by cartilage. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . All synovial joints are freely movable. some also contain ligaments. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. 2. joints. A dislocation. Disorders . 2. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. 2. and elevation and depression. to provide support and leverage. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. 3. 3. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). Articulations: 1. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. cartilaginous. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. 5. articular discs. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. 4. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. joints are classified as fibrous. tension of ligaments. 6. Synovial Joints: 1. and muscles. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. are fibrous joints. and muscle tension. or triaxial. and a synovial membrane. 7. 3. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. 4. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. ligaments. supination and pronation. 3. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). are cartilaginous joints. 6. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). Fibrous Joints: 1. and bursae. Structurally. or synovial. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. 1. or luxation. 2. 8. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). angular movements. pivot joints (radioulnar). often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. with no joint cavity. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). inversion and eversion. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. protraction and retraction. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. 2. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. hinge joints (elbow). swelling. tendons. articular cartilage. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis).

deep. nuclei. Through contraction. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. 6. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. covering fasciculi. 5. It is striated and involuntary. 2. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. 2. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. It is striated and voluntary. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. 3. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. 4. 2. Connective tissue components are epimysium. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. covering the entire muscle. The Motor Unit: 1. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. Types: 1. maintenance of posture. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. 3. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. and troponin. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. 2. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. 3. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. and heat production. 3. 3. 8. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. contract. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. Physiology of Contraction: 1. junction. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. and subserous. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. perimysium. 2. triggering the contractile process. Functions: 1. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. covering individual fibers. 2. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. the neuron releases acetylcholine. and T tubules. or myoneural. 4. 3. 2. Contraction . The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. tropomyosin.without dislocation. sarcoplasmic reticulum. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. Energy for Contraction: 1. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. 4. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. 7. There are three types of fascia: superficial. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and endomysium.

It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. 3. 6. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. and a large amount of myoglobin. Abnormal contractions include spasms. and isometric. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature.2. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. 3. more blood capillaries. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. more mitochondria. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. 2. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. 3. 2. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. 4. 4. 3. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. The fibers are arranged in a network. tetanus. 5. it is called lumbago. or subthreshold. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. or threshold. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. muscles. and related structures in the thigh. 3. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. Unit it is paid back. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. 5. each of which contracts as a functional unit. 2. Homeostasis: 1. Kinds of Contractions: 1. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. It is striated and involuntary. and larger T tubules. 2. convulsions. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. 3. Disorders . stimulus. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. This muscle is found only in the heart. and tics. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. cramps. 2. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. and stiffness of joints. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Tone is essential for maintaining posture. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. treppe. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. stimulus. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. 2. isotonic. 3. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. 2. 3. 2. Muscle Tone: 1. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. If it occurs in the lumbar region. tenderness. fibrillations. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability.

The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. 2. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. neurons are multipolar. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. bipolar. or nerve cells. 5. and carry out phagocytosis. cardiac muscle tissue. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. attach neurons to blood vessels. 2. 2. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. Nerve Impulse: 1. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. and unipolar. convergent. and ependyma. 4. and resistance on the lever. and action. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. microglia. pennate. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. and circular. and glands. and the membrane is said to be polarized. 5. shape. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. 3. Intramuscular Injections: 1. Neurons. If. the membrane is said to have an action potential. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. 3. and usually a single axon. 2. Around the time of birth. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. and deltoid region of the arm. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. interpreting them. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. number of origins (or heads). Physiology: Regeneration: 1. oligodendrocytes. 6. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. produce the myelin sheath. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. size. origin and insertion. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. effort. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. including motor neurons. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. On the basis of structure. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. 3. 3. location. and minimal irritation. 1. second-class. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. The antagonist produces an opposite action. 2. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. 6. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. 4. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. 2. and reacting to them. Neurons: 1. lateral side of the thigh. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. On the basis of function. 2.

The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. Structure in Cross Section: 1. 5. and ascending and descending tracts. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. 4. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. 2. and lateral gray horns. or axon hillock. cell body. 6. 6. posterior. According to the all-ornothing principle. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 7. 3. anterior. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. and lateral white columns. 4. meninges. anterior.travels from point to point along the membrane. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. 5. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. cerebrospinal fluid. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. 6. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. 5. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. 3. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. 5. Protection and Coverings: 1. 2. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. and vertebral ligaments. 7. 6. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. central canal. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. posterior. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. 4. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. 3. arachnoid and pia mater. 3. 7. 2. 4. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal.

Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. brachial. • Dermatomes: 1. and crossed extensor reflex. and motor neuron. a motor neuron. Its basic components are a receptor. 2. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. 4. flexor reflex. constant segments of the skin. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. 4. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. the Babinski sign. The skin segments are called dermatomes. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. 4. • Distribution: 1. lumbar. Disorders . Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. 8. meningeal branch. and the abdominal reflex. form networks of nerves called plexuses. 3. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 1. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. is an example. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. perineunum. A stretch reflex. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). 3. the Achilles reflex. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. 5. except for T 2-T 11. ventral ramus. 5. 4. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. and sacral plexuses. • Composition and Coverings: 1. 7. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. 3. 2. 2. posterior root ganglion. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. The posterior root. association. 5. such as the patellar reflex. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. and an effector. a center. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. 6. Following peripheral nerve damage. 2. and epineurium. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. 2. and rami communicantes. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. respectively.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 2. Functions: 1. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. Wallerian degeneration. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. 5. 3. a sensory neuron. tendon reflex. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. and regeneration. A reflex is a quick.2. 1. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 9. The principal plexuses are called the cervical.

The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. coughing. 2. 6. 1. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. 2. 2. epilepsy. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. During embryological development. mental retardation. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. 2. 2. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. 3. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. respiratory rate. or death of brain 5. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1.1. 4. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. cranial meninges. and hiccuping. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. 2. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. Protection and Coverings: 1. 1. 1. vasoconstriction. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . sneezing. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. it is called external hydrocephalus. permanent damage. and unconsciousness. 3. cells. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. The pons is superior to the medulla. swallowing. 2. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 2. vomiting. Embryological Development: 1. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. 1. convulsions. 2. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. and central canal. and cerebellum. which helps control respiration. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. 3. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. 3. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. The Diencephalon: 1. cerebrum. 1. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. 2. The Brain Stem: 1. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. or death. 3. it is called internal hydrocephalus. diencephalon. 4. ventricles. 4. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain.

The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. fissures. 3. controls body temperature. to the cerebral cortex. 3. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. 8. 3. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. and reasoning. either anatomically or functionally. 9. and generating mental images of sight.7. 2. 2. The Cerebrum: 1. aspartic acid. 5. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and tumors. excite. parietal. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. musical and artistic awareness. 2. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 2. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. sound. 3. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 2. space and pattern perception. norepinephrine. 1. insight. imagination. Brain Lateralization: 1. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. The Cerebellum: 1. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. spoken and written language. 2. 2. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. 10. It controls the autonomic nervous system. and sulci. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 3. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. 2. endorphins. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. 1. 3. constricted vermis. 6. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. and glycine. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 3. touch. 4. regulates food and fluid intake. taste. 7. 6. 7. 3. except smell. 3. They help to control muscular movements. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. serotonin. 5. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. and dynorphin. Its cortex contains convolutions. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. gamma aminobutyric acid. 1. temporal. 3. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. glutamic acid. 1. dopamine. and occipital. and smell. numerical and scientific skills. 4. infections. 2. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. 2. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement.

Motor. 6. 4. Hypoglossal . 7. 6. Palate. childbirth. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. 1. Oculomotor . are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. nose. muscles of facial expression. or psychological malfunction. 7. Facial Sensory. Motor function. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language.Sensory. 11. 4. 2. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . lower jaw. or atherosclerosis. 5. 9. Motor. 11. Motor function. 12. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. 8. Accessory Motor. or early infancy. . larynx. tongue muscles. 3.Motor function of eye muscles. muscles of mastication. 8.Motor. Optic . Examples include angiotensin. upper teeth. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Tongue muscles. The Cranial Nerves: 1. 12. Vagus Sensory. Soft palate. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. etc. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). or basal ganglia during fetal development. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. sensory. lower teeth. Disorders . upper jaw. cholecystokinin. taste. pharyngeal muscles. pharynx. inferior pharynx. some neck and shoulder muscles. thrombosis.11. Depending on the form of the disease. Vestibulococ hlear .Sensory. thoracic and abdominal organs. cerebellum. 3. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. Impulse transmission is interrupted. cornea. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. larangeal muscles. Scalp. upper eyelid. taste. hearing and balance. also called strokes. Trigeminal Sensory function. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. forehead. Glossophary ngeal .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 10. 4.The sense of smell.The sense of vision. Olfactory . Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. etc. 5. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. soft palate. 2. 10. 9. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. 4.

and pain. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .muscle spasms and encephalitis. 2. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. 3. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. 2. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. Meissner's corpuscles. pressure. The neural pathway for light touch. muscle spindles. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. Classification of Receptors: 1. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. 3. nociceptors. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. 13. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. and Pacinian corpuscles. tendons. 4. second-order. and chemoreceptors. 2. 5. 6. 3. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. movement of body parts. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. 3. they cause subconscious motor reactions. electromagnetic receptors. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. free nerve endings. thermoreceptors. and tendon organs. vibration). and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. In terms of simplicity or complexity. connective tissues. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. 4. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. surgery. and proprioceptors. and end organs of Ruffini. proprioception.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. 5. and body position. end organs of Ruffini. 7. and liver damage. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Receptors located in muscles. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. Merkel's discs. visceroceptors. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. conduction of the impulse to the brain. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. Characteristics: 1. 2. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. 2. personality changes. Levels of Sensation: 1. 4. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. 3. General Senses . Sensations: 1. 12. brain dysfunction. 4. and third-order neurons. 2. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. and acupuncture. and sometimes delirium. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. According to location. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone.

Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. and to make childbirth easier. 3. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. in general. 3. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. 2. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. 2. reduced metabolic rate. 4. and corticobulbar tracts. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. and glands. cardiac muscle. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. 3. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. It is entirely motor. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 4. decrease in heart rate. Motor Pathways: 1. in particular by the cerebral cortex. 2. and the medulla oblongata. 4. 3. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. regulates visceral activities. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. 2. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. and plexuses. 2. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . On the basis of the transmitter produced. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. to alleviate migraine headaches. it consists of activated and long-term components. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). tectospinal. 5. anterior corticospinal. Physiology: 1. 4. activities of smooth muscle. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. that is. and visceral effector. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). association neuron. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. and vestibulospinal tracts. It has been used to control heart rate. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). the hypothalamus. 3. It usually operates without conscious control. It is regulated by centers in the brain. 2. Olfactory Sensations: 1. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. Integrative Functions: 1. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. ganglia. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic.6. afferent neuron. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). 2. or visceral efferent nervous system. The autonomic nervous system. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. Control by Higher Centers: 1. 3. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. 4. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. concerned with energy expenditure. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings.

the optic tract. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. VII. and round window). Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. 4. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. water-soluble. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. Trachoma is a chronic. aqueous humor. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. increase pressure in the endolymph. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. convergence. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. 2. 5. 3. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. pass through the ossicles. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. 4. 3. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. 3. and (c) retina. Visual Sensations: 1. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. ossicles. strike the oval window. sour. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. 3. set up waves in the perilymph. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. The four primary tastes are salt. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. constriction of the pupil. the thalamus. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. which contains rods and cones. eyelids. lens. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. and inverted image formation. 6. 5. and the lacrimal apparatus. and the cortex. 4. and vitreous humor. 4. oval window. the organ of hearing. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. eyelashes. thalamus. hypermetropia (farsightedness). 2. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. olfactory tracts. ciliary body. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. and iris). and X. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. the optic chiasma. and cerebral cortex. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. 6. medulla.2. linear.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). 9. and bitter. A sound impulse is then initiated. and lipid-soluble. 10. 5. 2. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. sweet. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. 4. 5. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. and cerebral cortex. 7. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. and tympanic membrane). Substances to be smelled must be volatile. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). and the threshold of smell is low. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). IX. or vertical motion. strike the tympanic membrane. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. strike the basilar membrane. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 8. 8. external auditory canal. olfactory bulbs. which destroys neurons of the retina. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. 2. accommodation of the lens. Disorders . 7. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement.

5. giantism. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. On the basis of solubility. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. help regulate growth and development. and contribute to reproductive processes. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Control of Hormonal Secretions . sebaceous. 3. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. 10. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. 8. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and regulating factors. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). 11. 9. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). 4. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 2. 4.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. Histologically. and acromegaly. 13. 2. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. 15. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. 3. 16. 3.Feedback Control: 1. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). Chemistry of Hormones: 1. 7. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. 14. 12. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). nerve impulses. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). 2. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). respond to stress. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 2. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. 2. 6. Exocrine glands (sweat. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract.

growth and development. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. Pancreas: 1. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. and lactation. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. 7. 2. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Histologically. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 10. and serve as antiinflammatories. and zona reticularis. 6. 9. 6. 4. Histologically. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). 8. Secretion is controlled by TRF. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. pregnancy. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Histologically. Glucocorticoids (e. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. 2.Thyroid: 1. 2. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. They are released under stress. glucocorticoids. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. 5. 5. 3. exophthalmic goiter. 5. 3. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. 3. 3.g. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla.. 2. menstrual cycle. 4. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. 4. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. zona ennin late. myxedema. Parathyroids: 1. and gonadocorticoids. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. beta cells. and parafollicular cells. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. which secrete calcitonin (CT). Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Ovaries and Testes: 1. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. 2. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. 6. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Histologically. 2. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells.. and the reactivity of the nervous system. help resist stress. 4. Mineralocorticoids (e. Cretinism. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. and delta cells.g. Secretion is controlled by CRF. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. Histologically. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. beta cells secrete insulin. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome.

Leucocytes are nucleated cells. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. Blood transports oxygen. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. 2. Normal blood contains 250. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. the heart. 4. called erythropoiesis. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells.85 to 0. 2. Components: 1.5 percent water and 8. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. 3. It helps to regulate pH. neuroglial cells. nutrients. and Iymph glands. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. Normal blood contains 5. 7. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. fibrinogen). 2. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs.000/mm3. 0. Erythrocytes: 1. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. 2. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection.8 million/mm3. 2. eosinophils. and thrombocytes (platelets). pH. 3. about 4. Functions: 1. and blood vessels.000 to 9. 6. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis.4 degrees F). and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. Erythrocyte formation. leucocytes (white blood cells). This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. 5.90 NaCI.45. 3. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. 2. thymic humoral factor (THF). Lymphocytes. foods. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. called plasma. body temperature. 38 degrees C (100. Plasma: 1. a healthy female.4 million/mm3 of blood. Red blood cells live about 120 days. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. 2. 5.35 to 7.000 to 400. consists of 91. thymic factor (TF). carbon dioxide. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. globulins. and water content of cells. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins.5 to 5.5 percent solutes. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. Thymus: 1.5. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. 4. temperature. Iymph vessels. 2. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes).pinealocytes. Leucocytes: 1. 3. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). 6. and enzymes. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. 4. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. It protects against toxins and microbes. 3. Thrombocytes: 1. A healthy male has about 5. hormones. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. wastes.000/mm3. The liquid portion of blood. granular leucocytes. 3. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. and salinity. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. 4. and platelets.

Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. platelet plug formation. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. aplastic. 9. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . and blood coagulation. and endocardium. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. hemorrhagic.. Disorders . 2.The Heart: 1. 8. and out through the aorta. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. 2. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. 5. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells.Valves: 1. heparin) prevent clogging. 6. In the Rh system. It involves vascular spasm. In the ABO system. 4. Interstitial Fluid: 1. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . respiratory gases. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. 11. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. Like plasma. 2. 2. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). 3. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. 3. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. 10. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. 2. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. 2. encloses the heart.and hormones. hemolytic. pernicious. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type.g. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). myocardium. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. and sickle cell anemia. The cause is a virus. 4. 3. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. The Cardiovascular System . The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. 2. The parietal pericardium. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. 4. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 7. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. In vascular spasm. Anticoagulatants (e.

Cardiac Output: 1. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. Conduction System: 1. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. atrioventricular (AV) node. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. 6. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. 2.4. potassium). 5. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. 5. 6. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). determining the presence of several fetuses. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. 7. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. 7. and right heart (atrial) reflex. 2. aortic reflex. 5. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. temperature. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction.8 sec. 3. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. 3. 4. 4. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. 6. 3. 4. detecting the presence of fetal life. Electrocardiogram: 1. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. 4. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. 2. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 2. 3. and Purkinje fibers. between the atria and their ventricles. Cardiac Cycle: 1. sodium. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). 3. 2. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). bundle branches. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. 7. Blood Supply: 1. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume).

Veins: 1. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. 2. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. This network increases the surface area. 2. flutter. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. The heart becomes hypoxic. high blood pressure. 2. and genetic disposition. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. 3.emotion. and therefore blood pressure. 2. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. In severe shock. fibrillation. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. and premature contractions). Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Arteries: 1. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). obesity. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. diabetes mellitus. 2. Disorders . 4. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. and to apply chemotherapy locally. others are fenestrated. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. 3. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. 2. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). and age. 5. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. septal defects. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. 4. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries.ener Arterioles: 1. 5. cigarette smoking. 3. to correct some defects. lack of exercise. 4. valvular stenosis. As blood volume increases. Venules: 1. 2. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. sex (gender and physical activity). Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. 4. 2. some capillaries are continuous. Capillaries: 1. 3. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. 3. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. and tunica externa. and arrhythmias (heart block. and tetralogy of Fallot). 3. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. blood pressure increases. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1.

when lung. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. 6. and liver functions are established. 2.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. 2. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. the arch of the aorta. and fetal circulation. digestive. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. 3. 8. Blood Reservoirs: 1. Disorders . and age. 2. 3. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. pulmonary. and the descending aorta. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. spleen. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. 3. intestines. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. chemicals. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. chemoreceptors. At birth. 2. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. and autoregulation. 3. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). Other routes include the cerebral. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. temperature. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. stomach. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. Fetal Circulation: 1. Systemic Circulation: 1. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. 9. skeletal muscular contractions. 7. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. sex. and higher brain centers. chemicals. 2. They in turn empty into the right atrium. 3. 2. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. 2. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. Circulatory Routes: 1. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. and breathing. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. emotions. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs.

mucous membranes. 3. to the subclavian veins. 2. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. Iymphatic vessels. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. and fever. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. Lymphatic Organs: 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. 3. Antigens are chemical substances that. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. 2. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 4. Iymph nodes. pollen. when introduced into the body. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. cilia. and kidneys. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. reactivity. inflammation. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. Based on chemistry and structure. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. and flow of urine). 5. saliva. and Iymph organs. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. incompatible blood cells. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. 9. complement. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. chemical factors (gastric juice. IgD. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. 2. and multivalence. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. and Iysozyme). 4. 2. 3. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. and lingual tonsils. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. epiglottis. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. microbial structures. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. and IgE). unsaturated fatty acids. to Iymphatics. and transplants. They include the pharyngeal. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Lymph Circulation: 1. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. antimicrobial substances (interferon. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. to Iymph trunks. 8. IgM. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. mucus. called Iymphatics. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. 3. brain. to Iymph capillaries. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. and properdin). Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. Examples of antigens are microbes. palatine. phagocytosis. 3. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. 2. 7. acid pH of skin. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. lacrimal apparatus.1. IgA. 5. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. each with specific biological roles (IgG. 6.

which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. 11. and multiple sclerosis (MS). 12. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. 5. 13. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. 7. 6. 14. asthma. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. memory B cells recognize the original. 8. and hives. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). rheumatic fever. crying. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. myasthenia gravis. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. laughing. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. they are important in diagnosis. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. eczema.liver and spleen. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. yawning. detection of disease. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. sneezing. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. 2. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. 3. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. 4. sobbing. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Coughing. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. 10. 3. 2. invading antigen. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. 2. preparing vaccines. During forced inspiration. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 4. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. sighing. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. treatment. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. a phenomenon called immunologic escape.

The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. compresses the lungs. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1.are tidal volume. and excess mucus production. functional residual. 2. inflated lungs. division. pain. 3. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. assuming that the pressure remains constant. 5. and total. the sum of two or more volumes. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. 2. vital. residual volume. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. and function of the epithelial cells. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. expiratory reserve. 3. Breathing. and DPG. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. 2. 2. 2. The A. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and enlarged chest. the inflation reflex. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. and apneustic area. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. Pulmonary lung capacities. temperature. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. 3. and minimal volumes. 3. pCO2. both in the brain and outside. 4. and irritation to the respiratory centers. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. include inspiratory. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. It is symbolized by p. pneumotaxic area. B.Internal Respiration: 1. inspiratory reserve. a large alveolar surface area. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. C's of CPR are Airway. Disorders . inflated alveoli. External Respiration . 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). In bronchogenic carcinoma. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. and a rich blood supply. and Circulation. 4. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). According to Dalton's law. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. 6. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. 4. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. 2. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. temperature. 3. when the temperature remains constant. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . blood pressure. 2.

mesocolon. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. submandibular (submaxillary). gallbladder. and tongue. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Salivary Glands: 1. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. and greater omentum. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. peristalsis. 4. or dentes. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the hardest substance in the body. or alimentary canal. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. 3. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). muscularis. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. 2. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. 2. root. The tongue. absorption.7. 2. together with its associated muscles. 4. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. Deglutition: 1. 4. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. The accessory structures include the teeth. The teeth. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. 2. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. lips. lipid. tongue. forms the floor of the oral cavity. 3. submucosa. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. and pancreas. It consists of a voluntary stage. and defecation. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. 9. 2. 5. 3. 2. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. lesser omentum. liver. which aid mechanical digestion. Some papillae contain taste buds. 4. and sublingual glands. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. and cervix. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. 2. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. palates. 3. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. 8. and accessory structures. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. Digestive Processes: 1. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. 2. and serosa (peritoneum). Teeth: 1. 3. mechanical and chemical digestion. salivary glands. falciform ligament. Organization: 1. 2.

Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. Gallbladder: 1.Histology: 1. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). and transported as chylomicrons. 2. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases).Histology: 1. Stomach: Anatomy . Hormones also assume a role. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. Pancreas: 1. 2. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). 2. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. 3. 2. Esophagus: 1. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. 2. 2. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. glands that produce mucus. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. 2. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. and stomach gastrin. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. 3. hydrochloric acid. 2. Small Intestine: Anatomy . Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Absorption: 1. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. 3. a protein-digesting enzyme. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. resynthesized to triglycerides. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). intrinsic factor. and alcohol. Liver: 1. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Absorption: 1. gastric. and vitamins. villi. The esophagus is a collapsible. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. 3. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 3. The small intestine also absorbs water. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. 2. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. certain electrolytes and drugs. 2. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Among the substances absorbed are some water. 4. and the microvilli. electrolytes. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). and intestinal. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms.

2. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. Defecation: 1. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. bacteria. 2. 5. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 11. 4. inorganic salts. stenosis. epithelial cells. 5. and vitamins. and barium x-ray. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. rather than enzymatic. Types include hepatitis A. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. 2. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. lipids. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. 2. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. Disorders . Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. 10. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. electrolytes. 3. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. hepatitis B. and anal canal. 7. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. proteins. 2. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Feces consists of water. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. 12. a foreign body. . peristalsis. minerals. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. The large intestine absorbs water. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. carcinoma of the cecum. Metabolism: 1. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. 2.1. 2. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. 3. vitamins. colonoscopy. During digestion. and cementum. and undigested foods. periodontal membrane. alveolar bone. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. rectum. or kinking of the organ. and non-A. 4. 8. 6. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. 9. and water. Its subdivisions include the cecum. act as building blocks in forming new body components. action. and mass peristalsis. Anabolic reactions use energy. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. colon.

the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. When oxygen is in short supply. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. Fat Storage: 1. and cytochromes. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. under aerobic conditions. 5. 4 molecules of NADH2. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). 3. Electron Transport Chain: 1. 4. 6. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. coenzyme Q. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. It is stimulated by cortisol. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. 1 molecule of FADH2. epinephrine. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Lipid Metabolism: 1. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. and growth hormone (GH). there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. 2. Fate of Lipids: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . In beta oxidation. Glucose Catabolism: 1. 3. Lipid Catabolism: 1. recombined to form triglycerides. and I molecule of GTP. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. Glucose Anabolism: 1. and the electron transport chain. 2. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. 3. 2. thyroxine. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. During digestion. 2. 3. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. Glycolysis: 1. 3. 4. 2. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol.2. 2. 3. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. thromboplastin for blood clotting. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. glucagon. the Krebs cycle. 3. 3. 2. 2. As a result of glycolysis.

000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. 4. Minerals: 1. may cause acidosis. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. stored. 2. Protein Catabolism: 1. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. these conversions involve deamination. 3.Lipogenesis: 1. fatty acids. Protein Metabolism: 1. snd ketane hadies. magnesium. iron. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. 2. D. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. conversion of glycerol into glucose. During the absorptive state. During digestion. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. The process is stimulated by insulin. and body temperature. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. fats. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. structural elements. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. 2. iodine. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. and proteins. and so forth. Inside cells. 2. and insulin. 2. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. called ketosis. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. Fate of Proteins: 1. but an excess of ketone bodies. and chromium. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). enter body cells by active transport.4. sulfur. or converted. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. 3. copper. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. hormones. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. During the absorptive state. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. decarboxylation. 3. 2. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. thyroxine. 2. chlorine. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. selenium. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. manganese. 2. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. Protein Anabolism: 1. 3. 2. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. phosphorus. the nervous system. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. potassium. Before amino acids can be catabolized. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . sodium. hormones. E. based on the needs of the body. zinc. cobalt. and K. Production of Body Heat: 1. Many function in enzyme systems. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. Vitamins: 1. Amino acids. Lipid Anabolism . Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. 2. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. and hydrogenation. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes.

skeletal muscle contraction. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. sympathetic stimulation. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 2. the kidneys consist of a cortex. pyramids. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. calyces. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. loop of Henle. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. 4. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. Internally. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. reduced perspiration. and urethra. 5. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. and thyroxine production. Physiology: 1. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). proximal convoluted tubule. 4. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. deereased metabolic rate. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. medulla. 4. 4. adipose capsule. cramps. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). urinary bladder. columns. descending limb of Henle. and a pelvis. glomerulus. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. lethargy. and renal fascia. 6. stages include chill and crisis. 7. 5. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. 3. 3. and sometimes mental retardation. 2. 4. papillae. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. 3. 5. profuse perspiration. failure to grow. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. 2. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. 2. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. Loss of Body Heat: 1. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. 3. and K and calcium is inadequate.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. distal convoluted tubule. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. 3. ascending limb of Henle. nausea. and dizziness. 2. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. 3. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. and high body temperature. D. 2. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. ureters. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. and perspiration.

leucocytes. 7. and ions. Normally. 3. 8. Homeostasis: 1. and emotions. 6. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. primarily by peristalsis. ketone bodies. Besides the kidneys. Histologically. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. Chemically. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). 10. pericardial. Urinary Bladder: 1. uric acid. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. nitrogenous wastes. 5. 2. blood concentration. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. Urethra: 1. 2. muscularis. 2. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. 5. and ions. salts. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and fibrous coat. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. The solutes include urea. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. bilirubin. Included are ions. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. glucose. cerebrospinal fluid. hippuric acid. It includes interstitial fluid. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. ketone bodies. indican. and fluids of the eyes and ears. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. 4. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. 2. 4. 7. 11. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. erythrocytes. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. odor. and certain drugs. and microbes. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. plasma and Iymph. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. turbidity. urobilinogen. 9. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. creatinine. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. and the glomerular filtrate. Disorders . Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. temperature.6. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. and peritoneal fluids. the rest by facultative reabsorption. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. integument. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. glucose. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. 4. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. Body Fluids: 1. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). synovial fluid. and specific gravity. renal calculi. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. 2. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. including water. the lungs. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. casts. pH. and a serous coat. 8. 3. 3. diuretics. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). a muscularis (detrusor muscle). The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. 3. Gl tract fluids. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. 5. Ureters: 1. amino acids. In exchange. 2. pleural.

3. 2. interstitial fluid. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid.1. 4. 2. especially extracellular fluid. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. Plasma. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. 3. 3. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. It also functions in blood clotting.45. 7. skin. muscle contraction. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. 4. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism.35 to 7. At the arterial end of a capillary. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. 6. and protein. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). 2.80. 4. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. and GI tract. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. and kidney excretion. 10. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). muscle contraction. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. phosphate. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). proper fluid movement between compartments. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. 4. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. 2. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. nerve impulse conduction. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter).45 and 8. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. 3. a decrease in rate. and fluid and electrolyte balance. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. 5. 5. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. and regulation of pH. 4. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Under normal conditions. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. 3. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. and heartbeat. 8. fluid moves in the opposite direction. Electrolytes: 1. chemical transmitter release. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH.35 and 6. and regulating pH. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. At the venous end. An increase in rate of respirations.00. increases pH. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. muscle contraction. 9. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. decreases pH. 2. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. 11. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. respirations. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. lungs.

Ducts: 1. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. Reproductive System: 1. 6. II. 2. prostate gland. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. 2. 3. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. 4. 10. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. and 7. which nourish sperm cells. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. midpiece. ductus deferens. and penis. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. 7. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. straight tubules. Male Reproductive System: 1. development. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. Accessory Glands: 9. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. 11. 4. Scrotum: 1. Testosterone controls the growth. 5. rete testis. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). 2. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. and maintenance of sex organs. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. seminal vesicles. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. 3. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. 7.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. straight tubules. stimulates bone growth. 8. and interstitial endocrinocytes. sustentacular cells. 6. ducts (transport and store gametes). membranous. and rete testis. 5. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). bulbourethral glands. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. and tail. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. protein anabolism. and spongy (cavernous). in which sperm cells are made. urethra. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. and efferent ducts. 3. 2. Testes: 1. 3. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. 12. ejaculatory duct. 2. sperm maturation. ductus epididymis.

and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). The penis is the male organ of copulation. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. vagina. and epithelial cells. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. 7. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. 6. They produce ova. middle myometrium. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. 4. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. uterus. 5. endometrial repair occurs. 2. 4. 4. 8. and vulva. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. 11. and stimulate protein anabolism. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). During the menstrual phase. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . development of a fetus during pregnancy.nutrients. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. Estrogens stimulate the growth. and labor. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. 6. 3. implantation of a fertilized ovum. tissue fluid. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. 2. . A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. uterine tubes. discharge ova (ovulation). Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. 9. Histologically. and inner endometrium. During the postovulatory phase. 2. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. 2. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. The uterus is an inverted. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. Uterus: 1. development. III. Ovaries: 1. ovulation. 3. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. Penis: 1. 5. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. on either side of the uterus. 3. 10. 2. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. During the preovulatory phase. 2. mucus. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles.

enlarged prostate. Spermatogenisis: 1. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. 11. 2. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). labia majora. vestibule. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. 4. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. 9. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). 2. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. clitoris. and the lower portion of the birth canal. 8. Vulva: 1. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. equatorial division. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 2. 2. Perineum: 1. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. pectoral muscles. and ova maturation. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. 8. lubrication. 2. the cessation of the sexual cycles. and tumors. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. labia minora. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. vaginal and urethral orifices. The removal of a malignant breast. The female role also involves erection. 3. Disorders . Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. lubrication. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. 10. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. 3. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It consists of the mons veneris. 2. 2. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. Mammary Glands: 1. 6. 9. 13. Sexual Intercourse: 1. 3. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. 2. genital herpes. and orgasm (climax). and sperm maturation. Vagina: 1. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. syphilis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. 12. 2. 10. 12. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Oogenesis: 1. If fertilization and implantation do occur. and orgasm. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. 5. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). abnormal bleeding. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. equatorial division. dysmenorrhea. It is said to be haploid (n). Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. trichomoniasis. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. 7. 7. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus.

Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. Its various events are hormonally controlled. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. 4.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. . and birth. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 1. embryonic growth. implantation. 3. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. 2. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. 2. fetal growth. 5.

and contraception (natural. and smoking. 3. 1. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. protein anabolism. and progesterone. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. estrogens. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. . Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. mechanical. alcohol. During the fetal period. and chemical). and Down's syndrome. 3. 3. such as hemophilia. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. tubal ligation. 4. 2. chorion. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1.The morula develops into a blastocyst. removal of wastes. 2. estrogens. 5. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). 6. During embryonic growth. sterilization (vasectomy. and delivery of the placenta. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. and allantois. 2. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. sickle cell anemia. Dominant genes control a particular trait. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). chemicals and drugs. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. 5. 2. 3. 2. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. 4. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. 2. Parturition and Labor: 1. 8. mesoderm. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and protection. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. amnion. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. expulsion of the fetus. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. 3. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Examples are infections. Lactation: 1. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). microbes. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. laparascopic technique). Birth Control: 6. 7. 2. Tay-Sachs disease. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. 2. and progesterone. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. Inheritance: 1.

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