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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.

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Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.

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horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary

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accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a

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2. and genetic material (DNA). Usually the largest organelle. It is located near the nucleus. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. lipids. 2. 3. do not grow or reproduce. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Microfilaments and Microtubules . 2. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. stores synthesized molecules. Mitochondria: 1.g. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. and form the structure of flagella. 2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. If the cell is injured. and movement. centrioles. cilia. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. They are formed from Golgi complexes. karyolymph. carbohydrates. which carry on phagocytosis. Functionally. comprising the chromosomes. and the mitotic spindle. 4. but smaller. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. Nucleus: 1. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. Peroxisomes: 1. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them.The Cytoskeleton: 1. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. 3. repair. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. Cytoplasm: 1. transports substances intracellularly. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. and helps export chemicals from the cell. nucleoli. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. They contain enzymes (e. 2. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. 2. The ER provides mechanical support. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. 2. 3. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. Ribosomes: 1. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. and control. support. and inorganic substances. membranous sacs called cisternae. provide movement. Functionally. Cells without nuclei. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. 3. such as mature red blood cells. maintenance. Organelles: 1. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. 2.. 2. They support. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. 3. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. 3. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Thus they are called "suicide packets. They are involved in muscular contraction." 4. 3. The inner folds are called cristae. In conjunction with the ER. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. 1. 3. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. 2.13.

a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. 2. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. Examples are melanin. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. 4. Somatic Cell Division: 1. Cell Division: 1. metaphase. an "SOS response" occurs. like collagenous. If they are numerous and hairlike. DNA Polymerase is an example. 6. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. 3. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. 3. 7. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. Flagella and Cilia: 1. 3. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. In transcription. 5. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. 8. are amorphous. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. 3. Some. 3. and elastic fibers. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. and telophase. Cellular Inclusions: 1. 3. 2. are fibrous. the DNA molecules. 5. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. glycogen. This involves transcription and translation. Extracellular Materials: 1.2. Others. "SOS" Genes . The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon.Protein Synthesis: 1. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). It consists of prophase. 4. or chromosomes. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. lipids. In response to DNA damage. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. 2. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. Gene Action . The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. 2. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. 6.DNA Repair: 1. reticular. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. 2. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. which consist of rRNA and protein. they are called cilia. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. anaphase. If projections are few and long. 2. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. they are called flagella. and mucus. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .

stratified (several layers). Connective tissue protects. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. and binds organs together. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. and most upper respiratory structures. columnar (rectangular). parts of urethra. Many theories of aging have been proposed. the study of tumors is called oncology. 3. an extensive intercellular substance. 8. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. and transitional (variable). 2. in kidneys and eyes. Epithelium has many cells. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. 3. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. acinar. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. 5. 4. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. 2. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). 4. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. and epiglottis. pharynx. and compound. 3. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. auditory tubes. Depending on their function and structure. 2. 2. Functional classification includes holocrine. simple. Connective Tissue: 1. where it protects and secretes. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. and no blood vessels (avascular). 9. except for cartilage. and a rich blood supply (vascular). supports. but none successfully answers all questions. and apocrine glands. It lines larger excretory ducts. and nervous. little intracellular material. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. noncancerous tumors are called benign. 7. 2. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. 6. tubuloacinar. Glandular Epithelium: 1. 2. Epithelial Tissue: 1. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. muscular. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). It does not occur on free surfaces. It has few cells. It can replace itself.1. Exocrine glands (sweat. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. portion of urethra. oil. and lining some glandular ducts. merocrine. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. cuboidal (cubelike). cell shapes include squamous (flat). All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. 3. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. connective. 5. 2. 3. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. It is found covering ovaries.

mast. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. such as the digestive tract. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. o Serous membranes (pleura. called adipocytes. Visceral (smooth). It provides strength. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. 2. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Elastic. allows movement.4. Adipose. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. and vascular tissue. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. and aponeuroses.contraction. sometimes loss of function occurs. bone tissue. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. 7. in the nose. and Reticular. spleen. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. are specialized for fat storage. 5. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. and provides support. at the ends of bones. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). and in the subcutaneous layer. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. cartilage. membranes of organs. and Cardiac. and swelling. heat. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. 3. 2. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. trachea. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). and true vocal cords. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. 4. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). Dense. macrophages. elastic. and cutaneous. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. It is flexible. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . pain. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. serous. and external ear. pericardium. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. auditory tubes. around body organs. bronchial tubes. elastic arteries. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. plasma. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. and Iymph nodes. 6. Examples are: mucous. It is found as a component of fascia. where it gives support. and melanocytes). 2. 2. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. Membranes: 1. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. and in respiratory structures. Tissue Inflammation . tendons. Muscle tissue performs one major function . ligaments.

If the injury is superficial. and parenchymal regeneration. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. The skin and its derivatives (hair. Various vitamins (A. and ceruminous). It performs the functions of protection. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. and nails. serotonin. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. 5. sudoriferous. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. nerves. and several organic compounds. receiving stimuli. are the stratum basale. 2. 7. In most inflammations. dermal papillae. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. kinins. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. carotene. granulosum. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. and Meissner's corpuscles. 8. arrectores pilorum muscles. 3. salts. and ducts of sweat glands. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. the process slows down with aging. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair.The Skin: Skin 1. 4. The reticular region is dense. 4. The epidermal layers. black melanin. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. • Hair: 1. Repair Process: 1. D. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. brown melanin. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. 5. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). 2. from deepest to most superficial. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. 2. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. and a hair follicle. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. 3. 6. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. if it cannot drain out of the body. spinosum. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. skin glands (sebaceous. The Integumentary System . 5. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. and pheomelanin (yellow). an abscess develops. oil glands. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. and excretion of water.2. Conditions for Repair: 1. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. and root hair plexuses. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. 4. Tissue Repair: 1. • Glands: 1. hair follicles. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. storage of chemical compounds. 3. lucidum. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. The color of skin is due to melanin. 2. C. synthesis of vitamin D. nerves. maintaining body temperature. E. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. granulation tissue is involved. hair follicles. some B. glands. 3. If damage is extensive. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. 2. pus is produced. and corneum. scab formation.

lunula. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. 3. and covering wounds with temporary protection. Histology: 1. 9. regulating metabolic rate. 8. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. 5. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen.• palms and soles. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. 7. or psychogenic factors. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. mineral storage. As the perspiration evaporates. 2. 11. 3. and skin grafting. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Nails are hard.6F). eponychium. Nails: 1. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. Homeostasis: 1. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. 2. pimples. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. protection. 4. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. 2. If environmental temperature is high. systemic diseases. 2. The functions of the skeletal system include support. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. leverage. pubis. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Disorders . and matrix. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. Depending on the depth of damage. 4. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. and third-degree (fullthickness).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and boils. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. hyponychium. the skin is cooled. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. They are found in the external auditory meatus. second-degree (partialthickness). root. 2. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. their ducts open into hair follicles. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. The principal parts of a nail are the body. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. free edge. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. removing dead tissue. 6. replacing lost body fluids. Most warts are benign. raised plaques or papules. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. 10. and areolae. and blood cell production. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. 3. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature.

and remodeling. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. 6. 4. In both types of ossification. 2. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. complete. flat. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. intramembranous and endochondral. proliferating cartilage. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. except for the epiphyseal plate. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. 8. phosphorus. Normal growth depends on calcium. where bone replaces cartilage. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. Disorders . 7. C. medullary or marrow cavity. A fracture is any break in a bone. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. 7. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. 3. Next. compound. and periosteum. compact bone protects. Colles'. hypertrophic cartilage. epiphyses (ends). 8. 2. This process is called remodeling. greenstick. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. articular cartilage. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. comminuted. Functionally. spongy bone is laid down first.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. Osteoblasts lay down bone. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. It forms most of the structure of short. The types of fractures include: partial. and resists stress. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. and irregular bones. and vitamins (A. 2. impacted. and nondisplaced. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. periosteum. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. 4. 5. 2. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. Cartilage degenerates. metaphysis. supports. Homeostasis: 1. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. displaced. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. 3. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. transverse. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. 6. The two types of ossification. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. 9. and calcified matrix. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). Functionally. 3. 3. marrow. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. spiral. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. simple. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. 5. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. and the epiphyses of long bones. forming a callus. Pott's. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. and endosteum.

5. the sacrum (5. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. sagittal. or irregular. lambdoidal. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. auditory ossicles. lacrimal (2). head. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 6.1. meatus. temporal (2). 2. Terms that describe markings include fissure. palatine (2). Examples are coronal. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). short. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. 2. On the basis of shape. flat. hyoid bone. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. sphenoid. anterolaterals. Vertebral Column: 1. and spine. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). and ribs. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. zygomatic (2). 2. 3. The patella is an example. facet. support. parietal (2). Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. thoracic vertebrae (12). inferior nasal conchae (2). fused) and the coccyx (4. 3. Skull: 1. and balance. The vertebral column. and maxilla. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. and posterolaterals. fossa. vertebral column. and ethmoid. process. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. mandible. 2. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. 3. 7. 4. 1. 3. and vomer. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. ethmoid. 2. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Hyoid Bone: 1. tuberosity. occipital. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. Surface Markings: 1. fused). the sternum. foramen. lumbar vertebrae (5). Condyle. bones are classified as long. muscle attachment. It is composed of 22 bones. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. 2. They are lined by mucous membranes. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. crest. posterior. These curves give strength. and squamosal sutures. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. maxillae (2). sphenoid. sternum. The major fontanels are the anterior.

II. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. and the bones of the lower extremities. 2. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. ulna. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. radius. each consisting of a body. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4.The vertebra are similar in structure. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. 3. a congenital defect. kyphosis. L l. the pelvic girdle. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). Pisiform. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. 2. Hamate (Unciform). The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. Talus. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). and phalanges. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. and ischium. the bones of the upper extremities. shape. is referred to as spina bifida. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. and phalanges. Triangular (Triquetrum). Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. and lordosis. Navicular. fibula. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). and L 2. 4. Thorax: 1. 5. 2. and detail. Capitate. 3. metatarsals. 2. and the thoracic vertebrae. and Medial Cuneiform. Examples include scoliosis. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. metacarpals. o Upper Extremities: 1. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. 4. carpals. tibia. tarsals. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. 2. Schaphoid (Navicular). the ribs and costal cartilages. vertebral arch. Cuboid. and seven processes. 2. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. o Lower Extremities: 1. 3. pubis. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc.

5. hinge joints (elbow). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. 3. and muscle tension. circumduction. 2. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. 5. 4. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. All synovial joints are freely movable.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. tendons. and muscles. with no joint cavity. 7. joints are classified as fibrous. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. or luxation. Articulations: 1. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . are cartilaginous joints. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. 2. rotation. 2. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). Structurally. articular discs. or triaxial. joints. 2. swelling. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. 2. some also contain ligaments. cartilaginous. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). 6. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. tension of ligaments. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). 2. angular movements. Synovial Joints: 1. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. Disorders . are fibrous joints. protraction and retraction. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. and elevation and depression. pivot joints (radioulnar). Fibrous Joints: 1. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. articular cartilage. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. Bones held together by cartilage. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. 3. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). 6. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. 2. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). 1. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. A dislocation. supination and pronation. 8. with no joint cavity. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. 3. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). and loss of function. ligaments. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). and a synovial membrane. and bursae. inversion and eversion. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. or synovial. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. biaxial. 3. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur.arches. 2. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). 4. to provide support and leverage. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula.

2. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. covering individual fibers. It is striated and involuntary. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. triggering the contractile process. 3. Physiology of Contraction: 1. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. 5. 3. perimysium. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. junction. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. or myoneural. It is striated and voluntary. tropomyosin. and heat production. There are three types of fascia: superficial.without dislocation. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. and T tubules. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. and endomysium. 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. 2. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. covering the entire muscle. 3. sarcoplasmic reticulum. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. the neuron releases acetylcholine. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. 2. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. Functions: 1. nuclei. 3. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. covering fasciculi. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. Connective tissue components are epimysium. 4. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. deep. The Motor Unit: 1. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Contraction . Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. 3. 2. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. maintenance of posture. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. Types: 1. and subserous. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. Energy for Contraction: 1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. 3. 2. contract. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. Through contraction. 7. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. 8. and troponin. 4. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction.

Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Homeostasis: 1. and stiffness of joints. muscles. 4. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. and a large amount of myoglobin. it is called lumbago. or threshold. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. 2. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks.2. Kinds of Contractions: 1. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. 3. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. Abnormal contractions include spasms. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. 2. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. 2. more mitochondria. isotonic. 2. This muscle is found only in the heart. 3. 2. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. 2. and isometric. 3. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. 4. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. and related structures in the thigh. 3. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. convulsions. 3. each of which contracts as a functional unit. more blood capillaries.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. treppe. tenderness. Muscle Tone: 1. 3. It is striated and involuntary. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. and larger T tubules. stimulus. The fibers are arranged in a network. Disorders . tetanus. 3. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. or subthreshold. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. If it occurs in the lumbar region. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. 2. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. cramps. 5. Unit it is paid back. 6. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. stimulus. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. 3. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. fibrillations. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. 2. and tics. 5.

bipolar. microglia. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. Intramuscular Injections: 1. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. and unipolar. On the basis of function. 3. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. Around the time of birth. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. produce the myelin sheath. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. origin and insertion. Neurons. 6. neurons are multipolar. and deltoid region of the arm. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. 2. 2. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. Nerve Impulse: 1. size. If. 4. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. 2. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. 1. pennate. effort. On the basis of structure. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. interpreting them. The antagonist produces an opposite action. and action. and resistance on the lever. 3. and carry out phagocytosis. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. and usually a single axon. or nerve cells. number of origins (or heads). Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. 5. 2. 2. and ependyma. shape. attach neurons to blood vessels. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. 2. 5. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. 3. and reacting to them. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. lateral side of the thigh. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. oligodendrocytes. convergent. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. location. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. and glands. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. 2. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. and minimal irritation. Neurons: 1. 4. including motor neurons. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. and circular. and the membrane is said to be polarized. 6. second-class. cardiac muscle tissue. the membrane is said to have an action potential.

A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. 5. 7. 2. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. 4. anterior. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1.travels from point to point along the membrane. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. posterior. 2. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. and vertebral ligaments. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 4. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. anterior. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. 4. 5. 6. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. 5. central canal. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. 3. 7. 3. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. 6. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. arachnoid and pia mater. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. and lateral white columns. and lateral gray horns. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . posterior. 6. cerebrospinal fluid. 4. 2. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. meninges. cell body. or axon hillock. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. and ascending and descending tracts. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. 5. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. 3. 2. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. 6. Structure in Cross Section: 1. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. According to the all-ornothing principle. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. 3. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. Protection and Coverings: 1. 7.

and rami communicantes. is an example. 2. form networks of nerves called plexuses. and crossed extensor reflex. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. the Achilles reflex. Functions: 1. 2. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. except for T 2-T 11. ventral ramus. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. Disorders . 2. 5. Wallerian degeneration. 3. 9. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. association. A reflex is a quick. 3. the Babinski sign. and sacral plexuses. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. 2. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. meningeal branch. flexor reflex. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. such as the patellar reflex. and regeneration. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. 2. 4. brachial. • Dermatomes: 1.2. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. 5. 5. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. tendon reflex. constant segments of the skin. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. 2. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. respectively. 4. • Composition and Coverings: 1. a center. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . A stretch reflex. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. 2. 5. 1. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. perineunum. and an effector. The skin segments are called dermatomes.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. 8. Its basic components are a receptor. 1. posterior root ganglion. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. and motor neuron. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. The posterior root. a sensory neuron. and the abdominal reflex. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. 4. 4. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. lumbar. • Distribution: 1. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. 6. 3. a motor neuron. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). Following peripheral nerve damage. and epineurium. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. 7.

cells. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. it is called internal hydrocephalus. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. The Brain Stem: 1. 2. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. 1. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 3. or death of brain 5. cerebrum. it is called external hydrocephalus. 6. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. 3. which helps control respiration. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. and central canal. The Diencephalon: 1. sneezing. 1. 2. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. vomiting. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. vasoconstriction. 2. Protection and Coverings: 1. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. mental retardation. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. cranial meninges.1. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. and unconsciousness. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. 2. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. swallowing. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. The pons is superior to the medulla. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. 2. Embryological Development: 1. 1. 3. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. or death. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. 2. 4. convulsions. epilepsy. respiratory rate. 1. 3. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. During embryological development. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. 4. coughing. 3. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. 1. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. permanent damage. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. 4. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. ventricles. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. diencephalon. 2. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. 2. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. 2. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. and hiccuping. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. and cerebellum.

sound. and glycine. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses.7. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. 4. 5. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 2. spoken and written language. 1. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. 6. Its cortex contains convolutions. regulates food and fluid intake. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. 10. 1. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. 7. It controls the autonomic nervous system. and sulci. norepinephrine. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. insight. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. musical and artistic awareness. 8. aspartic acid. 2. They help to control muscular movements. and smell. 3. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. and generating mental images of sight. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. and tumors. and reasoning. 2. touch. temporal. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. 2. and occipital. 2. 3. 7. 9. 4. 3. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 2. parietal. constricted vermis. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. except smell. 2. 2. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. 5. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. space and pattern perception. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. excite. 3. glutamic acid. 3. 1. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. taste. The Cerebellum: 1. Brain Lateralization: 1. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 1. 3. infections. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. dopamine. to the cerebral cortex. endorphins. 2. numerical and scientific skills. The Cerebrum: 1. and dynorphin. 6. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 3. controls body temperature. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. 3. gamma aminobutyric acid. imagination. serotonin. either anatomically or functionally. 3. fissures. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. 3. 2. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. It consists of two hemispheres and a central.

Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. 4. upper eyelid. pharynx. lower teeth. muscles of facial expression. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. the victim experiences degrees of motor. or basal ganglia during fetal development. upper jaw. 3. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. Palate. thrombosis. 9. cholecystokinin. Disorders . Soft palate. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Tongue muscles. 3. 5. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. Motor. 1. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. sensory. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. taste. soft palate. 7. 4. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. . Facial Sensory. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG.Motor function of eye muscles. also called strokes. inferior pharynx. Optic . Vagus Sensory. larynx. 11.Motor. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. 11. or early infancy. Olfactory . The Cranial Nerves: 1. thoracic and abdominal organs. 8. Hypoglossal . 12. 6. 2. etc. muscles of mastication. 5. lower jaw.The sense of vision. Motor function. or psychological malfunction. 2. Motor. larangeal muscles. 7. 4. 4. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. some neck and shoulder muscles. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). upper teeth. cornea. taste. Vestibulococ hlear . Scalp. hearing and balance.The sense of smell. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. 10.Sensory. or atherosclerosis. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. Trigeminal Sensory function.11. pharyngeal muscles.Sensory. 10. tongue muscles. 6. 8. Impulse transmission is interrupted. Depending on the form of the disease. 9. cerebellum. forehead. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. etc. childbirth. 12. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. Accessory Motor. Motor function. nose. Oculomotor . Glossophary ngeal . Examples include angiotensin. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system.

Levels of Sensation: 1. Sensations: 1. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. connective tissues. and liver damage. 3. 3. 4. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. surgery. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. 2. 2. tendons. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. free nerve endings. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. 3. Receptors located in muscles. thermoreceptors. 5. Merkel's discs. 6. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. Meissner's corpuscles. 4. second-order. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. electromagnetic receptors. proprioception. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. conduction of the impulse to the brain. and end organs of Ruffini. and Pacinian corpuscles. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. brain dysfunction. 2. and body position. and chemoreceptors. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. vibration). Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. and acupuncture. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. 3.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. and pain. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. they cause subconscious motor reactions. muscle spindles. and third-order neurons. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. and tendon organs. 2. and sometimes delirium. The neural pathway for light touch. and proprioceptors. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). 5. movement of body parts. 13. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. Classification of Receptors: 1. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. pressure. 7. According to location. 2. personality changes. visceroceptors. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. 3. 4.muscle spasms and encephalitis. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. end organs of Ruffini. 12. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. Characteristics: 1. 2. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. 4. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. General Senses . The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. In terms of simplicity or complexity. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. nociceptors. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors.

Physiology: 1. 2. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). and visceral effector. 4. ganglia. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. 4. concerned with energy expenditure. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. 3. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. Control by Higher Centers: 1. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. anterior corticospinal. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. 2. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). 2. in particular by the cerebral cortex. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. Olfactory Sensations: 1. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. activities of smooth muscle. that is. the hypothalamus. tectospinal. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. It has been used to control heart rate. Motor Pathways: 1. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. and vestibulospinal tracts. 2. 5. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. cardiac muscle. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. It is regulated by centers in the brain. 2. 3. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). It usually operates without conscious control. and glands. 4. On the basis of the transmitter produced. 3. The autonomic nervous system. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. 3. 3. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 4. and plexuses. or visceral efferent nervous system. and the medulla oblongata. it consists of activated and long-term components. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. 2. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. Integrative Functions: 1. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. to alleviate migraine headaches. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. in general. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. reduced metabolic rate. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . afferent neuron. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. 3. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors).6. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. It is entirely motor. regulates visceral activities. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. decrease in heart rate. and corticobulbar tracts. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. and to make childbirth easier. association neuron. 4. 2.

The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. and the threshold of smell is low. 8. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). set up waves in the perilymph. 4. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. and bitter. The four primary tastes are salt. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. and lipid-soluble. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. 3. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. Trachoma is a chronic. which contains rods and cones. olfactory tracts. and vitreous humor. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. and tympanic membrane). Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube.2. 8. 9. sour. pass through the ossicles. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. or vertical motion. constriction of the pupil. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. 4. linear. and the cortex. 6. 4. and iris). oval window. ossicles. 3. 2. eyelashes. 2. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. VII. strike the oval window. water-soluble. strike the tympanic membrane. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. and cerebral cortex. 2. 4. ciliary body. Disorders . convergence. olfactory bulbs. and the lacrimal apparatus.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 7. sweet. and X. IX. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. 2. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. which destroys neurons of the retina. thalamus. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. the optic tract. 5. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. increase pressure in the endolymph. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. and cerebral cortex. 7. eyelids. strike the basilar membrane. hypermetropia (farsightedness). Substances to be smelled must be volatile. medulla. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. 3. 5. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. A sound impulse is then initiated. the thalamus. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. the optic chiasma. 6. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. and round window). accommodation of the lens. and (c) retina. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). external auditory canal. and inverted image formation. 5. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). 3. 3. 10. lens. Visual Sensations: 1. aqueous humor. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. 4. 5. the organ of hearing.

and contribute to reproductive processes. 6. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Histologically. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. Exocrine glands (sweat. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor).Feedback Control: 1. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. 12. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). 2. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. On the basis of solubility. 2. 4. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. 16. 9. and acromegaly. 13. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. Control of Hormonal Secretions . 3. nerve impulses. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). 2. sebaceous. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. 10. 8. 7. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). 11. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 2. 4. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. help regulate growth and development.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. 14. 2. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 5. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. giantism. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. and regulating factors. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. 15. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). respond to stress. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. 3. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells.

2. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. 2. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. 2. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. Histologically. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. 7. growth and development. 9.g. 4. 4. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. zona ennin late. which secrete calcitonin (CT). A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. Secretion is controlled by CRF. and parafollicular cells. 3. exophthalmic goiter. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 3. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells).g. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. and lactation. pregnancy. help resist stress. 2. Secretion is controlled by TRF. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. 5. 4. beta cells. glucocorticoids. and zona reticularis. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Pancreas: 1. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. and gonadocorticoids. 5. Glucocorticoids (e. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. Parathyroids: 1. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. 6. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Glucagon increases blood sugar level. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Histologically. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. 6. beta cells secrete insulin. 3. myxedema. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. They are released under stress. Mineralocorticoids (e. 8. 2. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Histologically. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood.Thyroid: 1. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). 6. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. Cretinism. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin.. Ovaries and Testes: 1. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. 5. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. and the reactivity of the nervous system. and serve as antiinflammatories. and delta cells. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . menstrual cycle. 10. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. 4. Histologically.. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. 3. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. 2. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. Histologically.

Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells.5 percent water and 8. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). Components: 1. 6. 3. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting.4 degrees F). and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. 2. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens.000 to 9. 3. thymic humoral factor (THF). Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. 3. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). 2. Thymus: 1. It protects against toxins and microbes. A healthy male has about 5. Erythrocyte formation. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. 5. neuroglial cells. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. and thrombocytes (platelets). The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. the heart. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. Leucocytes: 1. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days.5 to 5. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. and Iymph glands. globulins. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). It helps to regulate pH.000/mm3. Thrombocytes: 1. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. Erythrocytes: 1. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. leucocytes (white blood cells). 4. 4. 3. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. 4.5. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. 7. fibrinogen). Iymph vessels.35 to 7. nutrients. 4. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. and blood vessels. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. consists of 91.90 NaCI. pH. 2.85 to 0. Blood transports oxygen.000/mm3. eosinophils. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. and enzymes. 2. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. thymic factor (TF). and platelets. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. about 4.5 percent solutes. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated.4 million/mm3 of blood. Lymphocytes. 5. and water content of cells. 3. Plasma: 1. Normal blood contains 250. 3. Functions: 1. Normal blood contains 5. 2.000 to 400. wastes. 6.pinealocytes. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . body temperature. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. hormones. 2. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. and salinity. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. granular leucocytes. carbon dioxide. Red blood cells live about 120 days. called plasma. foods. 38 degrees C (100. The liquid portion of blood. a healthy female.8 million/mm3. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity.45. 2. 0. called erythropoiesis. 2. temperature.

8. heparin) prevent clogging. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. 2. In the Rh system. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. 4. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). platelet plug formation. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. and blood coagulation. 4. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. 11. hemorrhagic. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). The parietal pericardium. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. 2. 9. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. Disorders .. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. respiratory gases. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. 2. 2.Valves: 1. The cause is a virus. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. These fluids are similar in chemical composition.and hormones. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. 2. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. and endocardium. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. encloses the heart. 3. 3. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. In the ABO system. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). 5. and sickle cell anemia. It involves vascular spasm. In vascular spasm. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. Anticoagulatants (e. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 6. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles.g. 4. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. Like plasma. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. Interstitial Fluid: 1. 3. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. 2. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. 7. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). myocardium. The Cardiovascular System . they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. and out through the aorta.The Heart: 1. 2. hemolytic. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. aplastic. pernicious. 3. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. 10. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs.

atrioventricular (AV) bundle. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). 7. 5. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. temperature. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). and right heart (atrial) reflex. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. 7. 5. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves.4. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). atrioventricular (AV) node. detecting the presence of fetal life. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. 6. 2. 7. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). 4. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. 4. and Purkinje fibers. bundle branches. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. 2. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. 3. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart.8 sec. 2. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). 4. Cardiac Output: 1. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. 2. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. Electrocardiogram: 1. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. 3. aortic reflex. 5. 6. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. sodium. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. 2. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. 6. between the atria and their ventricles. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. 3. Conduction System: 1. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. Cardiac Cycle: 1. determining the presence of several fetuses. Blood Supply: 1. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. 3. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. 4. potassium). 3.

and premature contractions). An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. lack of exercise. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. valvular stenosis. 3. 3. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. 2. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. and tunica externa. fibrillation. 3. 4. and arrhythmias (heart block. Veins: 1. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. and genetic disposition. 3. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. Arteries: 1. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. 2. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. 5. cigarette smoking. 2. diabetes mellitus. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. sex (gender and physical activity). 2. 2. 5. flutter.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. Capillaries: 1. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). and age. In severe shock. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. The heart becomes hypoxic. 4. others are fenestrated. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. 4.ener Arterioles: 1. 4. high blood pressure. As blood volume increases. septal defects. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. 2. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Venules: 1. 3. 2. and tetralogy of Fallot). to correct some defects. Disorders . They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. and therefore blood pressure. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. obesity. This network increases the surface area. 3. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. and to apply chemotherapy locally. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. some capillaries are continuous.emotion. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. blood pressure increases.

chemicals. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. 2. Blood Reservoirs: 1. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. stomach. 8.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. emotions. Disorders . The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Circulatory Routes: 1. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. and liver functions are established. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. 9. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. skeletal muscular contractions. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. spleen. temperature. 2. At birth. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. and age. 2. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. 7. sex. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. 3. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. 2. 3. Fetal Circulation: 1. 2. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. 2. 6. 3. chemicals. 2. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. and autoregulation. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. 2. 3. the arch of the aorta. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. Systemic Circulation: 1. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. intestines. They in turn empty into the right atrium. Other routes include the cerebral. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. 3. when lung. and breathing. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. pulmonary.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. and higher brain centers. and the descending aorta. and fetal circulation. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. digestive. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. chemoreceptors.

cilia. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. pollen. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. and Iysozyme). brain. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. 5. 7. called Iymphatics. and flow of urine). and properdin). T cells are processed in the thymus gland. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. microbial structures. Antigens are chemical substances that. 3. They include the pharyngeal. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Lymph Circulation: 1. reactivity. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. 3. 6. Lymphatic Organs: 1. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. chemical factors (gastric juice. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. saliva. palatine. complement. 8. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . lacrimal apparatus. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. 2. Iymphatic vessels. antimicrobial substances (interferon. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. 9. 3. when introduced into the body. and IgE). IgD. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. and kidneys. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. 3. Iymph nodes. 3. 3. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. unsaturated fatty acids. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. 4. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. 4. phagocytosis. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. 2. IgA. to Iymph trunks. mucous membranes. Examples of antigens are microbes. to Iymph capillaries. 5. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. inflammation. 2. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. It also acts as a reservoir for blood.1. to the subclavian veins. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. to Iymphatics. 2. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. each with specific biological roles (IgG. 2. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. mucus. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. and fever. and multivalence. Based on chemistry and structure. 4. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. 2. and Iymph organs. IgM. acid pH of skin. and transplants. incompatible blood cells. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. epiglottis. and lingual tonsils. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. 2.

8. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. and multiple sclerosis (MS). 3. preparing vaccines. 7. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. crying. 2. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. they are important in diagnosis. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. 14. treatment. During forced inspiration.liver and spleen. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. 13. 4. invading antigen. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. rheumatic fever. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. 3. sobbing. 5. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. detection of disease. myasthenia gravis. 2. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. 10. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. memory B cells recognize the original. yawning. eczema. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. sneezing. 12. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. sighing. and hives. 11. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 6. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. 2. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. Coughing. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 2. 4. asthma. laughing. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles.

include inspiratory. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. and minimal volumes. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. 4. division. 3. Pulmonary lung capacities. 2. 4. the inflation reflex. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. vital. residual volume. 2. 2. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. and a rich blood supply. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. and excess mucus production. both in the brain and outside. assuming that the pressure remains constant. pneumotaxic area.are tidal volume. 3. and irritation to the respiratory centers. blood pressure. Breathing. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. expiratory reserve. inspiratory reserve. and Circulation. It is symbolized by p. and function of the epithelial cells. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. the sum of two or more volumes. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. and DPG. and total. 3. B. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and enlarged chest. compresses the lungs. 2. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. pain.Internal Respiration: 1. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). inflated alveoli. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. 6. when the temperature remains constant. 2. 5. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. 3. The A. and apneustic area. External Respiration . temperature. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. inflated lungs. functional residual. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. 4. 2. 3. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. C's of CPR are Airway. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. temperature. a large alveolar surface area. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. According to Dalton's law. 3. Disorders . It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. pCO2. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. In bronchogenic carcinoma.

The tongue. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. lips. 3. liver. Some papillae contain taste buds. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. together with its associated muscles. The teeth. lipid. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. It consists of a voluntary stage. muscularis. 2. Organization: 1. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Digestive Processes: 1. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. Salivary Glands: 1. the hardest substance in the body.7. mesocolon. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. and serosa (peritoneum). forms the floor of the oral cavity. Teeth: 1. and pancreas. and greater omentum. gallbladder. 3. submucosa. and tongue. 2. 9. and accessory structures. 2. lesser omentum. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. root. mechanical and chemical digestion. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. 4. and cervix. peristalsis. falciform ligament. palates. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. 2. The accessory structures include the teeth. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. 2. or dentes. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . which aid mechanical digestion. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. 3. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. Deglutition: 1. tongue. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. 4. 5. 2. 3. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. submandibular (submaxillary). 8. salivary glands. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. 4. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. 3. 2. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). and defecation. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. 2. and sublingual glands. or alimentary canal. absorption. 2. 4. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. Salivation is entirely under nervous control.

Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage.Histology: 1. Stomach: Anatomy . 3. 2. The small intestine also absorbs water. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. 2. and transported as chylomicrons. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. electrolytes. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). 2. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. Absorption: 1. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. villi. 2. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Among the substances absorbed are some water. glands that produce mucus. 3. Esophagus: 1. and intestinal. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). 2. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). a protein-digesting enzyme. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. 3. resynthesized to triglycerides. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Digestion in the Stomach: 1. 2. Small Intestine: Anatomy . and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). 2. Gallbladder: 1. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. 3. and alcohol. 2. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. hydrochloric acid. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). 4. Pancreas: 1. Absorption: 1. gastric. Liver: 1. 2.Histology: 1. certain electrolytes and drugs. intrinsic factor. 3. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). and the microvilli. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. and stomach gastrin. Hormones also assume a role. 2. 2. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. and vitamins. The esophagus is a collapsible.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms.

5. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. and non-A. a foreign body. 3. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. lipids. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1.1. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. action. and mass peristalsis. 9. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. bacteria. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. 3. 7. 2. 4. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. 10. Feces consists of water. minerals. 8. 2. 5. stenosis. Defecation: 1. 11. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. carcinoma of the cecum. and undigested foods. 3. 2. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. epithelial cells. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. Anabolic reactions use energy. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. 2. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. vitamins. During digestion. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. colonoscopy. alveolar bone. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. Its subdivisions include the cecum. and cementum. colon. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. rectum. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. The large intestine absorbs water. or kinking of the organ. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. 2. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. periodontal membrane. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. 6. peristalsis. inorganic salts. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. electrolytes. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. and barium x-ray. Disorders . The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. 4. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. rather than enzymatic. Types include hepatitis A. 2. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. act as building blocks in forming new body components. and vitamins. hepatitis B. Metabolism: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. and anal canal. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. 2. proteins. 12. .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and water.

Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. coenzyme Q. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. When oxygen is in short supply. 4. 4. 3. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. 1 molecule of FADH2. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. 3. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. Fate of Lipids: 1. and growth hormone (GH). digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. thromboplastin for blood clotting. 2. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. Electron Transport Chain: 1. 6. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Glucose Anabolism: 1. 3. 3. 2. 2. As a result of glycolysis. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. thyroxine. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate.2. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). During digestion. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. recombined to form triglycerides. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. glucagon. Glycolysis: 1. and I molecule of GTP. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. It is stimulated by cortisol. 3. 4 molecules of NADH2. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. 2. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 2. the Krebs cycle. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. 3. 5. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. 3. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. and the electron transport chain. 2. In beta oxidation. and cytochromes. Fat Storage: 1. Lipid Catabolism: 1. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. under aerobic conditions. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. 3. epinephrine. Glucose Catabolism: 1. Lipid Metabolism: 1. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. 2. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2.

The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. may cause acidosis. selenium. During the absorptive state. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. and insulin. potassium. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. Minerals: 1. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. these conversions involve deamination. E. Protein Metabolism: 1. zinc. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. 3.4. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. and hydrogenation. During the absorptive state. 2. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. but an excess of ketone bodies. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. sulfur. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. 3. thyroxine. 3. Vitamins: 1. magnesium. Amino acids. and body temperature. 4. Fate of Proteins: 1. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. 2. phosphorus.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. decarboxylation. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Lipid Anabolism . The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. conversion of glycerol into glucose. enter body cells by active transport. 2. fatty acids. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. iodine. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. Production of Body Heat: 1. 2. hormones. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. hormones. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. Protein Catabolism: 1. copper. based on the needs of the body. Inside cells. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. manganese. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. fats. iron. 2. 2. snd ketane hadies. and so forth. During digestion. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. and K. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. and chromium. called ketosis. and proteins.Lipogenesis: 1. The process is stimulated by insulin. structural elements. 2. Before amino acids can be catabolized. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. Protein Anabolism: 1. the nervous system. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. Many function in enzyme systems. sodium. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. chlorine. stored. 3. 2. 2. D. cobalt. 2. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. or converted.

4. failure to grow. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. and dizziness. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. ascending limb of Henle. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. pyramids. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). 2. calyces. Loss of Body Heat: 1. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. stages include chill and crisis. sympathetic stimulation. 4. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. descending limb of Henle. deereased metabolic rate. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . ureters. and urethra. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. 3. and thyroxine production. and a pelvis. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. columns. 4. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. Physiology: 1. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. and sometimes mental retardation. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. 3. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. and high body temperature. 2. 5. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. 7. cramps. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. and K and calcium is inadequate. Internally. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . nausea. profuse perspiration. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. 5. 3. loop of Henle. 4. distal convoluted tubule. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. and renal fascia. 6. 5. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. papillae. adipose capsule. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. 2. lethargy.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. 2. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. glomerulus. and perspiration. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. urinary bladder. 3. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. 2. 4.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. skeletal muscle contraction. reduced perspiration. proximal convoluted tubule. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. the kidneys consist of a cortex. medulla. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. 3. 2. D. 4. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation.

diuretics. ketone bodies. 2. urobilinogen. temperature.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 4. 5. 3. 6. 9. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). pleural. indican. Body Fluids: 1. and specific gravity. odor. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. Urinary Bladder: 1. Ureters: 1. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. Urethra: 1. 3. plasma and Iymph. and the glomerular filtrate. and emotions. 2. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. hippuric acid. Besides the kidneys. Histologically. pH. pericardial. and certain drugs. and fibrous coat. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. 4. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. Homeostasis: 1. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. casts. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. and ions. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. 5. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. erythrocytes. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. 5. The solutes include urea. 8. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). Normally. ketone bodies. leucocytes. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. Gl tract fluids. renal calculi. and peritoneal fluids. and microbes. cerebrospinal fluid. and a serous coat. synovial fluid. amino acids. It includes interstitial fluid. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. 2. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. 3. integument. 11. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). and fluids of the eyes and ears. Disorders . bilirubin. uric acid. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. 10. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. including water. In exchange. turbidity. the lungs. 8. glucose. glucose. Included are ions. Chemically. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. creatinine. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. 3. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). 4. nitrogenous wastes. 7. muscularis. primarily by peristalsis.6. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. and ions. 2. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. salts. 2. the rest by facultative reabsorption. 7. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. blood concentration. 2. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable.

Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. and fluid and electrolyte balance. 9. and kidney excretion. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Under normal conditions. skin. 5. It also functions in blood clotting. 10. 7. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7.45 and 8. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Plasma. 5. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. and regulating pH. 11. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. and protein. An increase in rate of respirations. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions).35 to 7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .00. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). At the venous end. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 3. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. 6. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. chemical transmitter release. 4. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. muscle contraction. 4. 2. and heartbeat. 3. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. 4. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. 3. 4. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. fluid moves in the opposite direction. 3. respirations. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. interstitial fluid. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. Electrolytes: 1. 3. 4. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission.80. nerve impulse conduction. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. lungs. muscle contraction. 2. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. increases pH.35 and 6. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. 2. especially extracellular fluid. and regulation of pH. phosphate. 8.1. Acid-Base Balance: 1. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. 2.45. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). muscle contraction. 2. decreases pH. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. and GI tract. a decrease in rate. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). proper fluid movement between compartments. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. At the arterial end of a capillary.

development. 2. stimulates bone growth. ductus epididymis. 11. in which sperm cells are made. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. seminal vesicles. and efferent ducts. which nourish sperm cells. 12. Reproductive System: 1. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. Ducts: 1. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. and penis. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. urethra. 3. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. 6. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. 4. membranous. Scrotum: 1. and interstitial endocrinocytes. 4. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. sustentacular cells. rete testis. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. and maintenance of sex organs. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. 3. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. midpiece. 10. Testes: 1. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. 2. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. and 7. Male Reproductive System: 1. 2. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. Testosterone controls the growth. sperm maturation. 5. ductus deferens. 7. protein anabolism. and spongy (cavernous). 5. 8. and tail. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. ducts (transport and store gametes). The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. ejaculatory duct. 3. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. Accessory Glands: 9. straight tubules. 3. II. 6. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). prostate gland. 7. straight tubules.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. and rete testis. bulbourethral glands. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. 2. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules.

Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. 6. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. During the menstrual phase. endometrial repair occurs. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. 2. 11. 3. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. 4. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. Penis: 1. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). 5. During the postovulatory phase. and epithelial cells. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. mucus. 4. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. on either side of the uterus. During the preovulatory phase. middle myometrium. 7. The uterus is an inverted. 8. 4. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and maintenance of female reproductive structures. 3.nutrients. 2. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. Estrogens stimulate the growth. . and vulva. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. 5. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. They produce ova. Ovaries: 1. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. discharge ova (ovulation). development. Uterus: 1. 2. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. 10. and inner endometrium. 6. vagina. and stimulate protein anabolism. tissue fluid. 9. 2. The penis is the male organ of copulation. III. development of a fetus during pregnancy. implantation of a fertilized ovum. and labor. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. uterine tubes. Histologically. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. 2. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. uterus. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. ovulation. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. 2. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. 3. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles.

2. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. 2. The female role also involves erection. 5. It is said to be haploid (n). clitoris. and sperm maturation. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. and orgasm (climax). Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 7. Mammary Glands: 1. pectoral muscles. 11. 2. Oogenesis: 1. 3. trichomoniasis. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. and ova maturation. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. 2. 13. 10. 9. 7. labia majora. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. 12. dysmenorrhea. 2. labia minora. If fertilization and implantation do occur. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. syphilis. 2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. and the lower portion of the birth canal. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. and orgasm. 12. 3. 2. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. 2. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. equatorial division. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). and tumors. lubrication. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. genital herpes. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. Vulva: 1. The removal of a malignant breast. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. equatorial division. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). lubrication. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. It consists of the mons veneris. 3. Disorders . Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. abnormal bleeding. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. 4. 9. Vagina: 1. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. 2. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. 6. vestibule. vaginal and urethral orifices. 8. Sexual Intercourse: 1. Spermatogenisis: 1. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. 10. enlarged prostate. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. 8. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). the cessation of the sexual cycles. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Perineum: 1. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation.

. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. 5. 4. and birth. 3.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Fertilization and Implantation: 1. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. implantation. 1. embryonic growth. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. 2. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. fetal growth. 2. Its various events are hormonally controlled.

During the fetal period. 2. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). sterilization (vasectomy. chemicals and drugs. 2. 2. sickle cell anemia. such as hemophilia. laparascopic technique). Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. and contraception (natural. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. microbes. and protection. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. 2. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). protein anabolism. 3. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. and Down's syndrome. and chemical).The morula develops into a blastocyst. 3. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. amnion. 5. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. and progesterone. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. 5. 3. Dominant genes control a particular trait. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. 4. 6. estrogens. and progesterone. 7. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. estrogens. and smoking. alcohol. removal of wastes. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. tubal ligation. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. 2. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. . and delivery of the placenta. Inheritance: 1. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. expulsion of the fetus. 1. 2. 3. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. chorion. mesoderm. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. 3. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. 2. Tay-Sachs disease. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. and allantois. 4. Birth Control: 6. Examples are infections. mechanical. During embryonic growth. Lactation: 1. Parturition and Labor: 1. 8. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation.

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