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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
The Cytoskeleton: 1. It is located near the nucleus. carbohydrates. 3. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. and helps export chemicals from the cell. Microfilaments and Microtubules . support. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. 3. Peroxisomes: 1.. 3. Thus they are called "suicide packets. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. 2. 2. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. In conjunction with the ER. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. and movement. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. Ribosomes: 1. transports substances intracellularly. 1. 2. 4. They support. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. provide movement. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. and the mitotic spindle. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. Cytoplasm: 1.13. Usually the largest organelle. and genetic material (DNA). Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. which carry on phagocytosis. comprising the chromosomes. The ER provides mechanical support. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. stores synthesized molecules. They contain enzymes (e. Cells without nuclei. and control. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. such as mature red blood cells. and form the structure of flagella. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. maintenance. 2. repair. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . If the cell is injured. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. 2. The inner folds are called cristae. 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. nucleoli. 3. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. and inorganic substances. They are formed from Golgi complexes. Organelles: 1.g. Functionally." 4. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. do not grow or reproduce. Mitochondria: 1. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. 3. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. Nucleus: 1. membranous sacs called cisternae. lipids. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. 2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. but smaller. 2. They are involved in muscular contraction. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. 2. 3. 3. cilia. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. centrioles. 3. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. karyolymph. Functionally. 2. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis.
Extracellular Materials: 1. 2. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. Gene Action . Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. 4. 5. If projections are few and long. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. 2. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. 2. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. It consists of prophase. anaphase. Cellular Inclusions: 1. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. 6. Some. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. Cell Division: 1. they are called cilia. Somatic Cell Division: 1. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. "SOS" Genes .2. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. If they are numerous and hairlike. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. 6. 4. metaphase. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. 2. are fibrous. DNA Polymerase is an example. 3. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. 3. In transcription. Others. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. or chromosomes. 8. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. mRNA associates with ribosomes. an "SOS response" occurs. 3. 5. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). Flagella and Cilia: 1. 3. 2. the DNA molecules. Examples are melanin.Protein Synthesis: 1. glycogen. 2. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. are amorphous. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. and telophase. 7. 3. and mucus. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). They assume an important role in cell reproduction. In response to DNA damage. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. reticular. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. like collagenous. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . they are called flagella.DNA Repair: 1. 3. lipids. which consist of rRNA and protein. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. and elastic fibers. This involves transcription and translation. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA.
3. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. 4. 2. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. and apocrine glands. Functional classification includes holocrine.1. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. It does not occur on free surfaces. and binds organs together. cuboidal (cubelike). Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. Exocrine glands (sweat. tubuloacinar. 8. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . In a few portions of the respiratory tract. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. oil. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. simple. It can replace itself. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. 2. and a rich blood supply (vascular). 3. Depending on their function and structure. and compound. 5. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. 2. except for cartilage. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. 9. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. and epiglottis. 2. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. and nervous. acinar. merocrine. and no blood vessels (avascular). Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. and transitional (variable). Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. 2. Connective Tissue: 1. columnar (rectangular). Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. Epithelium has many cells. cell shapes include squamous (flat). stratified (several layers). the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. and most upper respiratory structures. 7. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). supports. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. It has few cells. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. and lining some glandular ducts. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. little intracellular material. but none successfully answers all questions. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. 6. Glandular Epithelium: 1. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. the study of tumors is called oncology. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). 3. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. 3. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. connective. It is found covering ovaries. pharynx. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. Many theories of aging have been proposed. auditory tubes. Connective tissue protects. It lines larger excretory ducts. in kidneys and eyes. Epithelial Tissue: 1. muscular. 4. 2. 5. 2. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. an extensive intercellular substance. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. where it protects and secretes. parts of urethra. portion of urethra. 3. noncancerous tumors are called benign.
around body organs. and true vocal cords. 6. auditory tubes. and in respiratory structures. elastic arteries. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. in the nose. Dense. and swelling. Membranes: 1. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). Adult Connective Tissue: 1. It provides strength. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. and in the subcutaneous layer. Visceral (smooth). It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. 2. It is found as a component of fascia. spleen. 2. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. 7. serous. 2. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). It is flexible. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. are specialized for fat storage.4. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. macrophages. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. and external ear. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. such as the digestive tract. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. and aponeuroses. and cutaneous. elastic. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. o Serous membranes (pleura. and melanocytes). Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. Muscle tissue performs one major function .An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. and Iymph nodes. pain. bronchial tubes. and provides support. Adipose. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. cartilage. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. allows movement. and Reticular. mast. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. called adipocytes.contraction. and vascular tissue. bone tissue. and Cardiac. 2. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. membranes of organs. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. heat. 5. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. sometimes loss of function occurs. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . plasma. at the ends of bones. Examples are: mucous. pericardium. trachea. Elastic. tendons. 3. ligaments. Tissue Inflammation . Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. where it gives support. 4.
2. The Integumentary System . • Hair: 1. and ducts of sweat glands. 5. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. brown melanin. and several organic compounds. C. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. hair follicles. 2. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. 4. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. the process slows down with aging. arrectores pilorum muscles. receiving stimuli. • Glands: 1. are the stratum basale. 6. and corneum. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. and excretion of water. The color of skin is due to melanin. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. sudoriferous. scab formation. black melanin. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. If the injury is superficial. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. an abscess develops. storage of chemical compounds. 3. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. lucidum. Conditions for Repair: 1. and ceruminous). These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. hair follicles. 3. if it cannot drain out of the body. and parenchymal regeneration. 3. and a hair follicle. glands. 2. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. nerves. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. Various vitamins (A. granulation tissue is involved. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. some B. D. nerves. granulosum. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. pus is produced. The skin and its derivatives (hair. from deepest to most superficial. kinins. synthesis of vitamin D. spinosum. The reticular region is dense. serotonin. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. and root hair plexuses. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. Tissue Repair: 1. skin glands (sebaceous. 5. and Meissner's corpuscles. salts. 2. 7. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. 2. 4. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. 5. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. dermal papillae. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. E. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. 8. It performs the functions of protection. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. In most inflammations.2. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . oil glands. Repair Process: 1. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. The epidermal layers. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. 3. and nails. If damage is extensive.The Skin: Skin 1. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. carotene. maintaining body temperature. and pheomelanin (yellow). 4.
9. 11. regulating metabolic rate. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. 2. 4. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. protection. eponychium. and covering wounds with temporary protection. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. 8. mineral storage. systemic diseases. and skin grafting. their ducts open into hair follicles. and matrix. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . hyponychium. raised plaques or papules. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. leverage. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. second-degree (partialthickness). 4. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. The functions of the skeletal system include support. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. Nails are hard. lunula. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. and boils. 2. The principal parts of a nail are the body. free edge. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. Most warts are benign. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. 3. Nails: 1. and third-degree (fullthickness). 3. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. 2. 7. Histology: 1. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. pubis. As the perspiration evaporates. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. Disorders . The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. and blood cell production. and areolae. removing dead tissue. Homeostasis: 1. 2. 6. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. the skin is cooled. or psychogenic factors. Depending on the depth of damage. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads.6F). One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. If environmental temperature is high. 2. pimples. root. 3. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. They are found in the external auditory meatus.• palms and soles. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. 10. 5. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. replacing lost body fluids. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes.
Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. and endosteum. and vitamins (A. 2. 4. and calcified matrix. 3. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). 2. Disorders . Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . compound. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. 7. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. A fracture is any break in a bone. and the epiphyses of long bones. C. Cartilage degenerates. metaphysis. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. 3. and resists stress. proliferating cartilage. In both types of ossification. complete. epiphyses (ends). spongy bone is laid down first. transverse.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. 5. 4. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. 5. displaced. flat. greenstick. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. Normal growth depends on calcium. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. 6. 3. Functionally. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. and periosteum. except for the epiphyseal plate. simple. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. periosteum. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Colles'. 8. spiral. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. and nondisplaced. 9. articular cartilage. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. marrow. forming a callus. and irregular bones. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. This process is called remodeling. Next. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. Homeostasis: 1. intramembranous and endochondral. hypertrophic cartilage. 8. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. Osteoblasts lay down bone. 2. Pott's. 4. 7. medullary or marrow cavity. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. where bone replaces cartilage. The two types of ossification. 2. and remodeling. compact bone protects. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. 6. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. Functionally. supports. comminuted. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. The types of fractures include: partial. impacted. phosphorus. It forms most of the structure of short. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. 3.
ethmoid. fused). and maxilla. Skull: 1. Examples are coronal. palatine (2). 3. The vertebral column. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). and squamosal sutures. sphenoid. 2. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. flat. 2. The patella is an example. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. hyoid bone. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. 5. It is composed of 22 bones. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. parietal (2). 1. short. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. and vomer. 2. the sacrum (5. tuberosity. Condyle. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. fossa. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). muscle attachment. occipital. lacrimal (2). 3. sagittal. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. On the basis of shape.1. Vertebral Column: 1. foramen. auditory ossicles. The major fontanels are the anterior. sphenoid. and balance. and ethmoid. lambdoidal. fused) and the coccyx (4. They are lined by mucous membranes. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. and posterolaterals. and ribs. thoracic vertebrae (12). Terms that describe markings include fissure. 7. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. sternum. vertebral column. anterolaterals. 3. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. maxillae (2). 2. crest. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. head. support. inferior nasal conchae (2). meatus. bones are classified as long. posterior. Surface Markings: 1. These curves give strength. lumbar vertebrae (5). Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. 2. mandible. or irregular. 4. Hyoid Bone: 1. zygomatic (2). 2. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). temporal (2). and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. 3. the sternum. process. facet. and spine. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 6.
The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. and L 2. the ribs and costal cartilages. o Lower Extremities: 1. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. Talus. pubis. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). The tarsals are: Calcaneus. 3. the pelvic girdle. ulna. tarsals. metatarsals. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. 2. vertebral arch. and lordosis. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. 2. shape. is referred to as spina bifida. 3. 3. tibia. Schaphoid (Navicular). o Pelvic Girdle: 1. radius. 2. Cuboid. and phalanges. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. II. Triangular (Triquetrum). and the bones of the lower extremities. Examples include scoliosis. the bones of the upper extremities. 2. o Upper Extremities: 1. Capitate. fibula. Hamate (Unciform). Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. 2. 3. 2. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. and Medial Cuneiform. metacarpals. 4. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. Navicular. Thorax: 1. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and phalanges. and detail. a congenital defect. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. and the thoracic vertebrae. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. carpals. Pisiform. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). and ischium. each consisting of a body. kyphosis. 4. and seven processes.The vertebra are similar in structure. L l. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones.
rotation. and elevation and depression. protraction and retraction. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). tension of ligaments. 2. 6. and bursae. biaxial. 5. and loss of function. 3. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). 3. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. 1. hinge joints (elbow). A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). 2. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). Articulations: 1. angular movements. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. articular discs. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. ligaments. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). and a synovial membrane. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. All synovial joints are freely movable. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). or synovial. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla).arches. are fibrous joints. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. Fibrous Joints: 1. tendons. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. 2. 2. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). joints. 2. 3. A dislocation. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. articular cartilage. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. some also contain ligaments. 2. to provide support and leverage. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). joints are classified as fibrous. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. Structurally. supination and pronation. circumduction. 4. 3. Bones held together by cartilage. or luxation. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. 8. 6. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. 4. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. pivot joints (radioulnar). inversion and eversion.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. 2. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. 5. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). and muscle tension. with no joint cavity. or triaxial. with no joint cavity. 7. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). are cartilaginous joints. 2. Synovial Joints: 1. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. Disorders . The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. cartilaginous. and muscles. swelling. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones.
The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. 2. perimysium. 3. and troponin. 8. It is striated and involuntary. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. nuclei. 4. The Motor Unit: 1. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. Energy for Contraction: 1. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. covering individual fibers. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. 3.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. 3. contract. 6. 4. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. triggering the contractile process. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. 2. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Functions: 1. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. maintenance of posture. deep. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. 2. and T tubules. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. 4. junction. Physiology of Contraction: 1. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. It is striated and voluntary. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. 2. covering the entire muscle. covering fasciculi.without dislocation. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. or myoneural. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. Contraction . Connective tissue components are epimysium. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. and heat production. and subserous. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. 3. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. There are three types of fascia: superficial. Types: 1. tropomyosin. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. 3. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. 7. and endomysium. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. the neuron releases acetylcholine. 3. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. 5. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. 2. Through contraction.
and isometric. Disorders . Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. isotonic. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. 2. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. This muscle is found only in the heart. 2. or threshold. Muscle Tone: 1. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. each of which contracts as a functional unit. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. 4. more mitochondria. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. muscles. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. The fibers are arranged in a network. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. and larger T tubules. stimulus.2. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. and related structures in the thigh. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. tenderness. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. 5. and a large amount of myoglobin. fibrillations. Abnormal contractions include spasms. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. it is called lumbago. 3. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. 4. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. 3. 3. stimulus. 2. and stiffness of joints. 3. or subthreshold. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. and tics. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. 3. Kinds of Contractions: 1. 2. 3. Homeostasis: 1. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. 3. Unit it is paid back. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. 2. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. 2. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. tetanus. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. 2. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 6. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. 5. It is striated and involuntary. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. cramps. treppe. 2. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. convulsions. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. more blood capillaries. If it occurs in the lumbar region. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis.
5. 2. and deltoid region of the arm. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. On the basis of function. number of origins (or heads). The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. 6. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. and ependyma. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. size. The antagonist produces an opposite action. and reacting to them. and glands. cardiac muscle tissue. 1. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. 3. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. 2. the membrane is said to have an action potential. neurons are multipolar. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. interpreting them. 2. Fascicular arrangements include parallel.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. If. and carry out phagocytosis. lateral side of the thigh. Around the time of birth. 5. 2. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. 3. and unipolar. 2. pennate. and circular. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. attach neurons to blood vessels. or nerve cells. convergent. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. Nerve Impulse: 1. bipolar. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. 4. 2. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. 2. 3. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. 3. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. and the membrane is said to be polarized. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. oligodendrocytes. second-class. and minimal irritation. origin and insertion. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. 4. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. location. effort. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. Intramuscular Injections: 1. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. Neurons. and resistance on the lever. and action. shape. Neurons: 1. and usually a single axon. microglia. including motor neurons. On the basis of structure. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. produce the myelin sheath. 6. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.
if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse.travels from point to point along the membrane. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. 5. or axon hillock. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. 3. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and lateral white columns. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 4. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. 7. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. 3. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. Protection and Coverings: 1. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. 2. 3. cell body. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. 4. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. 6. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. posterior. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. 6. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. 6. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. and ascending and descending tracts. 5. meninges. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. posterior. cerebrospinal fluid. 4. anterior. 7. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. anterior. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. and vertebral ligaments. central canal. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. 5. According to the all-ornothing principle. 5. Structure in Cross Section: 1. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. 6. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. 2. 4. 7. 3. 2. and lateral gray horns. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. 2. arachnoid and pia mater. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions.
2. 5. 4. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. 8. A reflex is a quick. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. Following peripheral nerve damage. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. constant segments of the skin. and motor neuron. tendon reflex. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. a sensory neuron. such as the patellar reflex. 2. Its basic components are a receptor. • Composition and Coverings: 1. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. and epineurium. flexor reflex. 1. 9. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. 4. ventral ramus. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. 2. lumbar. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. Disorders . and rami communicantes. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). posterior root ganglion.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. The skin segments are called dermatomes. 3. 4. 1. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. the Achilles reflex. Wallerian degeneration. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. 5. a motor neuron. form networks of nerves called plexuses. meningeal branch. • Distribution: 1. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. 5. and regeneration. a center. 3. 5. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. 3. A stretch reflex. is an example. • Dermatomes: 1. 6. 4. 7. The posterior root. brachial. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. respectively. and sacral plexuses. and an effector. association. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc.2. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. and the abdominal reflex. Functions: 1. except for T 2-T 11. perineunum. the Babinski sign. 2. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. 2. and crossed extensor reflex. 2. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. 2. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge.
The Diencephalon: 1. or death. 4. The Brain Stem: 1. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 3. cerebrum. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. and hiccuping. and cerebellum. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord.1. sneezing. Protection and Coverings: 1. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. swallowing. cells. 2. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. vasoconstriction. it is called external hydrocephalus. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. 3. and unconsciousness. diencephalon. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. 2. 2. coughing. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. Embryological Development: 1. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. 1. mental retardation. 2. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. convulsions. it is called internal hydrocephalus. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. 1. and central canal. 1. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. cranial meninges. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. 2. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. or death of brain 5. 4. 2. 3. 3. 2. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. 2. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. 1. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. respiratory rate. vomiting. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. epilepsy. permanent damage. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. 2. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. which helps control respiration. ventricles. 6. 1. 4. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. During embryological development. 2. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. The pons is superior to the medulla. 3.
regulates food and fluid intake. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. 3. fissures. controls body temperature. 1. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. either anatomically or functionally. and tumors. spoken and written language. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. and reasoning. 2. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. space and pattern perception. 3. infections. 4. and dynorphin. serotonin. 10. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. to the cerebral cortex. 3. gamma aminobutyric acid. and smell. 2. The Cerebellum: 1. taste. glutamic acid. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. The Cerebrum: 1. It controls the autonomic nervous system. 5. Its cortex contains convolutions. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. 3. 2. and glycine. except smell. 2. Brain Lateralization: 1. 2. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1.7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It consists of two hemispheres and a central. norepinephrine. and occipital. 3. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. aspartic acid. excite. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. 3. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. They help to control muscular movements. 1. dopamine. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. and sulci. 3. endorphins. 8. 7. 7. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 6. sound. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. 9. 1. parietal. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. 2. and generating mental images of sight. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. imagination. 3. 2. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. constricted vermis. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. temporal. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. musical and artistic awareness. 2. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. 1. insight. 4. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 2. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. touch. 3. 5. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. 6. 3. numerical and scientific skills. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. 2. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG.
or basal ganglia during fetal development. 4. 3. muscles of facial expression. Accessory Motor. 12. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. 11. hearing and balance. lower teeth.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. upper jaw. Tongue muscles. Soft palate. 8. 7. Olfactory . cholecystokinin. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG.The sense of vision. lower jaw. 11. or atherosclerosis. Vagus Sensory. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. Trigeminal Sensory function. thrombosis. pharynx. also called strokes.Motor function of eye muscles. 4. taste. inferior pharynx. 4. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). larangeal muscles. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. Motor function. Facial Sensory. Examples include angiotensin. the victim experiences degrees of motor. upper teeth. 10. etc. 10. 7.11. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 6. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. Depending on the form of the disease. etc. Scalp. 8. 12.Sensory. 5. Motor. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. Vestibulococ hlear . The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. 6. upper eyelid. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. nose. Optic . Oculomotor .Sensory. thoracic and abdominal organs.The sense of smell. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. 1. childbirth. forehead. 4. Motor. The Cranial Nerves: 1. cornea. Impulse transmission is interrupted. Disorders . Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Palate. taste. some neck and shoulder muscles. pharyngeal muscles. sensory. 9. 3. muscles of mastication. larynx. cerebellum. . 2. tongue muscles. Hypoglossal . 2. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. Glossophary ngeal . 5. 9.Motor. or early infancy. or psychological malfunction. Motor function. soft palate.
they cause subconscious motor reactions. and liver damage. 13. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. and third-order neurons. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another.muscle spasms and encephalitis. and end organs of Ruffini. 4. nociceptors. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. 3. 4. end organs of Ruffini. Sensations: 1. brain dysfunction. and chemoreceptors. second-order. connective tissues. pressure. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. 5. 2. Receptors located in muscles. 2. movement of body parts. The neural pathway for light touch. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. thermoreceptors. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. 4. and Pacinian corpuscles. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. 2. 3. electromagnetic receptors. 3. and acupuncture. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. and tendon organs. vibration). we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. visceroceptors. 4. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). General Senses . The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. 3. free nerve endings. and pain. and sometimes delirium. Characteristics: 1. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. 3. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. According to location. 2. Classification of Receptors: 1. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. muscle spindles. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. 7. and proprioceptors. Levels of Sensation: 1. 2. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. Merkel's discs. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. proprioception. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. In terms of simplicity or complexity. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. conduction of the impulse to the brain. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. 2. 2. personality changes. 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. surgery. tendons. Meissner's corpuscles. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. 6. and body position.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. 12.
The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. 3. afferent neuron. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. Motor Pathways: 1. 3. decrease in heart rate. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. that is. 3. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. Physiology: 1. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). 2. regulates visceral activities. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. or visceral efferent nervous system. 2. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). in general. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. 4. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. On the basis of the transmitter produced. 3. in particular by the cerebral cortex. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). 4. anterior corticospinal. 2. Olfactory Sensations: 1. 2. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. cardiac muscle. 4. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. Control by Higher Centers: 1. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. 5. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves.6. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. and corticobulbar tracts. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. It has been used to control heart rate. It usually operates without conscious control. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. and to make childbirth easier. and vestibulospinal tracts. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. 4. ganglia. to alleviate migraine headaches. concerned with energy expenditure. and the medulla oblongata. 2. reduced metabolic rate. association neuron. and glands. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. The autonomic nervous system. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the hypothalamus. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. 4. It is entirely motor. 3. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. activities of smooth muscle. tectospinal. 3. 2. Integrative Functions: 1. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. 2. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. and visceral effector. It is regulated by centers in the brain. it consists of activated and long-term components. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. and plexuses.
2. which contains rods and cones. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. 7. 5. and the cortex. and bitter. and iris). 3. 4. sour. and cerebral cortex. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. Trachoma is a chronic. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. and lipid-soluble. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. or vertical motion. strike the basilar membrane. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. 5. Visual Sensations: 1. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. eyelids. IX. the organ of hearing. hypermetropia (farsightedness). olfactory tracts. and inverted image formation. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. convergence. 4. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. pass through the ossicles. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. 4. 3. oval window. and cerebral cortex. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. 2. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. 9. 3. and the threshold of smell is low. increase pressure in the endolymph. and tympanic membrane). Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. eyelashes. VII. and X. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. the optic chiasma. strike the oval window. 2. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 8. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. strike the tympanic membrane. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. 4. 4. The four primary tastes are salt. which destroys neurons of the retina. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. 7. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. 10. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. constriction of the pupil. 3. ciliary body. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. 6. set up waves in the perilymph. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani.2. A sound impulse is then initiated. and (c) retina. lens. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. the thalamus. 2. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. linear. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. olfactory bulbs. and round window). The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). accommodation of the lens. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. 3. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. sweet. the optic tract. medulla. aqueous humor. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. 5. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. water-soluble. ossicles. Disorders . external auditory canal. 8. 6. and vitreous humor. and the lacrimal apparatus.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. thalamus. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. 5.
MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). help regulate growth and development. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. giantism. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). Exocrine glands (sweat. 2. 4. 16. 7. Control of Hormonal Secretions . GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). 5. 10. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. 3. 13. 14. 2. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. and acromegaly. 11. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. and contribute to reproductive processes. 6. 2. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 3. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). On the basis of solubility. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. 15. respond to stress. 12. 3. and regulating factors. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. 9. 8. 4. Histologically. 2. sebaceous. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. nerve impulses. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor).The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself.Feedback Control: 1. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes.
Histologically. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 4. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 2. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). and serve as antiinflammatories. and delta cells. menstrual cycle. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. glucocorticoids. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome.g. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. 3. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. 3. 2. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . cortisol) promote normal metabolism. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1.g. Secretion is controlled by CRF.. Parathyroids: 1. 3. 4. 6. 9. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. 3. Ovaries and Testes: 1. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. and lactation. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands.. Cretinism. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. which secrete calcitonin (CT). and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. 6. help resist stress. 2. Mineralocorticoids (e. growth and development. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). 5. exophthalmic goiter. Histologically. Histologically. and the reactivity of the nervous system. pregnancy. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. 8. They are released under stress. myxedema. and parafollicular cells. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. 2. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. zona ennin late. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. beta cells secrete insulin. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). 5. 4. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. and zona reticularis. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. beta cells. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. 2. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. 7. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. 6. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level.Thyroid: 1. and gonadocorticoids. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. Histologically. Pancreas: 1. Glucocorticoids (e. 4. Histologically. 5. Secretion is controlled by TRF. 2. 10. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism.
pH. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. 2. called plasma.pinealocytes. fibrinogen). Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless.45. 2.5 to 5. Leucocytes: 1. 38 degrees C (100.85 to 0. 5. 2. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 6. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. Blood transports oxygen. neuroglial cells.000 to 9. 3. 6. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. Functions: 1. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. granular leucocytes. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. 2. 2. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. 3. temperature. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. Normal blood contains 5.4 million/mm3 of blood. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. and blood vessels. 3. 4. 5. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. leucocytes (white blood cells). The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs.5 percent solutes. Components: 1. 3. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. Iymph vessels. The liquid portion of blood.5 percent water and 8. 4. thymic factor (TF). wastes. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Normal blood contains 250. 7. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). hormones. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. globulins. Erythrocyte formation. 2. and Iymph glands. 3. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. and thrombocytes (platelets). Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. carbon dioxide. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. 3. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. consists of 91.35 to 7.4 degrees F). called erythropoiesis. It helps to regulate pH. about 4. body temperature. 4. and enzymes. Erythrocytes: 1.8 million/mm3. thymic humoral factor (THF). and water content of cells. eosinophils. foods. Plasma: 1. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. the heart. 0.90 NaCI. 4. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. Red blood cells live about 120 days. 2. Lymphocytes. a healthy female. A healthy male has about 5. nutrients.5. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.000 to 400. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. 2. Thymus: 1. Thrombocytes: 1. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity.000/mm3. and salinity. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting.000/mm3. and platelets. It protects against toxins and microbes.
Disorders . Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. In the Rh system. 8. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. Like plasma.. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. 9. hemorrhagic. The Cardiovascular System . Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. platelet plug formation. heparin) prevent clogging. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes.g. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. 2. aplastic. In vascular spasm. The cause is a virus. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. 3. hemolytic. 2. encloses the heart. 6. and blood coagulation. and sickle cell anemia. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). 4. 4. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. respiratory gases. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. and out through the aorta. 2. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. 11. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Interstitial Fluid: 1. It involves vascular spasm. and endocardium. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. The parietal pericardium. 2.The Heart: 1. 7. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. In the ABO system. pernicious. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 10. 5. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. 3. myocardium. 2. 2. 3. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. Anticoagulatants (e.Valves: 1. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. 2. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity.and hormones. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. 4. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels.
Cardiac Cycle: 1. 2. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. 5. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. 6. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. aortic reflex. 5. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. Electrocardiogram: 1.4. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. 3. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. 3. 2.8 sec. 3. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). 6. Blood Supply: 1. 7. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Atrioventricular (AV) valves. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. potassium). The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). 7. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. between the atria and their ventricles. 2. 2. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. and Purkinje fibers. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. 4. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. bundle branches. determining the presence of several fetuses. and right heart (atrial) reflex. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). 3. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). 4. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. 6. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. 2. 5. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. 3. 7. Conduction System: 1. sodium. detecting the presence of fetal life. 4. Cardiac Output: 1. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. atrioventricular (AV) node. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. temperature. 4. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute.
2. obesity. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. 5. some capillaries are continuous. Veins: 1. 2. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. diabetes mellitus. Capillaries: 1. to correct some defects. 3. 2. This network increases the surface area. 3. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. high blood pressure. The heart becomes hypoxic. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. flutter. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. 2. fibrillation. 3. 2. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. 4. Arteries: 1. 4. 5. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. In severe shock. and therefore blood pressure. and tunica externa. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. As blood volume increases. Venules: 1. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). 3. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. and tetralogy of Fallot). septal defects. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. 4. 2. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. 2. 2. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. 3. blood pressure increases. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. valvular stenosis. 4. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1.emotion. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. others are fenestrated. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. sex (gender and physical activity). lack of exercise. and age. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Disorders . cigarette smoking. and to apply chemotherapy locally. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention.ener Arterioles: 1. and genetic disposition. and premature contractions). Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. and arrhythmias (heart block.
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. 2. Circulatory Routes: 1. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. 6. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. 9. 2. and breathing. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Other routes include the cerebral. Systemic Circulation: 1. Fetal Circulation: 1. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. temperature. and higher brain centers. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. 2. 2. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. and autoregulation. spleen. and age. skeletal muscular contractions. Disorders . The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. At birth. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. Blood Reservoirs: 1. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. 3. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. 3. chemoreceptors. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. the arch of the aorta. stomach. emotions. digestive. 2. 7. and the descending aorta. when lung. sex. 2. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. 8. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. 3. and fetal circulation. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. and liver functions are established. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. 3. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. 2. 3. They in turn empty into the right atrium.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. intestines. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. pulmonary. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). chemicals. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. chemicals. 2. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins.
IgD. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. 5. 3. 5. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. unsaturated fatty acids. 4. brain. 2. incompatible blood cells. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. 2. IgA. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. complement. acid pH of skin. and Iymph organs. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. and multivalence. 3. chemical factors (gastric juice. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. 2. phagocytosis. 2. cilia. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. and Iysozyme). Based on chemistry and structure. and IgE). each with specific biological roles (IgG. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. to the subclavian veins. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. 2. epiglottis. when introduced into the body. and lingual tonsils. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. and transplants. 3. and properdin). 3. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. to Iymphatics. and flow of urine). inflammation. and fever. IgM. Antigens are chemical substances that. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. 3. Lymphatic Organs: 1. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. mucus. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. microbial structures. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. 9. mucous membranes. called Iymphatics. They include the pharyngeal. and kidneys. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. pollen. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. 4. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. saliva. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. 3. 8. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. 2. reactivity. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. 7. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. 4. antimicrobial substances (interferon. to Iymph capillaries. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. Iymph nodes. 6. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. palatine. Examples of antigens are microbes. to Iymph trunks.1. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. Iymphatic vessels. Lymph Circulation: 1. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. 2. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. lacrimal apparatus.
7. sobbing. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. detection of disease. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. 2. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. invading antigen. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. rheumatic fever. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. 14. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. 3. Coughing. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. asthma. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. During forced inspiration. 2. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. 4. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 5. yawning. laughing. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. they are important in diagnosis. 13. memory B cells recognize the original. preparing vaccines. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. sneezing. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. myasthenia gravis. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. 3. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. crying. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. 10. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. treatment. eczema. 11. 8. and hives. 2. hemolytic and pernicious anemias.liver and spleen. 2. 4. 6. and multiple sclerosis (MS). sighing. 12. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .
The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. the sum of two or more volumes. the inflation reflex. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. pCO2. and apneustic area. C's of CPR are Airway. and Circulation. 2.Internal Respiration: 1. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). and minimal volumes. 3.are tidal volume. residual volume. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). functional residual. 3. pain. and DPG. when the temperature remains constant. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Pulmonary lung capacities. include inspiratory. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. 3. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. blood pressure. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. 2. inspiratory reserve. compresses the lungs. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. both in the brain and outside. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. pneumotaxic area. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. 2. It is symbolized by p. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. According to Dalton's law. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). The A. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. and total. In bronchogenic carcinoma. B. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . temperature. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 2. and enlarged chest. 2. vital. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. Disorders . The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. 3. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. and a rich blood supply. inflated alveoli. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). 3. 2. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. division. 5. 4. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. 2. and function of the epithelial cells. assuming that the pressure remains constant. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. and irritation to the respiratory centers. Breathing. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. 6. External Respiration . expiratory reserve. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. 3. 4. and excess mucus production. temperature. inflated lungs. 4. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. a large alveolar surface area.
Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. peristalsis. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. 9. mesocolon. 5. 2. 2. and greater omentum. The teeth. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). 3. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. lesser omentum. and cervix. 4. 4. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. 2. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. 3. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. submucosa. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. or alimentary canal. 2. tongue. 3. or dentes.7. Some papillae contain taste buds. 2. root. together with its associated muscles. gallbladder. mechanical and chemical digestion. The tongue. absorption. and sublingual glands. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. Organization: 1. muscularis. and serosa (peritoneum). which aid mechanical digestion. lipid. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. liver. forms the floor of the oral cavity. falciform ligament. The accessory structures include the teeth. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. 4. Digestive Processes: 1. and accessory structures. It consists of a voluntary stage. 2. 8. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Salivary Glands: 1. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. 4. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the hardest substance in the body. and pancreas. Deglutition: 1. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. lips. and defecation. Teeth: 1. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. salivary glands. 2. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. and tongue. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. submandibular (submaxillary). Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. 2. 2. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. 3. palates. 3. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. The mouth is formed by the cheeks.
It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. Hormones also assume a role. intrinsic factor.Histology: 1. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Esophagus: 1. certain electrolytes and drugs. 2. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. Stomach: Anatomy . Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). electrolytes. 4. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. The esophagus is a collapsible. Absorption: 1. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). Among the substances absorbed are some water. 2. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). 2. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Absorption: 1. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. villi. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. and intestinal. 2. 3. Pancreas: 1. 2. Small Intestine: Anatomy . Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. resynthesized to triglycerides. 3.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. The small intestine also absorbs water. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. 3. 3. and vitamins. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. 2. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. gastric. Gallbladder: 1. hydrochloric acid. 2. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. 3. 2. glands that produce mucus. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). 2. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). and the microvilli.Histology: 1. and transported as chylomicrons. and alcohol. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. a protein-digesting enzyme. 2. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). Liver: 1. and stomach gastrin. 2. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). 2. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves.
5. Its subdivisions include the cecum. 4. epithelial cells. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. inorganic salts.1. and non-A. Defecation: 1. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. stenosis. and undigested foods. minerals. 7. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. 2. 3. act as building blocks in forming new body components. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. bacteria. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. or kinking of the organ. 4. Disorders . 3. 9. and anal canal. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. . alveolar bone. 8. 2. 5. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. 3. The large intestine absorbs water. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. peristalsis. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. lipids. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. Anabolic reactions use energy. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. 2. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. and mass peristalsis. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. rectum. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. 6. colonoscopy. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . During digestion. carcinoma of the cecum. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. and cementum. 2. electrolytes. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. 12. colon. Feces consists of water. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. and vitamins. action. rather than enzymatic. Metabolism: 1. periodontal membrane.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. 2. proteins. hepatitis B. and barium x-ray. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. and water. 11. vitamins. Types include hepatitis A. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. 10. 2. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. 2. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. a foreign body.
Fats are stored in adipose tissue. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. 2. 3. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. As a result of glycolysis. Fat Storage: 1. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. 4. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. 3. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. and growth hormone (GH). 2. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. 6. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. 3. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). and cytochromes. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. and the electron transport chain. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. 3. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Glycolysis: 1. 3. the Krebs cycle. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. coenzyme Q. Lipid Catabolism: 1. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. During digestion. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. thromboplastin for blood clotting. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. 3. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. 5. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. under aerobic conditions. Lipid Metabolism: 1. 4 molecules of NADH2. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. It is stimulated by cortisol. glucagon. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. 2. recombined to form triglycerides. In beta oxidation. 2. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. and I molecule of GTP.2. thyroxine. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 2. Glucose Anabolism: 1. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. When oxygen is in short supply. 4. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. Fate of Lipids: 1. epinephrine. 1 molecule of FADH2. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Glucose Catabolism: 1. Electron Transport Chain: 1. 2. 3. 3. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. 2.
Very little protein is used as a source of energy. During the absorptive state. 3. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. and body temperature. these conversions involve deamination. structural elements. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. E. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. and insulin. hormones. fats. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. 3. Production of Body Heat: 1. 2. may cause acidosis. selenium. and so forth. chlorine. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. copper. magnesium. During the absorptive state. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. 2. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. 3. or converted. zinc. 2. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. The process is stimulated by insulin. 4. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. Lipid Anabolism . Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. stored. D. and hydrogenation. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. fatty acids.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. 3. the nervous system. Many function in enzyme systems. Protein Anabolism: 1. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Inside cells. Protein Catabolism: 1. phosphorus. Minerals: 1. Protein Metabolism: 1. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. sulfur. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. Before amino acids can be catabolized.Lipogenesis: 1. called ketosis. thyroxine. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). Amino acids. enter body cells by active transport. manganese. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. and K. 2. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. decarboxylation. 2. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. snd ketane hadies. Vitamins: 1. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. Fate of Proteins: 1. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. sodium. and chromium. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. 2. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells.4. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. conversion of glycerol into glucose. iron. cobalt. but an excess of ketone bodies. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. iodine. hormones. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. 2. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. potassium. and proteins. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. 2. During digestion. 2. 2. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. based on the needs of the body.
Body Temperature Regulation: 1. and perspiration. lethargy. profuse perspiration. 2. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. D. Loss of Body Heat: 1. ureters. cramps. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. and dizziness. glomerulus. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. and a pelvis. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. the kidneys consist of a cortex. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. papillae. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. medulla. 5. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. descending limb of Henle. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. and sometimes mental retardation. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. adipose capsule. proximal convoluted tubule. 4. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. 7. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. pyramids. loop of Henle. skeletal muscle contraction. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. 3. urinary bladder. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. 4. deereased metabolic rate. and renal fascia. 6. 2. failure to grow. Physiology: 1. 2. 3. 4. and thyroxine production. 3. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. and K and calcium is inadequate. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. stages include chill and crisis. 4. 2. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . distal convoluted tubule. reduced perspiration. 4. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. and urethra. 4. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. 2. 5. sympathetic stimulation. 3. 5. ascending limb of Henle. 3.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). columns. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. nausea. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. Internally. 3. 2. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). calyces. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and high body temperature. It consists of the glomerular endothelium.
The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). Besides the kidneys. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. and microbes. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. and the glomerular filtrate. glucose. casts. 5. Ureters: 1. 5. odor. leucocytes. Chemically. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. 2. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. synovial fluid. 4. urobilinogen. The solutes include urea. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. the rest by facultative reabsorption. ketone bodies. turbidity. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). Included are ions. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. In exchange. and emotions. 4. Gl tract fluids.6. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . pleural. 2. cerebrospinal fluid. 3. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. amino acids. and a serous coat. 3. and specific gravity. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. Disorders . temperature. 7. creatinine. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). 10. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. Normally. including water. salts. diuretics. 3. muscularis. and peritoneal fluids. 9. hippuric acid. Homeostasis: 1. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. uric acid. nitrogenous wastes. 8. and certain drugs. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. 11. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. glucose. pericardial. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. 2. 6. It includes interstitial fluid. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. 7. Histologically. 5. indican. pH. 2. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. and fluids of the eyes and ears. 8. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. erythrocytes. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). blood concentration. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. plasma and Iymph. and ions. renal calculi. 2. integument. and fibrous coat. 2. ketone bodies. the lungs. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. primarily by peristalsis. Body Fluids: 1. Urethra: 1. 3. and ions. 4. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. bilirubin. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. Urinary Bladder: 1. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney.
increases pH. chemical transmitter release. Electrolytes: 1.45. 9. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. and heartbeat. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. and regulation of pH. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS.1. 2. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. fluid moves in the opposite direction. muscle contraction. 2. 5. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT.35 and 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes.00. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. nerve impulse conduction. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. 6. 2.80. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. 4.45 and 8. 11. phosphate. Acid-Base Balance: 1. 4. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT).35 to 7. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. and GI tract. and kidney excretion. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. 3. It also functions in blood clotting. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. a decrease in rate. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). muscle contraction. 2. proper fluid movement between compartments. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. Plasma. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. 4. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). 3. especially extracellular fluid. and fluid and electrolyte balance. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Under normal conditions. and protein. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. 4. At the arterial end of a capillary. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. 10. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. decreases pH. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. 2. respirations. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. An increase in rate of respirations. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. lungs. 5. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. 8. 4. and regulating pH. 3. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. skin. muscle contraction. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. 7. 3. interstitial fluid. At the venous end. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. 3. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. Its level is controlled by aldosterone.
2. rete testis. 6. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. 6. stimulates bone growth. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. Ducts: 1. Testes: 1. ductus deferens. urethra. and efferent ducts. 3. ducts (transport and store gametes). 2. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. sperm maturation. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. seminal vesicles. Scrotum: 1. 12. and spongy (cavernous). straight tubules. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. 3. 4. 2. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. 7. 2. and 7. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . ejaculatory duct. prostate gland. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. 3. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. 3. and tail. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). development. 10. Reproductive System: 1. bulbourethral glands. sustentacular cells. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. Testosterone controls the growth. ductus epididymis. 7. and penis. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. 11. which nourish sperm cells. II. 8. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. straight tubules. 2. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. midpiece. protein anabolism. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. 4. Male Reproductive System: 1. and rete testis. membranous. in which sperm cells are made. Accessory Glands: 9. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. 5. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. and maintenance of sex organs. and interstitial endocrinocytes. 5.
Estrogens stimulate the growth. 2. and inner endometrium. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. 3. 6. middle myometrium. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. The penis is the male organ of copulation. 10. mucus. Uterus: 1. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. 6. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. 8. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. and labor. Ovaries: 1. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . tissue fluid. 4. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. discharge ova (ovulation). uterus. During the menstrual phase. 2. They produce ova. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. and vulva. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. uterine tubes. III. 4. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. Histologically. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. During the postovulatory phase. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. 5. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. 7. The uterus is an inverted. Penis: 1.nutrients. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. ovulation. and stimulate protein anabolism. development. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. 5. 4. 3. vagina. 2. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). If fertilization and implantation do not occur. 11. on either side of the uterus. During the preovulatory phase. endometrial repair occurs. 2. 2. and epithelial cells. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. . stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. 3. implantation of a fertilized ovum. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). 9. development of a fetus during pregnancy. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. 2.
5. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. vaginal and urethral orifices. It is said to be haploid (n). pectoral muscles. 2. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. 2. 12. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. Oogenesis: 1. 2. 10. equatorial division. 7. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. lubrication. enlarged prostate. labia minora. Mammary Glands: 1. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. and ova maturation. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). and sperm maturation. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 10. 2. syphilis. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. 2. 13. dysmenorrhea. The female role also involves erection. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. Disorders . Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. Vagina: 1. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. 3. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). clitoris. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . abnormal bleeding. 8. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. If fertilization and implantation do occur. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). Sexual Intercourse: 1. 2. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). 12. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. 9. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Perineum: 1. lubrication. It consists of the mons veneris. 2. 7. genital herpes. vestibule. 11. 2. equatorial division. Spermatogenisis: 1. 8. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. and orgasm (climax). It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. 4. and tumors. and orgasm. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. and the lower portion of the birth canal. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. 6. the cessation of the sexual cycles. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 3. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. trichomoniasis. labia majora. 9. The removal of a malignant breast. 3.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. Vulva: 1.
Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. 5. and birth. 2. 2. embryonic growth. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. fetal growth.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. implantation. 1. Its various events are hormonally controlled. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. 4. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. . Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage.
During embryonic growth. 8. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. 2. Inheritance: 1. removal of wastes. . Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. Birth Control: 6. protein anabolism. mechanical. During the fetal period. estrogens. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. and smoking. expulsion of the fetus. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. 2. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. 3. mesoderm. Lactation: 1. 7. 2. 3. 3. Parturition and Labor: 1. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. laparascopic technique). The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). chorion. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and progesterone. estrogens. Dominant genes control a particular trait. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). chemicals and drugs. 4. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. 3. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Examples are infections. 5. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. 6. and chemical). and Down's syndrome. and delivery of the placenta. such as hemophilia. and progesterone. and contraception (natural. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. and allantois. 3. 2. 2. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. tubal ligation. 4. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. sterilization (vasectomy. alcohol. 2. sickle cell anemia. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. and protection. amnion. 2. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization.The morula develops into a blastocyst. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. 5. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. 2. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. 1. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. Tay-Sachs disease. microbes.
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