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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.

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Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.

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horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary

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accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a

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3. 2. The inner folds are called cristae. 3. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. In conjunction with the ER. cilia. Functionally. but smaller. They contain enzymes (e. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. 3. comprising the chromosomes. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. 1. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling.g. and form the structure of flagella. The ER provides mechanical support. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. and helps export chemicals from the cell. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. support. 2. 2. 3. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. provide movement. 3. 2. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form.. and genetic material (DNA). do not grow or reproduce. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. maintenance. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes.The Cytoskeleton: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . membranous sacs called cisternae. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. Ribosomes: 1. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. nucleoli. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. 3. They support. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. They are involved in muscular contraction. 2. 2. Mitochondria: 1. and the mitotic spindle. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. 2. transports substances intracellularly. such as mature red blood cells. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. Cells without nuclei. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1.13. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. Nucleus: 1. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. 3. If the cell is injured. Thus they are called "suicide packets. Microfilaments and Microtubules . Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. which carry on phagocytosis. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. They are formed from Golgi complexes. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. lipids. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. Functionally." 4. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. 3. carbohydrates. Usually the largest organelle. 4. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. and control. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. Organelles: 1. and inorganic substances. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. repair. karyolymph. 2. Cytoplasm: 1. Peroxisomes: 1. It is located near the nucleus. centrioles. 2. 2. stores synthesized molecules. and movement.

Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. "SOS" Genes . replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. are fibrous. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. 5. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Extracellular Materials: 1. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. they are called cilia. 2. DNA Polymerase is an example. anaphase. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. Cellular Inclusions: 1. Flagella and Cilia: 1. the DNA molecules. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. like collagenous. mRNA associates with ribosomes. 3. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. and elastic fibers. 4. Examples are melanin.2. Gene Action . 2. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. Others. and telophase. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. 7. 3. 8. and mucus. Cell Division: 1. In transcription. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. they are called flagella. It consists of prophase. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). glycogen.Protein Synthesis: 1. 3. If projections are few and long. lipids. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. reticular. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. or chromosomes. 2. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. 3. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. 6. 6. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm.DNA Repair: 1. 2. If they are numerous and hairlike. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. This involves transcription and translation. Some. 2. are amorphous. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. Somatic Cell Division: 1. 5. 3. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. metaphase. 3. 2. an "SOS response" occurs. which consist of rRNA and protein. 4. In response to DNA damage.

and apocrine glands. merocrine. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. It can replace itself. Epithelium has many cells. 5. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. oil. 5. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. Glandular Epithelium: 1. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. and binds organs together. 3. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. simple. It has few cells. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. auditory tubes. 2. Exocrine glands (sweat. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). parts of urethra. and a rich blood supply (vascular). It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. little intracellular material. where it protects and secretes. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . columnar (rectangular). Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. Epithelial Tissue: 1. connective. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. 3. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. 2. Connective Tissue: 1. and no blood vessels (avascular). Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. pharynx. 7. It is found covering ovaries. an extensive intercellular substance.1. tubuloacinar. portion of urethra. 2. supports. 2. 2. the study of tumors is called oncology. except for cartilage. noncancerous tumors are called benign. It does not occur on free surfaces. Depending on their function and structure. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. cuboidal (cubelike). Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. 9. 3. 4. 3. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. and nervous. 4. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. acinar. and most upper respiratory structures. 2. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. but none successfully answers all questions. and epiglottis. 2. muscular. 8. Functional classification includes holocrine. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). in kidneys and eyes. cell shapes include squamous (flat). Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. Many theories of aging have been proposed. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. and compound. stratified (several layers). 3. It lines larger excretory ducts. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. and lining some glandular ducts. and transitional (variable). Connective tissue protects. 6.

4. allows movement.contraction. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. membranes of organs. 5. Examples are: mucous. and true vocal cords. tendons. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. It is found as a component of fascia. auditory tubes. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. and cutaneous. 2. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. Elastic. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. 6. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. 2. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. Adipose. Dense. Visceral (smooth). Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. and in the subcutaneous layer. o Serous membranes (pleura. such as the digestive tract. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. where it gives support.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. ligaments. 2. heat. at the ends of bones. bone tissue. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. and melanocytes). It provides strength. plasma. Tissue Inflammation . 3. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. Membranes: 1. are specialized for fat storage. and swelling. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. and aponeuroses. in the nose. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. bronchial tubes. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. and provides support. around body organs. and Iymph nodes. 2. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. elastic. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). sometimes loss of function occurs. Muscle tissue performs one major function . and a typical cell is the fibroblast. serous. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. spleen. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. 7. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. macrophages. elastic arteries. and in respiratory structures. mast. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). Adult Connective Tissue: 1. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. and Cardiac. pericardium. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. It is flexible. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. trachea. and vascular tissue. called adipocytes. cartilage. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. 4. and Reticular. pain. and external ear.

and parenchymal regeneration. • Hair: 1. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. If the injury is superficial. kinins. Repair Process: 1. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. synthesis of vitamin D. Conditions for Repair: 1. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. • Glands: 1. 4. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. 5. It performs the functions of protection. granulation tissue is involved. The color of skin is due to melanin. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. pus is produced. arrectores pilorum muscles. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. receiving stimuli. salts. nerves. C. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. an abscess develops. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue.2. and nails. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. storage of chemical compounds. The reticular region is dense. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. and a hair follicle. 2. nerves. The epidermal layers. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. 2. 2. from deepest to most superficial. skin glands (sebaceous. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. Various vitamins (A. carotene. glands. dermal papillae. The Integumentary System . E. hair follicles. black melanin. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. are the stratum basale. spinosum. sudoriferous. and ceruminous). and excretion of water. serotonin. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. 3. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. 8. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. and several organic compounds. some B. 3. maintaining body temperature. 6. brown melanin. granulosum. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. and corneum. 4.The Skin: Skin 1. 2. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. 4. 2. lucidum. if it cannot drain out of the body. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. 5. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. D. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. and ducts of sweat glands. and pheomelanin (yellow). and root hair plexuses. and Meissner's corpuscles. 3. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. 7. the process slows down with aging. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. hair follicles. If damage is extensive. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. scab formation. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. oil glands. The skin and its derivatives (hair. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. Tissue Repair: 1. In most inflammations. 3.

6F). and areolae. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. Disorders . 10. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. As the perspiration evaporates. raised plaques or papules. Nails: 1. 2. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. leverage. Homeostasis: 1. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. or psychogenic factors. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. and boils. 3. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. 9. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. They are found in the external auditory meatus. Most warts are benign. The principal parts of a nail are the body. replacing lost body fluids. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. 2. 7. protection. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. and third-degree (fullthickness). second-degree (partialthickness). pimples. and blood cell production. 3. If environmental temperature is high. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. 2. 8. mineral storage. lunula. regulating metabolic rate. 2. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. free edge. their ducts open into hair follicles. root. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. Nails are hard. Histology: 1. and matrix. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The functions of the skeletal system include support. Depending on the depth of damage. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. and skin grafting. 11. removing dead tissue. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. 4. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. the skin is cooled. 6. 3. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. systemic diseases. 2. hyponychium. and covering wounds with temporary protection.• palms and soles. pubis. 4. eponychium. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails.

The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. Functionally. 2. complete. simple. except for the epiphyseal plate. greenstick. articular cartilage. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. and endosteum. spiral. 5. and periosteum. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. Osteoblasts lay down bone. supports. Homeostasis: 1. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. where bone replaces cartilage. impacted. The types of fractures include: partial. 4. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. and vitamins (A. and nondisplaced. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. epiphyses (ends). medullary or marrow cavity. 2. proliferating cartilage. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. 3. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. compact bone protects. forming a callus. displaced. 6. Next. phosphorus. Functionally. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. and remodeling. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. 7. and the epiphyses of long bones. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. 3. 5. 8. 9. and calcified matrix. C. metaphysis. The two types of ossification. Colles'. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. This process is called remodeling.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. comminuted. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. 2. 6. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. 8. It forms most of the structure of short. compound. Pott's. and resists stress. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). and irregular bones. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Cartilage degenerates. 2. 4. Normal growth depends on calcium. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. periosteum. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. 4. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. 3. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. 3. transverse. marrow.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). spongy bone is laid down first. Disorders . spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. 7. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. hypertrophic cartilage. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. In both types of ossification. flat. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. intramembranous and endochondral. A fracture is any break in a bone.

or irregular. flat. foramen. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 3. crest. lambdoidal. vertebral column. auditory ossicles. and spine. and ribs. meatus. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. 7. sagittal. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. 4. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. The major fontanels are the anterior. The patella is an example. the sternum. hyoid bone. and maxilla. It is composed of 22 bones. lacrimal (2). The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. and posterolaterals. 2. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. Terms that describe markings include fissure. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). head. 2. sphenoid. 2. anterolaterals. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The vertebral column. Surface Markings: 1. fused) and the coccyx (4. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. and ethmoid. process. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. 3. tuberosity. 3. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. 2. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. inferior nasal conchae (2). These curves give strength. thoracic vertebrae (12). On the basis of shape. palatine (2). parietal (2). The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). Hyoid Bone: 1. and balance. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. short. support. facet. zygomatic (2). 2. They are lined by mucous membranes. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. and vomer. 6. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. temporal (2). mandible. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. Vertebral Column: 1. 2. muscle attachment. sternum. sphenoid. Skull: 1. occipital. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. the sacrum (5. and squamosal sutures. fossa. 3. ethmoid. 5. bones are classified as long. maxillae (2). 1. Examples are coronal. lumbar vertebrae (5). Condyle. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. fused). The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2).1. posterior.

2. and ischium. 3. shape. L l. and the thoracic vertebrae. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. tarsals. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. each consisting of a body. and the bones of the lower extremities. and phalanges. 2. Thorax: 1. the ribs and costal cartilages. 5. vertebral arch. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). The tarsals are: Calcaneus. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. Cuboid. Capitate. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. and lordosis. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). tibia. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. a congenital defect. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). pubis. 2. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. o Upper Extremities: 1. o Lower Extremities: 1. Examples include scoliosis. metatarsals. Hamate (Unciform). is referred to as spina bifida. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. II. 3. and Medial Cuneiform. and L 2. Talus. 2. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. and phalanges. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12.The vertebra are similar in structure. carpals. fibula. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. Navicular. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. 4. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. radius. 2. 2. the bones of the upper extremities. and detail. kyphosis. the pelvic girdle. 4. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. ulna. Pisiform. Schaphoid (Navicular). 3. Triangular (Triquetrum). metacarpals. and seven processes.

Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. articular cartilage. Synovial Joints: 1. and a synovial membrane. and muscles. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. cartilaginous. joints are classified as fibrous. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. pivot joints (radioulnar). hinge joints (elbow). and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. ligaments. protraction and retraction. joints. circumduction. tendons. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. 8. inversion and eversion. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). angular movements. 4. 2. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7.arches. 2. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. Disorders . 2. rotation. 5. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. Articulations: 1. 3. with no joint cavity. All synovial joints are freely movable. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. to provide support and leverage. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. tension of ligaments. 1. some also contain ligaments. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). Structurally. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. are cartilaginous joints. articular discs. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. or triaxial. and loss of function. 3. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. 2. A dislocation. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. Bones held together by cartilage. 2. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. Fibrous Joints: 1. 4. or synovial. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. 6. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. and muscle tension. 3. swelling. 2. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). and bursae. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). 2. 3. and elevation and depression. with no joint cavity. 2. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. supination and pronation. biaxial. 5. 6. or luxation. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. are fibrous joints.

covering individual fibers. 3. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. Through contraction. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. 3. tropomyosin. 2. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. and endomysium. 4. 3. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. It is striated and involuntary. 2. covering the entire muscle. 2. maintenance of posture. contract. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. junction. 2. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. 2. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. and T tubules. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. and troponin. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. sarcoplasmic reticulum. 6. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. triggering the contractile process. 7. deep. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. 4. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. 2.without dislocation. covering fasciculi.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. and subserous. The Motor Unit: 1. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Physiology of Contraction: 1. Connective tissue components are epimysium. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. 2. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. 3. Types: 1. nuclei. 3. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Functions: 1. 4. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. or myoneural. 3. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. perimysium. 8. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. the neuron releases acetylcholine. There are three types of fascia: superficial. 5. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. Energy for Contraction: 1. It is striated and voluntary. and heat production. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. Contraction . and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit.

each of which contracts as a functional unit.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. or threshold. and a large amount of myoglobin. 2. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. Abnormal contractions include spasms. 3. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. The fibers are arranged in a network. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. and isometric. 2. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. more blood capillaries. and stiffness of joints. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. tenderness. 2. 2. Disorders . 3. Muscle Tone: 1. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. and related structures in the thigh. 2. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. 6. Unit it is paid back. cramps. 3. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. stimulus. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. Kinds of Contractions: 1. 3. isotonic. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. 2. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. 3. 3. and larger T tubules. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. If it occurs in the lumbar region. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. tetanus. muscles. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Homeostasis: 1. The various kinds of contractions are twitch.2. convulsions. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. 4. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. or subthreshold. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. treppe. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. 4. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. 2. fibrillations. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. it is called lumbago. It is striated and involuntary. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. 5. 3. 3. more mitochondria. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. 2. and tics. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. stimulus. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. This muscle is found only in the heart. 5. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability.

number of origins (or heads). Neurons. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. 3. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. and resistance on the lever. pennate. Neurons: 1. and reacting to them. 2. 2. lateral side of the thigh. 2. The antagonist produces an opposite action. second-class. 1. shape. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. and glands. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. location. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. and unipolar. interpreting them. bipolar. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. and usually a single axon. Intramuscular Injections: 1. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. origin and insertion. and carry out phagocytosis. On the basis of structure. If. and circular. On the basis of function. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Nerve Impulse: 1. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. Around the time of birth. 5. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. 3. 2. convergent. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. 6. size. the membrane is said to have an action potential. produce the myelin sheath. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. microglia. 2. and ependyma. cardiac muscle tissue. effort. including motor neurons. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. 3. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. 2.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. or nerve cells. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. 4. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. neurons are multipolar. 2. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. and action. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. attach neurons to blood vessels. 4. and minimal irritation. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. 5. oligodendrocytes. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. and the membrane is said to be polarized. 3. 6. and deltoid region of the arm.

7. central canal. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. arachnoid and pia mater. 2. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. meninges. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. 5. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. 2. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. anterior. cell body. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. Protection and Coverings: 1. 4. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. 6. 3. and lateral white columns. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. anterior. 6. and ascending and descending tracts. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. 2. 3. posterior. 7. 4. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. 4. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. 5. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. 3. 5. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. 6. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. 2. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. According to the all-ornothing principle. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system.travels from point to point along the membrane. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. Structure in Cross Section: 1. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. 4. and lateral gray horns. 5. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. and vertebral ligaments. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. posterior. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 6. or axon hillock. 3. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. cerebrospinal fluid. 7.

4. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. lumbar. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. and rami communicantes. Wallerian degeneration. 2. 2. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. and crossed extensor reflex. 7. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. the Babinski sign. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. 3. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). and the abdominal reflex. A reflex is a quick. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. a sensory neuron. The posterior root. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. flexor reflex. 6. 1. 2. tendon reflex. posterior root ganglion. and an effector. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. such as the patellar reflex. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. 2. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. and regeneration. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. 4. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. meningeal branch. A stretch reflex. Its basic components are a receptor. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. 4. • Composition and Coverings: 1. a motor neuron. The skin segments are called dermatomes. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. a center. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. perineunum. 2. brachial. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. 9. 3. ventral ramus. Disorders . • Dermatomes: 1. 5. and sacral plexuses. 8. constant segments of the skin. the Achilles reflex. 4. 5. 5. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. 1. Functions: 1. except for T 2-T 11. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. Following peripheral nerve damage.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 5.2. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. and epineurium. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. • Distribution: 1. 3. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. 3. association. respectively. form networks of nerves called plexuses. 2. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. 2. is an example. and motor neuron.

cerebrum. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. 2. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. Protection and Coverings: 1. During embryological development. it is called external hydrocephalus. sneezing. The Brain Stem: 1. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. 4. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . mental retardation. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 1. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. 3. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. ventricles. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. 2. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. convulsions. 3. 2. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. and central canal. 4. 2. and unconsciousness. 1. or death of brain 5. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. cranial meninges. vomiting. The Diencephalon: 1. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. 2. and cerebellum. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. 3. 6. diencephalon. Embryological Development: 1. and hiccuping. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. 2. cells. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. 3. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. permanent damage. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. 2. 3. respiratory rate. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. 2. or death. it is called internal hydrocephalus. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. coughing. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. 2. vasoconstriction. 1. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. swallowing. the myelencephalon forms the medulla.1. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. The pons is superior to the medulla. which helps control respiration. 1. epilepsy. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. 1. 4. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. 2. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord.

gamma aminobutyric acid. excite. 3. 2. 2. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. endorphins. either anatomically or functionally. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. and sulci. 5. The Cerebellum: 1. 6. 3. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. 3. infections. and tumors. and smell. fissures. They help to control muscular movements. 7. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 2. 2. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes.7. insight. 1. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. constricted vermis. space and pattern perception. 2. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. 3. Its cortex contains convolutions. temporal. 2. 1. dopamine. and dynorphin. parietal. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. musical and artistic awareness. 3. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 1. except smell. 8. glutamic acid. taste. 4. 10. 3. controls body temperature. and generating mental images of sight. and reasoning. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. numerical and scientific skills. and glycine. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. norepinephrine. Brain Lateralization: 1. aspartic acid. touch. 2. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. 4. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. spoken and written language. 9. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. 2. 2. 3. 2. 3. to the cerebral cortex. It controls the autonomic nervous system. sound. imagination. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 5. and occipital. 3. 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . serotonin. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. 3. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. 7. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. 1. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. The Cerebrum: 1. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. regulates food and fluid intake.

Oculomotor . The Cranial Nerves: 1. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. 5. inferior pharynx. also called strokes. cerebellum. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex.Sensory. 10. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. lower jaw. thrombosis. upper eyelid.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. etc. tongue muscles. pharyngeal muscles. 10. or psychological malfunction. Glossophary ngeal . Vestibulococ hlear . Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Depending on the form of the disease. Motor. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. nose. larangeal muscles. 12. Palate. 4.Sensory. hearing and balance. Optic . The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain.11. cornea. 8. upper jaw. 7. Olfactory . larynx. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. soft palate. 9. 7.The sense of vision. 2. upper teeth. Impulse transmission is interrupted. 3. 4. 6. 11. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. or atherosclerosis. taste. 8.Motor function of eye muscles. 4.The sense of smell. pharynx. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. cholecystokinin. forehead. childbirth. Tongue muscles. 9. Vagus Sensory. or basal ganglia during fetal development. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Facial Sensory. 2. . sensory. Trigeminal Sensory function. 6. 3. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. the victim experiences degrees of motor. muscles of facial expression. 4. Examples include angiotensin. Accessory Motor. lower teeth. Scalp. some neck and shoulder muscles. Disorders . or early infancy. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. etc. thoracic and abdominal organs. 11. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. taste. 1. 5. Motor function.Motor. 12. Motor function. Hypoglossal . Soft palate. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. muscles of mastication. Motor.

Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. connective tissues. pressure. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. Classification of Receptors: 1. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. 2. second-order. free nerve endings. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral.muscle spasms and encephalitis. muscle spindles. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. and body position. and pain. Merkel's discs. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. personality changes. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. 13. visceroceptors. thermoreceptors. 5. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. brain dysfunction. 3. movement of body parts. and acupuncture. and chemoreceptors. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. 2. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 2. 3. 5. surgery. Meissner's corpuscles. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. nociceptors. tendons. General Senses . 6. they cause subconscious motor reactions. Sensations: 1. The neural pathway for light touch. and liver damage. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. 2. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. 7. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. electromagnetic receptors. and end organs of Ruffini. 4. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. 2. Receptors located in muscles. and Pacinian corpuscles. end organs of Ruffini. According to location. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. 4. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. 4. conduction of the impulse to the brain. 3. proprioception. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. In terms of simplicity or complexity. 2. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. 3. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. Characteristics: 1. and proprioceptors. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. and tendon organs. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. Levels of Sensation: 1. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. vibration). and sometimes delirium. 12. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. and third-order neurons. 2. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. 4. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles.

2. concerned with energy expenditure. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). 3. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. tectospinal. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. the hypothalamus. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. anterior corticospinal. On the basis of the transmitter produced. 3. regulates visceral activities. 4. in general. Control by Higher Centers: 1. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. 4. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. decrease in heart rate. Physiology: 1. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. 2. and the medulla oblongata. 3. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). activities of smooth muscle. It is regulated by centers in the brain. to alleviate migraine headaches. Motor Pathways: 1. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. 3. afferent neuron. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor.6. Integrative Functions: 1. 2. association neuron. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. 3. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). 5. It usually operates without conscious control. It is entirely motor. 4. ganglia. 2. and vestibulospinal tracts. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. in particular by the cerebral cortex. and to make childbirth easier. It has been used to control heart rate. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. 2. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. and plexuses. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. 4. 3. and visceral effector. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. cardiac muscle. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. 2. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. and glands. or visceral efferent nervous system. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. reduced metabolic rate. and corticobulbar tracts. Olfactory Sensations: 1. 4. it consists of activated and long-term components. that is. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses.

the optic chiasma. set up waves in the perilymph. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). pass through the ossicles. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. 2. the thalamus. and vitreous humor. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. and X. thalamus. and lipid-soluble. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity.2. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. The four primary tastes are salt. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. 3. sour. Trachoma is a chronic. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. 7. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). and iris). 2. lens. 10. and cerebral cortex. oval window. IX. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. hypermetropia (farsightedness). the organ of hearing. and round window). medulla. 4. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. water-soluble. Visual Sensations: 1. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. the optic tract. 4. and the threshold of smell is low. olfactory bulbs. which contains rods and cones. 9. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. 7. and the cortex. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. 2. 3. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. and bitter. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. 3. aqueous humor. external auditory canal. linear. eyelashes. 8. Disorders . and inverted image formation. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. 3. olfactory tracts. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. increase pressure in the endolymph. 4. 5. strike the tympanic membrane. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. 3. which destroys neurons of the retina. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. ciliary body. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. A sound impulse is then initiated. 6. 6. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. 4. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. and (c) retina. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 5. 4. ossicles. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. constriction of the pupil. accommodation of the lens. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. 5. 8. 5. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. strike the basilar membrane. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). strike the oval window. or vertical motion. and cerebral cortex. VII. convergence. and the lacrimal apparatus. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). eyelids. and tympanic membrane). sweet.

Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF.Feedback Control: 1. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). nerve impulses. 14. respond to stress. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 5. Control of Hormonal Secretions . help regulate growth and development. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). 16. 8.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). 4. sebaceous. 3. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. 12. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). 4. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. 2. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. giantism. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. 7. 11. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. Exocrine glands (sweat. 6. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. 2. 2. and regulating factors. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 10. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). 15. 13. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. 9. 3. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. On the basis of solubility. and contribute to reproductive processes. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. Histologically. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. and acromegaly. 2. 2. 3. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors.

Histologically.. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). beta cells secrete insulin. Histologically. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. 5. 6. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. 2. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. Histologically. help resist stress. Pancreas: 1. 4. 5. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. 4. Histologically. 4. 2. Ovaries and Testes: 1. Mineralocorticoids (e.. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. growth and development. 7. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. glucocorticoids. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. pregnancy. 3. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. and zona reticularis. Secretion is controlled by TRF. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. Histologically. 3. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. and serve as antiinflammatories. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. which secrete calcitonin (CT). 3. 2. They are released under stress. and parafollicular cells. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. and lactation. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 10. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. and the reactivity of the nervous system. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. 2. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. beta cells. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. zona ennin late. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. and delta cells. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. 5. Secretion is controlled by CRF. Glucocorticoids (e. 2. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. exophthalmic goiter. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. and gonadocorticoids. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells.g.g. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. 6. 3. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. myxedema. Cretinism. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. 2. 9. 8. menstrual cycle. 4.Thyroid: 1. 6. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. Parathyroids: 1. Glucagon increases blood sugar level.

The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1.8 million/mm3. Normal blood contains 250. called erythropoiesis. pH. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. 3. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. 7. It protects against toxins and microbes. 5. thymic humoral factor (THF). a healthy female.4 million/mm3 of blood. 4. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. foods. 2. 38 degrees C (100. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. and water content of cells. Normal blood contains 5. wastes. Erythrocytes: 1. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. Red blood cells live about 120 days. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight.000 to 9. 0. 2.pinealocytes. 2. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens.5. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. and thrombocytes (platelets). 4. 4. the heart. Blood transports oxygen. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. about 4. neuroglial cells.000/mm3. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. thymic factor (TF). This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. The liquid portion of blood. 2.5 to 5. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. It helps to regulate pH.85 to 0. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins.90 NaCI. and enzymes. 6. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. 2. 3. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. Plasma: 1. temperature.5 percent water and 8. 3. Functions: 1. globulins. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph.4 degrees F). and Iymph glands. 3. A healthy male has about 5. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. Iymph vessels.35 to 7. 3. 2. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. hormones.000 to 400. eosinophils. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. 6. and platelets. Components: 1. 5. and salinity. carbon dioxide. consists of 91. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. 4. fibrinogen). Lymphocytes. 2. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. 3. Thymus: 1.000/mm3. nutrients. leucocytes (white blood cells). A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. granular leucocytes. called plasma. body temperature.45. Thrombocytes: 1. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. Leucocytes: 1. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. Erythrocyte formation.5 percent solutes. and blood vessels. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. 2.

through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Anticoagulatants (e.. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Interstitial Fluid: 1.g. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). 2. In vascular spasm. In the ABO system. 2. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. 3. The Cardiovascular System . 3. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. 2. Like plasma. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. and sickle cell anemia. 5. The cause is a virus. and endocardium. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. respiratory gases. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis.The Heart: 1. hemorrhagic. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. heparin) prevent clogging. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. In the Rh system. hemolytic. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. and blood coagulation. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. These fluids are similar in chemical composition.Valves: 1. 4. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. 6.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. It involves vascular spasm. 7. aplastic. platelet plug formation. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 11. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). Disorders . Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. 2. myocardium. 8. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. 2. pernicious. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. 3.and hormones. 2. encloses the heart. 4. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. 4. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. The parietal pericardium. 10. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. 2. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. 9. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. and out through the aorta. 3.

Conduction System: 1. temperature.8 sec. 7. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns.4. 2. Cardiac Output: 1. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. 3. 2. 6. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 5. Cardiac Cycle: 1. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). 4. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. determining the presence of several fetuses. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. sodium. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. detecting the presence of fetal life. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). Electrocardiogram: 1. 6. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. 7. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. atrioventricular (AV) node. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. bundle branches. 5. 6. 2. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). 4. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. 2. 4. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). 2. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 5. 4. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. between the atria and their ventricles. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. and Purkinje fibers. 3. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. aortic reflex. 7. 3. Blood Supply: 1. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. 3. potassium). 3. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. and right heart (atrial) reflex. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves.

Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. In severe shock. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . This network increases the surface area. 5. Capillaries: 1. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. 2. sex (gender and physical activity). Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. some capillaries are continuous. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). and the shock cvcle is intensified. others are fenestrated. to correct some defects. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body.emotion. 4. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. Veins: 1. 4. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. 2. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. 3.ener Arterioles: 1. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. cigarette smoking. As blood volume increases. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. 3. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. fibrillation. and to apply chemotherapy locally. 2. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. 2. 3. flutter. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. obesity. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. and genetic disposition. Arteries: 1. 3. The heart becomes hypoxic. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. lack of exercise. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. 5. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. 4. 2. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. 2. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). 2. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. and therefore blood pressure. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. diabetes mellitus. septal defects. Disorders . The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. high blood pressure. and tetralogy of Fallot). 2. 3. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. 3. and arrhythmias (heart block. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. 4. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. blood pressure increases. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. and premature contractions). valvular stenosis. and age. Venules: 1. and tunica externa. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases.

and age. pulmonary. sex. 2. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. Circulatory Routes: 1. and the descending aorta. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. when lung. 2. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. Systemic Circulation: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . stomach. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. and autoregulation. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. temperature. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. chemicals. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. Blood Reservoirs: 1. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. 3. intestines. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. 2. skeletal muscular contractions. chemicals. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. valves in veins (especially in the extremities).the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. 9. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. They in turn empty into the right atrium. 6. 3. 3. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. the arch of the aorta. digestive. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. 7. and fetal circulation. Disorders . 2. spleen. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. 3. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. 2. Fetal Circulation: 1. At birth. 8. 2. emotions. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. chemoreceptors. 2. Other routes include the cerebral. 3. and liver functions are established. and breathing. 2. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. and higher brain centers.

to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. mucus. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. pollen. to Iymphatics. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. chemical factors (gastric juice. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. and lingual tonsils. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. epiglottis. saliva. antimicrobial substances (interferon. 5. mucous membranes. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. 6. called Iymphatics. 3. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. phagocytosis. cilia. 3. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. lacrimal apparatus. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle.1. reactivity. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. 7. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. 3. inflammation. and IgE). Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. IgD. Iymph nodes. 3. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. unsaturated fatty acids. 4. and kidneys. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. and flow of urine). stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. and fever. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. IgA. 4. Based on chemistry and structure. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. acid pH of skin. Iymphatic vessels. each with specific biological roles (IgG. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. IgM. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. brain. and Iymph organs. and multivalence. 3. 8. 5. 2. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. 2. and properdin). Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 2. Antigens are chemical substances that. 2. 3. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. microbial structures. 4. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. palatine. Lymphatic Organs: 1. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. and Iysozyme). incompatible blood cells. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. and transplants. They include the pharyngeal. to Iymph trunks. to Iymph capillaries. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 2. 2. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. Lymph Circulation: 1. 9. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. complement. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. to the subclavian veins. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. when introduced into the body. Examples of antigens are microbes.

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. crying. sighing. they are important in diagnosis. 4. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. preparing vaccines. invading antigen. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. eczema. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. 8. sneezing. rheumatic fever. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. 12. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. detection of disease. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases.liver and spleen. 7. sobbing. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. 10. 13. 11. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). myasthenia gravis. 3. treatment. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. During forced inspiration. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). a phenomenon called immunologic escape. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. 2. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. 2. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. laughing. memory B cells recognize the original. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). 6. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. 14. and hives. 4. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. Coughing. 3. asthma. 2. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. 5. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. and multiple sclerosis (MS). Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. yawning.

The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration.are tidal volume. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. pCO2. 3. 2. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. and DPG. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. and Circulation. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. the sum of two or more volumes. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. According to Dalton's law. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. inflated alveoli. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. and apneustic area. 4. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. inspiratory reserve. 3. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. Breathing. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). 3. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. 2. Pulmonary lung capacities. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. and function of the epithelial cells.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. temperature. and minimal volumes. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). both in the brain and outside. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. functional residual. 4. It is symbolized by p. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). assuming that the pressure remains constant. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. residual volume. and total. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. when the temperature remains constant. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. pneumotaxic area. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. 6. The A. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. temperature.Internal Respiration: 1. and a rich blood supply. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. 2. blood pressure. and enlarged chest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. 4. division. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. and irritation to the respiratory centers. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. 3. C's of CPR are Airway. Disorders . External Respiration . Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. vital. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. a large alveolar surface area. 3. expiratory reserve. 2. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. the inflation reflex. B. 2. 5. 2. pain. inflated lungs. and excess mucus production. In bronchogenic carcinoma. include inspiratory. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. compresses the lungs.

Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. 9. and pancreas. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. 2. It consists of a voluntary stage. peristalsis. 2. and accessory structures. 2. The accessory structures include the teeth. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. mesocolon. 2. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. or alimentary canal. Organization: 1. falciform ligament. 4. liver. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. The tongue. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. and sublingual glands. 4. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. 4. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. submucosa. Teeth: 1. forms the floor of the oral cavity. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. root. and greater omentum. tongue. mechanical and chemical digestion. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. 8. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and tongue. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. submandibular (submaxillary). Some papillae contain taste buds. 2. gallbladder. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. 3. lips.7. 3. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. 2. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. 2. Deglutition: 1. the hardest substance in the body. 3. salivary glands. and cervix. 4. 2. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. which aid mechanical digestion. lesser omentum. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. Salivary Glands: 1. Digestive Processes: 1. 2. 3. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. or dentes. lipid. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. together with its associated muscles. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. palates. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. muscularis. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. and serosa (peritoneum). and defecation. 5. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. The teeth. absorption. 3.

terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). 3. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). 3. Absorption: 1. 2. 2.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). 2. 2. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. villi. and the microvilli. and transported as chylomicrons. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. 2. 2. a protein-digesting enzyme.Histology: 1. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2.Histology: 1. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Among the substances absorbed are some water. gastric. electrolytes. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. 3. and stomach gastrin. and alcohol. The small intestine also absorbs water. and vitamins. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. certain electrolytes and drugs. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . resynthesized to triglycerides. Gallbladder: 1. The esophagus is a collapsible. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). hydrochloric acid. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. 2. intrinsic factor. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Pancreas: 1. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. 3. 3. Absorption: 1. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. Hormones also assume a role. Liver: 1. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. Esophagus: 1. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2. Small Intestine: Anatomy . 2. Stomach: Anatomy . 4. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. 2. glands that produce mucus. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. and intestinal. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). 2.

During digestion. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. Anabolic reactions use energy. 7. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. rectum. vitamins. Types include hepatitis A. 3. Disorders . colon. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. carcinoma of the cecum. inorganic salts. 12. and vitamins. stenosis. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4.1. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. 10. electrolytes. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. 3. Defecation: 1. 9. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. action. 11. and undigested foods. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. 5. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. 3. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. and water. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. lipids. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. and non-A. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. act as building blocks in forming new body components. and cementum. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. 8. peristalsis. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. Feces consists of water. and anal canal. 5. 2. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. rather than enzymatic. and mass peristalsis. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. 2. minerals. hepatitis B. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. 2. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. bacteria. 4. Its subdivisions include the cecum. 2. The large intestine absorbs water. 2. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. proteins. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. or kinking of the organ. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. . a foreign body. periodontal membrane. epithelial cells. 2. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. colonoscopy. 2. Metabolism: 1. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. and barium x-ray. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. 6. alveolar bone.

glucagon. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 2. Glucose Anabolism: 1. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. coenzyme Q. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. 3. As a result of glycolysis. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. 6. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. 4. 5. 3. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. 3. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. It is stimulated by cortisol. 2. under aerobic conditions. Glycolysis: 1. 4. the Krebs cycle. 1 molecule of FADH2. 2. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. 2. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. 3. 3. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. Lipid Metabolism: 1. 3. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. 2. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. and growth hormone (GH). In beta oxidation. 4 molecules of NADH2. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. and the electron transport chain. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Glucose Catabolism: 1. and I molecule of GTP. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol.2. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. Lipid Catabolism: 1. 2. When oxygen is in short supply. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. Electron Transport Chain: 1. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. recombined to form triglycerides. 3. 3. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Fate of Lipids: 1. 2. epinephrine. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. thyroxine. 2. During digestion. thromboplastin for blood clotting. and cytochromes. Fat Storage: 1.

enter body cells by active transport. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. potassium. Protein Metabolism: 1. phosphorus. During the absorptive state. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. the nervous system. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. Before amino acids can be catabolized. fats. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). and proteins. stored. Many function in enzyme systems. copper. The process is stimulated by insulin. Vitamins: 1. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. Production of Body Heat: 1. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. E. magnesium. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. and body temperature. Protein Anabolism: 1. and so forth. zinc. sodium. 2. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. iodine. sulfur. and K. and hydrogenation. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. Minerals: 1. During digestion. D. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. fatty acids. structural elements. but an excess of ketone bodies. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. chlorine. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. Inside cells. Fate of Proteins: 1.4. or converted. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. may cause acidosis. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. snd ketane hadies. Amino acids. 2. 2. and insulin. iron. 2. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. hormones. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. 2. hormones. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . During the absorptive state. 4. 2. 3. conversion of glycerol into glucose. 2. 3. 3. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. 2.Lipogenesis: 1.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. selenium. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. 2. Protein Catabolism: 1. and chromium. these conversions involve deamination. manganese. called ketosis. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. 3. thyroxine. based on the needs of the body. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. decarboxylation. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. Lipid Anabolism . 2. cobalt. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate.

skeletal muscle contraction. D. 3. ascending limb of Henle. profuse perspiration. 4. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. and K and calcium is inadequate. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. adipose capsule. pyramids. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. failure to grow. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 3. urinary bladder. 4. 4. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. 3. 2. and a pelvis. the kidneys consist of a cortex. and dizziness. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). lethargy. 2. Physiology: 1. reduced perspiration. and sometimes mental retardation. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. papillae. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. 4. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. 3. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. and high body temperature. 2. 2. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. 7. and thyroxine production. 3. stages include chill and crisis. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. proximal convoluted tubule. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. and renal fascia. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. 5. Loss of Body Heat: 1. 5. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. descending limb of Henle. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. 2. columns. and urethra. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). It consists of the glomerular endothelium. calyces. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. distal convoluted tubule. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. 6. 3. loop of Henle. glomerulus. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. deereased metabolic rate. 2. and perspiration. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . nausea. Internally. cramps. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. 4. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. sympathetic stimulation. ureters. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. 4. medulla.

6. plasma and Iymph. 7. creatinine. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. ketone bodies. pleural.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. 5. leucocytes. 11. and ions. the lungs. 3. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. and fibrous coat. Included are ions. including water. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. The solutes include urea. casts. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. and specific gravity. and certain drugs. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. Disorders . Ureters: 1. 5. odor. ketone bodies. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. 2. synovial fluid.6. and fluids of the eyes and ears. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. 4. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. Gl tract fluids. muscularis. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. 10. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. and the glomerular filtrate. pericardial. integument. erythrocytes. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. glucose. 3. 8. 7. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. Histologically. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. 5. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. and emotions. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). 2. blood concentration. and microbes. 3. 4. Homeostasis: 1. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. amino acids. the rest by facultative reabsorption. urobilinogen. 4. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. Urethra: 1. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. primarily by peristalsis. 9. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. 2. cerebrospinal fluid. hippuric acid. Urinary Bladder: 1. Besides the kidneys. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. turbidity. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. nitrogenous wastes. 3. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. diuretics. and peritoneal fluids. uric acid. 2. Body Fluids: 1. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. temperature. Chemically. pH. salts. renal calculi. 2. 8. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. glucose. Normally. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. 2. In exchange. and a serous coat. and ions. bilirubin. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. It includes interstitial fluid. indican.

Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). especially extracellular fluid. At the venous end. and GI tract. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. An increase in rate of respirations. 2.45. 2. interstitial fluid. 2. 4. 3. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. fluid moves in the opposite direction. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. 4. At the arterial end of a capillary. 8. Electrolytes: 1. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. and protein. 7. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS.80. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. muscle contraction. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions.45 and 8. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation.35 to 7. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. 2. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. chemical transmitter release. 5. decreases pH. muscle contraction. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. It also functions in blood clotting. 4. Acid-Base Balance: 1. and heartbeat. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. and regulation of pH. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation.00. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. 11. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. skin. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. a decrease in rate. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems.1. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. and regulating pH. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). 3. 6. muscle contraction. 10. respirations. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .35 and 6. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. increases pH. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. 5. phosphate. nerve impulse conduction. Under normal conditions. and kidney excretion. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). 2. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. 3. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. 9. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. 4. 3. 4. Plasma. lungs. 3. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. and fluid and electrolyte balance. proper fluid movement between compartments.

11. rete testis. 3. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. Scrotum: 1. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. seminal vesicles. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. 4. and tail. 7. 3. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. development. Testes: 1. 2. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. 6. 4. 2. ductus deferens. straight tubules. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. and maintenance of sex organs. sustentacular cells. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). 7. 2. midpiece. ducts (transport and store gametes). Male Reproductive System: 1. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. prostate gland. sperm maturation. Accessory Glands: 9. 2. II. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. ductus epididymis. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. 3. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. 3. and interstitial endocrinocytes. and spongy (cavernous). urethra. in which sperm cells are made. 6. and rete testis. protein anabolism. 8. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. which nourish sperm cells. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. bulbourethral glands. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. and efferent ducts. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. 5. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. stimulates bone growth. Testosterone controls the growth. 5. Ducts: 1. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. 12. and penis. membranous. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. 2. 10. straight tubules. ejaculatory duct. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). and 7. Reproductive System: 1. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next.

Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion.nutrients. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. The uterus is an inverted. 4. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. development. and vulva. During the postovulatory phase. 2. 6. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. discharge ova (ovulation). Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. Histologically. and epithelial cells. and stimulate protein anabolism. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. 4. Penis: 1. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. They produce ova. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. 3. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. 5. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. 9. 3. Ovaries: 1. implantation of a fertilized ovum. and labor. 2. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. vagina. 8. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). 7. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. During the preovulatory phase. tissue fluid. development of a fetus during pregnancy. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. 10. and inner endometrium. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. middle myometrium. 6. mucus. endometrial repair occurs. ovulation. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. on either side of the uterus. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. 2. Uterus: 1. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. . and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. uterus. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. uterine tubes. 11. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. 2. 5. III. 4. The penis is the male organ of copulation. During the menstrual phase. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. 2. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. 3. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Estrogens stimulate the growth.

The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. 7. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. clitoris. genital herpes. abnormal bleeding. and orgasm (climax). 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. 5. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 11. The female role also involves erection. 3. It is said to be haploid (n). and orgasm. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. 4. equatorial division. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 7. 2. Vulva: 1. 8. 6. 9. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. 3. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). Oogenesis: 1. It consists of the mons veneris. 2. enlarged prostate. vestibule. 2. Disorders . Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. labia majora. 2. 8. dysmenorrhea. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. 2. equatorial division. 13. pectoral muscles. the cessation of the sexual cycles. 10. 9. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. lubrication. 10. 2. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Mammary Glands: 1. labia minora. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. and the lower portion of the birth canal. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. The removal of a malignant breast. Spermatogenisis: 1. 12. Sexual Intercourse: 1. and ova maturation. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. lubrication. If fertilization and implantation do occur. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. Perineum: 1. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. 2. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. 2. 12. Vagina: 1. vaginal and urethral orifices. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. trichomoniasis. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. and tumors. and sperm maturation. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. 2. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). syphilis. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes.

Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. 2. . 2. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. 3. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. embryonic growth. implantation. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. 1. Its various events are hormonally controlled.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. and birth. 5. 4. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. fetal growth. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .

amnion. protein anabolism. 3. and allantois. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. expulsion of the fetus. sterilization (vasectomy. Lactation: 1. 2. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. Birth Control: 6. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. chorion. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. 3. Examples are infections. chemicals and drugs. 1. and contraception (natural. and progesterone. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. 6. 2. removal of wastes. 5. . laparascopic technique).The morula develops into a blastocyst. such as hemophilia. 2. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. and progesterone. 8. estrogens. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. mechanical. Parturition and Labor: 1. 5. 3. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. Dominant genes control a particular trait. 2. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. During the fetal period. 7. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. and chemical). Inheritance: 1. During embryonic growth. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. microbes. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. 3. alcohol. Tay-Sachs disease. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. mesoderm. 4. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. 2. 2. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. tubal ligation. and Down's syndrome. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). 2. 4. 3. and delivery of the placenta. sickle cell anemia. and protection. estrogens. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. 2. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. and smoking.

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