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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
3. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. They contain enzymes (e. 2. Thus they are called "suicide packets. karyolymph. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. support. stores synthesized molecules. 2. In conjunction with the ER. and control. transports substances intracellularly. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. 3. Ribosomes: 1. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. The ER provides mechanical support. If the cell is injured. and inorganic substances. such as mature red blood cells. They support. 4. 3. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. Peroxisomes: 1. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. do not grow or reproduce. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. comprising the chromosomes. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. It is located near the nucleus. 2. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. They are formed from Golgi complexes.The Cytoskeleton: 1. lipids. 2. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. 3. 2. 3. and genetic material (DNA). 2. provide movement.g. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes." 4. and form the structure of flagella. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. carbohydrates. membranous sacs called cisternae. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. and movement. Usually the largest organelle. 1. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. 2. 2.. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Microfilaments and Microtubules . Cytoplasm: 1. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. Functionally. maintenance. 3. 2. Functionally. 3. The inner folds are called cristae. and helps export chemicals from the cell. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. repair. Cells without nuclei. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. Mitochondria: 1. and the mitotic spindle. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. centrioles. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. 3. Nucleus: 1. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Organelles: 1. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. which carry on phagocytosis. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. nucleoli. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. but smaller. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells.13. 2. cilia. They are involved in muscular contraction. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1.
are amorphous. 3. reticular. In transcription. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. an "SOS response" occurs. the DNA molecules. 3. It consists of prophase. 2. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. 3. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. 6. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and elastic fibers. 2. Some. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis).Protein Synthesis: 1. glycogen. Others. If projections are few and long. 4. 2. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. which consist of rRNA and protein. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). Cell Division: 1. are fibrous. 3. 3. 3. 2. 7. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. In response to DNA damage. This involves transcription and translation. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. lipids. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. 2.DNA Repair: 1. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. Examples are melanin. Cellular Inclusions: 1. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. they are called cilia. 2. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. Somatic Cell Division: 1. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. 5. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. like collagenous. "SOS" Genes . a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves.2. 4. DNA Polymerase is an example. 6. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. If they are numerous and hairlike. and mucus. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). they are called flagella. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. metaphase. anaphase. and telophase. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. Flagella and Cilia: 1. 8. 5. Extracellular Materials: 1. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. or chromosomes. Gene Action . Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate.
and most upper respiratory structures. Connective Tissue: 1. 3. Epithelial Tissue: 1. pharynx. tubuloacinar. and transitional (variable). the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. It lines larger excretory ducts. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). 2. Exocrine glands (sweat. 2. and apocrine glands. but none successfully answers all questions. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. 4. where it protects and secretes. and binds organs together. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. 7. the study of tumors is called oncology. and compound. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. Many theories of aging have been proposed. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. acinar. simple. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. except for cartilage. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. an extensive intercellular substance. 2. portion of urethra. Depending on their function and structure. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. supports. It is found covering ovaries. It has few cells. auditory tubes. merocrine. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. 5. It can replace itself. Connective tissue protects. 3. Glandular Epithelium: 1. oil. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. 6. 5.1. and epiglottis. connective. 3. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). and lining some glandular ducts. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. cuboidal (cubelike). Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. 2. 2. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. Functional classification includes holocrine. and no blood vessels (avascular). parts of urethra. 2. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. 2. 3. 8. 3. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. noncancerous tumors are called benign. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. and a rich blood supply (vascular). Epithelium has many cells. in kidneys and eyes. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. 9. columnar (rectangular). cell shapes include squamous (flat). It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. 4. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . muscular. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. stratified (several layers). Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. and nervous. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. It does not occur on free surfaces. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. little intracellular material. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium.
and swelling. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. and in the subcutaneous layer. and external ear. 5. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). macrophages.contraction. membranes of organs. pain. 6. and Cardiac. and provides support. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. elastic arteries. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. cartilage. Adipose. in the nose. 2. and in respiratory structures. o Serous membranes (pleura. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. plasma. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. bronchial tubes. at the ends of bones. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. Membranes: 1. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. and cutaneous. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). and vascular tissue. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. Muscle tissue performs one major function . 7. spleen. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. where it gives support. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. elastic. Examples are: mucous. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. pericardium. and true vocal cords. and Reticular. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. sometimes loss of function occurs. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts.4. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. bone tissue. such as the digestive tract. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. Visceral (smooth). Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. and aponeuroses. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. called adipocytes. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. 4. It provides strength. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. mast. and Iymph nodes. serous. Dense. are specialized for fat storage. allows movement. 2. Tissue Inflammation . 2. heat. auditory tubes. 3. around body organs. tendons. It is flexible. and melanocytes). Elastic.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. ligaments. It is found as a component of fascia. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. 2. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. trachea.
D. an abscess develops. 3. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. The skin and its derivatives (hair. arrectores pilorum muscles. are the stratum basale. sudoriferous. some B. brown melanin. storage of chemical compounds. serotonin. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). Conditions for Repair: 1. and a hair follicle.The Skin: Skin 1. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. E. The color of skin is due to melanin. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. hair follicles. 2. and excretion of water. lucidum. dermal papillae. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. In most inflammations. skin glands (sebaceous. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. Repair Process: 1. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. 2. 4. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. 7. 3. black melanin. It performs the functions of protection. spinosum. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. granulosum. 3. receiving stimuli. and parenchymal regeneration. 5. synthesis of vitamin D. salts. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. 5. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. 6. 4. 2. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. granulation tissue is involved. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . oil glands. and several organic compounds. glands. from deepest to most superficial.2. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. • Glands: 1. • Hair: 1. The reticular region is dense. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. 8. The epidermal layers. and corneum. If the injury is superficial. 2. 4. and ducts of sweat glands. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. and ceruminous). It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. 2. and Meissner's corpuscles. 3. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. hair follicles. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. carotene. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. The Integumentary System . and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. if it cannot drain out of the body. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. nerves. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. and nails. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. nerves. and root hair plexuses. Tissue Repair: 1. and pheomelanin (yellow). C. maintaining body temperature. Various vitamins (A. pus is produced. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. scab formation. kinins. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. If damage is extensive. the process slows down with aging. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. 5. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface.
Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. As the perspiration evaporates. 4. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. second-degree (partialthickness). If environmental temperature is high. Nails: 1. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Disorders . 11. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. and blood cell production. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. 10. removing dead tissue. 3. and skin grafting. and third-degree (fullthickness). They are found in the external auditory meatus. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. 4. 2. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. 7. or psychogenic factors. and boils. replacing lost body fluids. and areolae. their ducts open into hair follicles. pimples. protection. 2. and covering wounds with temporary protection. Most warts are benign. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration.• palms and soles. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. the skin is cooled. leverage. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. 8. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. Nails are hard. 2. eponychium. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. regulating metabolic rate. The principal parts of a nail are the body. 6. root. 2. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. lunula. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. 2.6F). mineral storage. 9. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. raised plaques or papules. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. and matrix. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. 5. 3. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. hyponychium. Histology: 1. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. The functions of the skeletal system include support. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. systemic diseases. pubis. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. Homeostasis: 1. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. free edge. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. Depending on the depth of damage. 3.
Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. 8. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. Functionally. 4. epiphyses (ends). except for the epiphyseal plate. The types of fractures include: partial. marrow.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and nondisplaced. 2. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. and periosteum. simple. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. 6. where bone replaces cartilage. 3. Next. In both types of ossification. 3. This process is called remodeling. intramembranous and endochondral. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. 2. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. and calcified matrix. transverse. and endosteum. Pott's. Functionally. 4. greenstick. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. comminuted. C. metaphysis. and vitamins (A. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. 5. Homeostasis: 1. and remodeling. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. A fracture is any break in a bone. and resists stress. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. periosteum. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. compound. hypertrophic cartilage. and irregular bones. spiral. Colles'. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. phosphorus. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). 7. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . complete. spongy bone is laid down first. 3. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. It forms most of the structure of short. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. Osteoblasts lay down bone. articular cartilage. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. 9. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. and the epiphyses of long bones. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. supports. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. 7. Normal growth depends on calcium. flat. impacted. Cartilage degenerates. 2. displaced. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. forming a callus. medullary or marrow cavity. 5. 2. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. proliferating cartilage. Disorders . 3. 6. The two types of ossification. 8. compact bone protects. 4. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood.
The patella is an example. thoracic vertebrae (12). flat. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. and ethmoid. short. 2. The major fontanels are the anterior. 3. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. Examples are coronal. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. facet. sternum. 2. temporal (2). The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). foramen. 1. and spine. The vertebral column. fossa. posterior. or irregular. sphenoid. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. inferior nasal conchae (2). support. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. 4. lacrimal (2). ethmoid. and squamosal sutures. Vertebral Column: 1. crest. 3. occipital. and maxilla. 2. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. Condyle. meatus. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. parietal (2). lumbar vertebrae (5). It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. and vomer. and ribs. 3. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. These curves give strength. zygomatic (2). 2. Surface Markings: 1. sphenoid. On the basis of shape. 3. fused) and the coccyx (4. Hyoid Bone: 1. hyoid bone. the sternum. 7. Skull: 1. and posterolaterals. mandible. auditory ossicles. and balance. 2. 6. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. fused). maxillae (2). bones are classified as long. tuberosity. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar).1. anterolaterals. palatine (2). They are lined by mucous membranes. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. sagittal. 5. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. the sacrum (5. process. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The skull consists of the cranium and the face. 2. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. lambdoidal. vertebral column. muscle attachment. Terms that describe markings include fissure. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. It is composed of 22 bones. head.
Examples include scoliosis. 2. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. and Medial Cuneiform. 3. and detail. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. 4. Schaphoid (Navicular). tibia. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. is referred to as spina bifida. 3. 2. metatarsals. 2. and phalanges. fibula. ulna. Capitate. and the thoracic vertebrae. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. and the bones of the lower extremities. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. each consisting of a body. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . o Lower Extremities: 1. and ischium. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. the ribs and costal cartilages. and seven processes. kyphosis. metacarpals. 4. and phalanges. the bones of the upper extremities. the pelvic girdle. 2. Navicular.The vertebra are similar in structure. Talus. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). 3. shape. 2. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). and lordosis. a congenital defect. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. II. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. Cuboid. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. vertebral arch. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. Hamate (Unciform). Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. L l. 5. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. Thorax: 1. Pisiform. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. 2. tarsals. and L 2. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. radius. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). Triangular (Triquetrum). 3. carpals. pubis. o Upper Extremities: 1. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones.
All synovial joints are freely movable. with no joint cavity. biaxial. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. 6. 2. joints are classified as fibrous. and a synovial membrane. 2. Articulations: 1. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . protraction and retraction. joints. cartilaginous. tension of ligaments. 7. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. rotation. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. and muscles. some also contain ligaments. 2. and loss of function. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. 3. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. articular discs. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. 5. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. ligaments. 4.arches. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). 3. with no joint cavity. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. 2. or luxation. circumduction. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). and elevation and depression. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. 8. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. 5. are fibrous joints. Structurally. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. Fibrous Joints: 1. Bones held together by cartilage. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). a partial dislocation is called subluxation. or synovial. Disorders . Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. angular movements. 3. 3. 4. or triaxial. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. supination and pronation. articular cartilage. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. A dislocation. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. 6. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). are cartilaginous joints.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). 1. and bursae. pivot joints (radioulnar). swelling. hinge joints (elbow). to provide support and leverage. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. 2. 2. 2. and muscle tension. Synovial Joints: 1. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. inversion and eversion. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. tendons. 2.
2. 2. 4. tropomyosin. Connective tissue components are epimysium. and subserous. covering individual fibers. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. deep. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. 3. 4. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. 5. 2. sarcoplasmic reticulum. It is striated and involuntary. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. covering the entire muscle. 3. or myoneural. contract. It is striated and voluntary. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. 3. Physiology of Contraction: 1. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. and troponin. perimysium. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. 2. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. There are three types of fascia: superficial. nuclei. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. Contraction . and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Types: 1. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. 3. and endomysium. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. the neuron releases acetylcholine. 7.without dislocation. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. 6. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. 4. 2. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. junction. The Motor Unit: 1. 2. 3. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. and T tubules. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. Functions: 1. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. Energy for Contraction: 1. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. 3. and heat production. Through contraction. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. maintenance of posture. covering fasciculi. 8. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. 2. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. triggering the contractile process.
3. 2. It is striated and involuntary. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. Muscle Tone: 1. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. stimulus. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. 2. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. The fibers are arranged in a network. and related structures in the thigh. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. Unit it is paid back. tetanus. or threshold. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. 3. Disorders . and a large amount of myoglobin. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. muscles. or subthreshold. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. cramps.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. it is called lumbago. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. 2. Kinds of Contractions: 1. If it occurs in the lumbar region. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. Abnormal contractions include spasms. convulsions. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. 2. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. and stiffness of joints. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. Homeostasis: 1. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. 3. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. 2. 3. 6. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. 3. 2. and larger T tubules. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. 5. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. more blood capillaries. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. 2. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. This muscle is found only in the heart. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. 3. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. isotonic. stimulus. fibrillations. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. and tics. 3. 3. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. 4. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth.2. 4. tenderness. more mitochondria. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. treppe. 2. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. each of which contracts as a functional unit. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. and isometric.
and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. 3. and action. number of origins (or heads). pennate. 2. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. Neurons: 1. 4. and deltoid region of the arm. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. 3. second-class. 6. 3. and circular. interpreting them. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. microglia. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. and carry out phagocytosis. and resistance on the lever. oligodendrocytes. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. effort. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. cardiac muscle tissue. 4. 3. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. and usually a single axon. and ependyma. 2. produce the myelin sheath. and glands. 2. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. origin and insertion. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. location. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. lateral side of the thigh. and the membrane is said to be polarized. On the basis of structure. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. or nerve cells. Around the time of birth. If. Nerve Impulse: 1. and reacting to them. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. and unipolar. 1. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. and minimal irritation. bipolar. convergent. 6. the membrane is said to have an action potential. 5. including motor neurons. 2. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. 2. Neurons. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. attach neurons to blood vessels. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. shape. 5. 2. The antagonist produces an opposite action. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . size. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. Intramuscular Injections: 1. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. neurons are multipolar. 2. On the basis of function. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1.
and lateral gray horns. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. 5. and vertebral ligaments. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. Protection and Coverings: 1. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. 4. and lateral white columns. 7. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. cerebrospinal fluid. 3. posterior. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. 2. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . anterior. 7. 4. 6. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. 7. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 3. arachnoid and pia mater. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. anterior. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. 5. 3. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. According to the all-ornothing principle. 2. 2. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. cell body. 2. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1.travels from point to point along the membrane. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. 4. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. 5. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. 3. 4. 6. 5. Structure in Cross Section: 1. and ascending and descending tracts. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. or axon hillock. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. 6. central canal. posterior. 6. meninges.
4. • Composition and Coverings: 1. and the abdominal reflex. brachial. 8. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. Its basic components are a receptor. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. 2. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. 1. 2. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. lumbar. such as the patellar reflex.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. a sensory neuron. 2. and motor neuron. a motor neuron. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. 2. 4. 3. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. and regeneration. and sacral plexuses. 5. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. and an effector. except for T 2-T 11. Following peripheral nerve damage. flexor reflex. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 2. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. tendon reflex. 5. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. A reflex is a quick. The posterior root. and rami communicantes. Functions: 1. 4. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. 2. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. 7. and epineurium. the Babinski sign. ventral ramus. the Achilles reflex. Wallerian degeneration. • Distribution: 1. 9. form networks of nerves called plexuses. 3. meningeal branch. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. is an example. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. respectively. a center. 1. 6. 5. 4. association. and crossed extensor reflex. perineunum. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. Disorders . Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. 3. 5. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. • Dermatomes: 1. 3.2. posterior root ganglion. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. The skin segments are called dermatomes. A stretch reflex. 2. constant segments of the skin. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex.
It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 2. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. The Brain Stem: 1. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. mental retardation. convulsions. 2. The pons is superior to the medulla. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. 2. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. 3. vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. Protection and Coverings: 1. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. it is called internal hydrocephalus. 1. Embryological Development: 1. diencephalon. 2. 4. 4. and cerebellum. 3. coughing. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. cells. swallowing. The Diencephalon: 1. 2. sneezing. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. 2. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. and unconsciousness. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. ventricles. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. 4. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. or death of brain 5. vasoconstriction. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. which helps control respiration. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. and central canal. respiratory rate. 3. 2. epilepsy. 1. or death. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 6. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 2. During embryological development. it is called external hydrocephalus. 1. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. 1. 2. cranial meninges. 3. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. and hiccuping. permanent damage. 3. 1. cerebrum. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. 2. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII.1.
7. insight. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 3. temporal. 4. 1. 3. 5. sound. 7. 3. 2. and generating mental images of sight. 2. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. parietal. norepinephrine. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. touch. 2. 5. excite. 3. imagination. controls body temperature. 2. space and pattern perception. 2. and sulci. and tumors. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 3. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. spoken and written language. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. and dynorphin. taste. and glycine. 4. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 10. The Cerebellum: 1. 8. It controls the autonomic nervous system. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. to the cerebral cortex. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. and occipital. They help to control muscular movements. and smell. 6. 2. 9. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. endorphins. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. 2. serotonin. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. 3. 1. either anatomically or functionally. Its cortex contains convolutions. 2. gamma aminobutyric acid. 3. Brain Lateralization: 1. 1. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. constricted vermis. 6. numerical and scientific skills. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. 3. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. 3.7. except smell. 3. musical and artistic awareness. glutamic acid. and reasoning. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. The Cerebrum: 1. 1. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. 2. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. fissures. dopamine. aspartic acid. infections. 2. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. regulates food and fluid intake.
4. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. Vagus Sensory. Oculomotor . 4. 10. 3. Disorders . also called strokes. or basal ganglia during fetal development. taste. Glossophary ngeal . 5. Trigeminal Sensory function.Sensory. 6. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. 7. sensory.The sense of smell. 3. muscles of facial expression. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. lower jaw. hearing and balance. 11. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. larynx. 4. 10.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Depending on the form of the disease. Examples include angiotensin. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. or psychological malfunction. 12. 12. cholecystokinin. Motor function. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. upper eyelid. lower teeth. Soft palate. Vestibulococ hlear . thoracic and abdominal organs. Impulse transmission is interrupted. inferior pharynx. 6.Sensory. cornea. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 8. 5. upper jaw. upper teeth. Accessory Motor.The sense of vision. muscles of mastication. Palate. childbirth. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. 9. taste. 8. Olfactory . 4. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Motor function. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. larangeal muscles. thrombosis. Optic . 7. 1. forehead. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. 2. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. pharyngeal muscles. or atherosclerosis. Scalp. some neck and shoulder muscles.11. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. Motor. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. nose. etc.Motor.Motor function of eye muscles. 11. soft palate. or early infancy. Motor. etc. cerebellum. tongue muscles. Hypoglossal . . and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. The Cranial Nerves: 1. 2. pharynx. Tongue muscles. Facial Sensory. 9. the victim experiences degrees of motor.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. muscle spindles. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. proprioception. 2. thermoreceptors. and liver damage. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. and sometimes delirium. In terms of simplicity or complexity. Merkel's discs. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. Receptors located in muscles. General Senses . The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. 2. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). second-order. and third-order neurons. surgery. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. brain dysfunction.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. 12. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. free nerve endings. conduction of the impulse to the brain. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. electromagnetic receptors. 2. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. 3. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. visceroceptors. 7. nociceptors. and pain. 5. Levels of Sensation: 1. 2. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. movement of body parts. According to location. Sensations: 1. pressure. 4. and end organs of Ruffini. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. end organs of Ruffini. Characteristics: 1. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. 4. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. 5. Meissner's corpuscles. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. they cause subconscious motor reactions. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. and tendon organs. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. 3. tendons. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. and acupuncture. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. The neural pathway for light touch. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. and proprioceptors. and Pacinian corpuscles. vibration). receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. 4.muscle spasms and encephalitis. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. 2. 13. 2. 4. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. connective tissues. 3. 3. 6. and chemoreceptors. Classification of Receptors: 1. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 3. and body position. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. 2. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. personality changes.
A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). 2. regulates visceral activities. the hypothalamus. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. 2. decrease in heart rate. anterior corticospinal. 5. ganglia. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. 2. concerned with energy expenditure. it consists of activated and long-term components. 3. or visceral efferent nervous system. It is entirely motor. and the medulla oblongata. and corticobulbar tracts. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. and visceral effector. and glands. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. that is. Olfactory Sensations: 1. and plexuses. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. afferent neuron. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. 4. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. The autonomic nervous system. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. It has been used to control heart rate. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. reduced metabolic rate. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). association neuron. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. 2. cardiac muscle. 4. and to make childbirth easier. and vestibulospinal tracts. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). in particular by the cerebral cortex. 3. 3. 2. Integrative Functions: 1. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. 2. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. 3. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination.6. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. 3. to alleviate migraine headaches. It is regulated by centers in the brain. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. 3. activities of smooth muscle. Motor Pathways: 1. It usually operates without conscious control. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. Control by Higher Centers: 1. 4. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. tectospinal. 4. 4. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. 2. Physiology: 1. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. in general. On the basis of the transmitter produced.
4. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. accommodation of the lens. ossicles. olfactory tracts. 7. and the threshold of smell is low. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. and cerebral cortex. eyelids. the optic chiasma. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. strike the oval window. and inverted image formation. 8. which destroys neurons of the retina.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. increase pressure in the endolymph. 6. sweet. VII. 5. strike the tympanic membrane. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna.2. thalamus. the thalamus. 4. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. 3. the optic tract. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. 10. The four primary tastes are salt. medulla. 6. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. water-soluble. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. 3. eyelashes. external auditory canal. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. the organ of hearing. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. 3. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. and vitreous humor. constriction of the pupil. or vertical motion. 4. 2. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. and the lacrimal apparatus. 7. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. which contains rods and cones. lens. Trachoma is a chronic. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). and round window). Visual Sensations: 1. A sound impulse is then initiated. olfactory bulbs. ciliary body. pass through the ossicles. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. aqueous humor. 5. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). 5. and cerebral cortex. sour. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. 4. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. linear. hypermetropia (farsightedness). The internal ear contains the spiral organ. oval window. 3. strike the basilar membrane. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). 2. 5. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. 2. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 3. Disorders . 2. 4. 9. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. and iris). Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. IX. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. set up waves in the perilymph. and tympanic membrane). convergence. and X. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. and the cortex. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. and bitter. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. 8. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. and (c) retina. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. and lipid-soluble.
nerve impulses. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. respond to stress. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). and regulating factors. 7. help regulate growth and development. 6. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. giantism. Exocrine glands (sweat. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. 3. 5. sebaceous. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. Control of Hormonal Secretions . and acromegaly. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 16. 2. 9. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). 11. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). 12. 2. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. and contribute to reproductive processes. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. 3. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. Histologically. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. 3. 2. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. 8. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. On the basis of solubility. 2. 14. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. 15. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. 2. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). Hormones help regulate the internal environment. 10.Feedback Control: 1. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). 13. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 4.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1.
growth and development. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Secretion is controlled by TRF. 2. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .. Histologically. 3. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. myxedema. 6. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. and delta cells. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. 5. and zona reticularis. Ovaries and Testes: 1. 4. beta cells secrete insulin. 2. Glucocorticoids (e. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. Histologically. 4. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics.. 4. zona ennin late. Parathyroids: 1.g. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. 3. Secretion is controlled by CRF. 10. and parafollicular cells. menstrual cycle. exophthalmic goiter. 2. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. 7. Histologically. and lactation. Histologically. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. 3. Cretinism. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. They are released under stress. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. 5. 8. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. 4. Histologically. which secrete calcitonin (CT). Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Mineralocorticoids (e. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 3. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. 2. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. glucocorticoids. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. 5. and serve as antiinflammatories. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. 2. and the reactivity of the nervous system. 9. 6. 6. help resist stress. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. and gonadocorticoids. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids.Thyroid: 1. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle.g. 2. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. beta cells. Pancreas: 1. pregnancy.
fibrinogen). Normal blood contains 5. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. wastes. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. thymic factor (TF). The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells).5 percent water and 8. thymic humoral factor (THF). 3. 2. the heart. 2. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. 5. hormones. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. Functions: 1. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis.4 million/mm3 of blood. It helps to regulate pH. consists of 91. eosinophils. 3. granular leucocytes. Components: 1. 3. A healthy male has about 5. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. globulins. 4. called erythropoiesis. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. 6. 4. 5. 2. and enzymes. Normal blood contains 250. Blood transports oxygen. 0.4 degrees F). Plasma: 1. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. about 4. Thrombocytes: 1.90 NaCI. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. neuroglial cells. and platelets. leucocytes (white blood cells). It protects against toxins and microbes.35 to 7. 38 degrees C (100. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting.000/mm3. 2.000/mm3. Erythrocyte formation. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. Leucocytes: 1. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. Lymphocytes. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. 2. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. nutrients. 4. 2. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. called plasma. foods. 3. 3. 2. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. and water content of cells. Erythrocytes: 1.000 to 400.85 to 0. 4. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. carbon dioxide. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . body temperature. The liquid portion of blood. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. and salinity. pH. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. Red blood cells live about 120 days. 2. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. a healthy female.45. 3. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. 6. and Iymph glands. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight.000 to 9.8 million/mm3.5 to 5. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. and thrombocytes (platelets). and blood vessels. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. Iymph vessels. Thymus: 1. temperature.5. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells.5 percent solutes. 7. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin.pinealocytes.
Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. It involves vascular spasm. 5. aplastic. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). and out through the aorta. respiratory gases. platelet plug formation. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. and sickle cell anemia. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. myocardium. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. and endocardium. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. 9. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes.and hormones. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles.. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. 11.Valves: 1. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. 8. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .g. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. The cause is a virus. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. In the Rh system. In the ABO system. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. 7. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. The parietal pericardium. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. 2. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. 4. Like plasma. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. encloses the heart. Anticoagulatants (e. In vascular spasm. 2. 3. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. 3. 3. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. 2. 6. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). The Cardiovascular System . hemorrhagic. hemolytic. pernicious. Interstitial Fluid: 1. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. 2. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 2. 10. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. 2. 2. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count.The Heart: 1. heparin) prevent clogging. Disorders . individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. 4. and blood coagulation. 4. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle.
3. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. 6. atrioventricular (AV) node. and right heart (atrial) reflex. 3. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 4. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. Conduction System: 1. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. 5. 2. detecting the presence of fetal life. Blood Supply: 1. 7. Electrocardiogram: 1. bundle branches. 2. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium.4. 5. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. 5. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. 4. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. 2. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. 7. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. 2. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. 4. 3. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 6. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. Cardiac Output: 1. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . between the atria and their ventricles. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. aortic reflex. 3. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. 6. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. 2. and Purkinje fibers. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. sodium. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). potassium). Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. 4. 7. determining the presence of several fetuses. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). 3. temperature. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. Cardiac Cycle: 1. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus.8 sec.
The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). and tetralogy of Fallot). Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. Venules: 1. 3. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. Arteries: 1. 2. cigarette smoking. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. and genetic disposition. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. 5. and age.ener Arterioles: 1. sex (gender and physical activity). venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. 2. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. septal defects. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. 4. and to apply chemotherapy locally. high blood pressure. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. 2. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. to correct some defects. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. The heart becomes hypoxic. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. 4. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. some capillaries are continuous. 2. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. others are fenestrated. and therefore blood pressure. This network increases the surface area. 2. 3. flutter. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. In severe shock. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). Disorders . fibrillation. 3. obesity. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. They drain blood from capillaries into veins.emotion. Veins: 1. As blood volume increases. blood pressure increases. 3. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. Capillaries: 1. and tunica externa. valvular stenosis. and premature contractions). Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. diabetes mellitus. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. 4. 2. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. and arrhythmias (heart block. lack of exercise. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. 3. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. 2. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. 5. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. 4. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids.
and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. 6. skeletal muscular contractions. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. Systemic Circulation: 1. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. 8. 3. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. chemicals. Circulatory Routes: 1. temperature. 3. 2. At birth. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. and age. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. 2. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. Fetal Circulation: 1. and the descending aorta. 2. Blood Reservoirs: 1. 7. sex. Other routes include the cerebral. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. stomach. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. 2. and breathing. 2. when lung. and higher brain centers. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. the arch of the aorta. 3. 9. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. chemicals. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. pulmonary. 2. intestines. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. and autoregulation. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). 3. digestive. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. 2. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. chemoreceptors. spleen. 2. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. and fetal circulation. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. emotions. Disorders . The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. and liver functions are established. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. They in turn empty into the right atrium. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. 3.
antimicrobial substances (interferon. to the subclavian veins. 2. and Iysozyme). stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. brain. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. 9. to Iymph trunks. 7. lacrimal apparatus. mucous membranes. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. 3. chemical factors (gastric juice. 8. and multivalence. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. IgD. They include the pharyngeal. Iymphatic vessels. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 3. 2. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. reactivity. 4. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. 3. pollen. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. incompatible blood cells. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. phagocytosis. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 2. 5. 5. Examples of antigens are microbes. and kidneys. complement. and properdin). acid pH of skin. and fever. to Iymph capillaries. cilia. microbial structures. epiglottis. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. 3. 3. and Iymph organs. and lingual tonsils. each with specific biological roles (IgG. 2. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. 3. 2. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. IgA. Iymph nodes. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. 2. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. and transplants. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. unsaturated fatty acids. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. called Iymphatics. to Iymphatics. inflammation. 4. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. Lymph Circulation: 1. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. 2. when introduced into the body. 6. and flow of urine). Lymphatic Organs: 1. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. saliva. mucus. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. Based on chemistry and structure. IgM.1. Antigens are chemical substances that. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. palatine. and IgE). 4. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels.
Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. and hives. 5. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. 11. 4. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. 10. and multiple sclerosis (MS). 2. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . sighing. rheumatic fever. 3. treatment. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. preparing vaccines. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. Coughing. 2. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. 4. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). During forced inspiration. they are important in diagnosis. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing.liver and spleen. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. laughing. crying. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. sneezing. sobbing. 12. detection of disease. 13. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. 6. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. 14. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). 8. 7. 3. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. asthma. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. yawning. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. eczema. 2. 2. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). memory B cells recognize the original. invading antigen. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. myasthenia gravis. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure.
and excess mucus production. inspiratory reserve. compresses the lungs. blood pressure. a large alveolar surface area. 5. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). According to Dalton's law. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. 2. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. assuming that the pressure remains constant. C's of CPR are Airway. 2. 3. 2. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. 6. pneumotaxic area. temperature. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . pain. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. Breathing. 3. when the temperature remains constant. the sum of two or more volumes. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. and minimal volumes. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. vital. B. 4. temperature. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. External Respiration . 2. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. The A. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). inflated lungs. and enlarged chest. inflated alveoli. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. It is symbolized by p. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. the inflation reflex. and Circulation. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. 3. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. 3. and irritation to the respiratory centers. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. Pulmonary lung capacities. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. and DPG. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. 2. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. Disorders . and a rich blood supply. expiratory reserve. 3. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. 3. and function of the epithelial cells. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. 4. 2. In bronchogenic carcinoma. functional residual. residual volume. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). include inspiratory. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. 4. division. and total.are tidal volume. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. 2. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and apneustic area. both in the brain and outside. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin.Internal Respiration: 1. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. pCO2. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. muscularis. Digestive Processes: 1. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. The teeth. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. Deglutition: 1. 3. 2. Organization: 1. root. or dentes. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. and serosa (peritoneum). Digestion in the Mouth: 1. 2. 2. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. 3. lips. submandibular (submaxillary). It consists of a voluntary stage. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. The tongue. The accessory structures include the teeth. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. peristalsis. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. and pancreas. 2. 2. and sublingual glands. 8. 3. Some papillae contain taste buds. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. and defecation. 4. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. salivary glands. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. liver. or alimentary canal. lesser omentum. the hardest substance in the body. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. forms the floor of the oral cavity. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. 2. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. tongue. Salivary Glands: 1.7. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. 5. 3. absorption. lipid. palates. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. mesocolon. mechanical and chemical digestion. and greater omentum. 4. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. 2. 2. and cervix. and tongue. falciform ligament. 4. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Teeth: 1. and accessory structures. submucosa. which aid mechanical digestion. 9. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. together with its associated muscles. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. 4. 2. 3. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. gallbladder. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells.
2. The small intestine also absorbs water.Histology: 1. Absorption: 1. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 3. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. 3. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). and intestinal. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). 2. 2. electrolytes. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. 4. glands that produce mucus. and transported as chylomicrons. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). 2. and the microvilli. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). resynthesized to triglycerides. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). Gallbladder: 1. 2. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. villi. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. and stomach gastrin. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. 3. intrinsic factor. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Hormones also assume a role. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. and alcohol. Absorption: 1. Small Intestine: Anatomy . 3. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). Digestion in the Stomach: 1. 2. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. 2.Histology: 1. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. 2. 3. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). and vitamins. 2. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Pancreas: 1. Among the substances absorbed are some water. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. hydrochloric acid. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. 2.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). a protein-digesting enzyme. 2. The esophagus is a collapsible. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). Esophagus: 1. Stomach: Anatomy . gastric. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Liver: 1. certain electrolytes and drugs.
lipids. 4. inorganic salts. 2. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism.1. rectum. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. stenosis. and cementum. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. 2. 3. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. alveolar bone. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. Anabolic reactions use energy. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. 2. 3. act as building blocks in forming new body components. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. colon. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. and mass peristalsis. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. and barium x-ray. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. 5. 9. 4. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. carcinoma of the cecum. action. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. . The large intestine absorbs water. and non-A.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and water. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Feces consists of water. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. During digestion. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. Defecation: 1. colonoscopy. epithelial cells. Disorders . 7. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. bacteria. 2. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. 3. Its subdivisions include the cecum. rather than enzymatic. 2. proteins. Types include hepatitis A. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. or kinking of the organ. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. 2. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. 12. hepatitis B. peristalsis. and vitamins. vitamins. 2. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. periodontal membrane. 11. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. a foreign body. and undigested foods. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. 5. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. minerals. 8. and anal canal. electrolytes. Metabolism: 1. 6. 10.
Lipid Catabolism: 1. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. 2. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. thyroxine. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. 3. 2. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. 1 molecule of FADH2. 3. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. Electron Transport Chain: 1. and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. 3. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. Glucose Anabolism: 1. In beta oxidation. 3. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. the Krebs cycle. 5. 2. epinephrine. and I molecule of GTP. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. As a result of glycolysis. 2. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A.2. 3. and growth hormone (GH). Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. 4. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. and cytochromes. 2. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. Fat Storage: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . thromboplastin for blood clotting. Glucose Catabolism: 1. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. under aerobic conditions. 2. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. recombined to form triglycerides. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. It is stimulated by cortisol. coenzyme Q. During digestion. 2. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. 2. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. When oxygen is in short supply. Glycolysis: 1. 6. 3. 4 molecules of NADH2. Lipid Metabolism: 1. glucagon. Fate of Lipids: 1. 4. 3. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. 3.
2. Production of Body Heat: 1. manganese.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. 4. iodine. 2. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. Fate of Proteins: 1. thyroxine. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. based on the needs of the body. and body temperature. and proteins. Protein Catabolism: 1. 3. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. selenium. conversion of glycerol into glucose. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. sulfur. Protein Anabolism: 1. During digestion. may cause acidosis. Amino acids. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. 3. 2. Lipid Anabolism . Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. and insulin. decarboxylation. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. or converted. 2. fats. iron. cobalt. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. chlorine. but an excess of ketone bodies. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. During the absorptive state. phosphorus. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. E. enter body cells by active transport. 2. and so forth. Before amino acids can be catabolized. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. 2. stored. During the absorptive state. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. these conversions involve deamination. D. 2. 2. 2. potassium. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. copper. The process is stimulated by insulin. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. sodium. hormones. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. and K. Vitamins: 1. and hydrogenation. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. and chromium. Inside cells. snd ketane hadies. hormones. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. fatty acids. magnesium. structural elements. Many function in enzyme systems.4. 3. zinc. Regulation of Metabolism: 1.Lipogenesis: 1. 2. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. called ketosis. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. the nervous system. Minerals: 1. Protein Metabolism: 1. 3.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. and sometimes mental retardation. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and thyroxine production. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. 4. columns. and a pelvis. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. 7. ascending limb of Henle. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. papillae. 2. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. 4. 6. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. deereased metabolic rate. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. 2. and K and calcium is inadequate. 4. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. glomerulus. calyces. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. loop of Henle. urinary bladder. stages include chill and crisis. 5. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. adipose capsule. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. and high body temperature. 2. 3. 3. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. 4. proximal convoluted tubule. 3. 3. the kidneys consist of a cortex. 3. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. reduced perspiration. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. 3. skeletal muscle contraction. lethargy. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 2. and perspiration. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. descending limb of Henle. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. 4. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. Internally. distal convoluted tubule. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. and dizziness. profuse perspiration. ureters. and urethra. failure to grow. pyramids. 2.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). 5. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. 4. cramps. nausea. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and renal fascia. 5. Physiology: 1. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. sympathetic stimulation. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. Loss of Body Heat: 1. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. D. medulla.
The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. Ureters: 1. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. Urethra: 1. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). muscularis. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. including water. and ions. 5. 10. ketone bodies. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. and ions. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. Urinary Bladder: 1. 5. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. glucose. odor. plasma and Iymph.6. 3. It includes interstitial fluid. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. Body Fluids: 1. Disorders . synovial fluid. casts. 5. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. diuretics. primarily by peristalsis. creatinine. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. and emotions. 7. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. renal calculi. 4. 7. uric acid. and peritoneal fluids. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. 4. ketone bodies. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. Included are ions. indican. The solutes include urea. 8. 3. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. Besides the kidneys. amino acids. erythrocytes. and a serous coat. 2. 8. Chemically. 9. pH. Normally. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. In exchange. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. Homeostasis: 1. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. nitrogenous wastes. and certain drugs. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. 2. 3. 4. and fluids of the eyes and ears. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. blood concentration. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. and specific gravity. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). and fibrous coat. urobilinogen. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. pleural. the rest by facultative reabsorption. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). the lungs. cerebrospinal fluid. Gl tract fluids. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. integument. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. and the glomerular filtrate. 2. 6. hippuric acid. Histologically. and microbes. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. bilirubin. 2. temperature. 2. turbidity. salts. pericardial. 11. leucocytes. glucose. 3.
Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and fluid and electrolyte balance. skin. fluid moves in the opposite direction.1. nerve impulse conduction. a decrease in rate.45 and 8. 3. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. 2. lungs. 8. 5. 2. muscle contraction. 4. Under normal conditions. 2. 3. 3. and regulating pH. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. muscle contraction. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. decreases pH. 3. and regulation of pH. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. Plasma.80. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. 7. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. At the venous end. 2. 10.00. 4. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate.45. chemical transmitter release. 9. and heartbeat. respirations. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. 4. At the arterial end of a capillary.35 and 6. increases pH. 4.35 to 7. 3. An increase in rate of respirations. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. 5. 11. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. 4. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Acid-Base Balance: 1. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. It also functions in blood clotting. Electrolytes: 1. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 2. muscle contraction. and GI tract. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. phosphate. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. interstitial fluid. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. especially extracellular fluid. 6. and protein. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). and kidney excretion. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. proper fluid movement between compartments.
3. Male Reproductive System: 1. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. Ducts: 1. Accessory Glands: 9. Scrotum: 1. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. 7. urethra. 2. and tail. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. 2. straight tubules. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. 3. 2. and spongy (cavernous). ejaculatory duct. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. 7. Reproductive System: 1. membranous. and interstitial endocrinocytes. 2. 6. 2. protein anabolism. ducts (transport and store gametes). 5. and 7. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. straight tubules. sperm maturation. prostate gland. 8. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. seminal vesicles. and maintenance of sex organs. sustentacular cells. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. 4. development. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. ductus epididymis. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. and penis. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. Testes: 1. and efferent ducts. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. ductus deferens. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. 5. bulbourethral glands. 12. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. which nourish sperm cells. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). Testosterone controls the growth. 6. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. 11. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. rete testis. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). stimulates bone growth. midpiece. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. 10. II. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. 3.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. 3. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. and rete testis. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. in which sperm cells are made. 4.
The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). discharge ova (ovulation). 9. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. Ovaries: 1. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. During the menstrual phase. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. on either side of the uterus. 4. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). ovulation. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. 6. uterine tubes. 2. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. implantation of a fertilized ovum. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. . regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. 2. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . During the preovulatory phase. endometrial repair occurs. mucus. Estrogens stimulate the growth. 2. tissue fluid. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. 3.nutrients. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. vagina. and epithelial cells. and stimulate protein anabolism. Histologically. The uterus is an inverted. 2. 3. III. uterus. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. Penis: 1. 10. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. and vulva. The penis is the male organ of copulation. and inner endometrium. 5. 6. 5. and labor. development of a fetus during pregnancy. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. 8. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. middle myometrium. 2. development. 3. 7. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. They produce ova. 4. 4. During the postovulatory phase. 2. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. 11. Uterus: 1. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH.
the cessation of the sexual cycles. dysmenorrhea. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. 2. If fertilization and implantation do occur. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. abnormal bleeding. 10. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. syphilis. and ova maturation. 3. 2. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. 2. The removal of a malignant breast. lubrication. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). 11. 2. 2. and the lower portion of the birth canal. 2. and tumors. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. vaginal and urethral orifices. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. labia minora. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. 6. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. 9. and orgasm. enlarged prostate. equatorial division. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. genital herpes. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . clitoris. 8. Vulva: 1. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). pectoral muscles. 2. 5. 10. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. Sexual Intercourse: 1. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. and sperm maturation. Oogenesis: 1. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. Vagina: 1. trichomoniasis. Disorders . 2. equatorial division. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). and greater and lesser vestibular glands. 8. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. 12. 12. It is said to be haploid (n). Spermatogenisis: 1.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. vestibule. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. lubrication. Perineum: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 9. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. The female role also involves erection. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. 3. and orgasm (climax). 7. 13. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. Mammary Glands: 1. 3. 4. 2. labia majora. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. It consists of the mons veneris. 7.
3. 5. Its various events are hormonally controlled. 1.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. 4. fetal growth. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. 2. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. and birth. 2. embryonic growth. implantation. .
Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. 4. 2. laparascopic technique). It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. Inheritance: 1. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. and delivery of the placenta. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. 5. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .The morula develops into a blastocyst. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. and allantois. microbes. 8. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. 2. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. and contraception (natural. chorion. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. 3. Lactation: 1. 1. and progesterone. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. and progesterone. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). 7. sterilization (vasectomy. chemicals and drugs. 2. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. Dominant genes control a particular trait. During embryonic growth. 2. 4. protein anabolism. 2. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. estrogens. 3. mesoderm. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. and smoking. removal of wastes. amnion. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). alcohol. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. 3. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. and Down's syndrome. and protection. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. expulsion of the fetus. Examples are infections. During the fetal period. such as hemophilia. tubal ligation. 3. 2. estrogens. 6. Parturition and Labor: 1. Tay-Sachs disease. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. Birth Control: 6. . 5. 3. and chemical). Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). sickle cell anemia. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. 2. 2. mechanical. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation.
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