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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Microfilaments and Microtubules . the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. 2. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. It is located near the nucleus. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities.g. 2. 2. 2. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. 3. They are formed from Golgi complexes. support. and helps export chemicals from the cell.13. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. stores synthesized molecules. They contain enzymes (e. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. 2. 1. Usually the largest organelle. 2. lipids. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The ER provides mechanical support. maintenance. cilia. 3. membranous sacs called cisternae. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. and control. In conjunction with the ER. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. karyolymph. repair. such as mature red blood cells. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. do not grow or reproduce.The Cytoskeleton: 1. Thus they are called "suicide packets. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. transports substances intracellularly. and movement. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. which carry on phagocytosis. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. Functionally. 2. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Cells without nuclei. 4. 3. Cytoplasm: 1. 2. 2. carbohydrates. and form the structure of flagella. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. and inorganic substances. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. centrioles. 3. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. but smaller. provide movement. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. 3. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. Nucleus: 1. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane.. 3." 4. 2. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. Peroxisomes: 1. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Functionally. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Organelles: 1. Mitochondria: 1. They support. nucleoli. The inner folds are called cristae. comprising the chromosomes. 3. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. and the mitotic spindle. 3. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. If the cell is injured. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. They are involved in muscular contraction. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. Ribosomes: 1. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. and genetic material (DNA).
Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). Examples are melanin. 6. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. Gene Action . 6. they are called flagella. DNA Polymerase is an example. metaphase. 3. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA).2. If they are numerous and hairlike. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis.DNA Repair: 1. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. Somatic Cell Division: 1. and telophase. are amorphous. Flagella and Cilia: 1. 4. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). 3. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. and mucus. Extracellular Materials: 1. lipids. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. they are called cilia. Others. This involves transcription and translation. In transcription. anaphase. 3. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. 2. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another.Protein Synthesis: 1. 5. an "SOS response" occurs. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. 5. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. 3. In response to DNA damage. Some. 2. 2. glycogen. which consist of rRNA and protein. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. 3. 2. the DNA molecules. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. are fibrous. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. or chromosomes. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. Cellular Inclusions: 1. If projections are few and long. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. It consists of prophase. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. 2. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. 3. "SOS" Genes . Cell Division: 1. like collagenous. 8. 4. and elastic fibers. 2. 7. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. reticular. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell.
columnar (rectangular). In a few portions of the respiratory tract. stratified (several layers). tubuloacinar. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. an extensive intercellular substance. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. and apocrine glands. It does not occur on free surfaces. 4. 5. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands.1. It can replace itself. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. 4. Functional classification includes holocrine. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. 3. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. Epithelial Tissue: 1. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. and most upper respiratory structures. 2. portion of urethra. connective. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). It has few cells. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. 2. little intracellular material. It is found covering ovaries. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. noncancerous tumors are called benign. 3. cell shapes include squamous (flat). 8. acinar. except for cartilage. cuboidal (cubelike). pharynx. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. 5. and nervous. parts of urethra. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. It lines larger excretory ducts. 3. Connective Tissue: 1. 2. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. and epiglottis. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. and compound. and a rich blood supply (vascular). Connective tissue protects. supports. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. Depending on their function and structure. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. 3. oil. Many theories of aging have been proposed. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. 3. and transitional (variable). Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. 7. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. 2. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. Glandular Epithelium: 1. simple. muscular. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. in kidneys and eyes. and binds organs together. and lining some glandular ducts. 2. but none successfully answers all questions. auditory tubes. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. 6. merocrine. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. 9. and no blood vessels (avascular). 2. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. the study of tumors is called oncology. Epithelium has many cells. Exocrine glands (sweat. where it protects and secretes.
o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. and Iymph nodes. Examples are: mucous. spleen. 2. and provides support. tendons. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. where it gives support. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. elastic arteries. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes.contraction. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. 2. sometimes loss of function occurs. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. serous. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. It is found as a component of fascia. 7. allows movement. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. 2. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. bone tissue. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). Tissue Inflammation . and Reticular. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. 5. and vascular tissue. Elastic. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. mast. o Serous membranes (pleura. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. 6. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. and in respiratory structures. Visceral (smooth). around body organs. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and melanocytes). heat. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. macrophages. Adipose. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. 4. Membranes: 1. It is flexible. Dense. auditory tubes. are specialized for fat storage. elastic. membranes of organs. and true vocal cords. pericardium. and in the subcutaneous layer. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). ligaments. pain. called adipocytes. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. 2. It provides strength. such as the digestive tract. and swelling. and external ear. 3. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. plasma. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions.4. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). in the nose. and cutaneous. cartilage. and Cardiac. bronchial tubes. at the ends of bones. trachea. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Muscle tissue performs one major function . and aponeuroses.
2. serotonin. granulosum. hair follicles. 5. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. and several organic compounds. oil glands. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. if it cannot drain out of the body. carotene. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. arrectores pilorum muscles. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. 8. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. spinosum. 7. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. sudoriferous. and nails. Various vitamins (A. Conditions for Repair: 1. 2. If the injury is superficial. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. an abscess develops. It performs the functions of protection. granulation tissue is involved. scab formation. nerves. 4. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body.2. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. The color of skin is due to melanin. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . glands. C. 2. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. 4. Repair Process: 1. and ceruminous). Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. brown melanin. If damage is extensive.The Skin: Skin 1. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. • Hair: 1. The skin and its derivatives (hair. and pheomelanin (yellow). and corneum. E. skin glands (sebaceous. The reticular region is dense. and Meissner's corpuscles. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. 3. pus is produced. hair follicles. 3. D. salts. dermal papillae. and a hair follicle. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. and excretion of water. 3. • Glands: 1. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. maintaining body temperature. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. 2. 5. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. The epidermal layers. synthesis of vitamin D. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). 2. and ducts of sweat glands. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. nerves. some B. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. 5. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. 6. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. 4. lucidum. the process slows down with aging. The Integumentary System . black melanin. are the stratum basale. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. storage of chemical compounds. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. and root hair plexuses. kinins. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. 3. from deepest to most superficial. Tissue Repair: 1. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. In most inflammations. receiving stimuli. and parenchymal regeneration.
The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. leverage. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. second-degree (partialthickness). Nails: 1. They are found in the external auditory meatus. mineral storage. Disorders . 7. Homeostasis: 1. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. 10. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Nails are hard. 5. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. and covering wounds with temporary protection. raised plaques or papules. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. root. and blood cell production. regulating metabolic rate. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. their ducts open into hair follicles. The principal parts of a nail are the body. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. 3. and third-degree (fullthickness). 4.6F). Histology: 1. or psychogenic factors. lunula. and matrix. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. and boils. 2. hyponychium. 4. 8. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. pubis. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. removing dead tissue. replacing lost body fluids. Depending on the depth of damage. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration.• palms and soles.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. protection. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. Most warts are benign. 2. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. 11. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. and areolae. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. 2. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. 2. systemic diseases. 9. and skin grafting. As the perspiration evaporates. If environmental temperature is high. 3. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. pimples. eponychium. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. 2. free edge. the skin is cooled. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. The functions of the skeletal system include support. 6.
marrow. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. 2. intramembranous and endochondral. spongy bone is laid down first. 4. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. 7. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. and resists stress. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. and remodeling. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. 4. phosphorus. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. metaphysis. A fracture is any break in a bone. Normal growth depends on calcium. Functionally. 5. articular cartilage. It forms most of the structure of short. Pott's. forming a callus. Cartilage degenerates. 6. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. Osteoblasts lay down bone. Functionally. except for the epiphyseal plate. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 8. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. spiral. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. compound. and irregular bones. This process is called remodeling. periosteum. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. 3. 3. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. 8. 6. transverse. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. The types of fractures include: partial. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. hypertrophic cartilage. 2. where bone replaces cartilage. and the epiphyses of long bones. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. 4. epiphyses (ends). compact bone protects. supports. and vitamins (A. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. impacted. 7. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. 3. greenstick. flat. and endosteum. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. and nondisplaced. The two types of ossification. Colles'. Disorders . 3. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. 2. 5. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Next. displaced. Homeostasis: 1. C. complete. 2. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. In both types of ossification. 9. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. and calcified matrix. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). proliferating cartilage. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. medullary or marrow cavity. simple. comminuted. and periosteum. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated.
fused). or passage of nerves and blood vessels. and maxilla. 7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 3. auditory ossicles. and ethmoid. parietal (2). lacrimal (2). Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. maxillae (2). and squamosal sutures. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. Condyle.1. 4. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). 3. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. Skull: 1. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. 3. head. 2. fused) and the coccyx (4. The major fontanels are the anterior. process. and spine. lumbar vertebrae (5). 2. Surface Markings: 1. 1. support. sphenoid. 6. short. and vomer. They are lined by mucous membranes. lambdoidal. hyoid bone. sagittal. 3. occipital. muscle attachment. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. meatus. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. sternum. crest. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. or irregular. 2. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. posterior. and posterolaterals. facet. 2. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. and balance. vertebral column. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. palatine (2). The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). These curves give strength. zygomatic (2). tuberosity. temporal (2). the sacrum (5. the sternum. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. The vertebral column. It is composed of 22 bones. and ribs. Examples are coronal. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). Hyoid Bone: 1. inferior nasal conchae (2). The patella is an example. flat. anterolaterals. sphenoid. ethmoid. thoracic vertebrae (12). The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. fossa. 2. On the basis of shape. Vertebral Column: 1. mandible. bones are classified as long. Terms that describe markings include fissure. 5. foramen.
vertebral arch.The vertebra are similar in structure. radius. 4. Triangular (Triquetrum). o Upper Extremities: 1. o Lower Extremities: 1. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). a congenital defect. II. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. tarsals. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. the bones of the upper extremities. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. Capitate. metacarpals. 3. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. Pisiform. and Medial Cuneiform. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). Hamate (Unciform). and the bones of the lower extremities. 2. and lordosis. Cuboid. and seven processes. metatarsals. pubis. 5. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. carpals. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. fibula. and the thoracic vertebrae. and L 2. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. the ribs and costal cartilages. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. Schaphoid (Navicular). The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. each consisting of a body. and phalanges. and phalanges. 2. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. shape. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. tibia. kyphosis. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. the pelvic girdle. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. 2. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). Talus. 3. is referred to as spina bifida. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Examples include scoliosis. 4. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. and detail. 2. Thorax: 1. L l. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. 3. Navicular. and ischium. 3. ulna. The tarsals are: Calcaneus.
and bursae. 6. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). and muscles. 2. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. Articulations: 1. 5. joints are classified as fibrous. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. Disorders . 7. and a synovial membrane. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). 4. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. Structurally. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. Synovial Joints: 1. 5. protraction and retraction. 2. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. tension of ligaments. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. ligaments. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. articular cartilage. or synovial. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. are fibrous joints. 2. and elevation and depression. or luxation. some also contain ligaments. angular movements.arches. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. 3. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. and muscle tension. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). tendons. rotation. and loss of function. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. 6. 2. 3. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. Bones held together by cartilage. with no joint cavity. 1. inversion and eversion. supination and pronation. 2. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). articular discs. 4. circumduction. swelling. pivot joints (radioulnar). The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. 3. 8. hinge joints (elbow). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. 2. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). are cartilaginous joints. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. A dislocation. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. biaxial. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. 3. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. All synovial joints are freely movable. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. joints. Fibrous Joints: 1. cartilaginous. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. 2. to provide support and leverage. or triaxial. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. with no joint cavity.
triggering the contractile process. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. 8. deep. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. and heat production. covering the entire muscle. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. and troponin. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. 2. 3. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. Through contraction. 2. 2. 2. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. 4. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. perimysium. 3. 3. Physiology of Contraction: 1.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. 2. maintenance of posture. contract. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. Energy for Contraction: 1. tropomyosin. 6. The Motor Unit: 1. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. and T tubules. Connective tissue components are epimysium. covering individual fibers. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. 4. and endomysium. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. 2. and subserous. 2. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. junction. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. nuclei. the neuron releases acetylcholine. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. or myoneural. It is striated and involuntary. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. It is striated and voluntary. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. There are three types of fascia: superficial. Types: 1.without dislocation. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. 3. Contraction . Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. 4. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. covering fasciculi. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Functions: 1. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. sarcoplasmic reticulum. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. 3. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. 5. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary.
Kinds of Contractions: 1. 5. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. cramps.2. The fibers are arranged in a network. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. Muscle Tone: 1. 2. 3. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. 3. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. Homeostasis: 1. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. isotonic. and isometric. This muscle is found only in the heart. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. each of which contracts as a functional unit. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. Abnormal contractions include spasms. tetanus. 4. it is called lumbago.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. more blood capillaries. 2. 2. stimulus. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. or subthreshold. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and related structures in the thigh. muscles. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. 3. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. 3. If it occurs in the lumbar region. more mitochondria. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. Unit it is paid back. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. 3. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. 4. 2. fibrillations. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. convulsions. 2. tenderness. 2. Disorders . cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. It is striated and involuntary. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. 6. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. treppe. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. and a large amount of myoglobin. 5. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. 3. 3. 2. and stiffness of joints. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. or threshold. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. and larger T tubules. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. and tics. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. 3. 2. stimulus. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction.
4. On the basis of structure. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. 3. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. 3. 5. 6. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. 2. location. and reacting to them. microglia. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. 3. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. 2. Nerve Impulse: 1. pennate. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. lateral side of the thigh. cardiac muscle tissue. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. 1. and ependyma. On the basis of function. 2. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. neurons are multipolar. 2. and unipolar. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. or nerve cells. convergent. 4. the membrane is said to have an action potential. size. and carry out phagocytosis. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. 5. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. Neurons: 1. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. If. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. and usually a single axon. effort. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. number of origins (or heads). and resistance on the lever. oligodendrocytes. and circular. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. 2. and minimal irritation. Intramuscular Injections: 1. The antagonist produces an opposite action. and deltoid region of the arm. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. and the membrane is said to be polarized. and glands. shape. and action. Around the time of birth. produce the myelin sheath. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. interpreting them. Neurons. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. second-class. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. bipolar. 2. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. 2. 3. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. attach neurons to blood vessels. 6. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. origin and insertion. including motor neurons.
A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. or axon hillock. 2. 4. meninges. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 7. According to the all-ornothing principle. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. 4. 6. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. Structure in Cross Section: 1. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. 7. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. posterior. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. 6. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. 2. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 5. posterior. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. 2. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. and vertebral ligaments. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. anterior. 6. 5. 5. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. 4. 3. arachnoid and pia mater. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. 2. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. cerebrospinal fluid. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .travels from point to point along the membrane. 4. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. Protection and Coverings: 1. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. anterior. 6. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. 3. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. 3. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. cell body. 7. 5. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. central canal. and lateral gray horns. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. 3. and lateral white columns. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. and ascending and descending tracts.
Following peripheral nerve damage. is an example. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. and regeneration. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 4. and the abdominal reflex. A stretch reflex. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 8. 2. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. a center. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. a sensory neuron. • Composition and Coverings: 1. 4. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. the Babinski sign. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. and sacral plexuses. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. 2. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. The skin segments are called dermatomes. 4. 2. ventral ramus. such as the patellar reflex. 2. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). 3. 7. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. Functions: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1.2. 4. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. except for T 2-T 11. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. flexor reflex. meningeal branch. and motor neuron. Its basic components are a receptor. and an effector. perineunum. 2. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. lumbar. association. • Distribution: 1. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. • Dermatomes: 1. and rami communicantes. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. 3. 5. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. brachial. 2. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. 6. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. Disorders . 1. 9. constant segments of the skin. form networks of nerves called plexuses. 1. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. 5. respectively. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. A reflex is a quick. 5. posterior root ganglion. 5. and crossed extensor reflex. Wallerian degeneration. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. a motor neuron. the Achilles reflex. 3. tendon reflex. 3. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. and epineurium. The posterior root.
1. 4. 1. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 2. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. convulsions. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. sneezing. The pons is superior to the medulla. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. swallowing. and cerebellum. 2. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. 1. 1. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. 3. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. 3. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. and unconsciousness. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. or death. respiratory rate. 2. diencephalon. 2. 4. 2. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. vomiting. 3. 2. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. it is called external hydrocephalus.1. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. cerebrum. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. 4. During embryological development. 2. and central canal. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The Brain Stem: 1. 3. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. or death of brain 5. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. which helps control respiration. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. The Diencephalon: 1. coughing. Embryological Development: 1. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. mental retardation. 2. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. 3. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. 2. and hiccuping. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. 1. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. cells. epilepsy. 2. ventricles. cranial meninges. 6. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. Protection and Coverings: 1. vasoconstriction. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. it is called internal hydrocephalus. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. permanent damage.
2. endorphins. 2. 3. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. controls body temperature. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon.7. 8. 5. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. 3. and tumors. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. 1. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. taste. to the cerebral cortex. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. 4. 2. constricted vermis. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. 2. space and pattern perception. 3. and occipital. parietal. 7. 10. temporal. 2. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . They help to control muscular movements. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. 2. 1. and sulci. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. fissures. 2. serotonin. 2. 6. gamma aminobutyric acid. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. either anatomically or functionally. excite. 3. 9. 3. numerical and scientific skills. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. aspartic acid. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 1. 6. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. musical and artistic awareness. spoken and written language. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. touch. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. and glycine. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. insight. 2. It controls the autonomic nervous system. regulates food and fluid intake. 3. 1. 4. Brain Lateralization: 1. The Cerebellum: 1. and generating mental images of sight. and reasoning. 3. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. 3. The Cerebrum: 1. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. 5. infections. norepinephrine. imagination. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. dopamine. glutamic acid. 3. except smell. 3. 7. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. 2. and dynorphin. sound. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. Its cortex contains convolutions. and smell.
Motor. cholecystokinin. pharynx. Glossophary ngeal . Motor function. some neck and shoulder muscles. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain.Sensory. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex.Motor. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Hypoglossal . 12. thrombosis. 11. Olfactory . taste. cerebellum. 9. Palate. Optic . inferior pharynx. Vestibulococ hlear . Soft palate. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. 9. 7. 7. upper teeth. Examples include angiotensin. Oculomotor . 10. Motor function. hearing and balance. 3. taste. pharyngeal muscles. The Cranial Nerves: 1. Disorders . larynx. . or psychological malfunction. childbirth. Facial Sensory. 4. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. 11. 12. Tongue muscles. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. 5. 4. or early infancy. 4. Scalp. 5. Trigeminal Sensory function.Motor function of eye muscles. 3. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . sensory. or atherosclerosis. 4. Depending on the form of the disease.11. forehead. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. tongue muscles. 10. Impulse transmission is interrupted. muscles of facial expression. 6. cornea. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. larangeal muscles. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. etc. etc. soft palate. 1. Motor. or basal ganglia during fetal development.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. lower teeth. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. Accessory Motor. thoracic and abdominal organs. 2. 8. upper eyelid.The sense of vision. nose. upper jaw. muscles of mastication. 6. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. also called strokes.Sensory. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). lower jaw. 8. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage.The sense of smell. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. 2. Vagus Sensory. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles.
The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. end organs of Ruffini. 13. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. Meissner's corpuscles. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. According to location. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. and pain. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. they cause subconscious motor reactions. Characteristics: 1. connective tissues. brain dysfunction. 7. 2. conduction of the impulse to the brain. 2. and sometimes delirium. Levels of Sensation: 1. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. vibration). and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. movement of body parts. 2. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting.muscle spasms and encephalitis. 4. proprioception. and proprioceptors. In terms of simplicity or complexity. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. General Senses . and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. and Pacinian corpuscles. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. and tendon organs. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. and third-order neurons. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. free nerve endings. 3. 2. and body position. 12. 6. 3. and liver damage. 2. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. 3. and chemoreceptors. 5.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. pressure. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. personality changes. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Sensations: 1. and acupuncture. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). The neural pathway for light touch. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 3. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. Receptors located in muscles. 4. surgery. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. 3. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. nociceptors. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. 4. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. Classification of Receptors: 1. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. and end organs of Ruffini. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. thermoreceptors. visceroceptors. tendons. 4. electromagnetic receptors. Merkel's discs. muscle spindles. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. second-order. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch.
and to make childbirth easier. 2. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. cardiac muscle. Motor Pathways: 1. and glands. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. 4. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. and vestibulospinal tracts. 4. in general. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. Olfactory Sensations: 1. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. and corticobulbar tracts. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. 4. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). and plexuses. decrease in heart rate. 3. regulates visceral activities. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. concerned with energy expenditure. 2. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. and the medulla oblongata. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. 4. On the basis of the transmitter produced. Physiology: 1. 3. 2. 2. to alleviate migraine headaches. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. that is. 2. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. 3. 2. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. 4. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. tectospinal. anterior corticospinal. 2. 3. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector.6. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. in particular by the cerebral cortex. It is regulated by centers in the brain. association neuron. reduced metabolic rate. or visceral efferent nervous system. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. the hypothalamus. It is entirely motor. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. The autonomic nervous system. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. it consists of activated and long-term components. afferent neuron. 3. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). Control by Higher Centers: 1. 3. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. It usually operates without conscious control. It has been used to control heart rate. activities of smooth muscle. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. Integrative Functions: 1. and visceral effector. ganglia. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses.
10. strike the tympanic membrane. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. 5. The four primary tastes are salt. eyelids. 6. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. eyelashes. and round window). aqueous humor. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. strike the oval window. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. or vertical motion. the thalamus. increase pressure in the endolymph. and cerebral cortex. 7. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. and cerebral cortex. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. and (c) retina. 4. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. Disorders . Visual Sensations: 1. olfactory bulbs. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. and vitreous humor. and the cortex. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. 7. 2. the organ of hearing. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. sweet. 8. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. medulla. lens. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. which contains rods and cones. accommodation of the lens. 3. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. olfactory tracts. thalamus. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. the optic tract. and tympanic membrane). linear. sour. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. and X. 5. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. water-soluble. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. 3. 9. convergence. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. 4. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. and the lacrimal apparatus. external auditory canal. oval window. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. 5. the optic chiasma. 4. 6. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. 3. hypermetropia (farsightedness). and the threshold varies with the taste involved. and bitter. which destroys neurons of the retina. 2. strike the basilar membrane. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. ciliary body. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. constriction of the pupil.2. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. 8. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). 2. and inverted image formation. set up waves in the perilymph. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. 4. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. VII. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. 5. and lipid-soluble. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. 2. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). 4. IX. 3. Trachoma is a chronic. and the threshold of smell is low. A sound impulse is then initiated. ossicles. pass through the ossicles. and iris).
sebaceous. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). help regulate growth and development. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. Exocrine glands (sweat. 2. 3. 3. 6. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. and contribute to reproductive processes. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). Chemistry of Hormones: 1. 15. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 10. giantism. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 9. 11. Control of Hormonal Secretions . 8. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. and regulating factors. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. and acromegaly. 2. 12. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. 5. Histologically.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. nerve impulses. 4. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. 4. 7. 16. 2. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 2. 13. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. 3. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries.Feedback Control: 1. 2. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). respond to stress. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. 14. On the basis of solubility. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces.
3. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 6. 6. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). menstrual cycle. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Histologically. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. and zona reticularis.g. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. 5. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. 8. Histologically. beta cells secrete insulin. Histologically. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. and serve as antiinflammatories. 2. pregnancy. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Secretion is controlled by CRF. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. and parafollicular cells. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Pancreas: 1. Mineralocorticoids (e. 2. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys.Thyroid: 1. Histologically. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. 4. and gonadocorticoids. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. which secrete calcitonin (CT). it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. 2. glucocorticoids. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. 2. zona ennin late. and delta cells. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. 6. 2. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. and the reactivity of the nervous system. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. 4. 3. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. 5. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. 4. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. Histologically. 3.g. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. exophthalmic goiter. Parathyroids: 1. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. myxedema. 5. 9. Secretion is controlled by TRF. They are released under stress. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. and lactation. 2. beta cells. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. help resist stress.. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Glucocorticoids (e. Cretinism. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. 4. Ovaries and Testes: 1. 10. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. growth and development. 3.. 7. Alpha cells secrete glucagon.
Principal solutes include proteins (albumins.5 percent water and 8. 4.8 million/mm3. globulins. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). carbon dioxide. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless.85 to 0. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. Blood transports oxygen. Normal blood contains 5. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. and blood vessels. 2. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. 2. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. and Iymph glands. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. consists of 91. 7. wastes. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. nutrients. thymic humoral factor (THF). It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. Erythrocytes: 1. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. 0. 6. about 4. called erythropoiesis. Iymph vessels. 5. 4. pH. 3. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. 3. neuroglial cells. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 2. A healthy male has about 5. Erythrocyte formation. 2.000/mm3. Thymus: 1. and thrombocytes (platelets).5 to 5. It protects against toxins and microbes. thymic factor (TF). The liquid portion of blood.5 percent solutes. body temperature.000/mm3. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). Normal blood contains 250. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. Plasma: 1. 3. 3. the heart. leucocytes (white blood cells). Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. called plasma. Thrombocytes: 1. 4. foods. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. 2. and water content of cells. a healthy female.90 NaCI. Red blood cells live about 120 days.4 degrees F). and enzymes. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. 2. fibrinogen). 2.pinealocytes. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei.5. hormones. 6. temperature. Lymphocytes. It helps to regulate pH. eosinophils.4 million/mm3 of blood. 5. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. 3. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. Functions: 1. 2.35 to 7.45. and salinity. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. 4. Leucocytes: 1. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. and platelets. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. 38 degrees C (100. 3.000 to 9. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. granular leucocytes.000 to 400. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). Components: 1.
and out through the aorta. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. and sickle cell anemia. It involves vascular spasm. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 11. In the ABO system. 2. 5. myocardium. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. Like plasma. 4. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. The parietal pericardium. 2. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis.g. and blood coagulation. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. heparin) prevent clogging. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. Anticoagulatants (e.. respiratory gases. Interstitial Fluid: 1. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. Disorders . Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. 3. The cause is a virus. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. 3. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. In vascular spasm. platelet plug formation. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. 2. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. 7. 6. and endocardium. pernicious. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 3.The Heart: 1. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. 3. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. 2. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. aplastic. hemolytic. 8. 2. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. encloses the heart. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. 2. In the Rh system. 10.Valves: 1. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. 4. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency.and hormones. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. The Cardiovascular System . 9. hemorrhagic. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. 4.
5. and right heart (atrial) reflex. 4. 2. 2. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. between the atria and their ventricles. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). determining the presence of several fetuses. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. 4.4. and Purkinje fibers. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. 6. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. 2. potassium). The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 5. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. 7. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). 3.8 sec. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. 3. 4. 4. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. 2. 2. atrioventricular (AV) node. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. 3. sodium. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. 3. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. detecting the presence of fetal life. Cardiac Output: 1. 7. 3. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. 6. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. bundle branches. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. Cardiac Cycle: 1. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. Blood Supply: 1. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. Electrocardiogram: 1. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. 5. 7. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. Conduction System: 1. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. aortic reflex. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). temperature. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . With an average heartbeat of 75/min. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. 6. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). and T wave (ventricular repolarization).
Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). diabetes mellitus. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. 3. 2. Capillaries: 1. They drain blood from capillaries into veins.emotion. Disorders . Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. 3. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. Veins: 1. The heart becomes hypoxic. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. 2. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. 4. 2. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. Venules: 1. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. and tetralogy of Fallot). and tunica externa. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. 2. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. This network increases the surface area. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. 4. flutter. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. and genetic disposition. 3. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). 4. fibrillation. 3. and age. high blood pressure. As blood volume increases. sex (gender and physical activity). 3. blood pressure increases. some capillaries are continuous. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. to correct some defects. cigarette smoking. In severe shock. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. 5. 2. and therefore blood pressure. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. 2. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. 3. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. 2. and to apply chemotherapy locally.ener Arterioles: 1. and arrhythmias (heart block. and premature contractions). valvular stenosis. Arteries: 1. obesity. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. others are fenestrated. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. lack of exercise. 4. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. 5. septal defects.
Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. chemicals. 2. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. 2. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. 8. 3. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. emotions. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 3. Circulatory Routes: 1. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. Systemic Circulation: 1. and breathing. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. 3. pulmonary. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. stomach. chemicals. 6. and fetal circulation. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. sex. 2. Blood Reservoirs: 1. and higher brain centers. 3. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. They in turn empty into the right atrium. intestines. chemoreceptors. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. and liver functions are established. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. the arch of the aorta. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. when lung. 2. 2. and age. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. 2.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). 9. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. 2. and autoregulation. At birth. temperature. spleen. skeletal muscular contractions. 7. Fetal Circulation: 1. and the descending aorta. 3. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. Other routes include the cerebral. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. Disorders . digestive.
T cells are processed in the thymus gland. each with specific biological roles (IgG. 4. called Iymphatics. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. and fever. lacrimal apparatus. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. Antigens are chemical substances that. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. palatine. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. when introduced into the body. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. IgM. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. 3. 3. and properdin). 3. cilia. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. and transplants. 3. 2. 5. 4. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. brain. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. and lingual tonsils. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. Iymph nodes. Based on chemistry and structure. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. and IgE). and Iysozyme). pollen. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. to Iymphatics. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. to Iymph trunks. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. incompatible blood cells. to Iymph capillaries. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. and multivalence. They include the pharyngeal. complement. 6. 4. IgD. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. chemical factors (gastric juice. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. IgA. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. and flow of urine). Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. 2. 3. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. acid pH of skin. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. reactivity. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity.1. Examples of antigens are microbes. 7. epiglottis. inflammation. mucous membranes. to the subclavian veins. Lymphatic Organs: 1. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. 2. and kidneys. 8. 2. saliva. microbial structures. 9. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. 5. 2. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. 2. unsaturated fatty acids. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. mucus. and Iymph organs. phagocytosis. Lymph Circulation: 1. 2. antimicrobial substances (interferon. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. 3. Iymphatic vessels. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens.
rheumatic fever. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. sobbing. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. 13. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. detection of disease. 5. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Coughing. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. 12. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. sighing. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. preparing vaccines. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). they are important in diagnosis. myasthenia gravis. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. laughing. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. 2. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. 2. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 4. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. 2. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax.liver and spleen. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. invading antigen. and multiple sclerosis (MS). Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. 10. 14. eczema. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. sneezing. 11. and hives. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. 8. 4. asthma. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 7. During forced inspiration. 2. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. memory B cells recognize the original. 3. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. treatment. yawning. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. crying. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. 3. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. 6.
External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. 4. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). inspiratory reserve. and apneustic area. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. the sum of two or more volumes. 4. 2. and DPG. 3. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. 2. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . residual volume. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. and function of the epithelial cells. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. 4. both in the brain and outside. expiratory reserve. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. pain. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). and Circulation. Breathing. vital. It is symbolized by p. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. 2. assuming that the pressure remains constant. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. pneumotaxic area. External Respiration . Disorders . Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. compresses the lungs. 2. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. a large alveolar surface area. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. functional residual. 3. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. and minimal volumes.are tidal volume. 3. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. The A. 2. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. include inspiratory. C's of CPR are Airway. and total. blood pressure. inflated lungs. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. and enlarged chest. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. division. and irritation to the respiratory centers. the inflation reflex. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). 2. 3. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. B. pCO2. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure.Internal Respiration: 1. when the temperature remains constant. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. inflated alveoli. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. According to Dalton's law. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. temperature. and excess mucus production. 6. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. In bronchogenic carcinoma. temperature. Pulmonary lung capacities. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 3. 2. and a rich blood supply.
lips. 3. 5. mechanical and chemical digestion. 2. 3. and tongue. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. forms the floor of the oral cavity. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. Salivary Glands: 1. palates. The teeth. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. 9. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. and defecation. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. 3. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. 8. gallbladder. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. 4. and accessory structures. 3. and cervix. peristalsis. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. the hardest substance in the body. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. It consists of a voluntary stage. Deglutition: 1. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. and greater omentum. falciform ligament. mesocolon. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. and sublingual glands. Digestive Processes: 1. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. 2. lipid. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. 2. and serosa (peritoneum). Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. 2. 2. salivary glands. Organization: 1. 4.7. absorption. lesser omentum. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. which aid mechanical digestion. muscularis. liver. 2. 2. The accessory structures include the teeth. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. Some papillae contain taste buds. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. submucosa. 4. or dentes. 2. tongue. 3. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Teeth: 1. 4. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. submandibular (submaxillary). Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. together with its associated muscles. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. and pancreas. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. or alimentary canal. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. The tongue. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. root.
hydrochloric acid. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. 3. Small Intestine: Anatomy . glands that produce mucus. Absorption: 1. 2. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. Among the substances absorbed are some water. 2. and intestinal. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. gastric. The esophagus is a collapsible. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. The small intestine also absorbs water. 3. Absorption: 1. resynthesized to triglycerides. 4. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. and the microvilli. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. 2. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). and transported as chylomicrons. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Hormones also assume a role. 2. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). electrolytes. 2. and stomach gastrin. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). and alcohol. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). 2. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). and vitamins. 2. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. villi. 2. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. 2. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. 2. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). 2. Gallbladder: 1.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). 3. certain electrolytes and drugs. Stomach: Anatomy . Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. Esophagus: 1. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). 3. intrinsic factor. 3. a protein-digesting enzyme. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). 2. Liver: 1. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex).Histology: 1. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). Pancreas: 1.Histology: 1. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1.
Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. 2. and mass peristalsis. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . non-B (NANB) hepatitis. 4. Defecation: 1. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. 5. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. alveolar bone. periodontal membrane. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. and anal canal. 2. 8. 3. and vitamins. peristalsis. Feces consists of water. stenosis. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. and non-A. 11. carcinoma of the cecum. Disorders . 2. hepatitis B. inorganic salts. 2. Types include hepatitis A. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. a foreign body. rather than enzymatic. 3. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. 5. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. lipids. During digestion. and cementum. colonoscopy. 12. action. 7. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. and water. 10. colon. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Anabolic reactions use energy. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. 2. and undigested foods. act as building blocks in forming new body components. . insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. or kinking of the organ. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. minerals. electrolytes. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. 2. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. 3. Metabolism: 1. bacteria. 6. proteins. epithelial cells. rectum. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1.1. Its subdivisions include the cecum. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 9. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. The large intestine absorbs water. 4. vitamins. 2. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. and barium x-ray. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice.
pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. Electron Transport Chain: 1. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. 6. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. and I molecule of GTP. thromboplastin for blood clotting. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. 3. 3. coenzyme Q. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. under aerobic conditions. the Krebs cycle. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. Glucose Anabolism: 1. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. 5. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Fate of Lipids: 1. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. 2. 3. glucagon. thyroxine. When oxygen is in short supply. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. and cytochromes. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. Glycolysis: 1. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. 3. epinephrine. 2. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. and the electron transport chain. Lipid Catabolism: 1. 4. 3. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. and growth hormone (GH). The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1.2. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. 3. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. Glucose Catabolism: 1. 2. During digestion. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. It is stimulated by cortisol. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. As a result of glycolysis. recombined to form triglycerides. 1 molecule of FADH2. 2. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). 2. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. 2. 3. Fat Storage: 1. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. 4 molecules of NADH2. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. 4. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. 3. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. In beta oxidation. Lipid Metabolism: 1. 2. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration.
and conversion of amino acids into glucose. During digestion. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. cobalt. and insulin. hormones. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. chlorine. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. Many function in enzyme systems. conversion of glycerol into glucose. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. hormones. 2. the nervous system. Vitamins: 1. these conversions involve deamination. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. 2. iodine. Amino acids. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. D. and body temperature. thyroxine.4. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. 2. stored. and K.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. manganese. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. may cause acidosis. based on the needs of the body. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. and so forth. potassium.Lipogenesis: 1. 3. magnesium. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. decarboxylation. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. but an excess of ketone bodies. 4. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. iron. 3. sodium. Before amino acids can be catabolized. or converted. structural elements. copper. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. Protein Anabolism: 1. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. Lipid Anabolism . enter body cells by active transport. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. 3. 2. selenium. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. fats. 2. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. Production of Body Heat: 1. Protein Catabolism: 1. 2. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. E. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. 2. and proteins. and chromium. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. 2. During the absorptive state. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. Protein Metabolism: 1. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. 2. zinc. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. called ketosis. Minerals: 1. During the absorptive state. snd ketane hadies. 3. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and hydrogenation. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. phosphorus. The process is stimulated by insulin. fatty acids. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. Inside cells. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. 2. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. Fate of Proteins: 1. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. sulfur.
4. adipose capsule. failure to grow. profuse perspiration. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. medulla. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. cramps. papillae. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. stages include chill and crisis. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. and K and calcium is inadequate. and thyroxine production. descending limb of Henle. nausea. 2. and dizziness. 3. D. ascending limb of Henle. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. skeletal muscle contraction. 3. 5. reduced perspiration. and renal fascia. and sometimes mental retardation. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. distal convoluted tubule. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. Internally. ureters. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 6. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 2. proximal convoluted tubule. Physiology: 1. Loss of Body Heat: 1. pyramids. and a pelvis. 2. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. 5. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. and urethra. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. 4. calyces. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). 4. 2. deereased metabolic rate. urinary bladder. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. 3. sympathetic stimulation. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. glomerulus. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. columns. 3. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. and high body temperature. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. 4. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. 3. lethargy. the kidneys consist of a cortex. 4. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. loop of Henle. 3. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. 2. 5. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. 2. 4. 7. and perspiration. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders .
Normally. hippuric acid. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. It includes interstitial fluid. 2. including water. leucocytes. Homeostasis: 1. 3. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. bilirubin. 6. nitrogenous wastes. 8. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. renal calculi. and ions. Besides the kidneys. The solutes include urea. Urethra: 1. and fluids of the eyes and ears. Body Fluids: 1. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. odor. ketone bodies. synovial fluid. and certain drugs. muscularis. 11. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. 2. glucose. and specific gravity. Included are ions. and a serous coat. and microbes. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. Chemically. ketone bodies. 4. 4. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. Urinary Bladder: 1. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). 5. the rest by facultative reabsorption. 4. amino acids. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. temperature. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. 10. plasma and Iymph. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. and emotions. integument. and the glomerular filtrate. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. glucose. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body.6. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. cerebrospinal fluid. In exchange. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. 2. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. 2. and peritoneal fluids. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. pleural. Ureters: 1. blood concentration. diuretics. and fibrous coat. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). primarily by peristalsis. pericardial. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. 5. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. uric acid. urobilinogen. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. Disorders . Its function is to discharge urine from the body. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). 5. 9. 2. casts. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. turbidity. erythrocytes. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. 3. 7. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. 7. Histologically. the lungs. indican.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. pH. and ions. 8. 3. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. 2. creatinine. Gl tract fluids. salts.
3. a decrease in rate. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. muscle contraction. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. 2. 3.80. 9. At the venous end. 8. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. and protein. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH.35 to 7. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. fluid moves in the opposite direction. An increase in rate of respirations. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. lungs. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries.00. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. 3. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. 2. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT).45. 5. Acid-Base Balance: 1. interstitial fluid. 4. chemical transmitter release. 3. muscle contraction. It also functions in blood clotting. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. 4. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. Under normal conditions. 2. 10. Its level is controlled by aldosterone.35 and 6.45 and 8. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. 5. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). 6. and GI tract. proper fluid movement between compartments. Its level is controlled by aldosterone.1. phosphate. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. respirations. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). decreases pH. muscle contraction. and regulating pH. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. 7. increases pH. skin. and regulation of pH. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. Plasma. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. 3. and kidney excretion. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. 2. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. nerve impulse conduction. 2. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. Electrolytes: 1. 4. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. 11. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. and heartbeat. 4. and fluid and electrolyte balance. especially extracellular fluid. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. 4. At the arterial end of a capillary. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems.
which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. 8. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. 12. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. 2. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. ductus deferens. 6. Ducts: 1. 3. sustentacular cells. seminal vesicles. 6. 4. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. Reproductive System: 1. membranous. II. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. Testosterone controls the growth. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. Accessory Glands: 9. and penis. bulbourethral glands. 5. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. and tail. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. urethra. sperm maturation. 2. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. 4. ducts (transport and store gametes). The male structures of reproduction include the testes. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. 7. prostate gland. ejaculatory duct. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. Male Reproductive System: 1. and spongy (cavernous). straight tubules. and 7. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . stimulates bone growth. 11. 10. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. Testes: 1. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. which nourish sperm cells. in which sperm cells are made. midpiece. 5. protein anabolism. and rete testis. 3. and interstitial endocrinocytes. 2. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. 3. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. Scrotum: 1. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. and efferent ducts. ductus epididymis. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. straight tubules. 7. 2. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). rete testis. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. development. 2. and maintenance of sex organs. 3. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine.
7. middle myometrium. on either side of the uterus. The uterus is an inverted. Estrogens stimulate the growth. and stimulate protein anabolism. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. mucus. 2. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. discharge ova (ovulation). Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. 4. uterus. tissue fluid.nutrients. development of a fetus during pregnancy. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. and inner endometrium. 6. III. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. 2. 6. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. and labor. . 9. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. 3. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. Ovaries: 1. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. 2. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. Histologically. Uterus: 1. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. During the postovulatory phase. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). During the menstrual phase. During the preovulatory phase. uterine tubes. 11. 8. 4. and vulva. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. 3. endometrial repair occurs. 2. implantation of a fertilized ovum. 5. 5. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. 2. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. and epithelial cells. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . vagina. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. The penis is the male organ of copulation. ovulation. 2. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. development. 3. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). Penis: 1. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. They produce ova. 10. 4. If fertilization and implantation do not occur.
2. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. 7. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. lubrication. 4. 3. Spermatogenisis: 1. and tumors. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. labia minora. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. Vulva: 1. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. 2. 2. 9. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. 3. 12. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. pectoral muscles. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. vaginal and urethral orifices. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. It is said to be haploid (n). Disorders . 11. 2. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. enlarged prostate. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. Sexual Intercourse: 1. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . If fertilization and implantation do occur. Oogenesis: 1. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. 8. 2. 2. The removal of a malignant breast. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. 13. 10. and orgasm. abnormal bleeding. 2. vestibule. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. 12. 2. and orgasm (climax). trichomoniasis. 9. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. The female role also involves erection. syphilis. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. 10. the cessation of the sexual cycles. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 5. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). 8. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. 7. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. 3. equatorial division. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. dysmenorrhea. It consists of the mons veneris. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and sperm maturation. Perineum: 1. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. equatorial division. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. genital herpes. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. 6. labia majora. and the lower portion of the birth canal. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Mammary Glands: 1. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. clitoris. Vagina: 1. lubrication. and ova maturation. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. 2.
2. 1. fetal growth. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and birth. 3. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. embryonic growth.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. 5. . Its various events are hormonally controlled. 4. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. implantation. 2.
such as hemophilia. During embryonic growth. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. Lactation: 1. 5. During the fetal period. 4.The morula develops into a blastocyst. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. Parturition and Labor: 1. chemicals and drugs. 2. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. expulsion of the fetus. and progesterone. alcohol. Dominant genes control a particular trait. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. Birth Control: 6. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). 3. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). 7. Inheritance: 1. 2. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. 2. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. and allantois. and contraception (natural. and delivery of the placenta. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. sickle cell anemia. 2. 3. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). protein anabolism. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. mesoderm. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. 3. 3. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. chorion. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Examples are infections. laparascopic technique). Tay-Sachs disease. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. 3. 2. 4. 5. and smoking. and progesterone. microbes. 2. sterilization (vasectomy. 2. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. 8. . removal of wastes. tubal ligation. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. estrogens. 6. mechanical. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. estrogens. amnion. 1. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. 2. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. and chemical). Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. and protection. and Down's syndrome. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .