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Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:
When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.
horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).
Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and
Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.
Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.
Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.
Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic
Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.
phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.
→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
The inner folds are called cristae. They support. 3. repair. and control.13. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin." 4. cilia. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. Functionally. 2. The ER provides mechanical support. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. 2. such as mature red blood cells. 2. They are involved in muscular contraction. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. Mitochondria: 1. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. Organelles: 1. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane.The Cytoskeleton: 1. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. and inorganic substances. Cytoplasm: 1. maintenance. Peroxisomes: 1. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. Nucleus: 1. transports substances intracellularly. 3. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. 3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. Microfilaments and Microtubules . do not grow or reproduce. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and form the structure of flagella. 2. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. 3. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. support. They contain enzymes (e. 2. nucleoli. Usually the largest organelle. membranous sacs called cisternae. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. but smaller.. and movement. and helps export chemicals from the cell. 2. 3. 2. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. Functionally. It is located near the nucleus. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. In conjunction with the ER. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. comprising the chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. They are formed from Golgi complexes. Cells without nuclei. Ribosomes: 1. Thus they are called "suicide packets.g. 2. 1. 3. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. and the mitotic spindle. 2. 4. and genetic material (DNA). If the cell is injured. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. 2. 3. 3. provide movement. stores synthesized molecules. carbohydrates. centrioles. lipids. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. which carry on phagocytosis. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. karyolymph.
Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. This involves transcription and translation. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. metaphase. lipids. Flagella and Cilia: 1. 7. 5. Somatic Cell Division: 1. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . In response to DNA damage. 5. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. glycogen. and elastic fibers. like collagenous. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. 6. 2. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Examples are melanin. or chromosomes. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). 4. the DNA molecules. 2. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. "SOS" Genes . It consists of prophase. are fibrous. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). DNA Polymerase is an example. 3. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). If they are numerous and hairlike. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. reticular. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. 6. 3. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. anaphase. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. 3. 3. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. they are called flagella. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. 2. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. Extracellular Materials: 1. In transcription. 4. Gene Action . and mucus. 2. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. Cellular Inclusions: 1. Cell Division: 1.DNA Repair: 1. 3. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. an "SOS response" occurs.Protein Synthesis: 1.2. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. Others. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. they are called cilia. 2. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. If projections are few and long. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. and telophase. 3. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. Some. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. 2. are amorphous. which consist of rRNA and protein. 8. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell.
supports. Glandular Epithelium: 1. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. It does not occur on free surfaces. 9. little intracellular material. 3. 2. 3. Epithelial Tissue: 1. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. and transitional (variable). Tissues Types of Tissues 1. 2. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). where it protects and secretes. except for cartilage. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. cuboidal (cubelike). pharynx. Connective Tissue: 1. 3. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. in kidneys and eyes. the study of tumors is called oncology. It can replace itself. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. connective. 4. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. 3. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). Epithelium has many cells. and most upper respiratory structures. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. Depending on their function and structure. acinar. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. Functional classification includes holocrine. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. and lining some glandular ducts. oil. 3. 7. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. It is found covering ovaries. stratified (several layers). Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Many theories of aging have been proposed. muscular. cell shapes include squamous (flat). but none successfully answers all questions. 8. 2. Exocrine glands (sweat. and no blood vessels (avascular). 2. 5. an extensive intercellular substance. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. 2.1. parts of urethra. 4. Connective tissue protects. 2. 6. and epiglottis. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. simple. and a rich blood supply (vascular). Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. auditory tubes. and apocrine glands. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. portion of urethra. and binds organs together. and nervous. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. tubuloacinar. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. and compound. merocrine. noncancerous tumors are called benign. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. 5. It has few cells. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. columnar (rectangular). 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It lines larger excretory ducts. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion.
Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. Dense.contraction. bronchial tubes. macrophages. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). plasma. 2. elastic arteries. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. membranes of organs. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. and Reticular. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). called adipocytes. Adipose. and Iymph nodes. heat. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. 4. are specialized for fat storage. at the ends of bones. 2. pericardium. cartilage. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities.4. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. and swelling. spleen. where it gives support. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. and in respiratory structures. 7. Visceral (smooth). Elastic. 2. sometimes loss of function occurs. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. mast. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. 3. It is flexible. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. and in the subcutaneous layer. o Serous membranes (pleura. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. pain. and Cardiac. 2. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. serous. and true vocal cords. and aponeuroses. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). Muscle tissue performs one major function . tendons. 5. around body organs. It is found as a component of fascia. and provides support. It provides strength. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. 6.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. and external ear. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. and vascular tissue. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. elastic. Membranes: 1. auditory tubes. Tissue Inflammation . in the nose. ligaments. Examples are: mucous. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. and cutaneous. bone tissue. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. such as the digestive tract. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. allows movement. and melanocytes). It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. trachea.
The skin and its derivatives (hair. 2. the process slows down with aging. pus is produced. The color of skin is due to melanin. and ducts of sweat glands. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). The Integumentary System . The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. 3. D. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. oil glands. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. • Hair: 1. 5. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. and excretion of water. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. 5. Tissue Repair: 1. an abscess develops. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. serotonin. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. and a hair follicle. nerves. 3. 6. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. nerves. If the injury is superficial. It performs the functions of protection. maintaining body temperature.The Skin: Skin 1. salts. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. 3. scab formation. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. 2. 4. 3. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. 8. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. synthesis of vitamin D. sudoriferous. In most inflammations. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. 4. hair follicles. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. if it cannot drain out of the body. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. brown melanin. hair follicles. kinins. 2. and corneum. and several organic compounds. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. C.2. 4. • Glands: 1. and ceruminous). carotene. some B. black melanin. Repair Process: 1. 2. and root hair plexuses. Conditions for Repair: 1. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. from deepest to most superficial. storage of chemical compounds. granulation tissue is involved. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. glands. and nails. are the stratum basale. and Meissner's corpuscles. 5. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. The reticular region is dense. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. arrectores pilorum muscles. 7. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. E. dermal papillae. lucidum. granulosum. If damage is extensive. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. skin glands (sebaceous. Various vitamins (A. The epidermal layers. and parenchymal regeneration. spinosum. and pheomelanin (yellow). New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. receiving stimuli. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. 2.
10. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. eponychium. and covering wounds with temporary protection. removing dead tissue. 3. and matrix. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. 7. and boils. 2. Depending on the depth of damage. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. hyponychium. and areolae. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. Disorders . keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. Most warts are benign. Histology: 1. Nails are hard. 6. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. They are found in the external auditory meatus. second-degree (partialthickness). mineral storage. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. protection. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. root. 2. and blood cell production. or psychogenic factors. pubis. the skin is cooled. 5. As the perspiration evaporates. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. 11. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. replacing lost body fluids. pimples. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. systemic diseases.• palms and soles. 2. their ducts open into hair follicles. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. 2. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. raised plaques or papules. and third-degree (fullthickness). Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Homeostasis: 1. 3. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. 8. 9. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. 3. free edge.6F). Nails: 1. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. If environmental temperature is high. regulating metabolic rate. and skin grafting. The functions of the skeletal system include support. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. 4. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. lunula. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. The principal parts of a nail are the body. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. leverage. 4.
Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. and calcified matrix. Functionally. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. 8. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. Colles'. Disorders . ossification occurs in the epiphyses. 6. 4. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. This process is called remodeling. Normal growth depends on calcium. compact bone protects. spongy bone is laid down first. 7. and endosteum. 2. marrow. periosteum. and periosteum. The two types of ossification. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. medullary or marrow cavity. spiral. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. metaphysis. complete. A fracture is any break in a bone. and remodeling. and nondisplaced. articular cartilage. simple. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. and the epiphyses of long bones. displaced. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. transverse. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. and irregular bones. 2. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. comminuted. hypertrophic cartilage. Pott's. Next. Homeostasis: 1. proliferating cartilage. It forms most of the structure of short. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. The types of fractures include: partial. 2. 3. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. 4. 5. 3. 7. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. except for the epiphyseal plate. 3. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. 8. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. C. Osteoblasts lay down bone. epiphyses (ends). It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. phosphorus. forming a callus.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 9. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. where bone replaces cartilage. impacted. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). greenstick. 4. flat. compound. and resists stress. 5. 6. intramembranous and endochondral. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. Functionally. and vitamins (A. In both types of ossification. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. Cartilage degenerates. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. supports. 3. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone.
6. lambdoidal. vertebral column.1. and ethmoid. palatine (2). the sternum. 5. head. short. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). foramen. auditory ossicles. muscle attachment. Terms that describe markings include fissure. sphenoid. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. ethmoid. The vertebral column. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . temporal (2). maxillae (2). Condyle. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. Surface Markings: 1. facet. 2. It is composed of 22 bones. 3. The patella is an example. 3. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. parietal (2). Examples are coronal. 4. occipital. inferior nasal conchae (2). 7. fused) and the coccyx (4. process. and squamosal sutures. 2. and ribs. and spine. sternum. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. They are lined by mucous membranes. lumbar vertebrae (5). the sacrum (5. 2. sagittal. support. meatus. and maxilla. Hyoid Bone: 1. 2. 1. or irregular. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. posterior. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. 3. bones are classified as long. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. Skull: 1. 2. fused). mandible. 2. The major fontanels are the anterior. and balance. thoracic vertebrae (12). lacrimal (2). It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. anterolaterals. and posterolaterals. fossa. crest. On the basis of shape. Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. These curves give strength. Vertebral Column: 1. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. and vomer. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. hyoid bone. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). tuberosity. zygomatic (2). flat. 3. sphenoid.
Navicular. Cuboid. and L 2. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. Examples include scoliosis. L l. ulna. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. and phalanges. Schaphoid (Navicular). The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. kyphosis. 5. metacarpals. 3. and the thoracic vertebrae. and phalanges. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. Thorax: 1. Talus. 2. 3. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. 2. Pisiform. carpals. o Lower Extremities: 1. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. 2. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform.The vertebra are similar in structure. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). 4. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. Triangular (Triquetrum). tibia. is referred to as spina bifida. the bones of the upper extremities. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. Hamate (Unciform). 3. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. Capitate. 3. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. o Upper Extremities: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and detail. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. 2. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. and Medial Cuneiform. and seven processes. each consisting of a body. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. and the bones of the lower extremities. and ischium. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). vertebral arch. II. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. 4. fibula. 2. a congenital defect. shape. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. the ribs and costal cartilages. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. and lordosis. pubis. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. the pelvic girdle. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. metatarsals. radius. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. 2. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. tarsals.
Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. or luxation. supination and pronation. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. 8. 2. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. joints. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). circumduction. 4.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. 4. and muscle tension. and a synovial membrane. are cartilaginous joints. swelling. and elevation and depression. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. 2. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). and muscles. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. A dislocation. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. rotation. tendons. inversion and eversion. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. 2. with no joint cavity. protraction and retraction. All synovial joints are freely movable. pivot joints (radioulnar). 3. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. 6. 2. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. and loss of function. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. Bones held together by cartilage. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. ligaments. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. 2. 3. joints are classified as fibrous. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). Synovial Joints: 1. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). or synovial. hinge joints (elbow). 1. 7. 3. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. 5. biaxial. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. 2. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .arches. 2. Structurally. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). 5. tension of ligaments. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. Disorders . angular movements. articular cartilage. Fibrous Joints: 1. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). articular discs. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). 2. are fibrous joints. and bursae. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. cartilaginous. or triaxial. some also contain ligaments. Articulations: 1. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. 6. with no joint cavity. 3. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. to provide support and leverage.
2. 2. and subserous. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. There are three types of fascia: superficial. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. Energy for Contraction: 1. covering individual fibers. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. 4. 3. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 8. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. tropomyosin. 3. 2. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. 3. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. 3. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. 4. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. Functions: 1. deep. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. It is striated and voluntary. triggering the contractile process. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. 3. The Motor Unit: 1. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. contract. and troponin. It is striated and involuntary. Contraction . Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. 2. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. 5. junction. 2. 2. Through contraction. 2. 7. and endomysium. covering fasciculi. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. 4. or myoneural. maintenance of posture. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. covering the entire muscle. Physiology of Contraction: 1. 3. 6. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. perimysium. Connective tissue components are epimysium. and heat production. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. sarcoplasmic reticulum. and T tubules. Types: 1. nuclei.without dislocation. the neuron releases acetylcholine. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended.
The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. The fibers are arranged in a network. Unit it is paid back. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. fibrillations. 4. 5. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. 2. Abnormal contractions include spasms. 5. The various kinds of contractions are twitch.2. isotonic. Kinds of Contractions: 1. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. 3. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. 3. It is striated and involuntary. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Disorders . 3. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. tenderness. 3. and related structures in the thigh. cramps. stimulus. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. 3. more blood capillaries. or threshold. tetanus. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. more mitochondria. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. and isometric. and tics. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. 2. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. and a large amount of myoglobin. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. 6. and stiffness of joints. 3. 3. Homeostasis: 1. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. 2. muscles. treppe. 2. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. 2. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. stimulus. 2. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. it is called lumbago. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. This muscle is found only in the heart. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. Muscle Tone: 1. If it occurs in the lumbar region. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. 2. and larger T tubules. 3. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. 2. convulsions. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. each of which contracts as a functional unit. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. 4. or subthreshold.
The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. and usually a single axon. Intramuscular Injections: 1. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. bipolar. shape. 1. 2. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. 3. 3. On the basis of structure. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. lateral side of the thigh. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. 5. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. and circular. 2. and resistance on the lever. and minimal irritation. 2. Nerve Impulse: 1. 4. or nerve cells. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. 2. microglia. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. attach neurons to blood vessels. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. the membrane is said to have an action potential. and glands. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. produce the myelin sheath. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. 2. second-class. and unipolar. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. origin and insertion. Around the time of birth. 4. number of origins (or heads). and ependyma. and the membrane is said to be polarized. and reacting to them. size. pennate. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. cardiac muscle tissue. If. and carry out phagocytosis. 3. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. 6. oligodendrocytes. and deltoid region of the arm. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. 3. including motor neurons. location. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. neurons are multipolar. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. interpreting them. 2. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. 2. effort. Neurons. and action. Neurons: 1. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. 5. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. convergent. The antagonist produces an opposite action. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. On the basis of function. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. 6.
The junction between neurons is called a synapse. Structure in Cross Section: 1. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. cell body. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 4. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. 6. 2. 3. posterior. and vertebral ligaments. 3. 3. 6. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. and ascending and descending tracts. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. According to the all-ornothing principle. and lateral white columns. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. anterior. 6. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. 3. 5. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. meninges. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. central canal. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. Protection and Coverings: 1. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. cerebrospinal fluid. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. 4. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 2. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. or axon hillock. 5. 5. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. posterior. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. arachnoid and pia mater. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. 2. 7. 4. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. 4. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. 7. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. 2. and lateral gray horns. 7.travels from point to point along the membrane. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. anterior. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. 5. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. 6.
Wallerian degeneration. meningeal branch. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. 9. 3. 5. 3. A stretch reflex. 7. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. and sacral plexuses. Disorders . • Dermatomes: 1. is an example. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. 2. 5. flexor reflex. 5. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. and an effector. 6. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 2. 4. except for T 2-T 11. 3. and epineurium. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). 2. brachial. a sensory neuron. 4. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. such as the patellar reflex. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. the Achilles reflex. tendon reflex. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . a motor neuron. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. The posterior root. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. form networks of nerves called plexuses. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. ventral ramus. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. a center. The skin segments are called dermatomes. A reflex is a quick. respectively. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. Functions: 1. posterior root ganglion. 2. and motor neuron. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. 1. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. • Composition and Coverings: 1. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. and rami communicantes. 4. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. 3. 2. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 2. 1. and regeneration. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. and crossed extensor reflex.2. constant segments of the skin. Following peripheral nerve damage. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. • Distribution: 1. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. 4. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. Its basic components are a receptor. 2. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. lumbar. the Babinski sign. association. 5. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. and the abdominal reflex. 8. perineunum.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1.
2. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. or death of brain 5. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. cerebrum. 4. 2. vasoconstriction. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. The Diencephalon: 1. 2. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. 2. 3. and central canal. The pons is superior to the medulla. permanent damage.1. 3. 1. coughing. 3. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. 1. and unconsciousness. 4. and cerebellum. it is called external hydrocephalus. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 2. ventricles. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. 2. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. mental retardation. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. 3. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. 1. The Brain Stem: 1. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. swallowing. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. or death. epilepsy. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. 4. cranial meninges. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. 1. respiratory rate. vomiting. and hiccuping. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. convulsions. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. 2. During embryological development. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 1. it is called internal hydrocephalus. which helps control respiration. 6. Protection and Coverings: 1. diencephalon. 2. sneezing. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. cells. 2. 3. 2. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. Embryological Development: 1. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem.
The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. 4. and generating mental images of sight. The Cerebellum: 1. numerical and scientific skills. 9. parietal. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. The Cerebrum: 1. 6. 7. except smell. 3. gamma aminobutyric acid. 7. 3. 1. musical and artistic awareness. touch. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. 8. 2. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . temporal. controls body temperature. space and pattern perception. 3. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 10. spoken and written language. glutamic acid. Its cortex contains convolutions. regulates food and fluid intake. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. 3. and reasoning. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. imagination.7. sound. 2. 2. 1. 5. 3. 3. and glycine. Brain Lateralization: 1. norepinephrine. excite. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. and sulci. to the cerebral cortex. They help to control muscular movements. and tumors. taste. 3. 2. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. serotonin. constricted vermis. 4. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. 2. 2. either anatomically or functionally. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. 6. 3. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. aspartic acid. dopamine. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. 5. and occipital. insight. 3. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. 2. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. It controls the autonomic nervous system. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. and smell. 3. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. endorphins. infections. 1. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. 2. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. 2. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. and dynorphin. 1. fissures. 2.
12. 5. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. sensory. Trigeminal Sensory function. or basal ganglia during fetal development. Scalp. forehead.11. 4.The sense of vision. . pharynx. 10. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. Depending on the form of the disease. 9. cornea. cholecystokinin. nose. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. 4. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. Impulse transmission is interrupted.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 6. or psychological malfunction. 2. Motor function. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. lower jaw. Accessory Motor. soft palate. pharyngeal muscles. 8. etc. childbirth. 7.Sensory. Motor. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Vestibulococ hlear . Disorders . 6. 10. hearing and balance. 4. 3. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. 9. Hypoglossal .Sensory. thoracic and abdominal organs. lower teeth. muscles of facial expression. inferior pharynx.The sense of smell. 12. Oculomotor . Motor function. Soft palate. The Cranial Nerves: 1. 8. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. also called strokes. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. 4. upper teeth. thrombosis. Vagus Sensory. Motor. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis.Motor function of eye muscles. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. 7. or atherosclerosis. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. or early infancy. 3. Optic . Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Tongue muscles. the victim experiences degrees of motor. 5. 2. etc. Palate. larangeal muscles. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Glossophary ngeal .Motor. Olfactory . are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. taste. upper jaw. muscles of mastication. tongue muscles. upper eyelid. 11. 11. Facial Sensory. some neck and shoulder muscles. taste. Examples include angiotensin. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. larynx. cerebellum. 1.
Merkel's discs. 3. 3. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. they cause subconscious motor reactions. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. and tendon organs. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. The neural pathway for light touch. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. 3. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. and pain. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. and third-order neurons. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. visceroceptors. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. movement of body parts. Characteristics: 1. 2. and body position. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Levels of Sensation: 1. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. 2.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. 5. 2. brain dysfunction. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. Classification of Receptors: 1. 4. General Senses . receptors are classified as exteroceptors. Sensations: 1. 2. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. Receptors located in muscles. 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . electromagnetic receptors. nociceptors. and liver damage. pressure. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. thermoreceptors. 2. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. muscle spindles. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. and proprioceptors.muscle spasms and encephalitis. second-order. 3. 4. and sometimes delirium. 7. According to location. free nerve endings. connective tissues. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. 6. and end organs of Ruffini. vibration). 12. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. tendons. In terms of simplicity or complexity. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. end organs of Ruffini. and Pacinian corpuscles. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. and chemoreceptors. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. and acupuncture. personality changes. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. 2. 3. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. 4. Meissner's corpuscles. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. 2. 4. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. surgery. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. 13. conduction of the impulse to the brain. proprioception. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated.
4. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. and to make childbirth easier. and plexuses. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. to alleviate migraine headaches.6. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. ganglia. and glands. 2. decrease in heart rate. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. 3. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. reduced metabolic rate. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). and vestibulospinal tracts. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . On the basis of the transmitter produced. It has been used to control heart rate. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. anterior corticospinal. 3. 3. afferent neuron. it consists of activated and long-term components. and corticobulbar tracts. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. and visceral effector. regulates visceral activities. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). 2. 3. activities of smooth muscle. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. in general. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. 3. that is. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. in particular by the cerebral cortex. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. 2. cardiac muscle. It usually operates without conscious control. the hypothalamus. It is entirely motor. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Motor Pathways: 1. 4. 4. Integrative Functions: 1. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. Control by Higher Centers: 1. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. 2. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. 4. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. It is regulated by centers in the brain. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. 2. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). 3. 4. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. tectospinal. Olfactory Sensations: 1. or visceral efferent nervous system. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. association neuron. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. 5. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. The autonomic nervous system. 2. Physiology: 1. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. and the medulla oblongata. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. concerned with energy expenditure. 2. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral).
Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. and tympanic membrane). Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). linear. convergence. and cerebral cortex. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. 2. Trachoma is a chronic. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. the organ of hearing. 3. and inverted image formation. strike the basilar membrane. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ.2. aqueous humor. lens. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). and vitreous humor. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. external auditory canal. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. and the cortex. 6. and bitter. and round window). 3. and the lacrimal apparatus. 5. 7. 4. olfactory bulbs. increase pressure in the endolymph. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). sweet. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. hypermetropia (farsightedness). 4. strike the tympanic membrane. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. 3. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. 9. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. IX. ossicles. and (c) retina. VII. eyelashes. olfactory tracts. which destroys neurons of the retina. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. 4. 10. 7. 2. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. 3. which contains rods and cones.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. 2. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. eyelids. the thalamus. medulla. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. set up waves in the perilymph. 4. 8. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. ciliary body. pass through the ossicles. A sound impulse is then initiated. or vertical motion. 5. 5. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. water-soluble. 3. Visual Sensations: 1. The four primary tastes are salt. sour. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. oval window. strike the oval window. and cerebral cortex. and the threshold of smell is low. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. Disorders . Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. the optic chiasma. constriction of the pupil. 8. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). and iris). thalamus. 2. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. accommodation of the lens. and X. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. and lipid-soluble. 4. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. 6. the optic tract. The internal ear contains the spiral organ.
nerve impulses. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). 4. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. 2. 7. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. and contribute to reproductive processes. 16. 3. respond to stress. 8. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). Chemistry of Hormones: 1. 15. 2. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). 14. 2. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 3. 4. sebaceous. 2. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). 13. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. Histologically. 2. help regulate growth and development. 12. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. Hormones help regulate the internal environment.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. and regulating factors. Control of Hormonal Secretions . ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. On the basis of solubility. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). 5. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. 11. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. and acromegaly.Feedback Control: 1. 3. 6. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. 9. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. Exocrine glands (sweat. 10. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. giantism.
2. 2. 2. Pancreas: 1. 2. menstrual cycle. and the reactivity of the nervous system. Histologically.. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. 5. Secretion is controlled by CRF. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. and serve as antiinflammatories. 3. and zona reticularis. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. beta cells. growth and development. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. which secrete calcitonin (CT). mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. exophthalmic goiter. 3. and lactation. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. 4. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid.g. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses.Thyroid: 1. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. 6. Mineralocorticoids (e. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. and parafollicular cells. 9. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. myxedema. 5. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. 4. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. zona ennin late. beta cells secrete insulin. and delta cells. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. help resist stress. 6.. They are released under stress. 6. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. Parathyroids: 1. pregnancy. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Histologically. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. Histologically. Ovaries and Testes: 1. 4. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. 2.g. 4. Histologically. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. 8. glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids (e. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. 7. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. 3. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. 10. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Histologically. Secretion is controlled by TRF. 2. and gonadocorticoids. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 5. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. Cretinism. 3. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1.
and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. consists of 91. Normal blood contains 5. thymic humoral factor (THF). 2. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes).4 million/mm3 of blood. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. 5. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. 2. Plasma: 1. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis.35 to 7.5 percent solutes. and enzymes.5 percent water and 8. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. eosinophils.000 to 9. Thrombocytes: 1. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. and water content of cells. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. pH. and platelets.000/mm3. 2. 3.5 to 5. carbon dioxide. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. about 4. The liquid portion of blood.pinealocytes. It helps to regulate pH. 2. Thymus: 1. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone).000/mm3. Normal blood contains 250. granular leucocytes. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. 2. 3. Red blood cells live about 120 days. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. Erythrocytes: 1. neuroglial cells. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. 4. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. 2. called plasma. called erythropoiesis. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. 4. a healthy female. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. 5. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. 3. 3. and salinity. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. foods. 38 degrees C (100. and blood vessels.45. globulins.000 to 400. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. temperature. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. hormones. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. Functions: 1. thymic factor (TF). differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. 6. 0.4 degrees F). Blood transports oxygen. Leucocytes: 1. fibrinogen). body temperature. A healthy male has about 5. and thrombocytes (platelets). enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. 6. 2. 4.90 NaCI. wastes. Iymph vessels. 7. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones.8 million/mm3. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. Erythrocyte formation. nutrients. the heart. and Iymph glands. 3. It protects against toxins and microbes. leucocytes (white blood cells). The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions.85 to 0.5. Lymphocytes. 3. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). 2. Components: 1. 4. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. The cardiovascular system consists of blood.
through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. It involves vascular spasm. Anticoagulatants (e. Like plasma. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. 7.and hormones. The cause is a virus. The Cardiovascular System . 4. hemorrhagic. aplastic. 2. 3. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. platelet plug formation. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors.Valves: 1. encloses the heart. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. 2. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. 4. In the ABO system. 4. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. 11. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). 5. pernicious. 2. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. 6. 8. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. myocardium. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). 2. 3. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. 2. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. and out through the aorta. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. and blood coagulation. Disorders . through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. In vascular spasm. 10. 9. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . Interstitial Fluid: 1. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. The parietal pericardium. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. 2. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. 3.The Heart: 1. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. 3.g. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes.. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. In the Rh system. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. respiratory gases. and endocardium. hemolytic. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. heparin) prevent clogging. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. and sickle cell anemia.
The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. 6. temperature. between the atria and their ventricles. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. atrioventricular (AV) node. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. 5. Electrocardiogram: 1. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). 2. 2. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. 4. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. 2. 5. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. 2. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). 5. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. Cardiac Cycle: 1. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves.8 sec. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. 7. potassium). aortic reflex. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). 7. 7. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. 3. 4. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. 3. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). 3. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. 4. 2. Conduction System: 1. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. 3. Cardiac Output: 1. 3. detecting the presence of fetal life. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. determining the presence of several fetuses. bundle branches. sodium. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. and Purkinje fibers. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. Blood Supply: 1. 6. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure.4. and right heart (atrial) reflex. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. 6.
Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. diabetes mellitus. 2. Veins: 1. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. fibrillation. 3.ener Arterioles: 1. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. 5. lack of exercise. blood pressure increases. high blood pressure. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention.emotion. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. valvular stenosis. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. The heart becomes hypoxic. 2. to correct some defects. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. and arrhythmias (heart block. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. 3. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). 4. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. obesity. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. 2. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. 3. sex (gender and physical activity). anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. 2. Arteries: 1. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. septal defects. cigarette smoking. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. Capillaries: 1. 2. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. 4. 3. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. flutter. others are fenestrated. As blood volume increases. and tetralogy of Fallot). 3. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. Disorders . some capillaries are continuous. 2. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. In severe shock. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. This network increases the surface area. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. 4. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. and the shock cvcle is intensified. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. Venules: 1. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. and to apply chemotherapy locally. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. and premature contractions). and therefore blood pressure. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. 5. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. and age. and genetic disposition. and tunica externa. 2. 4. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. 3. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol.
At birth. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. and fetal circulation. stomach. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. 3. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. 2. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Disorders . 2. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. pulmonary. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. 3. 3. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. and liver functions are established. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. 6. chemoreceptors. and age. 3. 2. the arch of the aorta. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. 2. and the descending aorta. Fetal Circulation: 1. 2. chemicals. 3. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. They in turn empty into the right atrium. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. digestive. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. 2. 9.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). emotions. Systemic Circulation: 1. Blood Reservoirs: 1. skeletal muscular contractions. intestines. Other routes include the cerebral. 2. spleen. chemicals. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. and autoregulation. sex. and higher brain centers. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. and breathing. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. Circulatory Routes: 1. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. 7. when lung. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. 8. 2. temperature. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
unsaturated fatty acids. antimicrobial substances (interferon. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and kidneys. and Iysozyme). 2. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. 4. Based on chemistry and structure. Antigens are chemical substances that. and flow of urine). Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. microbial structures. incompatible blood cells. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 3. and lingual tonsils. and multivalence. mucous membranes. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. to Iymph trunks. complement. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. to Iymphatics. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. 4.1. 7. to the subclavian veins. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. chemical factors (gastric juice. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. 2. 3. and transplants. 8. lacrimal apparatus. Iymphatic vessels. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 3. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. Lymph Circulation: 1. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. They include the pharyngeal. 5. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. each with specific biological roles (IgG. 3. when introduced into the body. Examples of antigens are microbes. acid pH of skin. and IgE). 9. 2. mucus. 3. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. palatine. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. IgM. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. 6. phagocytosis. cilia. Iymph nodes. and Iymph organs. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. called Iymphatics. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. 2. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. and properdin). epiglottis. 2. 2. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. brain. 2. Lymphatic Organs: 1. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. pollen. 3. and fever. 5. IgA. inflammation. to Iymph capillaries. reactivity. 4. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. IgD. saliva. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels.
Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. 2. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen.liver and spleen. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. sobbing. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. eczema. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. treatment. 2. 10. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. 2. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. 4. Coughing. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. 11. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. sneezing. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. detection of disease. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. 12. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. and multiple sclerosis (MS). sighing. asthma. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. During forced inspiration. they are important in diagnosis. 3. 2. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. laughing. 5. preparing vaccines. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. 6. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. 8. 3. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. yawning. crying. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 14. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. myasthenia gravis. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). rheumatic fever. 7. and hives. 4. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. invading antigen. 13. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. memory B cells recognize the original.
7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. division. a large alveolar surface area. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. include inspiratory. 4. compresses the lungs. In bronchogenic carcinoma. and enlarged chest. temperature. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. 2. inspiratory reserve. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. and excess mucus production. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. temperature. 3. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. 2. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. blood pressure. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. The A. Breathing. B. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. the inflation reflex. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. 3. and irritation to the respiratory centers. and Circulation. 3. 4. 2. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. 4. inflated alveoli. both in the brain and outside. and minimal volumes. the sum of two or more volumes. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. 2. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. According to Dalton's law. and a rich blood supply. and DPG. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. It is symbolized by p.are tidal volume. Pulmonary lung capacities. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. 2. 3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. pneumotaxic area. expiratory reserve. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). C's of CPR are Airway. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. assuming that the pressure remains constant. Disorders . residual volume. 5. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels).Internal Respiration: 1. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. 3. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. functional residual. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. and apneustic area. and function of the epithelial cells. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. External Respiration . when the temperature remains constant. pCO2. pain. inflated lungs. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. vital. 2. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. 6. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. and total.
Deglutition: 1. falciform ligament. or dentes. mesocolon. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. forms the floor of the oral cavity. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. lips. It consists of a voluntary stage. Salivary Glands: 1. and cervix. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. tongue. which aid mechanical digestion. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. Some papillae contain taste buds. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. and accessory structures. 3. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. submandibular (submaxillary). 2. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. and serosa (peritoneum). 5. 3. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. gallbladder. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. 2. 4. 4. 2. The teeth. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. liver. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. 2. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. and defecation. and tongue. submucosa. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. Teeth: 1. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. 3. and pancreas. Digestive Processes: 1. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. muscularis. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2.7. 2. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. Organization: 1. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. 3. and greater omentum. or alimentary canal. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. 4. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. 8. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. The tongue. root. lipid. absorption. 4. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. palates. 2. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. the hardest substance in the body. 2. mechanical and chemical digestion. 2. 9. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. salivary glands. lesser omentum. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. The accessory structures include the teeth. and sublingual glands. peristalsis. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. together with its associated muscles. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. 3.
Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2. intrinsic factor. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Small Intestine: Anatomy . neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase).(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). and vitamins. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. Among the substances absorbed are some water. Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. resynthesized to triglycerides. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2.Histology: 1. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). glands that produce mucus. The small intestine also absorbs water. 2. 3. 2. 3. 3. 2. 2. 4. 3. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 2. and alcohol. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). Liver: 1. Esophagus: 1. Absorption: 1. and the microvilli. Gallbladder: 1. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. and stomach gastrin. 3. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. villi. Absorption: 1. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. 2. Pancreas: 1. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). certain electrolytes and drugs. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). a protein-digesting enzyme. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. hydrochloric acid. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. 2. electrolytes. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. The esophagus is a collapsible. Stomach: Anatomy . The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. 2. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and intestinal. gastric. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. and transported as chylomicrons. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase).Histology: 1. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. 2. Hormones also assume a role. 2. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter.
Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. 7. and water. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. The large intestine absorbs water. 2. proteins. 4. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. colonoscopy. carcinoma of the cecum. Types include hepatitis A. and non-A. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Defecation: 1. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. and cementum. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. periodontal membrane. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. colon. 3. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. and barium x-ray. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. or kinking of the organ. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. 2. peristalsis. 4. vitamins. and undigested foods. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. 2. and vitamins.1. electrolytes. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. 3. alveolar bone. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. 11. Disorders . The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. 12. rectum. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. During digestion. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. 2. rather than enzymatic. stenosis. epithelial cells. 5. 9. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. 2. Metabolism: 1. minerals. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. act as building blocks in forming new body components. Its subdivisions include the cecum. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. action. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Anabolic reactions use energy. lipids. 10. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. hepatitis B. bacteria. a foreign body. and anal canal. 2. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. . which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. 2. 5. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. 6. and mass peristalsis. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Feces consists of water. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. 3. 8. inorganic salts.
the Krebs cycle. 2. It is stimulated by cortisol. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. and growth hormone (GH). The carrier molecules involved include FAD. 3. 1 molecule of FADH2. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Lipid Catabolism: 1. 4 molecules of NADH2. under aerobic conditions. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. 4. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. Glucose Anabolism: 1. In beta oxidation. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. 3. 2. 2. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. epinephrine. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. As a result of glycolysis. 3. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. Glycolysis: 1. glucagon. and the electron transport chain. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. 2. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). and cytochromes. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. 3. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. 2. 2. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. 3. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. 4. During digestion. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. thyroxine. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi.2. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. Fate of Lipids: 1. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. 3. recombined to form triglycerides. 2. 2. 5. 3. Glucose Catabolism: 1. Lipid Metabolism: 1. Fat Storage: 1. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. Electron Transport Chain: 1. When oxygen is in short supply. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. and I molecule of GTP. 3. thromboplastin for blood clotting. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . coenzyme Q. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat.
2. hormones. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. 2. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. manganese. Many function in enzyme systems. Protein Metabolism: 1. and so forth. The process is stimulated by insulin. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. and hydrogenation. 2. stored. called ketosis. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. 2. and chromium. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. E. based on the needs of the body. 4. the nervous system. Lipid Anabolism . Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. Fate of Proteins: 1. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. 2. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. 3. Protein Anabolism: 1. 2. zinc. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. During the absorptive state.Lipogenesis: 1. conversion of glycerol into glucose. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. or converted. potassium. structural elements. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. thyroxine. copper. hormones. Amino acids. Inside cells. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). may cause acidosis. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. During the absorptive state. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. decarboxylation. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. 2. 2. and K. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. Production of Body Heat: 1. magnesium. snd ketane hadies. During digestion. chlorine. 3. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. D. selenium. sodium.4. 3. and insulin. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. Before amino acids can be catabolized. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. 2. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. iron. but an excess of ketone bodies. and body temperature.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. iodine. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. fatty acids. phosphorus. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. cobalt. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. sulfur. Minerals: 1. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. enter body cells by active transport. 3. 2. Protein Catabolism: 1. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. these conversions involve deamination. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. fats. Vitamins: 1. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and proteins. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C.
Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. 3. 7. Loss of Body Heat: 1. the kidneys consist of a cortex. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. and sometimes mental retardation. stages include chill and crisis. lethargy. 4. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. failure to grow. and K and calcium is inadequate. and dizziness. 3. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. distal convoluted tubule. 5. and a pelvis. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. and high body temperature. deereased metabolic rate. 4. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. 2. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. cramps. sympathetic stimulation. 4. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. ascending limb of Henle. and thyroxine production. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. urinary bladder. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. 4. profuse perspiration. 2. 3. loop of Henle.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 3. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. 4. glomerulus. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. skeletal muscle contraction. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. adipose capsule. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. 6. reduced perspiration. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . and renal fascia. ureters. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). papillae. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. proximal convoluted tubule. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). and perspiration. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. D. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. Internally. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. calyces. nausea. medulla. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. 5. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. 3. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. 5. descending limb of Henle. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. 3. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and urethra. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. 2. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. 4. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. Physiology: 1. pyramids. columns. 2. 2.
Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. and peritoneal fluids. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. Gl tract fluids. temperature. and certain drugs. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. 7. pH. and a serous coat. Urethra: 1. In exchange. and microbes. the lungs. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Disorders . including water. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. and the glomerular filtrate. 2.6. The solutes include urea. pericardial. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. 3. 4. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. and fluids of the eyes and ears. 4. 11. plasma and Iymph. creatinine. synovial fluid. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. 3. 6. indican.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. leucocytes. Body Fluids: 1. ketone bodies. blood concentration. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. 5. urobilinogen. Histologically. muscularis. pleural. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. Urinary Bladder: 1. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. odor. ketone bodies. hippuric acid. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. Homeostasis: 1. turbidity. primarily by peristalsis. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. Chemically. 8. glucose. amino acids. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). It includes interstitial fluid. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. casts. 2. the rest by facultative reabsorption. and fibrous coat. 2. Normally. and ions. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. diuretics. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. and ions. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. and specific gravity. 8. glucose. 4. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). cerebrospinal fluid. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. 5. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). salts. bilirubin. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). 2. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. 2. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. 10. 2. Included are ions. Besides the kidneys. 5. erythrocytes. integument. and emotions. Ureters: 1. nitrogenous wastes. uric acid. 9. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. 3. 3. 7. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. renal calculi.
and heartbeat. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. skin. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). 3. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. 9. and regulation of pH. muscle contraction. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. chemical transmitter release.35 and 6. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. 8. 7. 3. phosphate. increases pH. muscle contraction. 6. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. and GI tract. especially extracellular fluid. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT.1. 2. 4. a decrease in rate. respirations. 2.80. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. 4. 3. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume.45. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. and protein. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. Electrolytes: 1. 2. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. 4. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. Plasma. At the arterial end of a capillary. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. 10. An increase in rate of respirations. 5. 4.45 and 8. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth.00. and fluid and electrolyte balance. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. 2. muscle contraction. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid.35 to 7. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. Acid-Base Balance: 1. 11. 2. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. Under normal conditions. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 3. fluid moves in the opposite direction. proper fluid movement between compartments. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and kidney excretion. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. lungs. 3. 4. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. It also functions in blood clotting. nerve impulse conduction. decreases pH. interstitial fluid. and regulating pH. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 5. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. At the venous end.
which nourish sperm cells. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. sustentacular cells. ductus deferens. straight tubules. 3. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. 8. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. 6. and penis. 2. seminal vesicles. 2. rete testis. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). ductus epididymis. 5. 4. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. and 7. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. 10. stimulates bone growth. Scrotum: 1. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. in which sperm cells are made. and maintenance of sex organs. prostate gland. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. 7. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Testes: 1. 11. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. 12. and efferent ducts. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. midpiece. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. 7. and spongy (cavernous). 3. 2. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. Reproductive System: 1. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. 2. II. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. urethra. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). straight tubules. 4. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. 5. 2. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. Ducts: 1. membranous. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. Testosterone controls the growth. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. 3. 3. protein anabolism. and rete testis. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. and tail. development. ducts (transport and store gametes). Accessory Glands: 9. and interstitial endocrinocytes. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. Male Reproductive System: 1. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. ejaculatory duct. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. sperm maturation. bulbourethral glands. 6.
and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. 2. 7. 2. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. and stimulate protein anabolism. mucus.nutrients. During the menstrual phase. 9. middle myometrium. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. and labor. on either side of the uterus. During the postovulatory phase. vagina. development of a fetus during pregnancy. 4. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. 11. 3. Penis: 1. Histologically. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. 3. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. discharge ova (ovulation). regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. and epithelial cells. uterine tubes. They produce ova. and inner endometrium. 3. 10. 2. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. 4. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. uterus. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. endometrial repair occurs. Ovaries: 1. 2. Estrogens stimulate the growth. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. The uterus is an inverted. ovulation. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. and vulva. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. 2. 6. The penis is the male organ of copulation. 6. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. 8. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. tissue fluid. III. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. 4. implantation of a fertilized ovum. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. 5. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. 5. During the preovulatory phase. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. development. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. 2. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). . and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. Uterus: 1.
13. abnormal bleeding. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. and sperm maturation. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. dysmenorrhea. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Vulva: 1. enlarged prostate. equatorial division. Oogenesis: 1. 9. 12. 3. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. 2. Vagina: 1. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. and ova maturation. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. 2. Perineum: 1. 2. 2. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. 2. 12. the cessation of the sexual cycles. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. Mammary Glands: 1. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). 8. If fertilization and implantation do occur. and the lower portion of the birth canal. labia minora.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. 8. Spermatogenisis: 1. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. 3. 10. 9. and orgasm (climax). Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. The removal of a malignant breast. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. pectoral muscles. 5. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. It is said to be haploid (n). 2. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. and tumors.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. 2. and orgasm. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 7. trichomoniasis. 7. 10. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. Disorders . 6. lubrication. 2. It consists of the mons veneris. vestibule. vaginal and urethral orifices. labia majora. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. equatorial division. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. 4. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). genital herpes. Sexual Intercourse: 1. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. 11. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. 2. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. syphilis. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). lubrication. The female role also involves erection. 3. clitoris. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1.
Fertilization and Implantation: 1. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. embryonic growth. 1. fetal growth. . ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. 4. Its various events are hormonally controlled. 5. implantation. 3. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. and birth. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. 2. 2.
mechanical. alcohol. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. removal of wastes. 2. Inheritance: 1. Tay-Sachs disease. 3. 8. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. and progesterone. During embryonic growth. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. sterilization (vasectomy. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. 5. tubal ligation. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. and Down's syndrome. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. 2. 2. mesoderm. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. and chemical). 2. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. Parturition and Labor: 1. 3. and contraception (natural. and delivery of the placenta. laparascopic technique). estrogens. and progesterone. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . chemicals and drugs. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. and allantois. Dominant genes control a particular trait. 5. microbes. Lactation: 1. estrogens. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. 4. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. 2. 2. 7. chorion. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). sickle cell anemia. 3. During the fetal period. expulsion of the fetus. 1. 4. 6. and smoking. protein anabolism. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. . It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1.The morula develops into a blastocyst. amnion. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. 3. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. 3. Examples are infections. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. 2. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). such as hemophilia. and protection. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. 2. Birth Control: 6.