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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.

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Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.

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horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary

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accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and helps export chemicals from the cell. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. 2. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. 2. Mitochondria: 1. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. 3. nucleoli. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. They are formed from Golgi complexes. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. They contain enzymes (e. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton.. 2. 3. It is located near the nucleus.The Cytoskeleton: 1. comprising the chromosomes. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. 2. Functionally. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. Peroxisomes: 1. 3. Functionally. do not grow or reproduce. karyolymph. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes.13. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. Organelles: 1. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. transports substances intracellularly. 2. 2. 3. and movement. In conjunction with the ER. The ER provides mechanical support. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. but smaller." 4. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. such as mature red blood cells. and the mitotic spindle. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. carbohydrates. Microfilaments and Microtubules . ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. 2. cilia. support. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. provide movement. Ribosomes: 1. and inorganic substances. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. membranous sacs called cisternae. lipids. If the cell is injured. Cytoplasm: 1. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. The inner folds are called cristae. 2. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. 2. 4. centrioles. which carry on phagocytosis. Cells without nuclei. They are involved in muscular contraction. 3.g. 2. stores synthesized molecules. maintenance. repair. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. 3. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. and form the structure of flagella. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Usually the largest organelle. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. They support. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. 3. 3. Thus they are called "suicide packets. and genetic material (DNA). They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Nucleus: 1. and control. 1.

Flagella and Cilia: 1. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. "SOS" Genes . genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). 4. Somatic Cell Division: 1. 3. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. or chromosomes. reticular. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. If projections are few and long. 2. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. In response to DNA damage. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. 3. and elastic fibers. 7. 2. Extracellular Materials: 1. Gene Action . DNA Polymerase is an example. 3. like collagenous. glycogen. an "SOS response" occurs. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. 4. and telophase. If they are numerous and hairlike. Others. 6. Cellular Inclusions: 1. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. anaphase. the DNA molecules. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .Protein Synthesis: 1. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals.DNA Repair: 1. 3. 5. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. It consists of prophase. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. are fibrous. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells.2. 2. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. lipids. are amorphous. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. This involves transcription and translation. and mucus. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. 2. metaphase. 8. Some. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). 6. 2. Examples are melanin. they are called flagella. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. 3. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. 3. 5. which consist of rRNA and protein. Cell Division: 1. they are called cilia. 2. mRNA associates with ribosomes. In transcription. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis).

Exocrine glands (sweat. and transitional (variable). where it protects and secretes. and no blood vessels (avascular). Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Connective Tissue: 1. 3. the study of tumors is called oncology. portion of urethra. It is found covering ovaries. Epithelium has many cells. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. noncancerous tumors are called benign. 2. little intracellular material. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. Many theories of aging have been proposed. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. connective. and apocrine glands. 5. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. pharynx. 5. 3. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. cell shapes include squamous (flat). auditory tubes. 6. and binds organs together. Depending on their function and structure. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). 3. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. and nervous. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. an extensive intercellular substance. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. It has few cells. 4. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. merocrine. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. 2. Epithelial Tissue: 1.1. It can replace itself. and a rich blood supply (vascular). It lines larger excretory ducts. parts of urethra. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. 2. supports. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. 2. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. and most upper respiratory structures. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. 7. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. tubuloacinar. 2. in kidneys and eyes. 3. 4. but none successfully answers all questions. stratified (several layers). and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. It does not occur on free surfaces. 2. 2. and epiglottis. cuboidal (cubelike). Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. 9. Functional classification includes holocrine. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. columnar (rectangular). and lining some glandular ducts. simple. acinar. 3. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. Glandular Epithelium: 1. Connective tissue protects. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. except for cartilage. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). In a few portions of the respiratory tract. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. oil. and compound. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. muscular. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. 8.

Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. and Iymph nodes. ligaments. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . spleen. and vascular tissue. and provides support. Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. It provides strength. heat. 6. 2. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. and in respiratory structures. elastic. Muscle tissue performs one major function . Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. 3. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. and true vocal cords. allows movement.4. Visceral (smooth). 5. cartilage. bone tissue. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. sometimes loss of function occurs. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. 4. and aponeuroses. trachea. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. and Cardiac. 2. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. It is found as a component of fascia. where it gives support. Elastic. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. 2. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). called adipocytes. Adipose. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. It is flexible. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. macrophages. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. and external ear. Tissue Inflammation . plasma. are specialized for fat storage. Dense. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. and melanocytes). and swelling. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. Examples are: mucous. and cutaneous. elastic arteries. Membranes: 1. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. and Reticular. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. in the nose. mast. membranes of organs. 2. and in the subcutaneous layer. pericardium. tendons. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. o Serous membranes (pleura.contraction. around body organs. bronchial tubes. pain. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. such as the digestive tract. at the ends of bones. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. auditory tubes. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. and a typical cell is the fibroblast.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. serous. 7. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1.

The skin and its derivatives (hair. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. 6. nerves. and corneum. hair follicles. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. the process slows down with aging. serotonin. If damage is extensive. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. nerves. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. are the stratum basale. • Hair: 1. 3. 3. The Integumentary System . Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. 5. 3. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. and pheomelanin (yellow). kinins. lucidum. In most inflammations. 5. 7. Conditions for Repair: 1. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. brown melanin. Various vitamins (A. and root hair plexuses. from deepest to most superficial. dermal papillae. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. and parenchymal regeneration. • Glands: 1. and excretion of water. 2. 2. 2. granulosum. hair follicles. 2. 4. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis.The Skin: Skin 1. skin glands (sebaceous. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. The color of skin is due to melanin. 8. receiving stimuli. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . E. maintaining body temperature. It performs the functions of protection. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. and several organic compounds. 5. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. spinosum. Repair Process: 1. Tissue Repair: 1. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. oil glands. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. pus is produced. The reticular region is dense. 4. arrectores pilorum muscles. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. 3. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. sudoriferous. D. C. and a hair follicle. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). and ducts of sweat glands. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area.2. and Meissner's corpuscles. The epidermal layers. an abscess develops. scab formation. granulation tissue is involved. synthesis of vitamin D. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. 2. carotene. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. salts. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. and nails. storage of chemical compounds. some B. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. If the injury is superficial. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. glands. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. black melanin. if it cannot drain out of the body. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. 4. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. and ceruminous).

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. 11. Homeostasis: 1. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. replacing lost body fluids. 6. free edge. lunula. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. Disorders . Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. 4. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. and third-degree (fullthickness). leverage.6F). Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. 2. 7. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. and blood cell production. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. 2. and boils. Nails: 1. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. 5. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. 3. and areolae. The functions of the skeletal system include support. mineral storage. If environmental temperature is high. the skin is cooled. protection. and matrix. 2. 2. 9. Nails are hard. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. or psychogenic factors. systemic diseases. 8. 10. eponychium. raised plaques or papules. Depending on the depth of damage. 3. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. Most warts are benign. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. As the perspiration evaporates. 2. The principal parts of a nail are the body.• palms and soles. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. pimples. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. 3. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. Histology: 1. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. their ducts open into hair follicles. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. pubis. root. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. regulating metabolic rate. and skin grafting. hyponychium. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. second-degree (partialthickness). Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. They are found in the external auditory meatus. 4. removing dead tissue. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and covering wounds with temporary protection.

phosphorus. C. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. Osteoblasts lay down bone. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. and periosteum. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. Functionally. and remodeling. and the epiphyses of long bones. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. forming a callus. medullary or marrow cavity. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. 5. impacted. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. 4. 2. complete. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. Colles'. It forms most of the structure of short. 4. comminuted. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. 2. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. and irregular bones. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. 9. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). and vitamins (A. 6. spiral. This process is called remodeling. and endosteum. and resists stress. marrow. 8. 3. epiphyses (ends). Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. articular cartilage. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. Pott's. flat. 7. 3. periosteum. Normal growth depends on calcium. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. and calcified matrix. proliferating cartilage. 6. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. and nondisplaced. 7. where bone replaces cartilage.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. 5. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. 8. Cartilage degenerates. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. supports. 2. simple. The two types of ossification. compound. 4. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. displaced. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. metaphysis. intramembranous and endochondral. A fracture is any break in a bone. In both types of ossification. Functionally. compact bone protects. 3. Next. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. Homeostasis: 1. spongy bone is laid down first. greenstick. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. 3. except for the epiphyseal plate. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. 2. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. The types of fractures include: partial. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. Disorders . Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. transverse. hypertrophic cartilage.

4. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. mandible. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. inferior nasal conchae (2). 3. thoracic vertebrae (12). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . fossa.1. flat. Hyoid Bone: 1. They are lined by mucous membranes. lumbar vertebrae (5). sphenoid. sagittal. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. Surface Markings: 1. and balance. 2. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. 2. 3. fused) and the coccyx (4. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. or irregular. auditory ossicles. and squamosal sutures. Examples are coronal. parietal (2). 2. 3. Condyle. The vertebral column. lambdoidal. head. fused). bones are classified as long. foramen. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). the sternum. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). 2. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. and ethmoid. maxillae (2). Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. Terms that describe markings include fissure. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. meatus. On the basis of shape. lacrimal (2). muscle attachment. process. 7. 1. Skull: 1. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. zygomatic (2). palatine (2). and posterolaterals. It is composed of 22 bones. ethmoid. and ribs. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. These curves give strength. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. 2. hyoid bone. and vomer. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. 2. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. 5. and maxilla. facet. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. crest. occipital. vertebral column. 3. tuberosity. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. 6. sternum. sphenoid. The major fontanels are the anterior. support. Vertebral Column: 1. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. anterolaterals. short. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. the sacrum (5. The patella is an example. temporal (2). posterior. and spine.

Hamate (Unciform). Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. the pelvic girdle. L l. vertebral arch. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. and phalanges. 3. 2. and lordosis. o Lower Extremities: 1. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. Navicular. metacarpals. 4. shape. 2. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). Examples include scoliosis. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. tibia. metatarsals. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). pubis. and L 2. 2. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. 3. and phalanges. carpals. II. radius. 4. 2. Cuboid. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk.The vertebra are similar in structure. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. 5. the ribs and costal cartilages. Talus. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. a congenital defect. the bones of the upper extremities. Pisiform. and the thoracic vertebrae. and ischium. ulna. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. and seven processes. 2. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. tarsals. and Medial Cuneiform. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. o Upper Extremities: 1. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. Schaphoid (Navicular). The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Thorax: 1. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. Capitate. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. and the bones of the lower extremities. kyphosis. fibula. 3. 3. is referred to as spina bifida. and detail. each consisting of a body. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Triangular (Triquetrum). 2.

articular discs. swelling. supination and pronation. and muscle tension. 3. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). and bursae. 2. Bones held together by cartilage. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). and a synovial membrane. hinge joints (elbow). are cartilaginous joints. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. circumduction. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). cartilaginous. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. 2. and muscles. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). 5. with no joint cavity. A dislocation. 3. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. tendons. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. 4. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. biaxial. and loss of function. Disorders . 2. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). 6. All synovial joints are freely movable. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. 2. 2. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . joints. 7. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). Synovial Joints: 1. Structurally. 4. 1. 2. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. inversion and eversion. Articulations: 1. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. articular cartilage. to provide support and leverage. joints are classified as fibrous. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip).arches. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. with no joint cavity. 8. tension of ligaments. ligaments. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and elevation and depression. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). 6. or luxation. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. 2. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). angular movements. 3. rotation. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. or triaxial. Fibrous Joints: 1. 3. 5. some also contain ligaments. 2. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. protraction and retraction. pivot joints (radioulnar). are fibrous joints. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. or synovial.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. maintenance of posture. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Types: 1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Functions: 1. tropomyosin. 8. and endomysium. Energy for Contraction: 1. 2. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex. 2. It is striated and involuntary. 2. The Motor Unit: 1. nuclei. 3. 2. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Through contraction. and T tubules. junction. 2. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all.without dislocation. 3. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. deep. 3. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. perimysium. 2. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. covering individual fibers. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. 3. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. or myoneural. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. the neuron releases acetylcholine. 4. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. and troponin. Contraction . A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. 7. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. 4.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. There are three types of fascia: superficial. Physiology of Contraction: 1. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. 4. 2. and heat production. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. covering the entire muscle. 6. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. 3. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. contract. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. triggering the contractile process. and subserous. It is striated and voluntary. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. Connective tissue components are epimysium. 3. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. sarcoplasmic reticulum. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. covering fasciculi. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. 5. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP.

Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. Unit it is paid back. 3. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. muscles. tenderness. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. 2. 3. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. 3. and related structures in the thigh. 2. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. or subthreshold. more blood capillaries. or threshold. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. The fibers are arranged in a network. isotonic. 3. It is striated and involuntary. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. 2. 2. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. and stiffness of joints. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. each of which contracts as a functional unit. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. Homeostasis: 1. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. 2. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. 4. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. 2. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. convulsions. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. cramps. Disorders . fibrillations. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. 4. tetanus. stimulus. 3. 3. and larger T tubules. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. it is called lumbago. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. more mitochondria. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. 5. Abnormal contractions include spasms. 6. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. treppe. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. stimulus. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. 3. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. 5. and tics. If it occurs in the lumbar region. and isometric. This muscle is found only in the heart. Kinds of Contractions: 1.2. Muscle Tone: 1. and a large amount of myoglobin. 2. 3. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone.

sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. including motor neurons. 2. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. 4. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. 2. and resistance on the lever. 5. and minimal irritation. 2. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. and deltoid region of the arm. and reacting to them. and glands. pennate. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. On the basis of structure. second-class. microglia. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. 6. The antagonist produces an opposite action. and ependyma. Neurons: 1. cardiac muscle tissue. oligodendrocytes. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. 2. Nerve Impulse: 1. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. If. interpreting them. 3. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. effort. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . lateral side of the thigh. 1. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. origin and insertion. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. and the membrane is said to be polarized. size. 2. location. 5. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. On the basis of function. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. convergent. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. Neurons. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. 2. produce the myelin sheath. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. and usually a single axon. 4. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. attach neurons to blood vessels. 3. bipolar. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. Intramuscular Injections: 1. and action. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. 3. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. 2. and carry out phagocytosis. neurons are multipolar. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. the membrane is said to have an action potential. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. Around the time of birth. number of origins (or heads). and unipolar. 6. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. or nerve cells. shape. 3. and circular. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump.

Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. cell body. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. and ascending and descending tracts. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . anterior. 3. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. central canal. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. 7. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. According to the all-ornothing principle. 7. 2. 4. 3. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. 4. arachnoid and pia mater. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. 7. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. 2. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. posterior. 5. 5. cerebrospinal fluid.travels from point to point along the membrane. meninges. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. and vertebral ligaments. Structure in Cross Section: 1. Protection and Coverings: 1. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. 2. 2. and lateral white columns. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. 4. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. 6. 3. 6. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. anterior. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. 6. 5. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. and lateral gray horns. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. or axon hillock. 6. posterior. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. 4. 5.

repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. 3. and sacral plexuses. 2. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. except for T 2-T 11. respectively. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. lumbar. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. perineunum. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. A stretch reflex. 4. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. constant segments of the skin. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. 5. The posterior root. 1. and epineurium. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 3. 5. Wallerian degeneration. 9. Disorders . Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. 5. 8. and motor neuron. 2. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. flexor reflex. Functions: 1. a center. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. and the abdominal reflex. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. ventral ramus. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. 4. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. the Achilles reflex. the Babinski sign. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. and rami communicantes. 4. 2. • Distribution: 1. is an example. posterior root ganglion. association. and regeneration. 6. 1. 3. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. 2. 2. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. tendon reflex. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. form networks of nerves called plexuses. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. 4. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. • Dermatomes: 1. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). such as the patellar reflex. Another function is to serve as a reflex center.2. 2. brachial. 5. • Composition and Coverings: 1. and crossed extensor reflex. The skin segments are called dermatomes. A reflex is a quick. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. a sensory neuron. Following peripheral nerve damage. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. meningeal branch. and an effector. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. Its basic components are a receptor. 2. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. 3. a motor neuron.

Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. sneezing. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. vomiting. 2. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. 3. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. coughing. 2. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. ventricles. 6. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. 3. and hiccuping. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. Embryological Development: 1. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. 4. respiratory rate. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. cranial meninges. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. and cerebellum. swallowing. Protection and Coverings: 1. The Brain Stem: 1. diencephalon. it is called internal hydrocephalus. 4. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. 3. 2. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. 3. or death. or death of brain 5. 2. 1. convulsions. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. The pons is superior to the medulla. 1. 4. cells. 2. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. 1. and unconsciousness. During embryological development. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 2. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. The Diencephalon: 1. mental retardation.1. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. it is called external hydrocephalus. 1. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. 2. 1. vasoconstriction. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. permanent damage. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. and central canal. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. 3. 2. which helps control respiration. 2. epilepsy. 2. cerebrum.

spoken and written language. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. 3. infections. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. 2. and tumors. either anatomically or functionally. constricted vermis. to the cerebral cortex. The Cerebellum: 1. 2. 2. and glycine. musical and artistic awareness. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. Its cortex contains convolutions. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. 3. 6. 6. 7. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. They help to control muscular movements. excite. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. 3. serotonin. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. gamma aminobutyric acid. insight. touch. 5. space and pattern perception. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. fissures. 3.7. 7. 3. 2. 1. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. parietal. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. and sulci. controls body temperature. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. and generating mental images of sight. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. glutamic acid. 2. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. regulates food and fluid intake. and dynorphin. 3. 2. 1. 10. 9. except smell. temporal. taste. and reasoning. 3. aspartic acid. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. 2. imagination. and occipital. It controls the autonomic nervous system. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. Brain Lateralization: 1. 4. 2. sound. dopamine. 2. and smell. The Cerebrum: 1. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 3. 1. 5. 3. 3. norepinephrine. 1. numerical and scientific skills. 4. 8. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. 2. endorphins. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . connects the nervous and endocrine systems.

Motor function. Scalp. upper jaw. Trigeminal Sensory function. tongue muscles. some neck and shoulder muscles. 4. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. 2. thrombosis. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. 8. childbirth. Hypoglossal . pharynx. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. inferior pharynx. Facial Sensory.Sensory. larynx. Soft palate. Depending on the form of the disease. 3. taste. upper eyelid. soft palate. 11. lower teeth.11. muscles of mastication. lower jaw.Motor. Oculomotor . Optic . and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. thoracic and abdominal organs. 2. cornea. Accessory Motor. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. cerebellum. Palate. 7.Motor function of eye muscles.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 12. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. taste. 5. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. Motor function. 4. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. 3. 9. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain.Sensory. Vestibulococ hlear . Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. 9. sensory. forehead. upper teeth. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. 12. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Impulse transmission is interrupted. Disorders . Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. hearing and balance. 7. 6. also called strokes. 1. nose. 4. Tongue muscles. Motor.The sense of vision. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. The Cranial Nerves: 1. 8. or basal ganglia during fetal development. . or psychological malfunction. larangeal muscles. 5. etc.The sense of smell. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. or atherosclerosis. 6. or early infancy. 4. muscles of facial expression. Olfactory . 10. pharyngeal muscles. etc. Vagus Sensory. cholecystokinin. Motor. Glossophary ngeal . Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). 11. Examples include angiotensin.

Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. 3. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. connective tissues. second-order. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. 3. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. Receptors located in muscles. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. and pain. nociceptors. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. proprioception. 3. 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Classification of Receptors: 1. free nerve endings. and Pacinian corpuscles. 2. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. personality changes. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. surgery. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. Sensations: 1. 2. pressure. 5. 3. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. and tendon organs. movement of body parts. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. and third-order neurons. 4.muscle spasms and encephalitis. 4. 2. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. Meissner's corpuscles. thermoreceptors.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. General Senses . and acupuncture. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. they cause subconscious motor reactions. conduction of the impulse to the brain. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. and sometimes delirium. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. 13. 5. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. tendons. According to location. 7. Merkel's discs. The neural pathway for light touch. Characteristics: 1. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 2. Levels of Sensation: 1. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. and body position. end organs of Ruffini. 2. electromagnetic receptors. muscle spindles. and end organs of Ruffini. vibration). and chemoreceptors. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. 2. and liver damage. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. and proprioceptors. 4. 3. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. 12. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. visceroceptors. In terms of simplicity or complexity. 4. brain dysfunction. 2. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway.

4. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. the hypothalamus. anterior corticospinal. reduced metabolic rate. 5. and to make childbirth easier. 2. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. cardiac muscle. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts.6. 4. and the medulla oblongata. 3. 4. 2. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. Motor Pathways: 1. and plexuses. It has been used to control heart rate. and glands. 3. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. 4. in general. ganglia. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . association neuron. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. it consists of activated and long-term components. activities of smooth muscle. Integrative Functions: 1. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). 2. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. 4. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. and visceral effector. 2. concerned with energy expenditure. 3. On the basis of the transmitter produced. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. 2. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. It is entirely motor. afferent neuron. tectospinal. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. 3. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. and corticobulbar tracts. decrease in heart rate. 3. 3. Physiology: 1. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. that is. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). and vestibulospinal tracts. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. regulates visceral activities. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). Olfactory Sensations: 1. to alleviate migraine headaches. Control by Higher Centers: 1. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. in particular by the cerebral cortex. 2. It usually operates without conscious control. 2. The autonomic nervous system. or visceral efferent nervous system. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. It is regulated by centers in the brain.

VII. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. the organ of hearing. and iris). Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. 2. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. convergence. thalamus. Trachoma is a chronic. sour. external auditory canal. 8. water-soluble. the optic tract. 10. medulla.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. strike the tympanic membrane. and inverted image formation. accommodation of the lens. ciliary body. and the cortex. 5. 6. 6. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. constriction of the pupil. 7. and cerebral cortex. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. 3. 2. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. strike the basilar membrane. and the threshold of smell is low. 4. set up waves in the perilymph. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. which destroys neurons of the retina. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. 7. hypermetropia (farsightedness). strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. and round window). The internal ear contains the spiral organ. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. and (c) retina. eyelashes. 5. pass through the ossicles. A sound impulse is then initiated. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. increase pressure in the endolymph. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. and tympanic membrane). aqueous humor. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. IX. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. which contains rods and cones. the optic chiasma. sweet. olfactory bulbs. Visual Sensations: 1. eyelids. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). and bitter. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. 3. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. 2. The four primary tastes are salt. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. ossicles. linear. 5. and cerebral cortex. and the lacrimal apparatus. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. 9. or vertical motion. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva.2. and lipid-soluble. 2. strike the oval window. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . oval window. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. olfactory tracts. 4. 3. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. Disorders . and X. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). 5. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. 8. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. 4. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. lens. 4. 3. the thalamus. and vitreous humor. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. 3. 4.

Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. 2. Histologically. 3. sebaceous. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. Control of Hormonal Secretions . Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. and regulating factors. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. 3. 5.Feedback Control: 1. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. 8. 15. 13. 9. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). 6. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). giantism. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). help regulate growth and development. 11. 10. and contribute to reproductive processes. 4. MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. nerve impulses. 14. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). Exocrine glands (sweat. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). Chemistry of Hormones: 1. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). 4. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 12. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. 16. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. respond to stress.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. 2. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. and acromegaly. On the basis of solubility. 2. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). 2. 7. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. 2.

Thyroid: 1. 2. which secrete calcitonin (CT). Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. help resist stress. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. 3. growth and development. menstrual cycle. 7. Histologically. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. 2.. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). 4. Parathyroids: 1. 6. 2. beta cells. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. Glucocorticoids (e. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. and delta cells. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. 8. Pancreas: 1. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. Secretion is controlled by TRF. 10. 3. Histologically. 4. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. 2. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Histologically. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). and lactation. and the reactivity of the nervous system. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin.. 9. beta cells secrete insulin. Cretinism. and gonadocorticoids. 5. Secretion is controlled by CRF. and parafollicular cells. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. 2. 4. myxedema. Histologically. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. and serve as antiinflammatories. glucocorticoids. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. Insulin decreases blood sugar level.g. 3. 6. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. 2. zona ennin late. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. Ovaries and Testes: 1.g. Mineralocorticoids (e. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. pregnancy. They are released under stress. 5. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. 4. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. and zona reticularis. Histologically. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. exophthalmic goiter. 6. 5. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. 3. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood.

Normal blood contains 5. 4. 3. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. about 4. Iymph vessels.000 to 9. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. 2. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. 4. 3. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. granular leucocytes. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. wastes. It helps to regulate pH. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. 5.000/mm3.8 million/mm3. fibrinogen). Components: 1. and thrombocytes (platelets). Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. Thrombocytes: 1. nutrients. globulins. thymic factor (TF). The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.5 to 5. 5.35 to 7. Functions: 1. The liquid portion of blood. 4. A healthy male has about 5. Erythrocytes: 1. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. 2. Normal blood contains 250. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. and blood vessels. 38 degrees C (100. and salinity. a healthy female. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. 4.5 percent water and 8. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. 6. and water content of cells. and enzymes. 2. hormones. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. 2. body temperature.5 percent solutes. Erythrocyte formation. It protects against toxins and microbes. Lymphocytes. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. and platelets.pinealocytes.000/mm3. and Iymph glands. 3. called erythropoiesis. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. neuroglial cells. 2. called plasma. 0. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. 3. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes).5. temperature. Thymus: 1. 3. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. 3. 7. 2. 6.45. thymic humoral factor (THF).90 NaCI. The cardiovascular system consists of blood.85 to 0. Red blood cells live about 120 days. consists of 91. the heart. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. foods. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. pH. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. 2. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. eosinophils. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 2. Leucocytes: 1. carbon dioxide.000 to 400. Plasma: 1.4 million/mm3 of blood.4 degrees F). leucocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports oxygen. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless.

and out through the aorta. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. In vascular spasm. 2. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. 4. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. heparin) prevent clogging. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. 2. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors.. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. hemolytic. myocardium.The Heart: 1. 2. 2. 3. platelet plug formation. The cause is a virus. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. hemorrhagic. 9. and sickle cell anemia. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). 11. 2. encloses the heart. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. 8. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. and blood coagulation. Like plasma. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10.g. 2. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. Disorders . consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. 4. The Cardiovascular System . Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. 3. It involves vascular spasm.and hormones. In the Rh system. The parietal pericardium. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. 7. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. Anticoagulatants (e. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss.Valves: 1. In the ABO system. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). 6. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. pernicious. 2. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. aplastic. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. Interstitial Fluid: 1. 3. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . respiratory gases. 4. 5. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. and endocardium. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. 3. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum.

Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. 6. 7. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. 3. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. 2. and right heart (atrial) reflex. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. 3. Electrocardiogram: 1. detecting the presence of fetal life. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. 6. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). Conduction System: 1. 5.4.8 sec. 4. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). 5. bundle branches. sodium. 3. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. 7. 7. 6. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). Cardiac Output: 1. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. determining the presence of several fetuses. 3. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. atrioventricular (AV) node. 3. 2. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Cardiac Cycle: 1. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). 2. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . between the atria and their ventricles. Blood Supply: 1. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). Atrioventricular (AV) valves. 5. 4. 2. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. and Purkinje fibers. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. temperature. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. 2. 4. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. aortic reflex. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. potassium). 4.

Veins: 1. 2. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. and tetralogy of Fallot). Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. 2. 2. 2. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. cigarette smoking. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. and the shock cvcle is intensified. blood pressure increases. and premature contractions). Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. others are fenestrated. 3. 4. Disorders . They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. In severe shock. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. high blood pressure. 2. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. fibrillation. septal defects. 4. and arrhythmias (heart block. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). 4. diabetes mellitus. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. 3. Arteries: 1. 3. lack of exercise. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. 2. 3. 5. The heart becomes hypoxic.emotion. flutter. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. 2. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. sex (gender and physical activity). are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. 2. to correct some defects. and to apply chemotherapy locally. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. 3. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. As blood volume increases.ener Arterioles: 1. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. Capillaries: 1. some capillaries are continuous. and age. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. and tunica externa. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. obesity. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. 4. and genetic disposition. This network increases the surface area. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. valvular stenosis. They drain blood from capillaries into veins. Venules: 1. and therefore blood pressure. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. 3. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials.

A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Circulatory Routes: 1. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. chemicals. chemoreceptors. Blood Reservoirs: 1. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. and age. sex. pulmonary. 6. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. Systemic Circulation: 1. spleen. temperature. chemicals. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. 3. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. and the descending aorta. stomach. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. 3. 2. Other routes include the cerebral. 2. 3. 2. 2. the arch of the aorta. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. 3. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. 2. 2. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. 3. and liver functions are established. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. when lung. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. Fetal Circulation: 1. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. They in turn empty into the right atrium. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. Disorders . and fetal circulation. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . At birth. and higher brain centers. 2. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. and breathing. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. 8. intestines. skeletal muscular contractions. digestive. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. 7. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. and autoregulation. emotions. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. 9.

each with specific biological roles (IgG. to Iymph capillaries. 4. antimicrobial substances (interferon. They include the pharyngeal. saliva. Antigens are chemical substances that. when introduced into the body. IgM. 2. 5. 3. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. Lymphatic Organs: 1. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. reactivity. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. and Iysozyme). 8. and lingual tonsils. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. IgA. epiglottis. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. and fever. 9. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. acid pH of skin. 7. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. lacrimal apparatus. microbial structures. incompatible blood cells. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. 3. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. unsaturated fatty acids. 2. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. 2. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. Based on chemistry and structure. phagocytosis. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. and transplants. and Iymph organs. Iymph nodes. and properdin). 2. cilia. and kidneys. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. mucus. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. 3. chemical factors (gastric juice. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. complement. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. 4. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. called Iymphatics. 2. 4. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. mucous membranes. Examples of antigens are microbes. palatine. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. 2. Iymphatic vessels. pollen. Lymph Circulation: 1. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. 6. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. IgD. 3. and flow of urine). inflammation. to Iymphatics.1. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. 2. and IgE). and multivalence. 5. brain. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. to Iymph trunks. to the subclavian veins. 3.

3. Coughing. 2. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. 6. sighing.liver and spleen. myasthenia gravis. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. they are important in diagnosis. treatment. 2. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. 2. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). preparing vaccines. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. yawning. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. 10. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. 4. sobbing. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. 2. crying. 13. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). invading antigen. rheumatic fever. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. 5. 4. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. During forced inspiration. 14. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. 7. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. sneezing. and multiple sclerosis (MS). laughing. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. memory B cells recognize the original. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. 12. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. asthma. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. eczema. 3. 11. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. detection of disease. 8. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. and hives.

blood pressure. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. a large alveolar surface area. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. 3. inspiratory reserve. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. C's of CPR are Airway. According to Dalton's law. the sum of two or more volumes. 5. assuming that the pressure remains constant. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. Breathing. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. compresses the lungs. pain. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. 3. and minimal volumes. expiratory reserve. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. Pulmonary lung capacities. residual volume. Disorders . 4.are tidal volume. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. 4. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. vital. pneumotaxic area. inflated alveoli. 3. 3. include inspiratory. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. and DPG. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. and a rich blood supply. both in the brain and outside. temperature. and total. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. 3. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. and Circulation. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. and excess mucus production. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. 2. functional residual. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. 2. B. the inflation reflex. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. when the temperature remains constant. 2. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. and function of the epithelial cells. pCO2. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. 2. inflated lungs. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. In bronchogenic carcinoma. It is symbolized by p. and apneustic area. 6. 2. External Respiration . Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. division.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. temperature. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. 4. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases.Internal Respiration: 1. The A. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. 3. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). and enlarged chest. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. 2. and irritation to the respiratory centers. 2.

Salivary Glands: 1. mesocolon. absorption. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. submucosa. 4. which aid mechanical digestion. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. or alimentary canal. salivary glands. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. 2. and serosa (peritoneum). or dentes. 2. and pancreas. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. 3. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. peristalsis. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. the hardest substance in the body. Digestive Processes: 1. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. 2. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. Deglutition: 1. mechanical and chemical digestion. 2. The tongue. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. liver. and defecation. and cervix. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. It consists of a voluntary stage. Some papillae contain taste buds. and tongue. palates. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. 2. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. tongue. 3. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. 2. and sublingual glands. gallbladder. root. Organization: 1. and greater omentum. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . muscularis. forms the floor of the oral cavity. lesser omentum. 9. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. lipid. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. The teeth. 3. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. 3.7. 5. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. 3. Teeth: 1. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. 8. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. 4. lips. falciform ligament. 4. The accessory structures include the teeth. 4. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. 2. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. submandibular (submaxillary). Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. 2. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. 2. together with its associated muscles. and accessory structures. The mouth is formed by the cheeks.

It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. 3. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. resynthesized to triglycerides. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). Hormones also assume a role. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. and transported as chylomicrons. 2. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. and vitamins. The small intestine also absorbs water. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. villi. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. 3. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. 2. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. electrolytes. 2. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). certain electrolytes and drugs. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). and alcohol. 2. Esophagus: 1.Histology: 1. 2. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . gastric. 3. Small Intestine: Anatomy . 2. 2. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Absorption: 1. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. 2. glands that produce mucus. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin).Histology: 1. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). The esophagus is a collapsible. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. 4. Absorption: 1. Pancreas: 1. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). and intestinal. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. a protein-digesting enzyme. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. 3. Stomach: Anatomy . 2. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. Liver: 1. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. 2. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. 3. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. 2. Among the substances absorbed are some water. 2.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). hydrochloric acid. intrinsic factor. and the microvilli. Gallbladder: 1. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. and stomach gastrin.

Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. . Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells.1. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. and undigested foods. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. or assist in the functioning of various body processes. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. and water. a foreign body. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. 2. colon. 2. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. 6. 9. rectum. During digestion. 12. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. vitamins. and vitamins. Its subdivisions include the cecum. inorganic salts. Metabolism: 1. 4. 5. and non-A. carcinoma of the cecum. 11. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. periodontal membrane. electrolytes. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. bacteria. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. and mass peristalsis. peristalsis. and barium x-ray. 2. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. 4. 10. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. 3. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. 8. lipids. proteins.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. or kinking of the organ. 3. The large intestine absorbs water. alveolar bone. 7. act as building blocks in forming new body components. and cementum. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. and anal canal. Feces consists of water. minerals. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. 2. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. Types include hepatitis A. Anabolic reactions use energy. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. colonoscopy. stenosis. epithelial cells. 2. action. Disorders . 3. hepatitis B. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Defecation: 1. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. rather than enzymatic. 5. 2.

2. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. 4. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. Fat Storage: 1. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. 2. Lipid Catabolism: 1. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. When oxygen is in short supply. and cytochromes. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. epinephrine. During digestion. In beta oxidation. glucagon. 2. and growth hormone (GH). Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. the Krebs cycle. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. 3. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. 3. thromboplastin for blood clotting. 2. Electron Transport Chain: 1. coenzyme Q. 3. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. It is stimulated by cortisol. 2. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. 4. 6. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. Lipid Metabolism: 1. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells.2. Glucose Anabolism: 1. thyroxine. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. Fate of Lipids: 1. under aerobic conditions. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. 2. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. and I molecule of GTP. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. and the electron transport chain. 5. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. 4 molecules of NADH2. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). Glycolysis: 1. 3. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. As a result of glycolysis. 3. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. 1 molecule of FADH2. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . recombined to form triglycerides. 2. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. 3. Glucose Catabolism: 1. 2. 3. 3.

Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. hormones. may cause acidosis. During the absorptive state. called ketosis. stored. cobalt. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. fats. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. iodine. 2. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. based on the needs of the body. or converted. but an excess of ketone bodies. E. Fate of Proteins: 1. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. these conversions involve deamination. The process is stimulated by insulin. 3. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. 4. and body temperature. and insulin. copper. sulfur. 2. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. decarboxylation. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. D. and K. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. iron. magnesium. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. manganese. 3. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. Amino acids. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. 3. sodium. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Regulation of Metabolism: 1. 2. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. and chromium. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. 2. Production of Body Heat: 1. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes.4. Protein Metabolism: 1. and proteins. and hydrogenation. snd ketane hadies. During the absorptive state. Protein Catabolism: 1. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). 2. 3. structural elements. 2. conversion of glycerol into glucose. Before amino acids can be catabolized. 2. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. Inside cells.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. the nervous system. thyroxine. zinc. and so forth. During digestion. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. Vitamins: 1. Lipid Anabolism .Lipogenesis: 1. 2. selenium. Protein Anabolism: 1. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. enter body cells by active transport. Minerals: 1. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. fatty acids. hormones. chlorine. 2. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. 2. potassium. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. Many function in enzyme systems. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. phosphorus.

Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. 3. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. 4. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. 4. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. 2. cramps. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. columns. pyramids. reduced perspiration. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. sympathetic stimulation. 3. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. Loss of Body Heat: 1. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. 7. lethargy. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. distal convoluted tubule. D. 2. ureters. and perspiration. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. 5. calyces. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. ascending limb of Henle. 4. Internally. 2. 2. 2. 2. papillae. the kidneys consist of a cortex. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. medulla. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. descending limb of Henle. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. skeletal muscle contraction. adipose capsule. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. loop of Henle. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. deereased metabolic rate. glomerulus. and renal fascia. and thyroxine production. 4. and a pelvis. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). and sometimes mental retardation. urinary bladder. 3. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. 6. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. proximal convoluted tubule. and urethra. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. 3. stages include chill and crisis. and K and calcium is inadequate. and high body temperature. 3. 4. failure to grow. Physiology: 1. 3. 4. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. profuse perspiration. and dizziness. nausea. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema.

and emotions. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. blood concentration. glucose. pH. 2. 2. salts. the rest by facultative reabsorption. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed.6. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. 3. The solutes include urea. hippuric acid. 2. pericardial. pleural. and microbes. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). primarily by peristalsis. 9. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. diuretics. Normally. and the glomerular filtrate. Urinary Bladder: 1. and a serous coat. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. 11. erythrocytes. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. Body Fluids: 1. and certain drugs. nitrogenous wastes. Gl tract fluids. 4. Urethra: 1. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. Disorders . the lungs. In exchange. 8. 3. plasma and Iymph. 2. creatinine. 7. indican. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. and peritoneal fluids. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. Chemically. ketone bodies. 10. and ions. cerebrospinal fluid. amino acids. glucose. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. casts. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. Homeostasis: 1. 2. muscularis. 4. and ions. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. 3. including water.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Included are ions. 3. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and specific gravity. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. bilirubin. Ureters: 1. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. 5. urobilinogen. Besides the kidneys. synovial fluid. ketone bodies. 4. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. 5. and fluids of the eyes and ears. It includes interstitial fluid. Histologically. 7. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. leucocytes. 2. odor. turbidity. temperature. 6. uric acid. and fibrous coat. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. renal calculi. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. 8. integument. 5.

The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. 4. proper fluid movement between compartments. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. 7. phosphate. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. 9. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. and protein. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Plasma. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate.80. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. and regulating pH. lungs. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume.35 to 7. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. a decrease in rate. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. especially extracellular fluid. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. fluid moves in the opposite direction. 10. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. At the arterial end of a capillary. and regulation of pH. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. increases pH. 8. 4. decreases pH.45 and 8. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). skin. muscle contraction. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. muscle contraction. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. Under normal conditions. and heartbeat. 11. and fluid and electrolyte balance. 2. It also functions in blood clotting. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). 6. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. chemical transmitter release. At the venous end.35 and 6. 3. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. interstitial fluid. 3.00. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. 2. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 4. nerve impulse conduction. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. 2. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT.45. and GI tract. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. 4.1. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. An increase in rate of respirations. 4. 5. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. 2. 2. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). Water is the largest single constituent in the body. Acid-Base Balance: 1. 5. 3. 3. and kidney excretion. respirations. muscle contraction. 3. Electrolytes: 1.

sperm maturation. 3. 6. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. membranous. and efferent ducts. 5. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. 8. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. and interstitial endocrinocytes. 5. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. which nourish sperm cells. 11. 3. 7. 7. 6. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. stimulates bone growth. Scrotum: 1. straight tubules. Testes: 1. protein anabolism. ejaculatory duct. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. Accessory Glands: 9. seminal vesicles. ductus deferens. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. and 7. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. 4. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. 2. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. II. and tail. 2. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. rete testis. straight tubules. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. Reproductive System: 1. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. and penis. bulbourethral glands. midpiece. Testosterone controls the growth. ducts (transport and store gametes). The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. 4. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. 3. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. 12. prostate gland. in which sperm cells are made. and spongy (cavernous). and maintenance of sex organs. ductus epididymis. 10. Male Reproductive System: 1. and rete testis. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. 3. development. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). 2. urethra. 2. Ducts: 1. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. sustentacular cells. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes).

Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. 5. ovulation. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. development. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. 2. and vulva. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. discharge ova (ovulation). 2. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. 4. 3. Uterus: 1. 6. 10. . and labor. 4. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. III. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. During the menstrual phase. 7. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. middle myometrium. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. on either side of the uterus. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. The penis is the male organ of copulation. endometrial repair occurs. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. and stimulate protein anabolism. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. 8. During the postovulatory phase. The uterus is an inverted. 2. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. 3. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. development of a fetus during pregnancy. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. 2. Penis: 1. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. vagina. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. 2. uterine tubes. They produce ova. and epithelial cells. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. 6. implantation of a fertilized ovum. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Ovaries: 1. 3. mucus. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. tissue fluid. 2. 11. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. Estrogens stimulate the growth.nutrients. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. 9. 5. During the preovulatory phase. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. 4. and inner endometrium. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. Histologically. uterus. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity.

and tumors. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. and orgasm. 9. 9. 6. genital herpes. clitoris. 3. and orgasm (climax). vaginal and urethral orifices. The removal of a malignant breast. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. syphilis. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. 12. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. 3. 2. abnormal bleeding. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and greater and lesser vestibular glands. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. 8. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. 4. labia minora. trichomoniasis. Mammary Glands: 1. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. and the lower portion of the birth canal. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). Vulva: 1. lubrication. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. and ova maturation. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. enlarged prostate. Spermatogenisis: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 2. 5. 2. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. 8. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). pectoral muscles. 2. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. equatorial division. equatorial division. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. 3. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. 2. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). 2. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. and sperm maturation. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. If fertilization and implantation do occur. 10. Sexual Intercourse: 1. The female role also involves erection. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. lubrication. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). 10. dysmenorrhea. 2. Disorders . Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. 13. 7. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. 2. Oogenesis: 1. 12. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. vestibule. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. 7. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. It is said to be haploid (n). 2. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 11. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. Vagina: 1. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. It consists of the mons veneris. labia majora. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. the cessation of the sexual cycles. Perineum: 1.

4. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. 3. Its various events are hormonally controlled. fetal growth.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. 1. embryonic growth. and birth. . The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. 2. 5. 2. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. implantation.

and Down's syndrome. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. 4. and contraception (natural. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. Birth Control: 6. sterilization (vasectomy. Dominant genes control a particular trait. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. Lactation: 1. and allantois. 2. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. 2. estrogens. protein anabolism.The morula develops into a blastocyst. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. 4. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. Tay-Sachs disease. and smoking. amnion. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. laparascopic technique). and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). 2. 5. mechanical. estrogens. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). and delivery of the placenta. 8. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. 7. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). removal of wastes. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. alcohol. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. During embryonic growth. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. mesoderm. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). 5. and progesterone. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. 2. 3. sickle cell anemia. tubal ligation. 3. 2. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. 3. and chemical). Inheritance: 1. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. Parturition and Labor: 1. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. 3. chemicals and drugs. such as hemophilia. 3. 2. 1. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. and protection. . Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. Examples are infections. expulsion of the fetus. 2. 2. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. During the fetal period. chorion. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . microbes. and progesterone. 6.

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