• 1.

Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.



Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.


horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary




accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.








molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a



2. do not grow or reproduce.. 3. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. nucleoli. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. 2. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. Peroxisomes: 1. and genetic material (DNA). They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. If the cell is injured. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. provide movement. karyolymph. 2. 2. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1. 2. carbohydrates. 2. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. Usually the largest organelle. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins. repair. Nucleus: 1. 3. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. 3. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions." 4.13. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. 1. such as mature red blood cells. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Functionally. It is located near the nucleus. maintenance. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. and the mitotic spindle. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. They are formed from Golgi complexes. They are involved in muscular contraction. The inner folds are called cristae. but smaller. They support. Organelles: 1. and inorganic substances. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. comprising the chromosomes. Cytoplasm: 1.The Cytoskeleton: 1. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. Thus they are called "suicide packets. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. 3. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. and helps export chemicals from the cell. Microfilaments and Microtubules . 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. transports substances intracellularly. 3. Functionally. They contain enzymes (e. Ribosomes: 1. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. 2. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. stores synthesized molecules. membranous sacs called cisternae. lipids. which carry on phagocytosis.g. support. The ER provides mechanical support. Mitochondria: 1. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. 3. Cells without nuclei. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. 4. 3. and movement. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. centrioles. In conjunction with the ER. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. and control. cilia. 3. and form the structure of flagella. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. 2. 2.

an "SOS response" occurs. 2. It consists of prophase. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. lipids. In response to DNA damage. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). Cellular Inclusions: 1. or chromosomes. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. 8. DNA Polymerase is an example. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. 2. 7. This involves transcription and translation. the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. the DNA molecules. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. Somatic Cell Division: 1. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. Cell Division: 1. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis. are fibrous. mRNA associates with ribosomes. Others. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. 2. they are called flagella. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. 4.2. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. Gene Action . glycogen. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). anaphase. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. like collagenous. 3. 3. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. are amorphous. If they are numerous and hairlike. 3. and telophase. which consist of rRNA and protein. and mucus. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . metaphase. 3. Examples are melanin. 2. Flagella and Cilia: 1. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. they are called cilia. 2.Protein Synthesis: 1. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. In transcription. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase.DNA Repair: 1. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals. "SOS" Genes . 3. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. 2. 5. reticular. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. Some. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. 5. 6. If projections are few and long. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. Extracellular Materials: 1. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage. 6. Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. 4. and elastic fibers. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. 3.

oil. 7. and no blood vessels (avascular). 2. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. 2. and nervous. 2. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. noncancerous tumors are called benign. merocrine. and most upper respiratory structures. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. It does not occur on free surfaces. parts of urethra. It lines larger excretory ducts. 3. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. Epithelial Tissue: 1. little intracellular material. cuboidal (cubelike). It is found covering ovaries. auditory tubes. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. 9. connective. 4. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. 3. 3. 2. but none successfully answers all questions. Epithelium has many cells. and binds organs together. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Exocrine glands (sweat. 3. Depending on their function and structure. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. It can replace itself. in kidneys and eyes. 6. Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. portion of urethra. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. except for cartilage. the study of tumors is called oncology. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). stratified (several layers). The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis. an extensive intercellular substance. 3. 2. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. and transitional (variable). and lining some glandular ducts. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. 2. 5. Connective tissue protects. 2. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. and apocrine glands. and a rich blood supply (vascular). Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. Connective Tissue: 1. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. muscular. supports. All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. 5. simple. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. tubuloacinar. 8. acinar. cell shapes include squamous (flat). Stratified squamous epithelium is protective.1. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. Glandular Epithelium: 1. Many theories of aging have been proposed. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. pharynx. Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. It has few cells. 4. Functional classification includes holocrine. where it protects and secretes. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. and epiglottis. and compound. columnar (rectangular).

Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. and melanocytes). and aponeuroses. o Serous membranes (pleura. Examples are: mucous. 2. 2. sometimes loss of function occurs. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. membranes of organs. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. elastic arteries. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. Muscle tissue performs one major function . auditory tubes. and Cardiac. It provides strength. pericardium. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. It is flexible. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. and swelling. and in respiratory structures. 4. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. at the ends of bones. bone tissue. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. Elastic. serous. bronchial tubes. and true vocal cords. are specialized for fat storage. around body organs. such as the digestive tract. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). trachea. and external ear. where it gives support. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. elastic. mast. cartilage. allows movement.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. called adipocytes. 2. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. Membranes: 1. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). macrophages. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. and provides support. in the nose. ligaments. Dense. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. Tissue Inflammation . Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. and Reticular. tendons. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. 2. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. and Iymph nodes. 5. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. 3. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium.4. plasma. pain. o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. Visceral (smooth). 7. Adipose. 6. and cutaneous. spleen. An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. It is found as a component of fascia. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. heat. and in the subcutaneous layer. and vascular tissue.contraction.

The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. skin glands (sebaceous. 3. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. oil glands. and ceruminous). preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. 3. 5. It performs the functions of protection. Tissue Repair: 1. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. 2. a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. some B. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. If the injury is superficial. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. The color of skin is due to melanin. glands. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. maintaining body temperature. Various vitamins (A. the process slows down with aging.2. 2. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. hair follicles. granulation tissue is involved. storage of chemical compounds. and several organic compounds. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. D. Conditions for Repair: 1. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. and pheomelanin (yellow). 4. lucidum. scab formation. 3. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . • Glands: 1. 2. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed. dermal papillae. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. If damage is extensive. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. The Integumentary System . Adequate circulation of blood is needed. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. salts. C. Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. and root hair plexuses. from deepest to most superficial. 2. The skin and its derivatives (hair. 7. kinins. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. black melanin. and ducts of sweat glands. and a hair follicle. and Meissner's corpuscles. 8. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. hair follicles. synthesis of vitamin D. In most inflammations. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. brown melanin. receiving stimuli. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. • Hair: 1. and corneum. The epidermal layers. arrectores pilorum muscles. E. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. and excretion of water. sudoriferous. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. and parenchymal regeneration. 4. 5. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. 3. pus is produced. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. serotonin. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. 6. if it cannot drain out of the body.The Skin: Skin 1. and nails. 4. nerves. carotene. an abscess develops. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. spinosum. are the stratum basale. granulosum. nerves. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. 5. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. 2. Repair Process: 1. The reticular region is dense. and nails) constitute the integumentary system.

pimples. 3. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. 3. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. 11. pubis. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. and matrix. 2. 8. Depending on the depth of damage. 2. free edge. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Most warts are benign. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Histology: 1. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration.6F). and areolae. 4. 2. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. and covering wounds with temporary protection. 7. hyponychium. Disorders . Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. and skin grafting. lunula. the skin is cooled. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. 5.• palms and soles. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. 2. regulating metabolic rate. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. Nails are hard. and boils. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. or psychogenic factors. Homeostasis: 1. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. 2. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. 10. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. The principal parts of a nail are the body. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. and blood cell production. They are found in the external auditory meatus. replacing lost body fluids. As the perspiration evaporates. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. and third-degree (fullthickness). raised plaques or papules. removing dead tissue. systemic diseases. 9. 6. If environmental temperature is high. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. 4. second-degree (partialthickness).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. Nails: 1. their ducts open into hair follicles. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. The functions of the skeletal system include support. mineral storage. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. leverage. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. 3. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. protection. root. eponychium. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight.

3. except for the epiphyseal plate. 4. A fracture is any break in a bone. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. 2. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. In both types of ossification. 5. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. The two types of ossification. and resists stress. C. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. 6. 3. Osteoblasts lay down bone. medullary or marrow cavity. comminuted. forming a callus. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. and endosteum. 4. compound. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. Functionally. Disorders . 6. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. Colles'. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. 5. Functionally. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). 2. articular cartilage. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. hypertrophic cartilage. periosteum. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. and calcified matrix. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. greenstick. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. impacted. Pott's. and periosteum. It forms most of the structure of short. proliferating cartilage. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. 8. displaced. phosphorus. complete. Homeostasis: 1. 8. The types of fractures include: partial. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. 2. metaphysis. spongy bone is laid down first. and nondisplaced. and vitamins (A. apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. and the epiphyses of long bones. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. flat. Cartilage degenerates. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. and remodeling. 9. epiphyses (ends). and irregular bones. 7. intramembranous and endochondral. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. 3. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. supports. spiral. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . compact bone protects. where bone replaces cartilage. simple. marrow. 4. 2. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. 3. Normal growth depends on calcium. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. Next. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. This process is called remodeling. 7. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. transverse. Ossification Bone Formation: 1.

4. short. lacrimal (2). foramen. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. These curves give strength. the sacrum (5. fossa. and vomer. They are lined by mucous membranes. inferior nasal conchae (2). Surface Markings: 1. the sternum. meatus. The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. head. The patella is an example. 2. 3. Terms that describe markings include fissure. and posterolaterals. sagittal. 2. lambdoidal. 2. temporal (2). Condyle. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). Examples are coronal. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. mandible. and ethmoid. palatine (2). and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. 3.1. fused). sphenoid. facet. ethmoid. and maxilla. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. and spine. 1. 2. 6. tuberosity. On the basis of shape. sternum. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. 2. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. muscle attachment. 3. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. 5. auditory ossicles. and squamosal sutures. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. It is composed of 22 bones. and balance. flat. hyoid bone. parietal (2). Hyoid Bone: 1. Skull: 1. or irregular. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. 2. fused) and the coccyx (4. occipital. Vertebral Column: 1. anterolaterals. support. 7. Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. posterior. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. process. The vertebral column. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. lumbar vertebrae (5). sphenoid. and ribs. maxillae (2). It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. The major fontanels are the anterior. vertebral column. crest. bones are classified as long. zygomatic (2). Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. thoracic vertebrae (12). The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull.

and phalanges. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Triangular (Triquetrum). 3. 2. the pelvic girdle. The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. 4. Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. and the thoracic vertebrae. shape. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. 2. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. fibula. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). carpals. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. the bones of the upper extremities. Schaphoid (Navicular). Capitate. 3. 4. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. 2. metacarpals. o Lower Extremities: 1. and Medial Cuneiform. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. 2. 3. L l.The vertebra are similar in structure. Hamate (Unciform). The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. Examples include scoliosis. a congenital defect. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. each consisting of a body. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. tarsals. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. Talus. and L 2. ulna. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. the ribs and costal cartilages. 2. and the bones of the lower extremities. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. tibia. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. Thorax: 1. 5. pubis. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. vertebral arch. kyphosis. 2. Pisiform. and seven processes. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). and lordosis. Cuboid. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. is referred to as spina bifida. and detail. o Upper Extremities: 1. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. Navicular. radius. II. and phalanges. metatarsals. 3. and ischium. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size.

1. All synovial joints are freely movable. supination and pronation. Bones held together by cartilage. and bursae. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). 8. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). and elevation and depression. joints. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. 4. and loss of function. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). with no joint cavity. ligaments. some also contain ligaments. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones). A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. 5. A dislocation. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. or luxation. and muscles. 2. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. Structurally. to provide support and leverage. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. 7. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints.arches. are fibrous joints. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). 4. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). Fibrous Joints: 1. inversion and eversion. 2. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. articular discs. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. Articulations: 1. are cartilaginous joints. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. biaxial. swelling. angular movements. pivot joints (radioulnar). joints are classified as fibrous. circumduction. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. 2. tendons. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). 3. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. 2. or triaxial. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. tension of ligaments. 3. Synovial Joints: 1. with no joint cavity. articular cartilage. 2. slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). saddle joints (carpometacarpal). protraction and retraction. 2. rotation. is a displacement of a bone from its joint. 6. hinge joints (elbow). and a synovial membrane. and muscle tension. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 6. 2. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). 2. cartilaginous. 5. Disorders . often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. or synovial.

2. There are three types of fascia: superficial. Energy for Contraction: 1. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. 2. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. triggering the contractile process. 2. and troponin. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex.without dislocation. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. 4. 6. and T tubules. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. It is striated and voluntary. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. 4. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. covering fasciculi. 2. Connective tissue components are epimysium. maintenance of posture. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. and heat production. Physiology of Contraction: 1. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Through contraction. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. covering individual fibers. 7. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. 2. 2.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. It is striated and involuntary. 8. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. contract. and subserous. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. 4. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. Functions: 1. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. nuclei. junction. covering the entire muscle. 5. 3. deep. 3. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Contraction . The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. 2. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. 3. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. The Motor Unit: 1. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. tropomyosin. the neuron releases acetylcholine. A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. 3. 3. and endomysium. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. or myoneural. Types: 1. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. perimysium.

The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal. It is striated and involuntary. 3. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. 6. stimulus. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. The fibers are arranged in a network. This muscle is found only in the heart. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. tetanus. or subthreshold. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. and stiffness of joints. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. and tics. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. 4. 3. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. 4. 5. and isometric. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. and related structures in the thigh. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. If it occurs in the lumbar region. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. more mitochondria. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. Kinds of Contractions: 1. isotonic. 2. 3. Disorders . The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. tenderness. 3. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. 2. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. stimulus. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. more blood capillaries. 2. fibrillations. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. 2. each of which contracts as a functional unit. 5. cramps.2. Unit it is paid back. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. muscles. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. and a large amount of myoglobin. or threshold. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. 2. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. Abnormal contractions include spasms. and larger T tubules. convulsions. it is called lumbago. Homeostasis: 1. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. 3. 2. 2. 3. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. 3. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. treppe. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. Muscle Tone: 1. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. 2.

The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. and glands. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. and reacting to them. microglia. neurons are multipolar. 6. Nerve Impulse: 1. effort. 3. Neurons: 1. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. and action. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. and minimal irritation. If. Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. 1. 3. Intramuscular Injections: 1. 2. oligodendrocytes. produce the myelin sheath. shape. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. The antagonist produces an opposite action. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. 2. and resistance on the lever. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. or nerve cells. origin and insertion. and usually a single axon. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. pennate. On the basis of structure. interpreting them. 2. and carry out phagocytosis. 3. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. 5.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. attach neurons to blood vessels. 6. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. 2. location. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. 2. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. convergent. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. 2. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. and deltoid region of the arm. and circular. and ependyma. Around the time of birth. 2. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. number of origins (or heads). consist of a perikaryon or cell body. the membrane is said to have an action potential. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. 4. including motor neurons. cardiac muscle tissue. size. bipolar. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. 5. On the basis of function. 3. and unipolar. lateral side of the thigh. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. second-class. 4. and the membrane is said to be polarized. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. Neurons. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue.

It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. or axon hillock. 7. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. The junction between neurons is called a synapse. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. 5. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. 4. 2. 5. cell body. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. 3. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. 2. Structure in Cross Section: 1. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. and ascending and descending tracts. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. 2. arachnoid and pia mater. 3. 7. 3. 4. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. 2. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. cerebrospinal fluid. 4. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. and lateral gray horns. 6. 3. 5. 7. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. anterior. meninges. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. central canal. At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. Protection and Coverings: 1. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. and lateral white columns. 5. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. 4. 6.travels from point to point along the membrane. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. 6. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. According to the all-ornothing principle. anterior. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. posterior. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. and vertebral ligaments. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. 6. posterior.

constant segments of the skin. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. a center. 5. Following peripheral nerve damage. Functions: 1. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. Wallerian degeneration. except for T 2-T 11. The posterior root. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. meningeal branch. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. and rami communicantes. flexor reflex. respectively. 4. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. 2. and crossed extensor reflex. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. 1. ventral ramus. 9.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. such as the patellar reflex. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. 8. form networks of nerves called plexuses. posterior root ganglion. 4. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. and regeneration. perineunum. association. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. 2. Its basic components are a receptor. A stretch reflex. The skin segments are called dermatomes. a sensory neuron. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. tendon reflex. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. 5. 2. and an effector. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. the Achilles reflex. and sacral plexuses. 3. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. 3. the Babinski sign. A reflex is a quick. a motor neuron. is an example. 4. • Composition and Coverings: 1. 2. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. • Dermatomes: 1.2. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. Disorders . and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. and motor neuron. 1. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. 3. brachial. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. lumbar. 5. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. 3. 2. and the abdominal reflex. All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 6. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. 2. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. 2. 5. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. • Distribution: 1. 7. and epineurium.

and hiccuping. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. epilepsy. 2. coughing. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. it is called internal hydrocephalus. which helps control respiration. Embryological Development: 1. and central canal. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. 2. convulsions. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 2. 2. 1. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. respiratory rate. 2. 4. 3. and unconsciousness. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. vomiting. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. vasoconstriction. 1. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. mental retardation. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 3. or death of brain 5. 2.1. permanent damage. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. diencephalon. 4. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. cerebrum. The pons is superior to the medulla. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. 3. 6. During embryological development. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. and cerebellum. 2. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. ventricles. 1. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. 3. 1. 4. 2. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. 3. it is called external hydrocephalus. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. cranial meninges. Protection and Coverings: 1. The Brain Stem: 1. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. The Diencephalon: 1. swallowing. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. 1. or death. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. 2. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. cells. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. sneezing. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .

fissures. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. dopamine. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 3. 10. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. spoken and written language. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. 3. The Cerebrum: 1. parietal. 2. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. 2. and smell. 4. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. 6. serotonin. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. insight. 1. infections. 7. imagination. touch. taste. 2. norepinephrine. 5. They help to control muscular movements. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 3. 3. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. 8. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. gamma aminobutyric acid. and reasoning. and occipital. 3. 1. 6. 4. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. glutamic acid. 2. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. 1. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. and generating mental images of sight. and tumors. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. 3. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. and sulci. 2. space and pattern perception. controls body temperature. constricted vermis. excite. 3. The Cerebellum: 1. 2. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. and glycine. 9. either anatomically or functionally. 5. except smell. numerical and scientific skills. 1. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. endorphins. Brain Lateralization: 1. 2. Its cortex contains convolutions. aspartic acid. It controls the autonomic nervous system. 2. and dynorphin.7. 3. sound. 7. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. 3. 3. to the cerebral cortex. 2. regulates food and fluid intake. temporal. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. musical and artistic awareness.

10. 6. larangeal muscles. Hypoglossal . Motor function. 10. some neck and shoulder muscles. thoracic and abdominal organs. 8. Accessory Motor. 5. 4. Scalp. 9. Palate. or atherosclerosis. soft palate. nose. upper eyelid. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Glossophary ngeal . 3.11. Tongue muscles. 1. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. 6. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses.Sensory. Olfactory .Sensory. 12. 12. 2. Motor function. 4. Oculomotor .Motor. Examples include angiotensin. muscles of mastication. 3. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. cerebellum. Trigeminal Sensory function. childbirth. Motor. forehead. Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 8. thrombosis. Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. muscles of facial expression. or psychological malfunction. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. . Optic . upper teeth. Soft palate. etc. cornea. etc. pharynx. tongue muscles. sensory. 7.The sense of smell. 5. The Cranial Nerves: 1. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. Facial Sensory. hearing and balance. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. lower teeth. 7. 2. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex. taste.The sense of vision. 4. Impulse transmission is interrupted. lower jaw. Disorders . Depending on the form of the disease. 9. larynx. taste. upper jaw. Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. or basal ganglia during fetal development. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. 11. Motor. inferior pharynx. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system. 11.Motor function of eye muscles. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. or early infancy. 4. pharyngeal muscles. Vagus Sensory. cholecystokinin. also called strokes. Vestibulococ hlear .

In terms of simplicity or complexity. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. 3. free nerve endings. 4. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. vibration). nociceptors. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. 4. 3. second-order. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. 4. and body position. Merkel's discs. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. proprioception. and Pacinian corpuscles. 2. The neural pathway for light touch. brain dysfunction. and third-order neurons. thermoreceptors. end organs of Ruffini. 2.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. surgery. Levels of Sensation: 1. 5. electromagnetic receptors. 5. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. 3. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. 2. conduction of the impulse to the brain. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). and acupuncture. Classification of Receptors: 1. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. and tendon organs. The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. Receptors located in muscles.muscle spasms and encephalitis. movement of body parts. and chemoreceptors. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. According to location. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. 13. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. connective tissues. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. 4. and liver damage. 7. and sometimes delirium. and pain. and proprioceptors. 2. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. General Senses . Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. Meissner's corpuscles. muscle spindles. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. 3. 6. tendons. personality changes. 2. 2. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. Characteristics: 1. visceroceptors. and end organs of Ruffini. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. 2. pressure. Sensations: 1. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. 12. they cause subconscious motor reactions. 3. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses.

2. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. regulates visceral activities. and visceral effector. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. cardiac muscle. 4.6. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. 2. 4. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. It is entirely motor. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation. and vestibulospinal tracts. 4. On the basis of the transmitter produced. or visceral efferent nervous system. decrease in heart rate. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. Motor Pathways: 1. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. that is. It usually operates without conscious control. 5. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. and the medulla oblongata. anterior corticospinal. it consists of activated and long-term components. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. 3. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. Integrative Functions: 1. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). 3. ganglia. 3. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. tectospinal. Physiology: 1. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. concerned with energy expenditure. A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. 4. and glands. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . in particular by the cerebral cortex. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. 2. 3. The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. 3. The autonomic nervous system. and plexuses. the hypothalamus. afferent neuron. Olfactory Sensations: 1. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. and to make childbirth easier. 2. and corticobulbar tracts. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). 4. 2. activities of smooth muscle. 2. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. reduced metabolic rate. to alleviate migraine headaches. 3. Control by Higher Centers: 1. association neuron. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. It is regulated by centers in the brain. in general. It has been used to control heart rate. 2.

4. oval window. and the threshold of smell is low. water-soluble. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity. eyelashes. external auditory canal. 3. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. pass through the ossicles. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. 5. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. 6. or vertical motion. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. accommodation of the lens. hypermetropia (farsightedness). the optic chiasma. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. linear. 5. and cerebral cortex. ciliary body. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). 3. (b) vascular tunic (choroid. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows.2. The four primary tastes are salt. 4. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. 2. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. 3. 10. 7. the optic tract. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. and the cortex. which contains rods and cones. lens. olfactory tracts. ossicles. 2. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. 4. set up waves in the perilymph. 7. sweet. and tympanic membrane). 2. olfactory bulbs. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. VII. 3. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). 3. strike the tympanic membrane. Visual Sensations: 1. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. Trachoma is a chronic. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. and iris). and lipid-soluble. the thalamus. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. and inverted image formation. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. and bitter. the organ of hearing. 4. increase pressure in the endolymph. 6. sour. constriction of the pupil. strike the basilar membrane. which destroys neurons of the retina. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. convergence. 2. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. and cerebral cortex. 5. 5. 4. and the lacrimal apparatus. IX. Disorders . strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. eyelids.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. thalamus. and (c) retina. 8. and vitreous humor. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. 9. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. strike the oval window. and round window). A sound impulse is then initiated. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. medulla. aqueous humor. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). 8. and X. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes.

help regulate growth and development. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). 3. 14. 2. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. 8. Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. Exocrine glands (sweat. and acromegaly. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. On the basis of solubility. Hormones help regulate the internal environment. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). and regulating factors. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. 10. 7. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. 16. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. 2. 6. Control of Hormonal Secretions . nerve impulses. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). 13. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion). and contribute to reproductive processes. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). 9. 15. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. 11. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. 4. 4. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). 2. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. Histologically. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor).Feedback Control: 1. sebaceous. 12. respond to stress. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). giantism. 3. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP. 3. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH).The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. 2. 2. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors.

aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. 2. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. which secrete calcitonin (CT). it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and the reactivity of the nervous system. zona ennin late. Histologically. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. 4. 6. 2. Histologically. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. 2. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome. and zona reticularis.Thyroid: 1. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. 6. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). and gonadocorticoids. Parathyroids: 1. myxedema. exophthalmic goiter. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. help resist stress. 3. 4. 8. 3.. 5. Glucocorticoids (e. and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. 2. Histologically. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. 6. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. growth and development. and serve as antiinflammatories. 4.g. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. 3. 7. glucocorticoids. 10. Histologically. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. 9. 2. Cretinism. 5. and lactation. Secretion is controlled by CRF. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. They are released under stress. Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. Secretion is controlled by TRF. beta cells. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. 2. beta cells secrete insulin. Mineralocorticoids (e. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla.. Ovaries and Testes: 1. and parafollicular cells. 4. 3. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Pancreas: 1. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. Histologically. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. menstrual cycle. and delta cells. 5.g. pregnancy. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood.

2.4 degrees F). eosinophils. nutrients. 0. Blood transports oxygen. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. It protects against toxins and microbes. pH. 3. nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. consists of 91. 3. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. globulins. 3. 4. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). 4. foods. called plasma. Normal blood contains 5. It helps to regulate pH. Iymph vessels. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. 5. 5. and water content of cells.5 percent water and 8. about 4. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. Erythrocyte formation. fibrinogen). Red blood cells live about 120 days.000 to 9. thymic humoral factor (THF).4 million/mm3 of blood. granular leucocytes. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated.45. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1. 3. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. The liquid portion of blood. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .pinealocytes. temperature. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). Lymphocytes. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. Leucocytes: 1. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. and platelets. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. thymic factor (TF). 2. 2. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. 7. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. wastes.5 percent solutes. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. and thrombocytes (platelets).85 to 0.000 to 400. 2. Normal blood contains 250.000/mm3. The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers.8 million/mm3. 2. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. 4. A healthy male has about 5. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. a healthy female. and enzymes. 2. Thymus: 1. 2. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. hormones. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. Thrombocytes: 1.000/mm3. called erythropoiesis. Plasma: 1. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. 6. Components: 1. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. Erythrocytes: 1. and Iymph glands. neuroglial cells. 3. body temperature. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils.5 to 5. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. 38 degrees C (100. carbon dioxide. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. and salinity. 6. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. and blood vessels. leucocytes (white blood cells). 3. Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. the heart.35 to 7. 4.90 NaCI. Functions: 1.5. 2.

A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. 2. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. 3. aplastic. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. Disorders . the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding.The Heart: 1. 2. Anticoagulatants (e. and out through the aorta. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. 5. 2. hemolytic.and hormones. myocardium. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. 2. The cause is a virus. pernicious. The parietal pericardium. encloses the heart. 3. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. heparin) prevent clogging. 7. In vascular spasm. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. 4. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. 4. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. platelet plug formation. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. It involves vascular spasm. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. respiratory gases. The Cardiovascular System . 3. through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. Interstitial Fluid: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. 10.Valves: 1. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. 11. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. Like plasma. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. and blood coagulation. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. hemorrhagic. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. 6. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. 9. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. 2. In the Rh system. 4. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). and sickle cell anemia. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. In the ABO system. 8. 3.. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles. 2. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). and endocardium.g.

The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. atrioventricular (AV) bundle. 4. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. 2. and Purkinje fibers. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow.8 sec. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. 3. 5. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. 6. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. 5. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. Blood Supply: 1. 3. 6. Atrioventricular (AV) valves. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. Electrocardiogram: 1. potassium). 4. aortic reflex. 3. determining the presence of several fetuses. Cardiac Output: 1. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause.4. 5. and right heart (atrial) reflex. detecting the presence of fetal life. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. 4. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. 4. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). 3. 7. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. 2. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). sodium. 7. between the atria and their ventricles. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla. 2. 6. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. Cardiac Cycle: 1. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). 3. 2. 7. 2. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). atrioventricular (AV) node. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. Conduction System: 1. temperature. bundle branches.

2. 5. Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. As blood volume increases. 2. 2. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). Capillaries: 1. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. to correct some defects. and genetic disposition. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases. Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. The heart becomes hypoxic. fibrillation. 2. and arrhythmias (heart block. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. lack of exercise. and therefore blood pressure. 3. 5. This network increases the surface area. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. and tetralogy of Fallot). 4. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. some capillaries are continuous. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Arteries: 1. 3. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. 2. valvular stenosis. others are fenestrated. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. 2. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls. 3. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. and premature contractions). blood pressure increases. They drain blood from capillaries into veins.ener Arterioles: 1. 4. Venules: 1. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. and the shock cvcle is intensified. 3. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and to apply chemotherapy locally. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. and age. sex (gender and physical activity). Veins: 1. flutter. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. 3. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. cigarette smoking. In severe shock. 3. septal defects. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. and tunica externa. obesity. high blood pressure. diabetes mellitus. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply.emotion. 4. 4. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. 2. Disorders . 2.

Disorders . and the descending aorta. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. 2. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Other routes include the cerebral. 2. They in turn empty into the right atrium. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. intestines. when lung. 2. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. 2. chemicals. and higher brain centers. and age. 2. digestive. 3. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. Circulatory Routes: 1. chemicals. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. stomach. 3. 2. spleen. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. temperature. and liver functions are established. 2. Blood Reservoirs: 1. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. Systemic Circulation: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . emotions. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. 3. 8. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. sex. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). chemoreceptors. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures. and fetal circulation. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. and breathing. At birth. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. and autoregulation. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. 2. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. the arch of the aorta. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. Fetal Circulation: 1. 3. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. 3. pulmonary. skeletal muscular contractions. Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. 6. 9. 7.

2. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. to Iymph trunks. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. acid pH of skin. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. 3. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions. and IgE). phagocytosis. complement. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. brain. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. when introduced into the body. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. called Iymphatics. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. pollen. Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. 2. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. mucus. incompatible blood cells. palatine. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. and properdin). 2. Based on chemistry and structure. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. Lymph Circulation: 1. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. chemical factors (gastric juice. 7. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. unsaturated fatty acids. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. and Iysozyme). 4. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. 6. 4. and multivalence. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. lacrimal apparatus. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. and kidneys. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. 2. 3. IgM. 2. cilia. to Iymph capillaries. antimicrobial substances (interferon. 3. and fever. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. Antigens are chemical substances that. 5. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. They include the pharyngeal. inflammation. 4. and transplants. T cells are processed in the thymus gland. to Iymphatics. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. and lingual tonsils. and Iymph organs. reactivity. and flow of urine). Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. 8. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. mucous membranes. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. to the subclavian veins. 2. Lymphatic Organs: 1. IgA. 5. IgD. fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . each with specific biological roles (IgG. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. 3. 9. microbial structures. Iymph nodes. Iymphatic vessels. 3. saliva.1. 2. 3. Examples of antigens are microbes. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. epiglottis. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells.

6. 14. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. crying. 8. laughing. 2. sneezing. During forced inspiration. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. invading antigen. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . yawning. 5. 3. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Coughing. asthma. and multiple sclerosis (MS). memory B cells recognize the original. sighing. treatment. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. eczema. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. 2. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. 4. 11. they are important in diagnosis. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. and hives. Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. 7. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). 2. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. 3. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. 10. accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. detection of disease. 12. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. preparing vaccines. 4. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. sobbing. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. 13. myasthenia gravis.liver and spleen. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. rheumatic fever. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. 2. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles.

4. and a rich blood supply. Disorders . the sum of two or more volumes. C's of CPR are Airway.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. pain. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. 4. According to Dalton's law. pneumotaxic area. Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. and irritation to the respiratory centers. include inspiratory. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. 2. functional residual. blood pressure. 2. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. and total. 2. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. and enlarged chest. Breathing. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. pCO2. temperature. 3. Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. 6. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. division. and excess mucus production. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. temperature. both in the brain and outside. a large alveolar surface area. the inflation reflex. 4. 3. inflated alveoli. B. inspiratory reserve. residual volume. External Respiration . 5. and Circulation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. 3. 2. 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. when the temperature remains constant. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. vital. expiratory reserve. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. and DPG. It is symbolized by p. Pulmonary lung capacities. 2. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). The A. 2. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. and apneustic area. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and function of the epithelial cells. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. 3. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. assuming that the pressure remains constant. 3. and minimal volumes. inflated lungs. compresses the lungs.are tidal volume. 3. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity.Internal Respiration: 1. 2. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. In bronchogenic carcinoma. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area).

submandibular (submaxillary). 4. salivary glands. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. root. absorption. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. together with its associated muscles. and tongue. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. 2. 3. 3. 4. 2. the hardest substance in the body. 4. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. 2. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . lipid. 2. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. falciform ligament. 5. 9. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. palates. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. liver. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. It consists of a voluntary stage. which aid mechanical digestion. 3. or alimentary canal. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. 8. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. mechanical and chemical digestion. and defecation. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The accessory structures include the teeth. 2. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane.7. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. mesocolon. and cervix. 2. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. Teeth: 1. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. submucosa. and accessory structures. 2. 2. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. 2. 3. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. muscularis. Organization: 1. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. lips. and pancreas. lesser omentum. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion. Salivary Glands: 1. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. The tongue. Some papillae contain taste buds. peristalsis. 4. The teeth. and sublingual glands. tongue. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. and serosa (peritoneum). Deglutition: 1. or dentes. and greater omentum. forms the floor of the oral cavity. 3. gallbladder. Digestive Processes: 1.

and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). intrinsic factor. 2. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. 2. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). gastric. The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. 3. 2. Digestion in the Stomach: 1. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). The small intestine also absorbs water. glands that produce mucus. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach.Histology: 1. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. hydrochloric acid. and transported as chylomicrons. a protein-digesting enzyme. villi. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). 2. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves. and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. resynthesized to triglycerides. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. and vitamins. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). Among the substances absorbed are some water. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. 3. 2. 2. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. 3. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. Hormones also assume a role. Gallbladder: 1. and stomach gastrin. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. Liver: 1. The esophagus is a collapsible. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). electrolytes. 3. 2. Pancreas: 1. and intestinal. certain electrolytes and drugs. Stomach: Anatomy . and alcohol. 2. Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. Absorption: 1. Absorption: 1.Histology: 1. 2. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Esophagus: 1. Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. 2. Small Intestine: Anatomy . 2. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. and the microvilli. 4. 3. 2. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases).

act as building blocks in forming new body components. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. Its subdivisions include the cecum. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. and cementum. 2. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. 4. 2. rectum. 3.1. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. a foreign body. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. rather than enzymatic. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. hepatitis B. Anabolic reactions use energy.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Metabolism: 1. and vitamins. colonoscopy. stenosis. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. lipids. Defecation: 1. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. or kinking of the organ. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. minerals. vitamins. 7. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. 2. Types include hepatitis A. periodontal membrane. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. and barium x-ray. 2. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. . 5. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. and non-A. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. bacteria. epithelial cells. and undigested foods. and water. electrolytes. Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. inorganic salts. 5. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. action. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. 6. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. During digestion. 2. 8. 11. peristalsis. carcinoma of the cecum. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. alveolar bone. 3. 9. and mass peristalsis. Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. 2. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. 4. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. and anal canal. Feces consists of water. proteins. Disorders . The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. colon. 3. The large intestine absorbs water. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. 2. 10. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. 12. or assist in the functioning of various body processes.

under aerobic conditions. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. 2. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. 4. epinephrine.2. 2. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. recombined to form triglycerides. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. 2. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. In beta oxidation. and growth hormone (GH). lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. 3. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. and the electron transport chain. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. 3. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. thromboplastin for blood clotting. Electron Transport Chain: 1. Lipid Metabolism: 1. 4. 2. 2. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. 3. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. the Krebs cycle. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. 3. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. thyroxine. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. Glycolysis: 1. Glucose Anabolism: 1. 2. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. and I molecule of GTP. 6. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). Fat Storage: 1. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. 3. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. Lipid Catabolism: 1. When oxygen is in short supply. 2. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. It is stimulated by cortisol. glucagon. 3. and cytochromes. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. As a result of glycolysis. 3. coenzyme Q. 2. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. Glucose Catabolism: 1. 1 molecule of FADH2. 4 molecules of NADH2. 5. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Fate of Lipids: 1. 3. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. During digestion.

decarboxylation. The process is stimulated by insulin. sulfur. called ketosis. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. thyroxine. 3. Many function in enzyme systems. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. Lipid Anabolism . Before amino acids can be catabolized. and body temperature. hormones. structural elements. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. hormones. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. 2. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. manganese. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. 2. Very little protein is used as a source of energy. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. selenium. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. potassium. and proteins. zinc. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. the nervous system. and chromium. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. these conversions involve deamination. snd ketane hadies. and K. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. Inside cells. Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. phosphorus. Vitamins: 1. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. Fate of Proteins: 1. iron. conversion of glycerol into glucose. Amino acids. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. D. Minerals: 1. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . cobalt. 3. or converted.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. magnesium. and hydrogenation. but an excess of ketone bodies.Lipogenesis: 1. 2. Protein Anabolism: 1. Production of Body Heat: 1. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. sodium. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. fatty acids. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. 2. 2. 2. E. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate. 2. iodine. fats. stored. 3. and so forth. may cause acidosis. 4. copper.4. 3. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. 2. based on the needs of the body. absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. During digestion. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. and insulin. Protein Catabolism: 1. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. Protein Metabolism: 1. chlorine. 2. During the absorptive state. enter body cells by active transport. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. 2. During the absorptive state. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH).

4. and thyroxine production. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. urinary bladder. stages include chill and crisis. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 4. 2. and urethra. distal convoluted tubule. 7. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. glomerulus. 2. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. Physiology: 1. 3. D. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. and high body temperature. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. Internally. skeletal muscle contraction.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. adipose capsule. and sometimes mental retardation. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. and perspiration. and dizziness. loop of Henle. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. papillae. 4. columns. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. proximal convoluted tubule. 3. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Loss of Body Heat: 1. sympathetic stimulation. medulla. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. 6. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. 4. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. 5. 3. lethargy. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. 3. ureters. descending limb of Henle. 2. 3. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and K and calcium is inadequate. Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. nausea. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. 2. pyramids. reduced perspiration. 5. 2. calyces. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. 4. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. cramps. and renal fascia. the kidneys consist of a cortex. 5. and a pelvis. failure to grow. 4. 2. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. ascending limb of Henle. 3. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. profuse perspiration. deereased metabolic rate. This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff).

9. glucose. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. Besides the kidneys. bilirubin. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. and the glomerular filtrate. 4. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. Body Fluids: 1. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. the rest by facultative reabsorption. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). and ions. 2. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. pH. 2. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. salts. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. In exchange. 8. erythrocytes. 10. Normally. The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. 3. Gl tract fluids. cerebrospinal fluid. indican.6. ketone bodies. integument. 5. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). ketone bodies. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 5. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. muscularis.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. glucose. Its function is to discharge urine from the body. creatinine. and certain drugs. 7. 2. hippuric acid. leucocytes. 7. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. and peritoneal fluids. Urethra: 1. Disorders . Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. 3. pericardial. diuretics. temperature. 8. Ureters: 1. Histologically. and fibrous coat. 2. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. renal calculi. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. and fluids of the eyes and ears. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). 3. 3. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. blood concentration. plasma and Iymph. and ions. 2. uric acid. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. and emotions. 4. 11. primarily by peristalsis. and specific gravity. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. and microbes. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). synovial fluid. casts. urobilinogen. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). amino acids. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. It includes interstitial fluid. blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention. 6. 2. 5. nitrogenous wastes. turbidity. 4. The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. The solutes include urea. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. odor. Chemically. and a serous coat. Urinary Bladder: 1. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. including water. pleural. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. Included are ions. Homeostasis: 1. the lungs.

Its level is controlled by aldosterone. 2. respirations. decreases pH. It also functions in blood clotting. 6. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. 3. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. phosphate. Under normal conditions. muscle contraction. 2. 4. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. and regulating pH. 7. 3. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. fluid moves in the opposite direction. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. 9. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. At the arterial end of a capillary. lungs. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). and heartbeat. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. 3. 4. increases pH. At the venous end. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate.80. skin. 4. and protein. and GI tract. An increase in rate of respirations. 11. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. and regulation of pH. 5. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems.45. 3. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). Acid-Base Balance: 1. 8. Electrolytes: 1. and fluid and electrolyte balance. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. especially extracellular fluid. Plasma. nerve impulse conduction. a decrease in rate. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth.00. 2. muscle contraction. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. 5.35 and 6.35 to 7. 2. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. 4. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm. 3. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. interstitial fluid. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2.1.45 and 8. chemical transmitter release. 4. 10. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. muscle contraction. and kidney excretion. Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. proper fluid movement between compartments. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries.

10. rete testis. Accessory Glands: 9. 11. Testes: 1. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). 2. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. straight tubules. and efferent ducts. 12. protein anabolism. stimulates bone growth. Testosterone controls the growth. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. 7. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. development. membranous. sperm maturation. urethra. 2. Male Reproductive System: 1. ductus deferens. and maintenance of sex organs. 3. in which sperm cells are made. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. 5. 3. which nourish sperm cells. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. Reproductive System: 1. and interstitial endocrinocytes. straight tubules. and spongy (cavernous).metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. 6. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. 3. Ducts: 1. and rete testis. sustentacular cells. 2. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. 8. ductus epididymis. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. and 7. 7. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. 2. 4. Scrotum: 1. Their function is to fertilize an ovum. 2. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. ejaculatory duct. 3. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. seminal vesicles. midpiece. 4. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. II. ducts (transport and store gametes). provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. 6. prostate gland. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. and penis. 5. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. and tail. bulbourethral glands. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes).

and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. Estrogens stimulate the growth. The penis is the male organ of copulation. and labor. 4. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. During the preovulatory phase. and inner endometrium. 6. During the menstrual phase. 11. implantation of a fertilized ovum. development. and stimulate protein anabolism. 3. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. uterus. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. 4. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. . III. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. and vulva. 2. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. Uterus: 1. mucus. Histologically. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. and epithelial cells. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. 4. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. on either side of the uterus. and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. During the postovulatory phase. The uterus is an inverted. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10. uterine tubes. 2. tissue fluid.nutrients. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. Ovaries: 1. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization. 6. 8. development of a fetus during pregnancy. Penis: 1. 7. ovulation. endometrial repair occurs. 9. 2. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. 3. 5. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. vagina. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. 2. They produce ova. middle myometrium. 5. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. 3. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. 2. discharge ova (ovulation). 2.

Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. 12. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. trichomoniasis. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. syphilis. pectoral muscles. and the lower portion of the birth canal. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. 2. and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). 3. genital herpes. Mammary Glands: 1. 2. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. It is said to be haploid (n). Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. vaginal and urethral orifices. 3. equatorial division. Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. 7. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. Sexual Intercourse: 1. Disorders . 6. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. 10. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). 2. The female role also involves erection. and sperm maturation. 11. 10. The removal of a malignant breast. 2. and orgasm. clitoris. 5. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. and ova maturation. 7. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. Perineum: 1. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 13. 8. 4. 2. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. 2. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. Vagina: 1. lubrication. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. 8. labia majora. enlarged prostate.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. Spermatogenisis: 1. the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). the cessation of the sexual cycles. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. If fertilization and implantation do occur. 2. 2. and tumors. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. and orgasm (climax). 9. equatorial division. 12. dysmenorrhea. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Oogenesis: 1. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. lubrication. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis. 9. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Vulva: 1. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. 2. 3. Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. labia minora. It consists of the mons veneris. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. abnormal bleeding. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. vestibule. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions.

implantation. and birth. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. Its various events are hormonally controlled. 1. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. fetal growth. 2. 5. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. embryonic growth. . 4. 2. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. 3.

Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). and smoking. 3. chemicals and drugs. laparascopic technique). Tay-Sachs disease. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. 2. sterilization (vasectomy. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor.The morula develops into a blastocyst. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. 1. and progesterone. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). Parturition and Labor: 1. sickle cell anemia. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. Inheritance: 1. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. and delivery of the placenta. tubal ligation. 2. mechanical. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. and chemical). 6. 3. 2. Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. and protection. 4. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. During the fetal period. estrogens. alcohol. and Down's syndrome. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). mesoderm. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. protein anabolism. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. Lactation: 1. Birth Control: 6. Dominant genes control a particular trait. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. and allantois. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. . During embryonic growth. removal of wastes. amnion. 2. chorion. such as hemophilia. 3. 3. 7. 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . microbes. 4. 2. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. 2. 3. 8. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. estrogens. and progesterone. 2. expulsion of the fetus. 2. Examples are infections. and contraception (natural. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. 5. Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta.

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