• 1.

Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures.  Types of anatomy include: o Surface Anatomy (form and markings of surface features) o Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) o Systemic or Systematic anatomy (systems) o Regional Anatomy (regions) o Developmental Anatomy (development from fertilization to adulthood) o Embryology (development from fertilized egg through eighth week in utero) o Pathological Anatomy (disease) o Histology (tissues) o Cytology (cells) o Radiographic Anatomy (x-rays). 2. Physiology is the study of how body structures function. It is based upon the concepts of biochemistry. Levels of Structural Organization: 1. The human body consists of several levels of structural organization; among these are the chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels. 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. 3. Tissues consist of groups of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material that perform certain special functions. 4. Organs are structures of definite form and function composed of two or more different tissues. 5. Systems consist of associations of organs that have a common function. 6. The human organism is a collection of structurally and functionally integrated systems. 7. The systems of the human body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, Iymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Structural Plan: 1. The human body has certain general characteristics. 2. Among the characteristics are a backbone, a tube within a tube organization, and bilateral symmetry. Anatomical Position:

When in the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, and the palms of the hands are turned forward. Anatomical Names: Regional names are terms given to specific regions of the body for reference. Examples of regional names include cranial (skull), thoracic (chest), brachial (arm), patellar (knee), cephalic (head), and gluteal (buttock). Directional Terms: 1. Directional terms indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another. 2. Commonly used directional terms are: o superior (toward the head or upper part of a structure) o inferior (away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure) o anterior (near or at the front of the body) o posterior (near or at the back of the body) o medial (nearer the midline of the body or a structure) o lateral (near or towards the side of the body or a structure) o intermediate (between a medial and lateral structure) o ipsilateral (on the same side of the body) o contralateral (on the opposite side of the body) o proximal (nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure) o superficial (toward or on the surface of the body) o deep (away from the surface of the body) o parietal (pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity) o visceral (pertaining to the covering of an organ). Planes and Sections: Planes are imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body or organs into definite areas. A midsagittal (median) plane is a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides, a sagittal (parasagittal) plane is a plane parallel to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organs into unequal right and left sides; a frontal (coronal) plane is a plane at a right angle to a midsagittal (or sagittal) plane that divides the body or organs into anterior and posterior portions; and a horizontal (transverse) plane is a plane parallel to the ground and at a right angle to the midsagittal, sagittal, and frontal planes that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior portions.



Sections are flat surfaces resulting from cuts through body structures. They are named according to the plane on which the cut is made and include cross sections, frontal sections, and midsagittal sections. Body Cavities: 1. Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. 2. The dorsal and ventral cavities are the two principal body cavities. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord. The organs of the ventral cavity are collectively called the viscera. 3. The dorsal cavity is subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the vertebral or spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord and beginnings of spinal nerves. 4. The ventral body cavity is subdivided by the diaphragm into an upper thoracic cavity and a lower abdominopelvic cavity. 5. The thoracic cavity contains two pleural cavities and a mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity. 6. The mediastinum is a mass of tissue between the pleurae of the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity, except the lungs. 7. The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into a superior abdominal and an inferior pelvic cavity by an imaginary line extending from the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. 8. Viscera of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, small intestine, and most of the large intestine. 9. Viscera of the pelvic cavity include the urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum, and internal female and male reproductive structures.


horizontal and vertical lines through the umbilicus. The names of the four abdominopelvic quadrants are right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), And left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Homeostasis: 1. Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment (extracellular fluid) of the body remains relatively constant in terms of chemical composition, temperature, and pressure. 2. All body systems attempt to maintain homeostasis. 3. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems. Stress and Homeostasis: 1. Stress is any external or internal stimulus that creates a change in the internal environment. 2. If a stress acts on the body, homeostatic mechanisms attempt to counteract the effects of the stress and bring the condition back to normal. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure: 1. Blood pressure (BP) is the force exerted by blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch the walls of arteries. It is determined by the rate and force of the heartbeat, the amount of blood, and arterial resistance. 2. If a stress causes the heartbeat to increase. blood pressure also increases; pressuresensitive nerve cells in certain arteries inform the brain, and the brain responds by sending impulses that decrease heartbeat, thus decreasing blood pressure back to normal; a rise in blood pressure also causes the brain to send impulses that dilate arterioles, thereby also helping to decrease blood pressure back to normal. 3. Any circular situation in which information about the status of something is continually fed back to a control region is called a feedback system. 4. A negative feedback system is one in which the reaction of the body (output) counteracts the stress (input) in order to maintain homeostasis; most feedback systems of the body are negative. A positive feedback system is one in which the output intensifies the input; the system is usually destructive. Homeostasis of Blood Sugar Level: 1. A normal blood sugar (BS) level is maintained by the actions of two different pancreatic hormones: insulin and glucagon. 2. Insulin lowers blood sugar level by increasing sugar uptake by cells and

Abdominopelvic Regions: 1. To describe the location of organs easily, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into nine regions by drawing four imaginary lines. 2. The names of the nine abdominopelvic regions are epigastric, right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, umbilical, right lumbar, left lumbar, hypogastric (pubic), right iliac (inguinal), and left iliac (inguinal). Abdominopelvic Quadrants: 1. To locate the site of an abdominopelvic abnormality in clinical studies, the abdominopelvic cavity may be divided into four quadrants by passing imaginary




accelerating sugar storage as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon raises blood sugar level by accelerating the rate of sugar released from glycogen by the liver.

Measuring the Human Body: 1. Various kinds of measurements are important in understanding the human body. 2. Examples of such measurements include organ dimensions and weight, physiological response time, and amount of medication to be administered. 3. Measurements utilized in scientific procedures are given in metric units.

Chemical Reactions: 1. Synthesis reactions involve the combination of reactants to produce a new molecule. The reactions are anabolic: bonds are formed. 2. In decomposition reactions, a substance breaks down into other substances. The reactions are catabolic: bonds are broken. 3. Exchange reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms. 4. In reversible reactions, end products can revert to the original combining molecules. 5. The sum of all synthetic and decomposition reactions that occur within an organism is referred to as metabolism. 6. When chemical bonds are formed, energy is needed. When bonds are broken, energy is released. This is known as chemical bond energy.

Introduction to Basic Chemistry
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes: 1. Inorganic substances usually lack carbon, contain ionic bonds, resist decomposition, and dissolve readily in water. 2. Organic substances always contain carbon and usually hydrogen. Most organic substances contain covalent bonds and many are insoluble in water. Inorganic Compounds: 1. Water is the most abundant substance in the body. It is an excellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in chemical reactions, absorbs and releases heat slowly, and lubricates. 2. Acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions in water. An acid ionizes into H+ ions, a base ionizes into OH- ions. A salt ionizes into neither H+ nor OH- ions. Cations are positively charged ions; anions are negatively charged ions. 3. The pH of different parts of the body must remain fairly constant for the body to remain healthy. On the pH scale, 7 represents neutrality. Values below 7 indicate acid solutions, and values above 7 indicate alkaline solutions. 4. The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained by buffer systems, which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base. Buffer systems eliminate excess H+ ions and excess OH- ions in order to maintain pH homeostasis. Organic Compounds: 1. Carbohydrates are sugars or starches that provide most of the energy needed for life. They may be monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates, and other organic

Chemical Elements: • Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. It is made up of building units called chemical elements. • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96 percent of body weight. These elements together with phosphorus and calcium make up 99 percent of total body weight. Structure of Atoms: 1. Units of matter of all chemical elements are called atoms. 2. Atoms consist of a nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, and orbiting electrons moving in energy levels. 3. The total number of protons of an atom is its atomic number. This number is equal to the number of electrons in the atom. Atoms and Molecules: 1. The electrons are the part of an atom that actively participate in chemical reactions. 2. A molecule is the smallest unit of two or more combined atoms. A molecule containing two or more different kinds of atoms is a compound. Chemical Bonds: • In an ionic bond, outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The transfer forms ions, whose unlike charges attract each other and form ionic bonds. • In a covalent bond, there is a sharing of pairs of outer-energy level electrons. • Hydrogen bonding provides temporary bonding between certain atoms within large complex molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.








molecules, are joined together to form larger molecules with the loss of water by a process called dehydration synthesis. In the reverse process called digestion or hydrolysis, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones by the addition of water. Lipids are a diverse group of compounds that includes the fats, phospholipids, steroids, vitamins E and K, and prostaglandins. Fats protect, insulate, provide energy, and are stored. Prostaglandins mimic the effects of hormones and are involved in the inflamitory response and the modulation of hormonal responses. Proteins are constructed from amino acids. They give structure to the body, regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles to contract, transport substances, and serve as enzymes. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids consisting of nitrogen bases, sugar, and phosphate groups. DNA is a double helix and is the primary chemical in genes. RNA differs in structure and chemical composition from DNA and is mainly concerned with protein synthesis reactions. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy storing molecule of living things. When its energy is liberated, it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ATP is manufactured from ADP using the energy supplied by various decomposition reactions, particularly of glucose. Cyclic AMP (second messenger) is closely related to ATP and assumes a function in certain hormonal reactions within the cell.

phospholipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins. Functions: a. Functionally, the plasma membrane facilitates contact with other cells, provides receptors, and mediates the passage of materials. b. The membrane's selectively permeable nature restricts the passage of certain substances. Substances can pass through the membrane depending on their molecular size, lipid solubility, electrical charges, and the presence of carriers. Movement of Materials Across Plasma Membranes: 1. Passive processes involve the kinetic energy of individual molecules. 2. Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. 3. In facilitated diffusion, certain molecules, such as glucose, combine with a carrier to become soluble in the phospholipid portion of the membrane. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. 5. In an isotonic solution, red blood cells maintain their normal shape; in a hypotonic solution, they undergo hemolysis; in a hypertonic solution, they undergo crenation. 6. Filtration is the movement of water and dissolved substances across a selectively permeable membrane by pressure. 7. Dialysis is the diffusion of solute particles across a selectively permeable membrane and involves the separation of small molecules from large molecules. 8. Active processes involve the use of ATP by the cell. 9. Active transport is the movement of ions across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration. 10. Endocytosis in the movement of substances through plasma membranes in which the membrane surrounds the substance, encloses it, and brings it into the cell. 11. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles by pseudopodia. It is an important process used by white blood cells to destroy bacteria that enter the body. 12. Pinocytosis is the ingestion of a liquid by the plasma membrane. In this process, the liquid becomes surrounded by a vacuole.

→ CELLS The Generalized Animal Cell: 1. A cell is the basic, living, structural and functional unit of the body. 2. A generalized cell is a composite that represents various cells of the body. 3. Cytology is the science concerned with the study of cells. 4. The principal parts of a cell are the plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, organelles, and inclusions. Extracellular materials are manufactured by the cell and deposited outside the plasma membrane. Plasma (Cell) Membrane: 1. The plasma (cell) membrane, surrounds the cell and separates it from other cells and the external environment. 2. It is composed primarily of proteins and phospholipids. According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of a



2. It is composed mostly of water plus proteins." 4. transports substances intracellularly. Lysosomes are spherical structures that contain digestive enzymes. The parts of the nucleus include the nuclear membrane. 2. Usually the largest organelle. Together microfilaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton. and inorganic substances. 2. catalase) involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide. Functionally. The Golgi complex consists of four to eight stacked. Organelles are specialized portions of the cell that carry on specific activities. the Golgi complex secretes proteins and lipids and synthesizes and secretes glycoproteins. centrioles. 3. The inner folds are called cristae. Mitochondria: 1. repair. and genetic material (DNA). Thus they are called "suicide packets. The chemicals in cytoplasm are either in solution or in a colloid (suspended) form. 3. If the cell is injured. 3. Cytoplasm is the substance inside the cell that contains organelles and inclusions. They assume specific roles in cellular growth. 4. Organelles: 1. nucleoli. Ribosomes are granular structures consisting of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Lysosomes are also involved in bone removal and remodeling. and movement. Cells without nuclei. 3. exchanges materials with cytoplasm. which carry on phagocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis in the selective uptake of large molecules and particles by cells. carbohydrates. 2. Granular or rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. 2. lipids. support. do not grow or reproduce. and the mitotic spindle. the nucleus controls cellular activities and contains the genetic information. Microfilaments are rodlike structures consisting of the protein actin or myosin. karyolymph. provide movement. Agranular or smooth ER does not contain ribosomes. They are involved in muscular contraction. maintenance. They contain enzymes (e. In conjunction with the ER. Endoplasmic Reticulum: 1. 3. The dense area of cytoplasm containing the centrioles is called a centrosome. ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis.g. stores synthesized molecules. They are formed from Golgi complexes. Microtubules are cylindrical structures consisting of the protein tubulin. They support. Mitochondria consist of a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane surrounding the interior matrix. Nucleus: 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. The mitochondria are called "powerhouses of the cell" because ATP is produced in them. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .13. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body): Lysosomes: 1.. cilia. but smaller. and control. The ER provides mechanical support. 3.The Cytoskeleton: 1. It is located near the nucleus. cytoplasm is the medium in which chemical reactions occur. and helps export chemicals from the cell. Microfilaments and Microtubules . 3. Centrosome and Centrioles: 1. Iysosomes release enzymes and digest the cell. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells such as those in the pancreas or salivary glands. 1. Peroxisomes are similar in structure to Iysosomes. 2. They occur free (singly or in clusters) or in conjunction with endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasm: 1. such as mature red blood cells. Functionally. They are found in large numbers in white blood cells. Chromosomes consist of DNA and histones and consist of subunits called nucleosomes. comprising the chromosomes. Peroxisomes: 1. Today mitochondria are generally considered to be endosymbionts rather than simply cellular organelles. 2. The ER is a network of parallel membranes continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear membrane. Ribosomes: 1. conducts intracellular nerve impulses in muscle cells. membranous sacs called cisternae. and form the structure of flagella.

Most of the cellular machinery is concerned with synthesizing proteins. If they are numerous and hairlike. Somatic Cell Division: 1. and telophase. They provide support and a medium for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes. reticular. 8. These cellular projections have the same basic structure and are used in movement. A cleavage furrow forms at the cell's equator and progresses inward. metaphase. 3. Mitosis is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate and equal nuclei following their replication. 4. Cells make proteins by translating the genetic information encoded in DNA into specific proteins. 2. Prior to mitosis and cytokinesis. tRNA delivers a specific amino acid to the codon. In response to DNA damage. the DNA strand that serves as the template is called the sense strand. are fibrous. 3. cutting through the cell to form two separate portions of cytoplasm. The structure of DNA is vulnerable to damage by harmful radiations and various chemicals.Protein Synthesis: 1. 7. mRNA associates with ribosomes. These are all the substances that lie outside the cell membrane. are amorphous. Cytokinesis begins in late anaphase and terminates in telophase. The cilia on cells of the respiratory tract move foreign matter trapped in mucus along the cell surfaces toward the throat for elimination. In transcription. 3. 2. DNA also synthesizes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and template or transfer RNA (tRNA). 3. anaphase. Cell division is the process by which cells reproduce themselves.DNA Repair: 1. replicate themselves so the same chromosomal complement can be passed on to future generations of cells. 2. It consists of nuclear division and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis). Examples are melanin. "SOS" Genes . the ribosome moves along an mRNA strand as amino acids are joined to form a growing polypeptide. a codon is a segment of three bases of mRNA. The flagellum on a sperm cell moves the entire cell. they are called cilia. Another portion of the tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon. the DNA molecules. 2. 3. Specific amino acids are attached to molecules of tRNA. genetic information encoded in DNA is copied by a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). DNA Polymerase is an example. and elastic fibers. which consist of rRNA and protein. and mucus. Cell Division: 1. Cell division that results in an increase in body cells is called somatic cell division and involves a nuclear division called mitosis and cytokinesis. lipids. 5. Extracellular Materials: 1. like hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Damage could lead to cellular malfunction that might lead to cancer. glycogen. This involves transcription and translation. 6. Some. an "SOS response" occurs. or chromosomes. certain genes produce enzymes that repair genetic damage.2. It consists of prophase. 5. A cell carrying on such every life process except division is said to be in interphase or metabolic interphase. 2. they are called flagella. Gene Action . Cell inclusions are chemical substances produced by cells. 3. They are usually organic and may have recognizable shapes 2. 4. If projections are few and long. They assume an important role in cell reproduction. like collagenous. Flagella and Cilia: 1. Centrioles are paired cylinders arranged at right angles to one another. 6. Cells and Aging: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Others. Cellular Inclusions: 1. The process of using the information in the nitrogen base sequence of mRNA to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein is known as translation. 2. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called reproductive cell division and consists of a nuclear division called meiosis and cytokinesis.

It is found covering ovaries. Mesothelium lines the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and covers the organs within them. simple. and most upper respiratory structures. 2. little intracellular material. 3. 4. It does not occur on free surfaces. except for cartilage. 2. and epiglottis. Epithelial Tissue: 1. Connective Tissue: 1. It is found in the male urethra and large excretory ducts. Glandular Epithelium: 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Endothelium lines the heart and blood vessels. Covering and Lining Epithelium: 1. Connective tissue protects. 6. portion of urethra. Stratified columnar epithelium protects and secretes. and binds organs together. where it protects and secretes. It has few cells. Stratified squamous epithelium is protective. auditory tubes. merocrine. Carcinogens include environmental agents and viruses. 9. 2. It lines the upper digestive tract and vagina and forms the outer layer of skin. The spread of cancer from its primary site is called metastasis.1. 2. Transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of stretching. 8. In a few portions of the respiratory tract. stratified (several layers). 3. but none successfully answers all questions. including genetically programmed cessation of cell division and excessive immune responses. Multicellular glands are further classified as tubular. It is attached to connective tissue by a basement membrane. tubuloacinar. 3. connective. noncancerous tumors are called benign. 7. The intercellular substance determines the tissue's qualities. columnar (rectangular). Connective tissue is the most abundant body tissue. cuboidal (cubelike). All of the various body systems exhibit definitive and sometimes extensive changes with aging Disorders: Homeostatic Imbalances 1. 2. 2. 4. an extensive intercellular substance. and nervous. A gland is a single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion. 5. Simple cuboidal epithelium is adapted for secretion and absorption. A tissue is a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance specialized for a particular function. It lines larger excretory ducts. oil. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood. cell shapes include squamous (flat). 5. the study of tumors is called oncology. Epithelium has many cells. Tissues Types of Tissues 1. Depending on their function and structure. Goblet cells perform secretion of mucus. muscular. Simple squamous epithelium is adapted for diffusion and filtration and is found in lungs and kidneys. and no blood vessels (avascular). and apocrine glands. in kidneys and eyes. Specialized cells containing microvilli perform absorption. Many theories of aging have been proposed. Aging is a progressive failure of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses. Layers are arranged as simple (one layer). parts of urethra. and pseudostratified (one layer that appears as several). and compound. 2. and transitional (variable). Structural classification includes unicellular and multicellular glands. and lining some glandular ducts. It can replace itself. Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium lines most of the digestive tract. and digestive glands) secrete into ducts or directly onto a free surface. Exocrine glands (sweat. acinar. pharynx. Cancerous tumors are referred to as malignant. supports. Pseudostratified epithelium has only one layer but gives the appearance of many. 3. 3. the various tissues of the body are classified into four principal types: epithelial. Functional classification includes holocrine. Stratified cuboidal epithelium is found in adult sweat glands. The subtypes of epithelium include covering and lining epithelium and glandular epithelium. the cells are ciliated to move foreign particles trapped in mucus out of the body. and a rich blood supply (vascular).

An epithelial membrane is an epithelial layer overlying a connective tissue layer. auditory tubes. These membranes consist of parietal and visceral portions. It is found as a component of fascia. and in the subcutaneous layer. 5. It provides strength. Embryonic Connective Tissue: 1. o Reticular connective tissue consists of interlacing reticular fibers and forms the stroma of the liver. Elastic. pericardium. It is found in the cartilages of the larynx. Elastic cartilage maintains the shape of organs such as the larynx. It is flexible. 2. Hyaline cartilage is found in the embryonic skeleton. The growth of cartilage is accomplished by interstitial growth (from within) and appositional growth (from without). allows movement. spleen. and Cardiac. elastic arteries. Membranes: 1. pain. Muscle Tissue and Nervous Tissue: 1. such as the digestive tract. and reticular) and various cells (fibroblasts. Adult connective tissue is connective tissue that exists in the newborn and that does not change after birth. There are three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal (striated). called adipocytes. and provides support. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and around various organs. Loose connective tissue is found in all mucous membranes. Tissue Inflammation . and Reticular. Fibrocartilage connects the pelvic bones and the vertebrae. around body organs. Five examples of such tissues may be distinguished: Loose. and swelling. at the ends of bones. 3. o Elastic connective tissue has a predominance of freely branching elastic fibers that give it a yellow color. elastic. o Serous membranes (pleura. membranes of organs. and in respiratory structures. Mesenchyme forms all other connective tissues. Visceral (smooth). o The cutaneous membrane is the skin. where it gives support. Connective tissue proper has a more or less fluid intercellular material. ligaments.An Attempt to Restore Homeostasis: 1. are specialized for fat storage. peritoneum) line closed cavities and cover the organs in the cavities. mast. It is subdivided into several kinds: connective tissue proper. tendons. in the nose. Cartilage has a jellylike matrix containing collagenous and elastic fibers and chondrocytes. bronchial tubes. 6. Its intercellular substance (hyaluronic acid) contains fibers (collagenous. o Loose (areolar) connective tissue is one of the most widely distributed connective tissues in the body.4. o Dense (collagenous) connective tissue has a close packing of fibers (regularly or irregularly arranged). Mucous connective tissue is found in the umbilical cord of the fetus.contraction. Adult Connective Tissue: 1. Adipose. 2. and external ear. Connective tissue is classified into two principal types: embryonic and adult. and cutaneous. heat. 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. o Adipose tissue is a form of loose connective tissue in which the cells. 4. plasma. o Mucous membranes line cavities that open to the exterior. trachea. and aponeuroses. Examples are: mucous. macrophages. Synovial membranes line joint cavities and do not contain epithelium. Dense. and a typical cell is the fibroblast. cartilage. and melanocytes). Nervous tissue is specialized to conduct electrical impulses. and Iymph nodes. serous. 2. and vascular tissue. Muscle tissue performs one major function . Damage to a tissue causes an inflammatory response characterized by redness. sometimes loss of function occurs. bone tissue. and true vocal cords.

2. The inflammatory response is initiated by histamine. 5. sudoriferous. C. from deepest to most superficial. and nails. 4. and pheomelanin (yellow). serotonin. receiving stimuli. The role of fibrin is to isolate the infected area. 7. scab formation. and corneum. some B. Tissue Repair: 1. are the stratum basale. Hair color is due to combinations of various amounts of the three hair pigments. dermal papillae. 2. Epidermal Derivatives: Epidermal derivatives are structures developed from the embryonic epidermis. and root hair plexuses. if it cannot drain out of the body. and several organic compounds. Conditions for Repair: 1. 5. pus is produced. carotene. 2. synthesis of vitamin D. 3. kinins. 3. hair follicles. Hair consists of a shaft above the surface. granulosum. and nails) constitute the integumentary system. E. • Hair: 1. nerves. Repair Process: 1. Tissue repair is the replacement of damaged or destroyed cells by healthy ones. 3. salts. If the injury is superficial. New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix in the bulb. The Integumentary System . Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles. and excretion of water. and Meissner's corpuscles. 4. and a hair follicle. These include neutrophils (microphages) and macrophages. Adequate circulation of blood is needed. 2. The color of skin is due to melanin. hair follicles. Associated with hairs are sebaceous glands. the process slows down with aging. granulation tissue is involved. It begins during the active phase of inflammation and is not completed until after harmful substances in the inflamed area have been neutralized or removed. Graying is due to the loss of melanin. skin glands (sebaceous. tissue repair involves pus removal (if pus is present). "Male-pattern" baldness is caused by androgens and heredity. and ceruminous). 5. Various vitamins (A. arrectores pilorum muscles. The skin and its derivatives (hair. and blood in capillaries in the dermis. It performs the functions of protection. 8. In most inflammations. hair replacement and growth occurs in a cyclic pattern. The basale and spinosum undergo continuous cell division and produce all other layers. The principal parts of the skin are the outer epidermis and inner dermis. 2. D. They cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels. Nutrition is important to tissue repair. black melanin. and ducts of sweat glands. Epidermal ridges increase friction for better grasping ability and provide the basis for fingerprints and footprints. 2. spinosum. 6. 4. and prostaglandins released by damaged tissue. Among the epidermal derivatives are hair. preventing excessive loss of inorganic and organic materials. and parenchymal regeneration. oil glands. The dermis overlies the subcutaneous layer. they are absent in the ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . a root that penetrates the dermis and subcutaneous layer. The dermis consists of a papillary region and a reticular region. 3. an abscess develops. nerves.The Skin: Skin 1. • Glands: 1. Hairs are epidermal growths that function in protection. glands. lucidum. Lines of cleavage indicate the direction of collagenous fiber bundles in the dermis and are considered during surgery. irregularly arranged connective tissue containing adipose tissue. The epidermal layers. If damage is extensive. storage of chemical compounds. The tissues of young people repair rapidly and efficiently. brown melanin. The papillary region is loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. maintaining body temperature. Further cell injury is prevented by phagocytes. The skin is one of the larger organs of the body. The reticular region is dense. and K) and a protein rich diet are needed.

free edge. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. Sudoriferous glands produce perspiration. The skeletal system consists of all bones attached at joints and cartilage between joints.6F). pubis. Sunburn is a skin injury resulting from prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) rays of sunlight. leverage. and third-degree (fullthickness). The principal parts of a nail are the body. The dormant infection is triggered by certain stimuli. Warts are uncontrolled growths of epithelial skin cells caused by a virus. Enlarged sebaceous glands may produce blackheads. and skin grafting. Cold sores (fever blisters) are lesions caused by type l herpes simplex virus. Osseous tissue consists of widely separated cells surrounded by large amounts of intercellular substance. Depending on the depth of damage. and matrix. Burn treatment may include cleansing the wound. The skin-cooling response is a negative feedback mechanism. 4. 6. 2. Disorders . 9. Tissue damage that destroys protein is called a burn. and blood cell production. the skin is cooled. The functions of the skeletal system include support. regulating metabolic rate. eponychium. If environmental temperature is high. root. Sebaceous glands produce sebum which moistens hairs and waterproofs the skin. 5. or psychogenic factors. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are distinguished as apocrine and eccrine. Skin cancer can be caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. 10. removing dead tissue. and boils. 2. Pruritus or itching is a common skin problem that may be related to skin disorders. second-degree (partialthickness). Impetigo is a superficial skin infection caused by bacteria and characterized by pustules that become crusted and rupture. Histology: 1. One of the functions of the skin is the maintenance of the normal body temperature of 37C (98. Apocrine sweat glands are limited in distribution to the skin of the axilla. which carries small amounts of wastes to the surface and assists in maintaining body temperature. pimples. 3. They are found in the external auditory meatus. 2. systemic diseases. and covering wounds with temporary protection. 4. 3. Cell division of the matrix cells produces new nails. Most warts are benign. Temperature maintenance is also accomplished by adjusting blood flow to the skin. Nails are hard. skin burns are classified as firstdegree. 8. and regulating skeletal muscle contractions. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by reddish. Acne is an inflammation of sebaceous glands. skin receptors sense the stimulus (heat) and generate impulses that are transmitted to the brain. Decubitus ulcers are caused by a chronic deficiency of blood to tissues subjected to prolonged pressure. As the perspiration evaporates. protection.• palms and soles. replacing lost body fluids. Homeostasis: 1.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. lunula. hyponychium. The intercellular substance contains collagenous ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Nails: 1. and areolae. their ducts open into hair follicles. 2. raised plaques or papules. 2. 7. 11. mineral storage. Ceruminous glands are modified sudoriferous glands that secrete cerumen. their ducts terminate at pores at the surface of the epidermis. The brain then causes the sweat glands to produce perspiration. keratinized epidermal cells over the dorsal surfaces of the terminal portions of the fingers and toes. Eccrine sweat glands have an extensive distribution. 3. The Skeletal System: The Skeletal System: 1.

7. 5. Normal growth depends on calcium. compact bone protects. metaphysis. which begins when mesenchymal cells become transformed into osteoblasts. greenstick. and nondisplaced. 3. Functionally. Compact (dense) bone consists of Haversian systems with little space between them. ossification occurs in the epiphyses. 4. Treatment by pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has provided dramatic results in healing fractures that would otherwise not have mended properly. Cartilage degenerates. Colles'. epiphyses (ends). apparently related to an imbalance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities. The anatomical zones of the epiphyseal plate are the zones of reserve cartilage. Parts of a typical long bone are the diaphysis (shaft). proliferating cartilage. 4. flat. Its application for limb regeneration and stopping the growth of tumor cells is being investigated. periosteum. A fracture is any break in a bone. and the epiphyses of long bones. 8. and vitamins (A. simple. 3. Pott's.fibers and abundant hydroxyapatites (mineral salts).Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. It forms most of the structure of short. Osteomalacia is a vitamin D deficiency in adults that leads to demineralization. Osteomyelitis is a term for the infectious diseases of bones. Fracture repair consists of forming a fracture hematoma. and endosteum. phosphorus. compound. The process begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic life and continues throughout adulthood. Disorders . displaced. 4. Osteoporosis is a decrease in the amount and strength of bone tissue due to decreases in hormone output. 3. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and composes most of the bone tissue of the diaphyses. 5. Bone forms by a process called ossification or osteogenesis. complete. 7. 2. medullary or marrow cavity. the diaphysis of a bone increases in length by appositional growth. 8. while new bone is constructed by osteoblasts. hypertrophic cartilage. It is frequently caused by staphylococcus bacteria. Old bone is constantly destroyed by osteoclasts. Osteoblasts lay down bone. marrow. Ossification Bone Formation: 1. spiral. and D) and is controlled by hormones that are responsible for bone mineralization and resorption. Because of the activity of the epiphyseal plate. Homeostasis: 1. 2. and irregular bones. Rickets is a vitamin D deficiency in children in which the body does not absorb calcium and phosphorus. Functionally. forming a callus. impacted. Spongy (cancellous) bone consists of trabeculae surrounding many red marrow-filled spaces. The two types of ossification. leaving cavities that merge to form the marrow cavity. Next. The primary ossification center of a long bone is in the diaphysis. The homeostasis of bone growth and development depends on a balance between bone formation and resorption. comminuted. Bone grows in diameter as a result of the addition of new bone tissue by periosteal osteoblasts around the outer surface of the bone. where bone replaces cartilage. 6. Types of Bones: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . In both types of ossification. spongy bone is laid down first. 6. and calcified matrix. and resists stress. intramembranous and endochondral. The types of fractures include: partial. C. 9. Endochondral ossification occurs within a cartilage model. 3. articular cartilage. Paget's disease is the irregular thickening and softening of bones. 2. involve the replacement of a preexisting connective tissue with bone. spongy bone stores marrow and provides some support. Compact bone is later reconstructed from spongy bone. transverse. and periosteum. and remodeling. supports. 2. The bones soften and bend under the body's weight. Intramembranous ossification occurs within fibrous membranes of the embryo and the adult. except for the epiphyseal plate. This process is called remodeling.

3. vertebral column. 2. 5. The patella is an example. and the ribs constitute the skeleton of the trunk. It supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles. support. 2. mandible. and spine. Examples are coronal. 7. temporal (2). sagittal. thoracic vertebrae (12).1. sternum. short. ethmoid. lacrimal (2). lumbar vertebrae (5). hyoid bone. The 8 cranial bones include the frontal. process. Terms that describe markings include fissure. 3. fossa. or irregular. The bones of the adult vertebral column are the cervical vertebrae (7). Condyle. Each marking is structured for a specific function-joint formation. The foramina of the skull bones provide passages for nerves and blood vessels. The cranial bones containing the paranasal sinuses are the frontal. and maxilla. lambdoidal. foramen. zygomatic (2). and vomer. 2. 6. It is composed of 22 bones. The vertebral column. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. Sutures are immovable joints between bones of the skull. fused). The axial skeleton consists of bones arranged along the longitudinal axis. sphenoid. Surface Markings: 1. and squamosal sutures. anterolaterals. Skull: 1. auditory ossicles. The vertebral column contains primary curves (thoracic and sacral) and secondary curves (cervical and lumbar). meatus. 4. muscle attachment. Vertebral Column: 1. parietal (2). bones are classified as long. the sacrum (5. The 14 facial bones are the nasal (2). facet. The parts of the axial skeleton are the skull. and balance. and ethmoid. 1. The major fontanels are the anterior. 2. the sternum. and posterolaterals. Markings are areas on the surfaces of bones. The skull consists of the cranium and the face. tuberosity. 3. posterior. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that does not articulate with any other bone. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons or ligaments. palatine (2). Paranasal sinuses are cavities in bones of the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. and ribs. Hyoid Bone: 1. Wormian or sutural bones are found between the sutures of certain cranial bones. These curves give strength. They are lined by mucous membranes. sphenoid. occipital. head. On the basis of shape. 3. inferior nasal conchae (2). 2. fused) and the coccyx (4. crest. 2. or passage of nerves and blood vessels. maxillae (2). flat. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Divisions of the Skeletal System: The Axial and the Appendicular Skeleton I.

Fractures of the vertebral column most often involve T 12. 3. Talus. and Trapezium (Greater Multangular). 3. II. kyphosis. Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disc posteriorly or into an adjacent vertebral body is called a herniated (slipped) disc. Each coxal bone consists of three fused components-ilium. o Lower Extremities: 1. and the thoracic vertebrae. each consisting of a body. pubis. metacarpals. 2. The tarsals are: Calcaneus. The pelvic girdle consists of two coxal bones hipbones. is referred to as spina bifida. It attaches the lower extremities to the trunk at the sacrum. Hamate (Unciform). Cuboid. 4. 4. The parts of the appendicular skeleton are the shoulder girdles. Trapezoid (Lesser multangular). and seven processes. the ribs and costal cartilages. Triangular (Triquetrum). The bones of each upper extremity include the humerus. carpals. the pelvic girdle. o Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles: 4. The thorax protects vital organs in the chest area. fibula. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the girdles and the upper and lower extremities. shape. 5. 2. Pisiform. o Pelvic Girdle: 1. The carpals are the: Lunate (semilunar). and L 2. Each pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of a clavicle and scapula. Thorax: 1. and the bones of the lower extremities. Disorders Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. and ischium. The thoracic skeleton consists of the sternum. o Upper Extremities: 1. a congenital defect. the bones of the upper extremities. The bones of each lower extremity include the femur. and lordosis.The vertebra are similar in structure. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . tarsals. and Medial Cuneiform. ulna. and phalanges. tibia. Schaphoid (Navicular). L l. Vertebra in the different regions of the column vary in size. Exaggeratio n of a normal curve of the vertebral column is called a curvature. 2. The bones of the foot are arranged in two 1. 3. radius. Navicular. 2. 2. Examples include scoliosis. metatarsals. 3. and phalanges. The imperfect union of the vertebral laminae at the midline. Lateral Cuneiform Intermediate Cuneiform. Capitate. and detail. Each attaches an upper extremity to the trunk. vertebral arch. 2.

Functional classification of joints is based on the degree of movement permitted. Disorders . The female pelvis is adapted for pregnancy and childbirth. A joint or articulation is a point of contact between two or more bones. cartilaginous. Synovial Joints: 1. 7. Gouty arthritis is a condition in which sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of joints and eventually destroy the tissues. Types of movements at synovial joints include gliding movements. Bones held together by cartilage. ellipsoidal joints (radiocarpal). 8. Cartilaginous Joints: 1. 1. a partial dislocation is called subluxation. swelling. with no joint cavity. articular cartilage. These joints include immovable sutures (found in the skull). angular movements. are cartilaginous joints. 2. 3. and ball-andsocket joints (shoulder and hip). is a displacement of a bone from its joint. 4. protraction and retraction. joints are classified as fibrous. A sprain is the forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint with partial rupture to its attachments ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. are fibrous joints. and muscle tension. often accompanied by stiffness of adjacent structures. 6. Synovial joints contain a joint (synovial) cavity. tendons. Bones held by fibrous connective tissue. Types of synovial joints include gliding joints (wrist bones).arches. The humeroscapular (shoulder joint) is formed by the humerus and scapula. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and spur formation. The tibiofemoral (knee) joint is formed by the patella and femur and by the tibia and femur. and a synovial membrane. and elevation and depression. Bursitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of bursae. Structural classification is based on the presence of a joint cavity and type of connecting tissue. rotation. to provide support and leverage. Movements at synovial joints are limited by the apposition of soft parts.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. some also contain ligaments. tension of ligaments. Fibrous Joints: 1. or luxation. Male and Female Skeletons: 1. 6. 5. or diarthroses ( Freely Movable). 3. 2. A joint may be described according to the number of planes of movement it allows as nonaxial. circumduction. with no joint cavity. 2. Arthritis refers to several disorders characterized by inflammation of joints. and loss of function. hinge joints (elbow). biaxial. Joints may be synarthroses (Nonmovable). and muscles. 2. or triaxial. The male bones are generally larger and heavier than female bones and have more prominent markings for muscle attachment. saddle joints (carpometacarpal). supination and pronation. The coxal (hip) joint is formed by the femur and coxal bone. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refers to inflammation of a joint accompanied by pain. pivot joints (radioulnar). slightly movable syndesmoses (such as the tibiofibular articulation). 2. and immovable gomphoses (roots of teeth in alveoli of mandible and maxilla). 2. the longitudinal arch and the transverse arch. 3. and bursae. Selected Articulations of the Body: 1. or synovial. Articulations: 1. inversion and eversion. 4. 5. These joints include immovable synchondroses united by hyaline cartilage (temporary cartilage between diaphysis and epiphyses) and partially movable symphyses united by fibrocartilage (the symphysis pubis). All synovial joints are freely movable. Rheumatism is a painful state of supporting body structures such as bones. 2. Structurally. ligaments. 2. articular discs. A dislocation. amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable). joints.

A reserve supply of ATP may be built up by storage of excess in thick myofilaments or by anaerobic combination with creatine to form creatine phosphate. deep. the neuron releases acetylcholine. The term fascia is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue underneath the skin or around muscles and organs of the body. 2. 2. or myoneural. muscle tissue performs the three important functions of motion. Muscle fibers are individual muscle cells. maintenance of posture. nuclei. Connective tissue components are epimysium. Each fiber contains myofibrils that consist of thin and thick myofilaments. The fibers contain sarcoplasm. It is striated and involuntary. Energy for Contraction: 1. covering fasciculi. 3. perimysium. 3. A nerve impulse travels over the sarcolemma and enters the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. There are three types of fascia: superficial. and T tubules. It is nonstriated (smooth) and involuntary. 4. This releases calcium ions that activate myosin. and troponin. 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . which breaks down to produce ATP when muscles contract strenuously. Tendons and aponeuroses are extensions of connective tissue beyond the muscle cells to attach the muscle to bone or other muscle. which transmits the impulse to the motor end plate and then into the T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. 8. A motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates form a motor unit. Muscle fibers of a motor unit contract to their fullest extent or not at all. 3. The region of the sarcolemma under the terminal branch of an axon of a motor neuron that is specialized to receive the nerve impulse is the motor end plate. so that actin of thin myofilaments can attach to myosin cross bridges of thick myofilaments. Through contraction. and subserous. Visceral muscle tissue is located in viscera. Functions: 1. 4. catalyzing the breakdown of ATP. All-or-Nothing Principle: 1. Nerves convey impulses for muscular contraction. 3. junction. Contraction . Actual contraction is brought about when the thin myofilaments of a sarcomere slide toward each other. The energy released from the breakdown of ATP causes the sliding of the myofilaments. The area of contact between a motor neuron and muscle fiber is a neuromuscular. Thin myofilaments are composed of actin. Physiology of Contraction: 1. A motor neuron transmits the stimulus to a skeletal muscle for contraction. and heat production. thick myofilaments consist of myosin. Extensibility is the ability to be stretched or extended. 3. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. 3. 6. The Motor Unit: 1. Contractility is the ability to shorten and thicken. It is striated and voluntary. 2. The nerve impulse leads to the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Types: 1. and endomysium. triggering the contractile process. tropomyosin. while a strain is the stretching of a muscle. The immediate direct source of energy for muscle contraction is ATP. 2.Sliding Filament Theory: 1. Blood provides nutrients and oxygen for contraction. Skeletal muscle tissue is attached to bones. The Muscular System: Characteristics of Muscle tissue: 1. 7. Elasticity is the ability to return to original shape after contraction or extension. 2. The myofilaments are compartmelitalized into sarcomeres. Cardiac muscle tissue forms the walls of the heart. covering individual fibers. Excitability is the property of receiving and responding to stimuli. 2. 2. When a nerve impulse reaches the motor end plate. sarcoplasmic reticulum. and bind tropomyosin-troponin complex.without dislocation. contract. Skeletal muscle consists of fibers covered by a sarcolemma. 4. covering the entire muscle.

more mitochondria. isotonic. Compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Homeostasis: 1. Smooth Muscle Tissue: 1. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of viscera. The duration of contraction of various muscles of the body varies with the functions of the muscles in maintaining homeostasis. It is striated and involuntary. The refractory period is the time right after a contraction when a muscle has temporarily lost excitability. the homeostasis between muscular activity and oxygen requirements is not restored. Intercalated discs provide strength and aid impulse conduction. 3. or subthreshold. The weakest stimulus capable of causing contraction is a liminal. Summation of twitches is the increased strength of a contraction resulting from the application of a second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. The attachment to the stationary bone is the origin. stimulus. and tics. or threshold. Cardiac muscle has a long refractory period. Kinds of Contractions: 1. tetanus. and larger T tubules. cardiac muscle tissue has more sarcoplasm. The fibers branch freely to form two continuous networks. A sustained partial contraction of portions of a skeletal muscle results in muscle tone. Multiunit smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and the eye. Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous tissue where it normally does not exist. it frequently occurs in damaged muscle tissue. "Charleyhorse" refers to pain. and a large amount of myoglobin.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The fibers operate singly rather than as a unit. 2. hypertrophy is an enlargement or overgrowth. Disorders . 3. Atrophy is a wasting away or decrease in size. Muscle fatigue results from diminished availability of oxygen and toxic effects of carbon dioxide and lactic acid built up during exercise. Skeletal muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. cramps. Individual cells are generally spindle shaped. 5. convulsions. 2. 2. Flaccidity is a condition of less than normal tone. it is called lumbago. Fast or white muscles have an extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum. This muscle is found only in the heart. fibrillations. 4. more blood capillaries. Types of Muscle Fibers: 1. Abnormal contractions include spasms. less well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. Smooth muscle is nonstriated and involuntary. Oxygen debt is the amount of O2 needed to convert accumulated lactic acid into CO2 and H20. 3. 6. Slow or red muscles have smaller fibers. Muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disease of muscles characterized by degeneration of individual muscle cells. 2. 2. If it occurs in the lumbar region. The fibers are arranged in a network. 3. Muscle Tone: 1. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: 1. Unit it is paid back. 3. 2. Fibrositis is an infiammation of fibrous tissue. The ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 3. muscles. 4.2. 5. Myofilaments are not arranged in discrete myofibrils. Myasthenia gravis is a disease characterized by great muscular weakness and fatigability resulting from improper neuromuscular transmission. treppe. Skeletal muscles have a short refractory period. The heat given off during muscular contraction maintains the homeostasis of body temperature. 2. tenderness. A record of a contraction is called a myogram. The various kinds of contractions are twitch. and stiffness of joints. stimulus. and related structures in the thigh. 3. 3. 2. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement: 1. each of which contracts as a functional unit. Tone is essential for maintaining posture. and isometric. The cells are quadrangular and usually contain a single centrally placed nucleus. It occurs during strenuous exercise and is paid back by continuing to breathe rapidly after exercising. A stimulus not capable of inducing contraction is a subliminal.

which ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and circular. number of origins (or heads). Advantages of intramuscular injections are prompt absorption. Nerve fibers (axis cylinders) that have a neurilemma are capable of regeneration. Skeletal muscles are named on the basis of distinctive criteria: direction of fibers. 2. however a nerve cell body is distorted there will be no regeneration. Naming Skeletal Muscles: 1. use of larger doses than can be given cutaneously. and reacting to them. association neurons transmit impulses to other neurons. The nervous system controls and integrates all body activities by sensing changes. pennate. This difference in charge is called a resting potential. 3. and third-class-according to the position of the fulcrum. When a stimulus causes the inside of the cell membrane to become positive and the outside negative. and resistance on the lever. the membrane is said to have an action potential. and the membrane is said to be polarized. convergent. cardiac muscle tissue. 2. the nerve cell body loses its mitotic apparatus and is no longer able to divide. 2. location. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses to the central nervous system. Neurons. effort. 5. 3. 2. shape. 2. The antagonist produces an opposite action. 5. On the basis of structure. and deltoid region of the arm. attach neurons to blood vessels. and carry out phagocytosis. On the basis of function. 6. bipolar. The nerve impulse is the body's quickest way of controlling and maintaining homeostasis. oligodendrocytes. If. and motor (efferent) neurons transmit impulses to effectors. or nerve cells. Fascicular arrangements include parallel. The axon transmits impulses from the neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron or to an effector organ of the body. interpreting them. and ependyma. Levers are categorized into three types-first-class. The efferent system is subdivided into a somatic nervous system and an autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system contains efferent neurons that convey impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle tissue. Intramuscular Injections: 1. Neurons: 1. 3. Bones serve as levers and joints as fulcrums. produce the myelin sheath. Common sites for intramuscular injections are the buttock. Histology: • • Neuroglia: 1. 6. and usually a single axon.attachment to the movable bone is the insertion. lateral side of the thigh. The agonist or prime mover produces the desired action. microglia. and glands. Nerve Impulse: 1. 2. 1. neurons are multipolar. Physiology: Regeneration: 1. consist of a perikaryon or cell body. 3. 4. second-class. dendrites that pick up stimuli and convey impulses to the cell body. Around the time of birth. including motor neurons. and unipolar. origin and insertion. The peripheral nervous system is classified into an afferent system and an efferent system. The membrane of a nonconducting neuron is positive outside and negative inside due to the operation of the sodiumpotassium pump. size. Neuroglia are specialized tissue cells that support neurons. and action. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle tissue. Neuroglial cells include astrocytes. 2. The lever is acted on by two different forces: resistance and effort. and minimal irritation. 4. The synergist assists the agonist bv reducing unnecessary movement. The Nervous System The Nervous System: 1.

At a synapse there is only one-way impulse conduction from a presynaptic axon to a postsynaptic dendrite. Restoration of the resting potential is called repolarization. and ascending and descending tracts. Spinal Cord: General Features: 1. In the center of the spinal cord is the central canal. Fibers with larger diameters conduct impulses faster than those with smaller diameters. anterior. It is thought that the transmitter that causes excitation in a major portion of the central nervous system is acetylcholine. A tract is a bundle of fibers of similar function in the central nervous system. anterior. or axon hillock. Protection and Coverings: 1. meninges. The junction between neurons is called a synapse.travels from point to point along the membrane. 6. arachnoid and pia mater. 5. The spinal cord begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata and terminates at about the second lumbar vertebra. The tapered portion of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris. 5. 7. the impulse travels at a constant and maximum strength for the existing conditions. 2. from which arise the filum terminale and cauda equina. 2. A horn or column is an area of gray matter in the spinal cord. and lateral white columns. 4. White matter is an aggregation of myelinated axons and associated neuroglia. An inhibitory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can raise (make more negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential and thus inhibit an impulse at a synapse. The gray matter in the spinal cord is divided into horns and the white matter into funiculi or columns. An enzyme called acetylcholinesterase inactivates acetylcholine. Impulse conduction can occur from one neuron to another or from a neuron to an effector. if a stimulus is strong enough to generate an action potential. Grouping of Neural Tissue: 1. 6. A ganglion is a collection of cell bodies outside the central nervous system. 3. Removal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space or ventricle is called a spinal (lumbar) puncture. posterior. 3. 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. A nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers outside the central nervous system. 3. 6. Parts of the spinal cord observed in cross section are the gray commissure. There are ascending (sensory) tracts and descending (motor) tracts. 6. 3. According to the all-ornothing principle. 4. cerebrospinal fluid. The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral canal. Gray matter is a collection of nerve cell bodies and dendrites or unmyelinated axons along with associated neuroglia. An excitatory transmitterreceptor interaction is one that can lower (make less negative) the postsynaptic neuron's membrane potential so that a new impulse can be generated across the synapse. 5. 4. posterior. The spinal cord is partially divided into right and left sides by the anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus. and lateral gray horns. 7. central canal. A nucleus is a mass of nerve cell bodies and dendrites in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. 2. Conduction Across Synapses: 1. The period of time during which the membrane recovers is called the refractory period. 7. and vertebral ligaments. The traveling action potential is a nerve impulse. The meninges are three coverings that run continuously around the spinal cord and brain: dura mater. The ability of a neuron to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse is called excitability. which runs the length of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid. The procedure is used to diagnose pathologies and to introduce antibiotics. cell body. Nerve impulse conduction in which the impulse jumps from node to node is called salitatory conduction. Structure in Cross Section: 1. 2. It contains cervical and lumbar enlargements which serve as points of origin for nerves to the extremities.

• Composition and Coverings: 1. A polysynaptic reflex arc contains a sensory. Complete or partial severing of the spinal cord is called transection. flexor reflex. 1. brachial. and regeneration. Wallerian degeneration.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by means of a posterior root and an anterior root. Stretch and flexor reflexes are ipsilateral. 8. 6. a motor neuron. 5. Partial transection is followed by a period of loss of reflex activity called areflexia. and the abdominal reflex. 7. respectively. and sacral plexuses. Reflexes represent the body's principal mechanisms for responding to changes in the internal and external environment. • Distribution: 1. and an effector. perineunum. A two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc contains one sensory and one motor neuron. A withdrawal or flexor reflex and a crossed extensor reflex are examples. 1. The spinal cord conveys sensory and motor information by way of the ascending and descending tracts. constant segments of the skin. 2. It may result in quadriplegia or paraplegia. 9. form networks of nerves called plexuses. Neuritis of the sciatic nerve and its branches is called sciatica. posterior root ganglion. The posterior root. Spinal nerves are covered by endoneurium. Among clinically important somatic reflexes are the patellar reflex. a center. Shingles is acute infection of peripheral nerves. 4. 3. 5. Knowledge of dermatomes helps a physician to determine which segment of the spinal cord or spinal nerve is malfunctioning. A stretch reflex. 2.2. 2. Nerves T 2-T 11 do not form plexuses and are called intercostal nerves. meningeal branch. 5. Its basic components are a receptor. is an example. All spinal nerves are mixed function (motor and sensory). 2. • Dermatomes: 1. Spinal Nerves: • The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named and numbered according to the region and level of the spinal cord from which they emerge. Another function is to serve as a reflex center. Inflammation of nerves is known as neuritis. The principal plexuses are called the cervical. and anterior root are involved in conveying an impulse. 3. A reflex is a quick. Emerging from the plexuses are nerves bearing names that are often descriptive of the general regions they supply or the course they take. A major function of the spinal cord is to convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and to conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery. a sensory neuron. 5. They are distributed directly to the structures they supply in the ntercostals spaces. Following peripheral nerve damage. The skin segments are called dermatomes. A reflex arc is the shortest route that can be taken by an impulse from a receptor to an effector. The crossed extensor reflex is controlateral. such as the patellar reflex. and epineurium. The ventral rami of spinal nerves. and motor neuron. the Achilles reflex. The Brain: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. ventral ramus. Branches of a spinal nerve include the dorsal ramus. Somatic spinal reflexes include the stretch reflex. 4. 4. repair is accomplished by an axon reaction. 2. and rami communicantes. except for T 2-T 11. association. 2. involuntary response to a stimulus that passes along a reflex arc. 3. Disorders . All spinal nerves except Cl innervate specific. 3. tendon reflex. lumbar. and crossed extensor reflex. 2. Functions: 1. the Babinski sign.

or death. During embryological development. vomiting. It also circulates nutritive substances from the blood. 2. the myelencephalon forms the medulla. 2. epilepsy. and unconsciousness. 2. cranial meninges. and cerebrospinal fluid 3. 1. diencephalon. The principal parts of the brain are the brain stem. The Brain Stem: 1. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a concept that explains the differential rates of passage of certain materials from the blood into the brain. 3. 2. Cerebrospinal fluid is formed in the choroid plexuses and circulates through the subarachnoid space. it is called internal hydrocephalus. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII (cochlear and vestibular branches) through XII. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the head is called hydrocephalus. cells. Glucose deficiency may produce dizziness. and central canal. Any interruption of the oxygen supply to the brain can result in weakening. respiratory rate. 2. or death of brain 5. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . permanent damage. swallowing. It connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain with one another. The pons is superior to the medulla. 4. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the upper part of the spinal cord. Cerebrospinal Fluid: 1. Cerebrospinal fluid protects by serving as a shock absorber. 6. The diencephalon develops into the thalamus and hypothalamus. 3. 3. sneezing.1. and the metencephalon develops into the pons and cerebellum. the telencephalon forms the cerebrum. and cerebellum. The reticular formation of the pons contains the pneumotaxic center. 2. 2. sensory impulses from cord to thalamus. which helps control respiration. Protection and Coverings: 1. It contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V through VII and the vestibular branch of VIII. 4. The diencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. 1. mental retardation. It relays impulses from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum related to voluntary skeletal movements. convulsions. 3. 2. The midbrain connects the pons and diencephalon. vasoconstriction. The Diencephalon: 1. ventricles. 2. 4. If the fluid accumulates in the ventricles. it is called external hydrocephalus. It contains nuclei that are reflex centers for regulation of heart rate. Most of the fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the superior sagittal sinus. 3. It conveys motor impulses from the cerebrum to the cerebellum and cord. Interruption of the mother's blood supply to a child during childbirth before it can breathe may result in paralysis. 1. 1. 2. and regulates auditory and visual reflexes. coughing. It also contains the nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV. the mesencephalon develops into the midbrain. The brain is protected by the cranial bones. If it accumulates in the subarachnoid space. brain vesicles are formed and serve as forerunners of various parts of the brain. cerebrum. The blood supply to the brain is via the circle of Willis. 1. and hiccuping. Blood Supply to the Brain: 1. Embryological Development: 1.

1. serotonin. They help to control muscular movements. The cerebellum functions in the coordination of skeletal muscles and the maintenance of normal muscle tone and body equilibrium. 3. Its cortex contains convolutions. 1. 1. 2. 2. It also registers conscious recognition of pain and temperature and some awareness of crude touch and pressure. Over 40 different substances are known or suspected transmitter substances in the brain that can facilitate. The cerebellum occupies the inferior and posterior aspects of the cranial cavity. and tumors. It is attached to the brain stem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles.7. norepinephrine. 3. and glycine. 3. 2. It controls the autonomic nervous system. 2. parietal. 2. infections. connects the nervous and endocrine systems. They may be used to diagnose epilepsy. 2. 2. The left hemisphere is more important for right-handed control. touch. endorphins. 4. The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are the regions that govern muscular movement. and occipital. 5. temporal. The basal ganglia are paired masses of gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. 7. It consists of two hemispheres and a central. 2. The thalamus is superior to the midbrain and contains nuclei that serve as relay stations for all sensory impulses. 3. either anatomically or functionally. The sensory areas are concerned with the interpretation of sensory impulses. 3. and dynorphin. 1. Recent research indicates that the two hemispheres of the brain are not bilaterally symmetrical. sound. numerical and scientific skills. The white matter is under the cortex and consists of myelinated axons running in three principal directions. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. The right hemisphere is more important for left-handed control. The Cerebellum: 1. The association areas are concerned with emotional and intellectual processes. fissures. 7. regulates food and fluid intake. 9. Peptide chemical messengers that act as natural pain killers in the body are enkephalins. 8. The hypothalamus is inferior to the thalamus. 3. Brain Lateralization: 1. 6. excite. 2. controls body temperature. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . insight. 4. and reasoning. 10. 3. The cerebral lobes are named the frontal. dopamine. imagination. glutamic acid. 2. 3. 3. and smell. constricted vermis. taste. 5. except smell. Examples of transmitter substances include acetylcholine. 3. aspartic acid. and generating mental images of sight. or inhibit postsynaptic neurons. Transmitter Substances in the Brain: 1. It functions in emotional aspects of behavior and memory. musical and artistic awareness. spoken and written language. 6. The Cerebrum: 1. and maintains the waking state and sleep patterns. The limbic system is found in the cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon. gamma aminobutyric acid. space and pattern perception. and sulci. Brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex are recorded as an EEG. to the cerebral cortex.

Vestibulococ hlear . Oculomotor .Sensory. and regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. etc. etc. 8. The cranial nerves and their major functions are: 1. Poliomyelitis is a viral infection that results in paralysis. 9. are brain tissue destruction due to hemorrhage. nose. hearing and balance. 6. sensory. 3. Tongue muscles. Irritation of the trigeminal nerve is known as trigeminal neuralgia. or basal ganglia during fetal development. 4. Dyslexia involves an inability of an individual to comprehend written language. cornea.The sense of smell. The Cranial Nerves: 1. Abduscens Motor function of eye muscles. 5. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disorder that involves neurological degeneration of the CNS because of excessive amounts of ganglioside Gm2. Optic . upper eyelid. larynx. or psychological malfunction. Motor. 2. Olfactory . Rabies is an acute viral infection that produces ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . taste. 10. 7.11. taste. Motor function.Sensory. upper teeth. cerebellum. Depending on the form of the disease. Scalp. childbirth. pharyngeal muscles. lower teeth. Glossophary ngeal . pharynx. thrombosis. some neck and shoulder muscles.Motor function of eye muscles. also called strokes. 2. Other peptides serve as hormones or other regulators of physiological responses. Impulse transmission is interrupted. Disorders . Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the destruction of myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Soft palate. The pairs are named primarily on the basis of distribution and numbered by order of attachment to the brain. Parkinsonism is a progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the cerebrum resulting in insufficient dopamine. muscles of mastication. . Trochlear Motor function of eye muscles. thoracic and abdominal organs. 8. 6. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate from the brain. 12. 5. or atherosclerosis.The sense of vision. 4. Palate. cholecystokinin. 11. forehead. inferior pharynx. Epilepsy results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an EEG. tongue muscles. Trigeminal Sensory function. 4. lower jaw. 4. 3. muscles of facial expression.Motor. Vagus Sensory. 12. Accessory Motor. the victim experiences degrees of motor. Headaches are of two types: intracranial and extracranial. 10. Hypoglossal . 9. 11. Motor function. larangeal muscles. Motor. or early infancy. Facial Sensory. soft palate. upper jaw. Examples include angiotensin. 7. 1. Cerebral palsy refers to a group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex.

and proprioceptors. 6. Receptors for vibration are Meissner's corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. In terms of simplicity or complexity. 2. 3. Receptors for pressure are free nerve endings. Levels of Sensation: 1. Adaptation is the loss of sensation even though the stimulus is still applied. tendons. simple receptors are associated with general senses and complex receptors are associated with special senses. movement of body parts. Proprioceptive (Position Sense) Sensations: 1. surgery. Meissner's corpuscles. 7. In the posterior column pathway and the spinothalamlc pathway there are first-order. and the ends of the gastrointestinal tract. and vibration is the posterior column pathway. Projection occurs when the brain refers a sensation to the point of stimulation. receptors are classified as mechanoreceptors. thermoreceptors. and translation of the impulse into a sensation by a region of the brain. On the basis of type of stimulus detected. vibration). The neural pathway for crude touch and pressure is the anterior spinothalamic pathway. pressure. Cutaneous sensations include tactile sensations (touch. brain dysfunction. Phantom pain is the sensation of pain in a limb that has been amputated. 2. and tendon organs. 2. Merkel's discs. Senility (dementia) is a disorder of the elderly that involves widespread intellectual impairment. they cause subconscious motor reactions. and third-order neurons. General Senses . Characteristics: 1. and Pacinian corpuscles. Receptors for touch are root hair plexuses. 2. 4. Two kinds of pain recognized in the parietal lobe of the cortex are somatic and visceral. Classification of Receptors: 1. According to location. and body position. and pain. and sometimes delirium.muscle spasms and encephalitis. 2. 2. visceroceptors. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Pain receptors are located in nearly every body tissue. proprioception. and acupuncture. Receptors located in muscles. 12. Reye’s syndrome (RS) is characterized by vomiting. nociceptors. An afterimage is the persistence of a sensation even though the stimulus is removed. thermoreceptive sensations (heat and cold). and chemoreceptors. Referred pain is felt in the skin near or away from the organ sending pain impulses. 2. connective tissues. Pain impulses may be inhibited by drugs. 5. end organs of Ruffini. 4. 4. The neural pathway for light touch. we experience precise localization Sensory Pathways: 1. personality changes. When sensory impulses reach the lower brain stem. free nerve endings. Sensory fibers terminating in the lower brain stem bring about far more complex motor reactions than simple spinal reflexes. and joints convey impulses related to muscle tone. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another. electromagnetic receptors. Sensation is a state of awareness of external and internal conditions of the body. 3. Sensory impulses that reach the thalamus can be localized crudely in the body. Sensations: 1.Cutaneous Sensations: 1. and liver damage. 3. 13. conversion of the stimulus into a nerve impulse by a receptor. 3. 5. Receptors for these sensations are located in the skin. 3. The receptors include joint kinesthetic receptors. 4. The prerequisites for sensation are reception of a stimulus. conduction of the impulse to the brain. When sensory impulses reach the cerebral cortex. and end organs of Ruffini. Sensory information from all parts of the body terminates in a specific area of the somatosensory cortex. receptors are classified as exteroceptors. The neural pathway for pain and temperature is the lateral spinothalamic pathway. muscle spindles. second-order.

Most dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. or visceral efferent nervous system. All autonomic axons are efferent fibers. and an increase in the skin's electrical resistance. Integrative Functions: 1. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consists of four stages identified by EEG recordings. 3. 4.6. to alleviate migraine headaches. 5. It is connected to both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. Control by Higher Centers: 1. The receptors for olfaction are in the nasal epithelium. and to make childbirth easier. tectospinal. The autonomic system consists of two principal divisions: sympathetic (thoracolumbar) and parasympathetic (craniosacral). The hypothalamus controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system. Motor Pathways: 1. in general. A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral effector. Sympathetic responses are widespread and. and terminal ganglia (near or inside visceral effectors). Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System: 1. 4. the hypothalamus. 2. The autonomic nervous system. reduced metabolic rate. 2. 3. ganglia. The autonomic nervous system consists of visceral efferent neurons organized into nerves. that is. 2. The pathways to the cerebellum are the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. activities of smooth muscle. Memory is defined as the ability to recall thoughts. and glands. Cholinergic fibers release acetylcholine. visceral efferent preganglionic neuron. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . association neuron. Somatic Efferent and Autonomic Nervous Systems: 1. The somatic efferent nervous system produces conscious movement in skeletal muscles. Transcendental meditation (TM) produces the following physiological responses: decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination. 4. Sleep and wakefulness are integrative functions that are controlled by the reticular activating system (RAS). Olfactory Sensations: 1. 4. It is entirely motor. It usually operates without conscious control. concerned with energy expenditure. decrease in heart rate. Biofeedback is a process in which people learn to monitor visceral functions and to control them consciously. Visceral Autonomic Reflexes: 1. and plexuses. Pyramidal pathways include the lateral corticospinal. cardiac muscle. anterior corticospinal. 4. The muscles of all parts of the body are controlled by a specific area of the motor cortex. it consists of activated and long-term components. 2. 2. It is regulated by centers in the brain. 2. On the basis of the transmitter produced. 3. 2. increase in the intensity of alpha brain waves. It has been used to control heart rate. prevertebral ganglia (anterior to spinal column). and visceral effector. a sharp decrease in the amount of lactic acid in the blood. visceral efferent postganglionic neuron. Efferent neurons are preganglionic (with myelinated axons) and postganglionic (with unmyelinated axons). A visceral autonomic reflex arc consists of a receptor. Physiology: 1. Voluntary motor impulses are conveyed from the brain through the spinal cord along the pyramidal pathways and the extrapyramidal pathways. Autonomic fibers release chemical transmitters at synapses. 3. Autonomic ganglia are classified as sympathetic trunk ganglia (on sides of spinal column). 3. regulates visceral activities. and vestibulospinal tracts. these fibers may be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic. Adrenergic fibers produce norepinephrine. 3. Major extrapyramidal tracts are the rubrospinal. afferent neuron. and corticobulbar tracts. in particular by the cerebral cortex. Yoga is a higher consciousness achieved through a fully rested and relaxed body and a fully awake and relaxed mind. and the medulla oblongata. Parasympathetic responses are restricted and are typically concerned with energy restoration and conservation.

5. Motion sickness is a functional disorder precipitated by repetitive angular. which contains rods and cones. eyelashes. A sound impulse is then initiated. The eye is constructed of three coats: (a) fibrous tunic (sclera and cornea). 7. and stimulate hairs on the spiral organ. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. which destroys neurons of the retina. and lipid-soluble. 6. Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens or capsule. 2. Rods and cones develop generator potentials and ganglion cells initiate nerve impulses. Auditory Sensations and Equilibrium: 1. Impacted cerumen is an abnormal amount of earwax in the external auditory canal. increase pressure in the endolymph. VII. 7. convergence. 2. thalamus. Visual Sensations: 1. external auditory canal. Trachoma is a chronic. water-soluble. oval window. ciliary body. Glaucoma is abnormally high intraocular pressure. The refractive media of the eye are the cornea. and cerebral cortex. The ear consists of three anatomical subdivisions: (a) the external or outer ear (pinna. the posterior cavity contains vitreous humor. Otitis media is an acute infection of the middle ear cavity. 8. the optic chiasma. eyelids. Labyrinthine disease is basically a malfunction of the inner ear that has a variety of causes. or vertical motion. The internal ear contains the spiral organ. 8. accommodation of the lens. hypermetropia (farsightedness). and the lacrimal apparatus. and iris). Gustatory cells convey impulses to cranial nerves V. Impulses from ganglion cells are conveyed through the retina to the optic (II) nerve. sweet. The receptors for gustation are located in taste buds. Meniere's syndrome is the malfunction of the inner ear that may cause deafness and loss of equilibrium. set up waves in the perilymph. 6. Gustatory (Taste) Sensations: 1. linear. 4. and astigmatism (corneal or lens abnormalities). The anterior cavity contains aqueous humor. and (c) the internal or inner ear (bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth). (b) vascular tunic (choroid. 2. and the threshold of smell is low. medulla. strike the basilar membrane. 2. and the cortex. Adaptation to taste occurs quickly. 4. olfactory tracts. Substances to be tasted must be in solution in saliva. and X. 3. 5. the optic tract. 5. pass through the ossicles. Dynamic equilibrium is the maintenance of body position in response to movement. and the threshold varies with the taste involved. and cerebral cortex. Adaptation to odors occurs quickly. and inverted image formation.2. Two theories that explain how olfactory cells respond to primary sensations are the chemical theory and physical theory. 4. 3. Substances to be smelled must be volatile. and round window). Olfactory cells convey impulses to olfactory nerves. and bitter.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. IX. 3. and vitreous humor. Deafness is the lack of the sense of hearing or significant hearing loss. Improper refraction may result from myopia (nearsightedness). lens. 3. The cristae in the semicircular ducts are the sense organs of dynamic equilibrium. and tympanic membrane). constriction of the pupil. 4. 4. Disorders . The four primary tastes are salt. strike the vestibular membrane and scala tympani. and (c) retina. sour. Retinal image formation involves refraction of light. strike the oval window. 9. 5. The maculae of the utricle and saccule are the sense organs of static equilibrium. contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva. the thalamus. Accessory structures of the eyes include the eyebrows. Sound waves enter the external auditory canal. (b) the middle ear (auditory tube. aqueous humor. the organ of hearing. The Endocrine System and Glands ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 10. ossicles. strike the tympanic membrane. 3. olfactory bulbs. Static equilibrium is the orientation of the body relative to the pull of gravity.

Hormones help regulate the internal environment. OT secretion is controlled by uterine distension and sucking during nursing. ADH is controlled primarily by water concentration. 2. 2. and regulating factors. Hormones of the adenohypophysis are released or inhibited by regulating factors produced by the hypothalamus. Lipid-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting directly with genes. 4. the adenohypophysis consists of growth hormone cells that produce growth hormone (GH). 3. TSH regulates thyroid gland activities and is controlled by TRF (thyrotropin releasing factor). Hormones made by the hypothalamus and stored in the neurohypophysis are oxytocin or OT (stimulates contraction of uterus and ejection of milk) and antidiuretic hormone or ADH (stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys and arteriole constriction). 2. and corticotrophlipotroph cells that secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). and acromegaly. some utilize cyclic AMP as a second messenger. giantism. Chemistry of Hormones: 1. Exocrine glands (sweat. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called target cells. The blood supply to the adenohypophysis is from the superior hypophyseal arteries. 3. 3. 7. respond to stress. 15. GH stimulates body growth through somatomedins and insulinlike growth factors (IGF) and is controlled by GHIF (growth hormone inhibiting factor or somatostatin) and GHRF (growth hormone releasing factor). Mechanism of Hormonal Action: 1. gonadotroph cells that synthesize follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). 9. 10. TSH cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). 11. Both the endocrine and nervous systems assume a role in maintaining homeostasis. Histologically. sebaceous. Hormone secretions are controlled by levels of circulating hormone itself. The pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the skull and is differentiated into the adenohypophysis (the anterior lobe and glandular portion) and the neurohypophysis (the posterior lobe and nervous portion).Feedback Control: 1. A disorder associated with dysfunction of the neurohypophysis is diabetes insipidus. 13. 16. 6. PRL helps initiate milk secretion and is controlled by PIF (prolactin inhibiting factor) and PRF (prolactin releasing factor). MSH increases skin pigmentation and is controlled by MRF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor) and MIF (melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting factor). 2. and contribute to reproductive processes. 5. ACTH regulates the activities of the adrenal cortex and is controlled by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor). On the basis of solubility. A negative feedback control mechanism prevents overproduction or underproduction of a hormone. LH regulates female and male reproductive activities and is controlled by GnRF. 12. digestive) secrete their products through ducts into body cavities or onto body surfaces. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Control of Hormonal Secretions . nerve impulses. Disorders associated with improper levels of GH are pituitary dwarfism. 2. 4. The neural connection between the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis is via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract. Water-soluble hormones exert their effects by interacting with plasma membrane receptors. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood.The Endocrine System and Glands: 1. FSH regulates the activities of the ovaries and testes and is controlled by GnRF (gonadotropin releasing factor). 8. 14. help regulate growth and development. hormones are classified as water soluble and lipid-soluble. Pituitary (Hypophysis): 1. prolactin cells that produce prolactin (PRL). Prostaglandins (PG) can increase or decrease cyclic AMP formation and thus modulate hormone responses that use cyclic AMP.

exophthalmic goiter. Parathyroids: 1. 5. Tetany and osteitis fibrosa cystica are disorders associated with the parathyroid glands. Histologically. the cortex is divided into a zona glomerulosa. 2. and parafollicular cells. They are released under stress. They consist of an outer cortex and inner medulla. 6. Glucagon increases blood sugar level. glucocorticoids. 2. The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys. Disorders associated with glucocorticoid secretion are Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome.. mostly thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). 4. Medullary secretions are epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. and simple goiter are disorders associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland. 3.Thyroid: 1. the thyroid consists of thyroid follicles composed of follicular cells. Histologically. and lactation. Calcitonin (CT) lowers the blood level of calcium. and the reactivity of the nervous system. which secrete the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). myxedema. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood. 7. beta cells. The pancreas is posterior and slightly inferior to the stomach. 4. Secretion is controlled by the ennin-angiotensin pathway and blood level of potassium. Tumors of medullary chromaffin cells are called pheochromocytomas. aldosterone) increase sodium and water reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption. the medulla consists of chromaffin cells. Excessive production results in adrenogenital syndrome. A dysfunction related to aldosterone secretion is aldosteronism. 2. 2. the parathyroids consist of principal and oxyphil cells. 3. 3.. it consists of secretory parenchymal cells called ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and delta cells secrete growth hormone inhibiting factor (GHIF) or somatostatin. Disorders associated with insulin production are diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinism. growth and development. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium level and decreasing blood phosphate level. 2. 5. Secretion is controlled by TRF. menstrual cycle. Pancreas: 1. 2. 4. Cretinism. Insulin decreases blood sugar level. Mineralocorticoids (e. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. Secretion is controlled by its own level in the blood. The parathyroids are embedded on the posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid. Ovaries and Testes: 1. 5. which secrete calcitonin (CT). Cortical secretions are mineralocorticoids. cortisol) promote normal metabolism. and serve as antiinflammatories.g. zona ennin late. Histologically. Pineal (Epiphysis Cerebri): 1. Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity and produce sex hormones related to development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal medulla have minimal effects. Glucocorticoids (e. Thyroid hormones are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine within thyroglobulin and carried in the blood with plasma proteins. The pineal is attached to the roof of the third ventricle. Histologically. and delta cells. help resist stress. Secretion is controlled by CRF. 9. it consists of islets of Langerhans (endocrine cells) and acini (enzyme-producing cells). 6. 10. and gonadocorticoids. pregnancy. Three types of cells in the endocrine portion are alpha cells. Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism. beta cells secrete insulin. 4. Secretion is controlled by its own level in blood.g. Testes lie inside the scrotum and produce sex hormones related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. 6. The thyroid gland is located below the larynx. Alpha cells secrete glucagon. Histologically. Adrenals (Suprarenals): 1. and zona reticularis. 3. 8.

a healthy female. Blood cells are formed by a process called hemopoiesis. in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. and thymopoietin which promotes the maturation of T cells. enzymes ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . leucocytes (white blood cells). A healthy male has about 5. 38 degrees C (100. 3. Neutrophils and monocytes (wandering macrophages) do so through phagocytosis. 2. and scattered preganglionic sympathetic fibers. eosinophils. called erythropoiesis. 3. fibrinogen). nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) substances. This antigen-antibody response combats infection and provides immunity. A hematocrit measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.35 to 7. 6. The liquid portion of blood. 5. Normal blood contains 5. 2. 4.4 million/mm3 of blood. A differential count is a diagnostic test in which white blood cells are enumerated. 3. temperature.000 to 400. Thrombocytes are discshaped structures without nuclei. Hormones secreted are: Thymosin. Lymphocytes.45.000/mm3.5 percent water and 8. Erythrocytes are biconcave discs without nuclei and containing hemoglobin. neuroglial cells. Blood constitutes about 8 percent of body weight. Eosinophils and basophils are involved in combating allergic reactions. The Cardiovascular System: Blood: Physical Characteristics: 1.5 to 5. It helps to regulate pH. They are formed from megakaryocytes and are involved in clotting. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. and enzymes. foods. 7. 2. Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells. basophils) and agranular (Iymphocytes and monocytes). The thymus is a bilobed Iymphatic gland located in the superior mediastinum posterior to the sternum and between the lungs.000/mm3. and platelets. and blood vessels. Thymus: 1. 0.8 million/mm3. granular leucocytes. nutrients. Erythrocyte formation.4 degrees F). Leucocytes: 1. 2. A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis. 2. and water content of cells. 3. pH. Functions: 1. Blood transports oxygen. Components: 1. Normal blood contains 250. thymic humoral factor (THF). Calcified deposits are referred to as brain sand. 5. 4.85 to 0. and thrombocytes (platelets). body temperature.5 percent solutes.5. Principal solutes include proteins (albumins. 3. Two principal types are granular (neutrophils. It protects against toxins and microbes. Plasma: 1. The cardiovascular system consists of blood. carbon dioxide. It prevents excessive fluid loss through clotting. 4. the heart. called plasma. The general function of leucocytes is to combat inflammation and infection. Iymph vessels. about 4. globulins. wastes. hormones.90 NaCI. 4. White blood cells usually live for only a few hours or a few days. Erythrocytes: 1. and Iymph glands. consists of 91. Leucocytes are nucleated cells. The formed elements in blood include erythrocytes (red blood cells). and salinity. Antibodies attach to the antigens and render them harmless. Iymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular leucocytes. occurs in adult red marrow of certain bones. It secretes melatonin (possibly regulates reproductive activities by inhibiting gonadotropic hormones) and adrenoglomerulotropin (may stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone). 2. 6. thymic factor (TF). The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Physical characteristics of blood include viscosity. 2. differentiate into tissue plasma cells which produce antibodies. Red blood cells live about 120 days. 2. 3. Thrombocytes: 1.000 to 9.pinealocytes.

myocardium. platelet plug formation. 2. 4. 2. 3. 2. the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall contracts to stop bleeding. 8. especially Iymphocytes and mononucleocytes. 3. hemolytic. Leukemia is the uncontrolled production of white blood cells that interferes with normal clotting and vital body activities. 2. Those who lack the antigen are Rh-. Plasma contains agglutinins (antibodies) that clump agglutinogens which are foreign to the individual. Disorders . pernicious. Blood Grouping (Typing): 1. The heart is situated obliquely between the lungs in the mediastinum. Anemia is a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency. Kinds of anemia include nutritional. About two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline. through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. hemorrhagic.and hormones. The wall of the heart has three layers: epicardium. Anticoagulatants (e. There are two kinds: plasma and platelet coagulation factors. Wall – Chambers – Vessels . It involves vascular spasm. 10. aplastic. through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle. 3. Like plasma. they contain no platelets or erythrocytes. Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an elevated white cell count. Clinically important clotting tests are clotting time (time required for blood to coagulate). They differ chemically from plasma in that both contain less protein and a variable number of leucocytes.Valves: 1. The Cardiovascular System . In the ABO system. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The chemicals involved in clotting are known as coagulation factors. heparin) prevent clogging. A clot is a network of insoluble protein (fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . The chambers include two upper atria and two lower ventricles.g. Parietal Pericardium (Pericardial Sac) 1. Between the serous pericardium and the epicardium is the pericardial cavity. Blood clotting involves two pathways: the intrinsic and the extrinsic. bleeding time (time required for the cessation of bleeding from a small skin puncture). encloses the heart. The parietal pericardium. 4. In vascular spasm. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin is called an embolus. 7. Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets to stop bleeding. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called thrombosis. Interstitial fluid bathes body cells. agglutinogens (antigens) A and B determine blood type. ABO and Rh systems are based on antigen-antibody responses. individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+. which depends on the amount of prothrombin in the blood sample). through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. Interstitial Fluid: 1. 6. and out through the aorta. Hemostasis refers to the prevention of blood loss. 2. a space filled with pericardial fluid that prevents friction between the two membranes. whereas Iymph is found in Iymphatic vessels. A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called erythroblastosis fetalis. through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs. and electrolytes Hemostasis: 1. consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer. These fluids are similar in chemical composition. and blood coagulation. In the Rh system. The cause is a virus. 11. Polycythemia is an abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes. and sickle cell anemia. 3. 9. respiratory gases.The Heart: 1. Normal coagulation also involves clot retraction (tightening of the clot) and fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot). 2. and prothrombin time (time required for the blood to coagulate. The blood flows through the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus to the right atrium. 5. 4. and endocardium..

detecting the presence of fetal life. 3. 7. determining the presence of several fetuses. 6. and following the course of recovery from a heart attack. The pressure developed is related to the size and volume of a chamber. aortic reflex. atrioventricular (AV) node. between the atria and their ventricles. A cardiac cycle consists of the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria plus the systole and diastole of both ventricles followed by a short pause. The chordae tendineae and their muscles keep the flaps of the valves pointing in the direction of blood flow. 5. A peculiar sound is called a murmur. Other influences on heart rate include chemicals (epinephrine. The maximum percentage that cardiac output can be increased above normal is cardiac reserve. 2. Pressoreceptors are nerve cells that respond to changes in blood pressure. The second sound (dupp) represents the closing of semilunar valves. The two arteries that leave the heart both have a semilunar valve. 3. The first sound (lubb) represents the closing of the atrioventricular valves. 6. and T wave (ventricular repolarization). Atrioventricular (AV) valves. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium via the coronary sinus. Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each systole. The S-T segment represents the time between the end of the spread of the impulse through the ventricles and repolarization of the ventricles. Valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart. 6. With an average heartbeat of 75/min. and Purkinje fibers. Blood Supply: 1. 4. 7. 4. Cardiac Output: 1. The record of electrical changes during each cardiac cycle is referred to as an electrocardiogram (ECG). atrioventricular (AV) bundle. 4. A normal ECG consists of a P wave (spread of impulse from SA node over atria). QRS wave (spread of impulse through ventricles). 3. 2. Cardiac Cycle: 1. sodium. 5. Blood flows through the heart from an area of higher to lower pressure. The movement of blood through the heart is controlled by the opening and closing of the valves and the contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. They act on the cardiac centers in the medulla through three reflex pathways: carotid sinus reflex. 7. The coronary (cardiac) circulation takes oxygenated blood through the arterial system of the myocardium. a complete cardiac cycle requires 0. 5. Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle into the aorta per minute. Components of this system are the sinoatrial node (pacemaker). 3. are the tricuspid valve on the right side of the heart and the bicuspid (mitral) valve on the left. bundle branches. The conduction system consists of nervous tissue specialized for impulse conduction. potassium).4. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 2. 2. Complications of this system are angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. An artificial pacemaker may be used to restore an abnormal cardiac rhythm. Stroke volume (SV) depends on how much blood enters a ventricle during diastole (enddiastolic volume) and how much blood is left in a ventricle following its systole (end systolic volume). The ECG is invaluable in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. 2. Heart rate and strength of contraction may be increased by sympathetic stimulation from the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla and decreased by parasympathetic stimulation from the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla.8 sec. and right heart (atrial) reflex. 4. 3. It is calculated as follows: CO = stroke volume x beats per minute. The P-R interval represents the conduction time from the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation. temperature. Conduction System: 1. Electrocardiogram: 1.

and tetralogy of Fallot). Arteries: 1. prolonged vasoconstriction leads to hypoxia of other organs. sex (gender and physical activity). 2. Mild shock is compensated by vasoconstriction and water retention. Risk factors in heart disease include high blood cholesterol. Through constriction and dilation they assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries. 5. 3. 2. 4. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Many arteries anastomosethe distal ends of two or more vessels unite. anatomical disorders (patent ductus arteriosus. Physiology of Circulation: Blood Flow and Blood Pressure: 1. Disorders . high blood pressure. and the shock cvcle is intensified. 2. 2. and therefore blood pressure. septal defects. diabetes mellitus. 3. Their wall consists of a tunica interna. Weak valves can lead to varicose veins or hemorrhoids. They contain valves to prevent back flow of blood. and premature contractions). Shock results when cardiac output is reduced or blood volume decreases to the point where body tissues become hypoxic. Veins consist of the same three tunics as arteries. and to apply chemotherapy locally. Vascular (venous) sinuses are veins with very thin walls.emotion. 5. obesity. Veins: 1. but have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle. Hypothermia (deliberate body cooling) and the heart-lung bypass permit open-heart surgery. to correct some defects. Cardiac catheterization permits physicians to determine heart disorders and pressures. Circulatory Shock and Homeostasis: 1. 3. fibrillation. 2. are ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Peripheral resistance is determined by blood viscosity and blood vessel diameter. An alternate blood route from an anastomosis is called collateral circulation. valvular stenosis. 2. cigarette smoking. The immediate causes of heart disease are inadequate coronary blood supply. Precapillary sphincters regulate blood flow through capillaries. 3. As blood volume increases. 3. This network increases the surface area. and arrhythmias (heart block. Microscopic blood vessels in the liver are called sinusoids. 3. Venules: 1. 4. blood pressure increases. Factors that determine heart rate and force of contraction. and age. flutter. Increased viscosity and vasoconstriction increase peripheral resistance and thus increase blood pressure. tunica media (which maintains elasticity and contractility). some capillaries are continuous. Arteries that do not anastomose are called end art. The established pressure gradient is from aorta (100 mm Hg) to arteries (100-40 mm Hg) to arterioles 40-25 mm Hg) to capillaries (25-12 mm Hg) to venules (12-8 mm Hg) to veins (10-5 mm Hg) to venae cavae (2 mm Hg) to right atrium (0 mm Hg). They drain blood from capillaries into veins. Capillaries: 1. allowing a rapid exchange of large quantities of materials. 4. Any factor that increases cardiac output increases blood pressure. Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue cells. venous return is diminished and cardiac output decreases.ener Arterioles: 1. Blood flows from regions of higher to lower pressure. Capillaries branch to form an extensive capillary network throughout the tissue. In severe shock.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. 4. The heart becomes hypoxic. others are fenestrated. 2. lack of exercise. and tunica externa. Venules are small vessels that continue from capillaries and merge to form veins. Congestive heart failure (CHF) results when the heart cannot supply the oxygen demands of the body. 2. and genetic disposition. Large arteries are referred to as elastic (conducting) arteries and medium-sized arteries are called muscular (distributing) arteries.

2. when lung. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. 2. and age. Pulse is the alternate expansion and elastic recoil of an artery with each heartbeat. 2. intestines. The principal reservoirs are the veins of the abdominal organs (liver and spleen) and skin. 7. Blood Reservoirs: 1. the arch of the aorta. They store blood which through vasoconstriction can move to other parts of the body if the need arises. Checking Circulation – Pulse: 1. It allows blood to be oxygenated for systemic circulation. Hepatic Portal Circulation: 1. Other routes include the cerebral. Diastolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation. 2. 6. A normal rate is between 70 and 80 beats per minute. and the descending aorta. 3. Each section gives off arteries that branch to supply the whole body. digestive. The aorta is divided into the ascending aorta. It averages 40 mm Hg and provides information about the condition of arteries. and breathing. The largest circulatory route is the systemic circulation. chemoreceptors. and fetal circulation. 9. and liver functions are established. The fetal circulation involves the exchange of materials between fetus and mother. All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into either the superior or inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus. The hepatic portal circulation collects blood from the veins of the pancreas. 2. This circulation enables the liver to utilize nutrients and detoxify harmful substances in the blood. Disorders . Blood is returned to the heart through the systemic veins. emotions. The movement of water and dissolved substances (except proteins) through capillaries by diffusion is dependent on hydrostatic and osmotic pressures.the autonomic nervous system through the cardiac center. 2. spleen. Circulatory Routes: 1. Measurement of Blood Pressure: 1. Systemic veins are collectively called blood reservoirs. At birth. chemicals. The fetus derives its oxygen and nutrients and eliminates its carbon dioxide and wastes through the maternal blood supply by means of a structure called the placenta. stomach. and autoregulation. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the wall of an artery when the left ventricle undergoes systole and then diastole. and gallbladder and directs it into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. Blood return to the heart is maintained by several factors including increasing velocity of blood in veins. 3. It is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer. The pulmonary circulation takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. They in turn empty into the right atrium. Pulmonary Circulation: 1. skeletal muscular contractions. 2. sex. 3. The systemic circulation takes oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the aorta to all parts of the body including lung tissue. valves in veins (especially in the extremities). chemicals. It may be felt in any artery that lies near the surface or over a hard tissue. Two of the many subdivisions of the systemic circulation are the coronary (cardiac) circulation and the hepatic portal circulation. 3. 2.Homeostatic Imbalances: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Factors that regulate blood pressure by acting on blood vessels include the vasomotor center in the medulla together with pressoreceptors. pulmonary. The average blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. the special structures of fetal circulation are no longer needed. temperature. Systolic blood pressure is the force of blood recorded during ventricular contraction. and higher brain centers. 3. Systemic Circulation: 1. The near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary by which fluids exit and enter is called Starling's law of the capillaries. Fetal Circulation: 1. 8.

and multivalence. and transplants. Based on chemistry and structure. 4. Antigens are characterized by immunogenicity. and properdin). and Iymph organs. Nonspecific resistance refers to a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens. 3. The thymus gland functions in immunity by processing T cells and stimulating B cells to develop into antibody-producing plasma cells. Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended Iymph capillaries in tissue spaces between cells. 9. 3. They include the pharyngeal. Lymphatic Organs: 1. and fever. 6. 3. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens. mucus. 4. Atherosclerosis is a process in which fatty substances are deposited in the walls of arteries. Nonspecific resistance includes mechanical factors (skin. epiglottis. Iymphatic vessels. which ultimately converge into the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic duct. 8. antibodies are distinguished into five principal classes. Tonsils are masses of Iymphoid tissue embedded in mucous membranes. brain. 2. IgM. The ability to ward off disease using a number of defenses is called resistance. pollen. lacrimal apparatus. Specific resistance to disease involves the production of a specific Iymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen and is called immunity. stimulate the production of antibodies that react with the antigen. and kidneys. Hypertension is high blood pressure and may damage the heart. Lymph enters nodes through afferent Iymphatic vessels and exits through efferent Iymphatic vessels. mucous membranes. Nonspecific Resistance to Disease: 1. 3. complement. acid pH of skin. to Iymphatics. Iymph nodes. 5. B cells may be processed in bone marrow. T cells are processed in the thymus gland.1. to Iymph capillaries. called Iymphatics. IgA. IgD. to the thoracic duct or right Iymphatic trunk. It also acts as a reservoir for blood. reactivity. inflammation. and flow of urine). fetal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and IgE). Two principal causes are atherosclerosis and coronary artery spasm. to the subclavian veins. and lingual tonsils. 4. 5. Examples of antigens are microbes. Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to an inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle. to Iymph trunks. 2. antimicrobial substances (interferon. saliva. Antigens are chemical substances that. chemical factors (gastric juice. microbial structures. when introduced into the body. Lymph nodes are oval structures located along Iymphatics. incompatible blood cells. 2. An aneurysm is a sac formed by an outpocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall. The Iymphatic system consists of Iymph. Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels. 2. Cellular immunity refers to destruction of antigens by T cells and humoral immunity refers to destruction of antigens by antibodies. Lack of resistance is called susceptibility. cilia. 2. 7. palatine. The spleen functions as a Iymphatic organ in phagocytosis of bacteria and worn-out cells and production of Iymphocytes and plasma cells. It is also aided by valves in the Iymphatics. The Lymphatic System: Lymphatic Vessels: 1. Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins. Lymph Circulation: 1. 3. Coronary artery spasm is caused by a sudden contraction of the smooth muscle in an arterial wall that produces vasoconstriction. Structure of Lymph Nodes: 1. Lymph passing through the nodes is processed by macrophages. The passage of Iymph is from interstitial fluid. 2. Lymph flows as a result of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements. unsaturated fatty acids. and Iysozyme). phagocytosis. 3. each with specific biological roles (IgG. Immunity (Specific Resistance to Disease): 1. 2. Antibodies consist of heavy and light chains of amino acids and variable and constant portions.

Localized anaphylactic reactions include hay fever. 4. sobbing. 7. Compliance is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall expand. 2. Forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles. memory B cells recognize the original. invading antigen. The walls of the respiratory passageways offer some resistance to breathing. which states that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure assuming that temperature is constant. Among the pulmonary air volumes exchanged in ventilation ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 .liver and spleen. Modified Respiratory Movements: 1. Autoimmune diseases result when the body does not recognize “self” antigens and produces antibodies against them. 4. Cancer cells contain tumorspecific antigens and are frequently destroyed by the body's immune system (immunologic surveillance). and countering rejection by transplants and autoimmune diseases. Monoclonal antibodies are pure antibodies produced by fusing a B cell with a tumor cell. 11. The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation: 1. 10. eczema. Air volumes exchanged during breathing and rate of respiration are measured with a spirometer. Coughing. and hives. The movement of air into and out of the lungs depends on pressure changes governed in part by Boyle's law. 2. 3. treatment. or gutassociated Iymphoid tissue. suppressor T cells help to regulate the immune response. and hiccuping are types of modified respiratory movements. Tissue rejection of a transplanted tissue or organ involves antibody production against the proteins (antigens) in the transplant. 13. sighing. myasthenia gravis. Expiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. they are important in diagnosis. Expansion of the lungs decreases intrapulmonic pressure. 2. Modified respiratory movements are used to express emotions and to clear air passageways. 14. AIDS victims frequently develop Karposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinfi pneumonia. so that air moves along the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs. 8. Relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases intrapleural pressure lung volume decreases. a phenomenon called immunologic escape. B cells develop into antibody-producing plasma cells under the influence of thymic hormones. and memory T cells initiate response to subsequent invasions by the antigen. Contraction of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles increases the size of the thorax. hemolytic and pernicious anemias. detection of disease. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). crying. 5. and multiple sclerosis (MS). sneezing. Pulmonary Air Volumes and Capacities: 1. Inspiration occurs when intrapulmonic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. and intrapulmonic pressure increases so that air moves from the lungs to the atmosphere. thus decreasing the intrapleural pressure so that the lungs expand. rheumatic fever. preparing vaccines. Pulmonary ventilation or breathing consists of inspiration and expiration. 2. acute anaphylaxis is a severe reaction with systemic effects. The anamnestic response provides the basis for immunization against certain diseases. During forced inspiration. 3. T cells consist of subpopulations: killer T cells destroy antigens directly. It may be overcome with immunosuppressive drugs. laughing. some cancer cells escape detection and destruction. asthma. 12. 6. yawning. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) lowers the body’s immunity by decreasing the number of T cells and revening the ratio of helper T cells to suppressor T cells. helper T cells help B cells to produce antibodies. Disorders – Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Several human autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis (RA). accessory muscles of inspiration (sternocleidomastoids and scalenes) are also used. Hypenensitivity is overreactivity to an antigen.

and 70 percent is converted to the bicarbonate ion. expiratory reserve. 2.Internal Respiration: 1. 3 percent of the 02 is dissolved in plasma and 97 percent is carried with hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). Charles' law indicates that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. 3.are tidal volume. Intervention in Respiratory Crises: 1. vital. Exchange of Respiratory Gases: 1. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells. and DPG. Symptoms are reduced expiratory volume. In bronchogenic carcinoma. It consists of an abdominal thrust that elevates the diaphragm. blood pressure. 2. In each 100 ml of deoxygenated blood. External respiration is the exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries. Bronchial asthma occurs when spasms of smooth muscle in bronchial tubes result in partial closure of air passageways inflammation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the artificial reestablishment of respiration and circulation. and increases air pressure in the bronchial tree. Among the modifying factors are cortical influences. 2. pneumotaxic area. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation or infection of alveoli. and minimal volumes. and a rich blood supply. Pulmonary lung capacities. 5. C's of CPR are Airway. 4. Respirations may be modified by a number of factors. The respiratory center consists of a medullary rhythmicity area (inspiratory and expiratory area). 7 percent of CO2 is dissolved in plasma. Breathing. 2. and irritation to the respiratory centers. when the temperature remains constant. Regulation of Respiratory Center Activity: 1. and apneustic area. both in the brain and outside. inflated lungs. and function of the epithelial cells. The association of oxygen and hemoglobin is affected by PO2. 6. B. compresses the lungs. chemical stimuli (02 and CO2 levels). residual volume. and Circulation. According to Dalton's law. Tuberculosis is an inflammation of pleura and lungs produced by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. assuming that the pressure remains constant. In internal and external expiration 02 and CO2 move from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressure. The abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver is a first aid procedure used in case of food choking. inflated alveoli. division. 23 percent combines with hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. pain. Control of Respiration: Nervous Control: 1. The inspiratory area has an intrinsic excitability that sets the basic rhythm of respiration. Henry's law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient. 2. Transport of Respiratory Gasses: 1. It is symbolized by p. bronchial epithelial cells are replaced by cancer cells after constant irritation has disrupted the normal growth. pCO2. and total. the sum of two or more volumes. and excess mucus production. 3. temperature. 2. Disorders . 4. It is aided by a thin alveolar capillary membrane. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Emphysema is characterized by deterioration of alveoli leading to loss of their elasticity. temperature. 3. and enlarged chest. The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases. Nasal polyps are growths of mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present. 2. 3. 4. The minute volume of respiration is the total air taken in during I minute (tidal volume times 12 respirations per minute). 3. the inflation reflex. include inspiratory. 3.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. functional residual. The A. The pneumotaxic and apneustic areas coordinate the transition between inspiration and expiration. a large alveolar surface area. In each 100 ml of oxygenated blood. inspiratory reserve. External Respiration .

root. 3. tongue. Salivary amylase converts polysaccharides (starches) to disaccharides (maltose). 2. project into the mouth and are adapted for mechanical digestion.7. Teeth: 1. The oral cavity proper extends from the vestibule to the fauces Tongue: 1. forms the floor of the oral cavity. Digestive Processes: 1. and accessory structures. 9. A typical tooth consists of three principal portions: crown. Digestive System: Regulation of Food Intake: 1. The mouth is formed by the cheeks. Organization: 1. Some papillae contain taste buds. The control centers for food intake (appetite center and satiety center) are located in the hvpothalamus. Salivation is entirely under nervous control. 2. The teeth. Food is prepared for use by cells by five basic activities: ingestion. 2. Saliva lubricates food and starts the chemical digestion of carbohydrates. which aid mechanical digestion. Through mastication food is mixed with saliva and shaped into a bolus. lips. 3. Food intake is regulated by two sensations: hunger and appetite. pharyngeal stage ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. The vestibule is the space between the cheeks and lips and teeth and gums. The organs of digestion are usually divided into two main groups: those composing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The accessory structures include the teeth. and defecation. mechanical and chemical digestion. 4. 3. There are two dentitionsdeciduous and permanent. The major portion of saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. 2. Mouth (Oral Cavity): 1. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has recently been linked to laryngospasm. palates. Deglutition or swallowing moves a bolus from the mouth to the stomach. submandibular (submaxillary). Deglutition: 1. liver. the hardest substance in the body. possibly triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. and sublingual glands. The basic arrangement of tissues in the alimentary canal from the inside outward is the mucosa. salivary glands. or dentes. 8. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is an infant disorder in which surfactant is lacking and alveolar ducts and alveoli have a glassy appearance. which lie outside the mouth and pour their contents into ducts that empty into the oral cavity. and greater omentum. 2. and pancreas. Coryza (common cold) is caused by viruses and is usually not accompanied by a fever. lesser omentum. Digestion in the Mouth: 1. There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid. Mechanical digestion consists of movements that aid chemical digestion. and serosa (peritoneum). 5. 2. Teeth are composed primarily of dentin covered by enamel. 2. peristalsis. 4. 2. Absorption is the passage of end products of digestion from the digestive tract into blood or Iymph for distribution to cells. The upper surface and sides of the tongue are covered with papillae. and protein molecules of food into molecules that are usable by body cells. mesocolon. falciform ligament. Salivary Glands: 1. It is composed of skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. Chemical digestion is a series of catabolic reactions that break down the large carbohydrate. Extensions of the peritoneum include the mesentery. lipid. and tongue. 2. or alimentary canal. gallbladder. absorption. It consists of a voluntary stage. submucosa. The tongue. 4. 3. The GI tract is a continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity from the mouth to the anus. whereas influenza (flu) is usually accompanied by a fever. muscularis. together with its associated muscles. and cervix. 3.

Histology: 1. Bile secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Gallbladder: 1. Absorption: 1. 2. and the microvilli. muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. Stimulation occurs in three phases: cephalic (reflex). and plicae circulares of its wall provide a large surface area for digestion and absorption. 2. Pancreatic secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Pancreas: 1. 2. a protein-digesting enzyme. and transported as chylomicrons. The esophagus is a collapsible. 2. It is highly adapted for digestion and absorption. 2. Its glands produce enzymes and mucus. Liver: 1. and intestinal. terminal amino acids at the carboxyl ends of peptides (carboxypolypeptidase). 2. Hepatic cells of the liver produce bile that is transported by a duct system to the gallbladder for storage. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). and vitamins.Histology: 1. and alcohol. and nucleotides to pentoses and nitrogen bases (nucleases). resynthesized to triglycerides. Small Intestine: Anatomy . Adaptations of the stomach for digestion include rugae. Large Intestine: Anatomy – Histology: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Intestinal enzymes break down foods inside epithelial cells of the mucosa Intestinal Digestion: 1. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed as part of micelles. Absorption: 1. proteins to peptides (trypsin and chymotrypsin). Regulation of Gastric Secretion: 1. 2. dipeptides to amino acids (dipeptidase). The pancreas is connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic and accessory ducts. intrinsic factor. Gastric secretion is regulated by nervous and hormonal mechanisms. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that digest starch to maltose (pancreatic amylase). Digestion in the Stomach: 1. Intestinal enzymes break down maltose to glucose (maltase). Chemical digestion consists of the conversion of proteins into peptides by pepsin. 4. Bile is ejected into the common bile duct under the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK). 3. 2. 2. Chylomicrons are taken up by the lacteal of a villus. villi. 2. gastric. 2. The most important mechanism is local reflexes. Absorption is the passage of the end products of digestion from the alimentary canal into the blood or Iymph. The stomach wall is impermeable to most substances. 3. Mechanical digestion in the small intestine involves segmentation and peristalsis. sucrose to glucose and fructose (sucrase). and stomach gastrin.(involuntarv) and esophageal stage (involuntarv). Bile's contribution to digestion is the emulsification of neutral fats. and a three-layered muscularis for efficient mechanical movement. The stomach begins at the bottom of the esophagus and ends at the pyloric sphincter. The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. certain electrolytes and drugs. The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. hydrochloric acid. Esophagus: 1. It passes a bolus into the stomach by peristalsis. Regulation of IntestinaI Secretion: 1. terminal amino acids at the amino ends of peptides (aminopeptidase). 2. It contains an upper and lower esophageal sphincter. 3. Stomach: Anatomy . glands that produce mucus. Hormones also assume a role. electrolytes. 3. Among the substances absorbed are some water. lactose to glucose and galactose (lactase). neutral fats to fatty acids and monoglycerides (pancreatic lipase). The small intestine also absorbs water. 3. Mechanical digestion consists of mixing waves.

Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions of the body and has two phases: catabolism and anabolism. . Feces consists of water. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Metabolism: 1. 2. 12. or kinking of the organ. alveolar bone. 8. rather than enzymatic. inorganic salts. colonoscopy. 4. 2. The large intestine absorbs water. bacteria. 4. 5. Diverticulitis is inflammation of diverticula in the colon. 2. and mass peristalsis. 3. Types include hepatitis A. and undigested foods. act as building blocks in forming new body components. 10. hepatitis B. 9. a foreign body. Catabolism is the term for decomposition reactions that provide energy. 2. non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Disorders . Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum. Fate of Carbohydrates: 1. The elimination of feces from the large intestine is called defecation. Cirrhosis is a condition in which parenchymal cells of the liver damaged by chronic inflammation are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. Peptic ulcers are craterlike lesions that develop in the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal in areas exposed to gastric juice. or assist in the functioning of various body processes.1. 3. and non-A. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and degeneration of gingivae. 2. stenosis. Defecation: 1. 3. Absorption and Feces Formation: 1. 6. The last stages of chemical digestion occur in the large intestine through bacterial. Bulimia is a binge-purge syndrome of behavior in which uncontrollable overeating is followed by forced vomiting or overdoses of laxatives. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. and barium x-ray. Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract may be detected by sigmoidoscopy. and anal canal. it moves into cells by facilitated diffusion and becomes phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. Mechanical movements of the large intestine include haustral churning. Nutrients are chemical substances in food that provide energy. Substances are further broken down and some vitamins are synthesized. action. proteins. 7. 5.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. Anabolic reactions use energy. Defecation is a reflex action aided by voluntary contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. periodontal membrane. electrolytes. 2. Dental caries are started by acid-producing bacteria that reside in dental plaque. polysaccharides and disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides. colon. and water. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by a psychologically induced loss of appetite. Carbohydrate Metabolism: 1. Digestion in the large Intestine: 1. minerals. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. 11. The fusion of individual crystals of cholesterol is the beginning of 95 percent of all gallstones. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by inflammation. Its subdivisions include the cecum. Gallstones can cause obstruction to the outflow of bile in any portion of the duct system. Carbohydrate metabolism is primarily concerned with glucose metabolism. rectum. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates. which are absorbed through capillaries in villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The mucosa contains numerous goblet cells and the muscularis consists of taeniae coli. 2. and vitamins. During digestion. insulin stimulates glucose movement into cells. vitamins. epithelial cells. Anabolism consists of a series of synthetic reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones that form the body's structural and functional components. peristalsis. Some glucose is oxidized by cells to provide energy. lipids. and cementum. carcinoma of the cecum.

Lipid Metabolism: 1. In beta oxidation. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by conversion into glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate. Glucose oxidation is also called cellular respiration. 4. and I molecule of GTP. Excess glucose can be stored by the liver and skeletal muscles as glycogen or converted to fat. glucagon. 4 molecules of NADH2. Other lipids are used as structural molecules or to synthesize essential molecules. lipoproteins that transport cholesterol. Examples include phospholipids of plasma membranes. recombined to form triglycerides. mostly in the subcutaneous layer. When oxygen is in short supply. Fat Storage: 1. 3. 3. 3.2. Glycolysis: 1. Electron Transport Chain: 1. The body can store about 500 g of glycogen. Glucose Catabolism: 1. The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the energy in NADH2 and FADH2 is liberated and transferred to ATP for storage. 3. The carrier molecules involved include FAD. Glycolysis refers to the breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid. The electron transport chain yields 32 molecules of ATP and H20. 3. thyroxine. 2. Glucose Anabolism: 1. Gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fat and protein molecules into glucose. coenzyme Q. and cholesterol used to synthesize bile salts and steroid hormones. there is a net production of 2 molecules of ATP Krebs Cycle: 1. 2. Some fats are stored in adipose tissue. and cytochromes. During digestion. Fats are stored in adipose tissue. 4. carbon atoms are removed in pairs from fatty acid chains. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Glucose excreted in the urine can produce glycosuria. and transported by chylomicrons through the lacteals of villi into the thoracic duct. Each molecule of pyruvic acid that enters the Krebs cycle produces 3 molecules of C02. Lipid Catabolism: 1. The conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and skeletal muscle is called glycogenesis. and growth hormone (GH). thromboplastin for blood clotting. fats are ultimately broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides. Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are carried in micelles for entrance into villi. As a result of glycolysis. epinephrine. 3. 2. 2. Pyruvic acid is prepared for entrance into the Krebs cycle by conversion to a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) followed by the addition of coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A. under aerobic conditions. 2. the resulting molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle. Fate of Lipids: 1. pyruvic acid enters the Krebs cycle. 2. Some fats may be oxidized to produce ATP. Glycerol may be converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and some amino acids may be converted to pyruvic acid. 2. The energy originally in glucose and then pyruvic acid is primarily in the reduced coenzymes NADH2 and FADH2. 1 molecule of FADH2. 5. 6. 2. Fat is released from depots and split into fatty acids and glycerol under the influence of growth hormone (GH). digested to glycerol and fatty acids in epithelial cells. the Krebs cycle. 3. pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. and the electron transport chain. It occurs between meals and is stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine. 3. The Krebs cycle involves decarboxylations and oxidations and reductions of various organic acids. The process occurs in the liver and is stimulated by insulin 2. The complete oxidation of glucose to C02 and H20 involves glycolysis. The conversion of glycogen back to glucose is called glycogenolysis. Adipose cells contain lipases that catalize the deposition of fats from chylomicrons and hydrolyze fats into fatty acids and glycerol. It is stimulated by cortisol.

Most body heat is a result of oxidation of the food we eat. Amino acids. 3. The major concern of the body during the postabsorptive state is to maintain normal blood glucose level. 2. The formation of ketone bodies by the liver is a normal phase of fatty acid catabolism. the nervous system. enter body cells by active transport. snd ketane hadies. 2. sulfur. amino acids are synthesized into proteins that function as enzymes. 3. During digestion. Lipid Anabolism . Absorptive and Postabsorptive (Fasting) States: 1. fats. Metabolic rate is affected by exercise. The conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids is called lipogenesis. cobalt. stored. Many function in enzyme systems. or converted. Protein Metabolism: 1. ingested nutrients enter the blood and Iymph from the GI tract. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed with fats and include A. Regulation of Metabolism: 1. called ketosis. Protein Catabolism: 1. Minerals known to perform essential functions are calcium. and chromium. 3. D. The intermediary links in lipogenesis are glyceraldehyde3Dhospate and acetyl coenzyme A. 2. conversion of glycerol into glucose. but an excess of ketone bodies. 2. Protein synthesis is stimulated by growth hormone (GH). 4. 2. potassium. and so forth. and proteins. may cause acidosis. Amino acids may also be converted into glucose. under the influence of growth hormone (GH) and insulin. fatty acids. Protein Anabolism: 1. magnesium. During the absorptive state. 2. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed with water and include the B vitamins and vitamin C. manganese. phosphorus.000 g of water 1C from 14 to 15C. Vitamins are organic nutrients that maintain growth and normal metabolism. Measurement of the metabolic rate under basal ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . absorption is complete and the energy needs of the body are satisfied by nutrients already present in the body. Minerals: 1. 2. During the absorptive state. Inside cells. 2. Production of Body Heat: 1. most blood glucose is used by body cells for oxidation. based on the needs of the body. The process is directed by DNA and RNA and carried out in the ribosomes of cells. and K. and hydrogenation. hormones. they must be converted to substances that can enter the Krebs cycle. and body temperature. The body also switches from glucose oxidation to fatty acid oxidation. proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids 2. Glucose transported to the liver is converted to glycogen or fat. sodium. these conversions involve deamination. A Calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1. thyroxine. 2. 3. Very little protein is used as a source of energy.Lipogenesis: 1. hormones. The rate at which this heat is produced is known as the metabolic rate. structural elements. Minerals are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes. chlorine. Most fat is stored in adipose tissue. selenium. iron. and conversion of amino acids into glucose. iodine. This involves conversion of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen into glucose. The apparatus used to determine the caloric value of foods is called a calorimeter. Amino acids in liver cells are converted to carbohydrate.4. During the postabsorptive (fasting) state. copper. Vitamins: 1. 2. decarboxylation. zinc. Before amino acids can be catabolized. Amino acids are absorbed by the capillaries of villi and enter the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The pathway taken by a particular nutrient is enzymatically controlled and is regulated by hormones. The Calorie is the unit of heat used to express the caloric value of foods and to measure the body’s metabolic rate. and insulin. The process is stimulated by insulin. Absorbed nutrients may be oxidized. Metabolism and Body Heat: 1. Fate of Proteins: 1. E.

Each juxtamedullary nephron consists of a glomerular capsule. 3. sympathetic stimulation. 4. 2. Celiac disease is a condition in which the ingestion of gluten causes morphological changes in the small intestinal mucosa resulting in malabsorption. 6. 4. nausea. Conduction is the transfer of body heat to a substance or object in contact with the body. Heat cramp is painful skeletal muscle contractions due to loss of salt and water. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . A normal body temperature is maintained by a delicate balance between heat-production and heatloss mechanisms. The primary function of the urinary system is to regulate the concentration and volume of blood by removing and restoring selected amounts of water and solutes. and renal fascia. 5. urinary bladder. 2. Convection is the transfer of body heat by the movement of air that has been warmed by the body. 2. descending limb of Henle. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidneys. Mechanisms of heat loss include vasodilation. Filtration of blood depends on the force of glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure in relation to two opposing forces: capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood colloid osmotic pressure. The extensive flow of blood through the kidney begins in the renal artery and terminates in the renal vein. renal suppression occurs because the glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure exactly equals the opposing pressures. Causes are regulatory or metabolic. 2. The kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall. 4. The primary force behind glomerular filtration is hydrostatic pressure. 3. 3. and dizziness. 4.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 3. distal convoluted tubule. and a pelvis. glomerulus. the kidneys consist of a cortex. 3. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disorder characterized by hypoprotein edema. Fluid therapy and body cooling are indicated. calyces. 7. Body Temperature Abnormalities: 1. and thyroxine production. Mechanisms that produce heat are vasoconstriction. Heat exhaustion results in a normal or below normal body temperature. Urinary System: Urinary System: 1. reduced perspiration. Loss of Body Heat: 1. The filtering unit of a nephron is the endothelial-capsular membrane. cramps. Physiology: 1. skeletal muscle contraction. and urethra. deereased metabolic rate. 2. stages include chill and crisis. loop of Henle. ureters. 5. failure to grow. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic error of metabolism characterized by an elevation of phenylalanine in the blood. decreased skeletal muscle contraction. Cystic fibrosis is a metabolic disease of the exocrine glands in which absorption of vitamins A. and K and calcium is inadequate. columns. Radiation is the transfer of heat as infrared heat rays from one object to another without physical contact. 3. ascending limb of Henle. It consists of the glomerular endothelium. Fever is an abnormally high body temperature caused by pyrogens. Obesity is defined as a body weight 10 to 20 percent above desirable standard as the result of excessive accumulation of fat. Three layers of tissue surround the kidneys: renal capsule. and perspiration. lethargy. Rest and salt tablets are indicated Disorders . proximal convoluted tubule. and high body temperature. Sunstroke results in decreased blood flow to skin. and sometimes mental retardation. papillae. If glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure falls to 50 mm Hg. 5. adipose capsule. 2.conditions is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). This relationship is called eflfective filtration pressure (Peff). pyramids. Internally. Body Temperature Regulation: 1. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid to a vapor. The organs of the urinary system are the kidneys. D. The hypothalamic thermostat is the preoptic area. 4. medulla. 4. profuse perspiration.

A lack of control over micturition is called incontinence failure to void urine is referred to as retention.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. The ureters are partially retroperitoneal and consist of a mucosa. ketone bodies. 6. pericardial. the urinary bladder consists of a mucosa (with rugae). blood cells and most proteins are not filtered. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. the kidneys conserve sodium bicarbonate. a recent variation is called continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The kidney machine filters the blood of wastes and adds nutrients. Urine volume is influenced by blood pressure. The solutes include urea. The ability of the kidneys to produce either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic urine is based on the countercurrent multiplier mechanism. Included are ions. and fibrous coat. 2. pH. renal calculi. uric acid. the lungs. 4. bilirubin. and microbes. 3. 5. hippuric acid. leucocytes. Homeostasis: 1. diuretics. odor. Polycystic disease is an inherited kidney disease in which nephrons are deformed. Gout is a high level of uric acid in the blood. cerebrospinal fluid. Body Fluids: 1. 2. erythrocytes. 8. and alimentary canal assume excretory functions. indican. Its function is to store urine prior to micturition. Filtering blood through an artificial device is called hemodialysis. Tubular reabsorption retains substances needed by the body. 7. integument. glucose. and fluids of the eyes and ears. About 80 percent of the reabsorbed water is returned by obligatory reabsorption. Nephrosis leads to protein in the urine due to glomerular membrane permeability. Water: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . Besides the kidneys. Chemically. Body fluid is water and its dissolved substances. creatinine. temperature. casts. 4. the rest by facultative reabsorption. synovial fluid. The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. 7. and ions. and a serous coat. turbidity. glucose. including water. and specific gravity. 2. The kidneys help maintain blood pH by excreting H+ and NH4+ ions. and emotions. 2. plasma and Iymph. Abnormal constituents diagnosed through urinalysis include albumin. 3. a muscularis (detrusor muscle). The physical characteristics of urine evaluated in a urinalysis (UA) are color. About two-thirds of the body's fluid is located in cells and is called intracellular fluid (ICF). Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable. muscularis. Chemicals not needed by the body are discharged into the urine by tubular secretion. 2. normal urine contains about 95 percent water water and 5 percent solutes. 2. Disorders . Its function is to discharge urine from the body. ketone bodies. It includes interstitial fluid. The urinary bladder is posterior to the symphysis pubis. The urethra is a tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior. 3. urobilinogen. amino acids. 8.6. In exchange. pleural. Normally. Most substances in plasma are filtered by the glomerular capsule. blood concentration. 5. 9. Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. pyelonephritis is an interstitial inflammation of one or both kidneys. 4. Urinary Bladder: 1. and certain drugs. and peritoneal fluids. Fluid balance means that the various body compartments contain the required amount of water. salts. 5. The maximum of a substance that can be absorbed is called tubular maximum. 11. Ureters: 1. Pyelitis is an inflammation of the kidney pelvis and calyces. The other third is called extracellular fluid (ECF). Gl tract fluids. and the glomerular filtrate. primarily by peristalsis. Histologically. 3. nitrogenous wastes. and ions. 10. Urethra: 1.

metabolic acidosis results from an abnormal increase in acid metabolic products (other than CO2) and loss of bicarbonate. and intracellular fluid contain varying kinds and amounts of electrolytes. Its level is controlled by PTH and CT. fluid moves from plasma into interstitial fluid. Phosphate is principally an intracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. interstitial fluid. Electrolyte concentration is expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/liter). Its level is controlled by aldosterone. An increase in rate of respirations. 4. varying from 45 to 75 percent of body weight depending on amount of fat present and age. 10. Fluid imbalance may lead to edema and overhydrahon (water intoxication). 9. respirations. muscle contraction. 8. Electrolytes are chemicals that dissolve in body fluids and dissociate into either cations (positive ions) or anions (negative ions). Its principal effect is overexcitability of the CNS. The important buffer systems include: carbonic acidbicarbonate. Magnesium is primarily an intracellular electrolyte that activates several enzyme systems. Respiratory acidosis is caused by hypoventilation. The state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary between filtered fluid and absorbed fluid plus that picked up by the Iymphatic system is referred to as Starling's law of the capillaries. 2. It assumes a role in regulating osmotic pressure and forming HCI. 4. Acid Base Imbalances: 1. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. muscle contraction. 2. 4. The normal pH of extracellular fluid is 7. 2.80. chemical transmitter release. It is also required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and ATP and for buffer reactions. Chloride is mainly an extracellular anion. Fluid movement between interstitial and intracellular compartments depends on the movement of sodium and potassium and the secretion of aldosterone and ADH. 6. 11. Water is the largest single constituent in the body. increases pH. decreases pH. 5. 3. fluid moves in the opposite direction.35 to 7. 7.45. Electrolytes have a greater effect on osmosis than nonelectrolytes. Its level is controlled by aldosterone. and GI tract. Homeostasis of pH is maintained by buffers. and protein. and regulating pH. 3. Acid-Base Balance: 1. Acidosis is a blood pH between 7. It is involved in nerve impulse transmission. a decrease in rate. 2. Its principal effect is depression of the CNS. It is involved in maintaining fluid volume. Alkalosis is a blood pH between 7. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation. 5. The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids. Plasma.45 and 8. Its level is controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT). Calcium is principally an extracellular ion that is a structural component of bones and teeth. muscle contraction. and heartbeat. 3.35 and 6. nerve impulse conduction. Movement of Body Fluids: 1. At the venous end. Primary sources of fluid intake are ingested liquids and foods and water produced by catabolism. and fluid and electrolyte balance. lungs. 4. fluid output is adjusted by aldosterone and ADH. 3. At the arterial end of a capillary. 2. Electrolytes are needed for normal metabolfm.1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 4. 3. proper fluid movement between compartments. Electrolytes: 1. skin. Under normal conditions. Avenues of fluid output are the kidneys. Sodium is the most abundant extracellular ion. Its level is controlled indirectly by aldosterone. Potassium is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid. and kidney excretion. hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin. It also functions in blood clotting. especially extracellular fluid. phosphate. and regulation of pH.00. The stimulus for fluid intake is dehydration resulting in thirst sensations.

7. 3. sustentacular cells. Failure of the testes to descend is called cryptorchidism. 6. Reproductive System: 1. provide ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH assists spermatogenesis and stimulates production of testosterone. At puberty GnRF stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH and LH. Semen (seminal fluid) is a mixture of spermatozoa and accessory gland secretions that provide the fluid in which spermatozoa are transported. Spermatozoa are moved through the testes through the seminiferous tubules. Testes: 1. The prostate gland secretes an alkaline fluid that constitutes about 13 to 33 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm motility. membranous. 5. It regulates the temperature of the testes by contraction of the dartos to elevate them closer to the pelvic cavity. Inhibin is produced by sustentacular cells. Accessory Glands: 9. The organs of reproduction are grouped as: gonads (produce gametes). 10. sperm maturation. 7. Ducts: 1. Reproduction is the process by which genetic material is passed on from one generation to the next. Its inhibition of FSH helps to regulate the rate of spermatogenesis. The male urethra is subdivided into three portions: prostatic. 3. Their function is to fertilize an ovum.metabolic alkalosis results from nonrespiratory loss of acid or excess intake of alkaline drugs. and maintenance of sex organs. bulbourethral glands. 2. which nourish sperm cells. Sperm are transported out of the testes through the efferent ducts. 4. and rete testis. urethra. Mature spermatozoa consist of a head. The bulbourethral glands secrete mucus for lubrication and a substance that neutralizes urine. 12. 2. The ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the ducts from the seminal vesicles and ductus deferens and eject spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra. seminal vesicles. The ductus deferens stores sperm and propels them toward the urethra during ejaculation. in which sperm cells are made. ejaculatory duct. and efferent ducts. which produce the male sex hormone testosterone. II. rete testis. 8. 2. The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline. ductus deferens. The duct system of the testes includes the seminiferous tubules. The scrotum is a cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen that supports the testes. 2. and penis. Testosterone controls the growth. and interstitial endocrinocytes. 6. 3. The male structures of reproduction include the testes. Male Reproductive System: 1. 3. straight tubules. and 7. midpiece. 11. prostate gland. and accessory glands (produce materials that support gametes). Scrotum: 1. viscous fluid that constitutes about 60 percent of the volume of semen and contributes to sperm viability. and spongy (cavernous). 5. and stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. stimulates bone growth. straight tubules. protein anabolism. ducts (transport and store gametes). 4. development. ductus epididymis. The ductus epididymis is lined by stereocilia and is the site of sperm maturation and storage. The testes are oval-shaped glands (gonads) in the scrotum containing seminiferous tubules. and tail. 2. Alteration of the ductus deferens to prevent fertilization is called vasectomy.

The ovarian cycle is associated with the maturation of an ovum each month. Penis: 1. the functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed with a discharge of blood. Uterus: 1. 2. 7. development. Progesterone is the dominant ovarian hormone. the corpus luteum degenerates and low levels ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . and neutralize the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina. and secrete female sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone). 6. 8.nutrients. 11. The mammary glands are considered as part of the reproductive svstem. 2. The ovaries are female gonads located in the upper pelvic cavity. Implantation outside the uterus (pelvic or tubular) is called an ectopic pregnancy. discharge ova (ovulation). 4. and the secretion of estrogens and progesterone by the ovaries. the uterus consists of an outer perimetrium. If fertilization and implantation do not occur. endometrial repair occurs. middle myometrium. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix to facilitate delivery. ovulation. During the postovulatory phase. 2. and labor. Expansion of its blood sinuses under the influence of sexual excitation ie ealled erection Female Reproductive System: 1. on either side of the uterus. mucus. They produce ova. Histologically. Ovulation is the rupture of a Graafian follicle and the release of an ovum into the pelvic cavity brought about by inhibition of FSH and release of LH. The menstrual and ovarian cycles are controlled by GnRF. stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. The female organs of reproduction include the ovaries (gonads). vagina. and maintenance of female reproductive structures. 6. 3. Estrogens are the dominant ovarian hormones. Progesterone works with estrogens to prepare the endometrium for implantation and the mammary glands for milk secretion. FSH stimulates the initial development of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens by the ovaries. implantation of a fertilized ovum. 2. 5. III. uterine tubes. The uterus is normally held in position by a series of ligaments. 4. . Ovaries: 1. which stimulates the release of FSH and LH. During the preovulatory phase. The penis is the male organ of copulation. Endocrine Regulations Menstruation and Ovarian Cycles: 1. uterus. Estrogens stimulate the growth. 5. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes: 1. tissue fluid. and stimulate protein anabolism. 3. and vulva. During the menstrual phase. 4. 10. A secondary follicle develops into a Graafian follicle. 9. pear-shaped organ that functions in menstruation. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. and epithelial cells. LH stimulates further development of ovarian follicles. and inner endometrium. 3. Primary follicles develop into secondary follicles. The uterus is an inverted. development of a fetus during pregnancy. 2. The function of the menstrual cycle is to prepare the endometrium each month for the reception of a fertilized egg. 2. the endometrium thickens in anticipation of implantation. The uterine tubes transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of fertilization.

vestibule. Spermatogenesls occurs in the testes. The role of the male in the sex act involves erection. and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Their function is to secrete and eject milk (lactation). syphilis. Ovarian cysts are tumors that contain fluid. 12. 11. Ova and sperm are collectively called gametes or sex cells and are produced in gonads. The perineum is a diamondshaped area at the inferior end of the trunk between the thighs and buttocks. clitoris. equatorial division. 8. the cessation of the sexual cycles. Oogenesis: 1. Mammary Glands: 1. genital herpes. and Iymph nodes is called a radical mastectomy. equatorial division. The spermatogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. and tumors. 5. 3. 10. Vagina: 1. Cervical cancer can be diagnosed by a Pap test. The removal of a malignant breast. Uninucleated somatic cells divide by mitosis.Homeostatic Imbalances: 1. 7. It consists of the mons veneris. lubrication. Endometriosis refers to the growth of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) includes widespread homeostatic imbalances and is a reaction to toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. It results in the formation of four haploid spermatozoa. 2. Infertility is the inability of a male's sperm to fertilize an ovum. Perineum: 1. and orgasm. labia majora. 8. 4. 9. Menstrual disorders include amenorrhea. It is capable of considerable distension to accomplish its functions. and ova maturation. 13. Female infertility is the inability of the female to conceive. Disorders . and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Mammary gland development is dependent on estrogens and progesterone. Spermatogenisis: 1. Sexual Intercourse: 1. An incision in the perineal skin prior to delivery is called an episiotomy. The vagina is a passageway for the menstrual flow. Conditions that affect the prostate are prostatitis. It results in the formation of a single haploid ovum. If fertilization and implantation do occur. Oogenesis occurs in the ovaries. 12. and orgasm (climax). The mammary glands are modified sweat glands (branched tubuloalveolar) over the pectoralis major muscles. The mammary glands are susceptible to benign fibroadenomas and malignant tumors. 2. Gamete Formation: Diploid and Haploid Cells: 1. Vulva: 1. trichomoniasis. 6. 3. The vulva is a collective term for the external genitals of the female. Pregnancy: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . labia minora. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to bacterial infection of Delvic oraans. Impotence is the inability of the male to attain or hold an erection long enough for intercourse. 2. The female climacteric is the time immediately before menopause. enlarged prostate. 9. It is said to be haploid (n). Milk secretion is due to mainly PRL and milk ejection is stimulated by OT. vaginal and urethral orifices. 2. Somatic cells are said to be diploid (2n). the process in which each daughter cell receives the full complement of 23 chromosome pairs (46 chromosomes). lubrication. dysmenorrhea. 2. the corpus luteum is maintained by placental HCG and the corpus luteum and placenta secrete estrogens and progesterone to support pregnancy and breast development for lactation. 10. The oogenesis sequence consists of reduction division. 2.of estrogens and progesterone initiate another menstrual and ovarian cycle. and the lower portion of the birth canal. 2. 2. Immature gametes divide by meiosis in which the pairs of chromosomes are split so that the mature gamete has only 23 chromosomes. and sperm maturation. 3. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases spread by sexual contact and include gonorrhea. The female role also involves erection. the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. and greater and lesser vestibular glands. pectoral muscles. 7. 2. abnormal bleeding.

and birth. 5. 1. 2. and the cells produced by cleavage are called blastomeres. Penetration is facilitated by hyaluronidase and proteinases produced by sperm. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . . Early rapid cell division of a zygote is called cleavage. 2. 4. Fertilization and Implantation: 1. 3. Fertilization refers to the penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell and the subsequent union of the sperm and ovum nuclei to form a zygote. The solid mass of cells produced by cleavage is a morula. implantation.Pregnancy is a sequence of events that includes fertilization. fetal growth. Its various events are hormonally controlled. Normally only one sperm fertilizes an ovum. embryonic growth.

Parturition refers to birth and is accompanied by a sequence of events called labor. amnion. mechanical. Lactation: 1. mesoderm. microbes. It occurs by enzymatic degradation of the endometrium Embryonic Development: 1. Tay-Sachs disease. Dominant genes control a particular trait. Parturition and Labor: 1. It can be used to diagnose inherited biochemical defects and chromosomal disorders. The genetic makeup of an organism is called its genotype. 5. 6. tubal ligation. laparascopic technique). such as hemophilia. The attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium is called implantation. and Down's syndrome. 3. 3. alcohol. a hollow ball of cells differentiated into a trophectoderm (future embryonic membranes) and inner cell mass (future embryo). Fetal and maternal materials are exchanged through the placenta. and delivery of the placenta. Hormones of Pregnancy: 1. Placental luteotropic releasing factor (pLRF) stimulates secretion and breast development. the primary germ layers and embryonic membranes are formed and the placenta is functioning. The birth of a baby involves dilation of the cervix. estrogens. During embryonic growth. and allantois. 2. Methods include removal of gonads and uterus. 2. 2. Embryonic membranes include the yolk sac. 8. 4. The traits expressed are called its phenotype. organs established by the primary germ layers grow rapidly. 4. The developing embryo and fetus is susceptible to many potential hazards that can be transmitted from the mother. and endoderm-form all tissues of the developing organism. Lactation refers to the secretion and ejection of milk by the mammary glands. estrogens. Secretion is influenced by prolaction (PRL). protein anabolism. 2. Contraceptive pills of the combination type contain estrogens and progesterone in concentrations that decrease the secretion of FSH and LH and thereby inhibit ovulation. and chemical). and contraception (natural. 3. and protection. Pregnancy is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 34 . 7. During the fetal period. and smoking. 5. sterilization (vasectomy. Relaxin relaxes the symphysis pubis and helps dilate the uterine cervix toward the end of pregnancy. Birth Control: 6.The morula develops into a blastocyst. chemicals and drugs. Sex is determined by the Y chromosome of the male at fertilization. . Amniocentesis is the withdrawal of amniotic fluid. 3. and progesterone. Inheritance is the passage of hereditary traits from one generation to another. Examples are infections. 3. Potential Hazards to the Developing Embryo and Fetus: 1. 2. Down s syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by mental retardation and retarded physical development. chorion. removal of wastes. 1. 2. Following birth the respiratory and cardiovascular systems undergo changes in adjusting to self-supporting postnatal life. The primary germ layers-ectoderm. expulsion of the fetus. sickle cell anemia. and glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Inheritance: 1. The time an embryo or fetus is carried in the uterus is called gestation. expression of recessive genes is inhibited by dominant genes. The fetus depends on the mother for oxygen and nutrients. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth: 1. Ejection is influenced by oxytocin (OT). and progesterone. 2. 2.

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