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Chapter I

Introduction

1.1 Origin of Non Governmental Organisation

1.2 Emphasis on the role of NGOs in five years plans

1.3. Panchayat Raj Institutions and NGOs

1.4 Various Role and Functions of NGOs

1.5 Role of NGOs in Social Mobilization

1.6 Role of NGO in Social Mobilization under SHG & SGSY

1.7 Need for the study

1.8 Statement of the Problems

1.9 Scope of the Study

1.10 Objective of the study:

1.11 Limitation of the study

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Chapter I

Introduction
Introduction

Voluntary effort has always been an important part of our culture and social tradition.
The need for organizing people into accredited associations and their involvement and
participation in rural development have now been fully recognized. In recent years, they
have increased in considerable number, acquired greater importance and significance and
put up many new experiments in the field of rural development. Voluntary organisation
can play a crucial role in rural development by supplementing government efforts as they
are close to the minds and hearts of the rural people. They have their roots in the people
and can respond to the needs and aspirations of the community very effectively. They can
experiment new approaches to rural development. (Dhillon & Hansra -1995). The success
of the rural development depends upon the active participation and willing co-operation
of the rural people through Self-Help organizations and voluntary agencies. In recent
years, the voluntary agencies have acquired greater importance and significance than
before because the administration has not been able to reach the people, especially the
poor and weaker sections. They have been able to make their presence felt from the local
to the national level and now at the international level also. Many of them have pioneered
works in areas, which were ignored by the process of national development planning
(Anandharajakumar - 1995).

1.1 Origin of Non Governmental Organisation:

Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and Voluntary action have been part of the
historical legacy. In early 20th century, several voluntary efforts were started in the fields
of education, health etc. The NGOs became prominent after independence, especially
after 1970s. Development practitioners, government officials and foreign donors consider
that Non-Governmental organizations by the virtue of being smallscale, flexible,
innovative and participatory, are more successful in reaching the poor and in poverty
alleviating. This consideration has resulted in the rapid growth of NGOs involved in
initiating and implementing rural development programmes. According to the estimates
of the working groups of NGOs, there are about 30,000 NGOs in India. A rapid growth
took place in the 1980s and the early 1990s. With the SHG linkages programme
introduced in 1989, the NGO sector has been recognized as a crucial partner, recognizing
the strengths of the NGOs in organizing the community and the potential in saving and
credit programmes (both under the linkage programme and other credit delivery
innovations. (Laxmi R.Kulshresth et.al - 2002).

The concept of NGOs and Social welfare are not new. India has a glorious tradition of
Voluntary organisations. In the pre-Independence days, Rabindranath Tagore in his
Santiniketan experiements showed how rural development could be brought about by
integration of education and culture. Gandhiji in his Wardha experiment showed how
village industries could bring about the development of the poorest sections of the people
in this country. (Malik-1995) After independence too, there was a lot of talk about the

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role of NGOs and people’s participation when we started our planning process in the
early 50s. The British Government in India spent minimum resources on social welfare
programmes and so voluntary agencies played an important role in developing
programmes for the poor, the destitute, women and children.

1.2 Emphasis on the role of NGOs in five years plans

After Independence, India was declared as a welfare state and relevant provisions were
included in the Constitution of India. Social welfare was included as part of the Five Year
Plans. The major responsibility of organizing social welfare services continued with the
voluntary organizations. Hence, even today it is the voluntary organizations that are
taking care of welfare activities (Basanta Kumar - 1995). The VII plan documents had
anticipated that voluntary efforts would be forthcoming in a massive way for better
implementation of anti-poverty and minimum needs programmes (Malik - 1995) Also in
the VII plan (1992-97), a greater emphasis has been laid on the role of voluntary
organizations in rural development. The plan document states: “A nation-wide network of
NGOs will be created. In order to facilitate the working of this network, three schemes
relating to the creation/replication/multiplication and consultancy development have been
worked out by the planning commission (Malik - 1995).

1.3 Panchayat Raj Institutions and NGOs:

Recently, the revival and strengthening of Panchayati Raj Institutions – consequent upon
the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992- the NGO’s role has become more
significant. In order to promote holistic and integrated development with the range of
development schemes and programmes, the role of NGOs services and their involvement
in the development process will be all the more in demand (Malik - 1995).

1.4 Various Role and Functions of NGOs:

Voluntary action stimulated and promoted by voluntary agencies engaged in development


play a significant role at the grass roots level in the Indian social milieu; the success of
rural development depends upon the active participation of the people through Self Help
Organizations. The various roles of NGOs are described below for better understanding.

a. Catalyze Rural Population


b. Build Models and Experiment
c. Supplement Government Efforts
d. Organizing Rural Poor
e. Educate the Rural People
f. Provide Training
g. Disseminate Information
h. Mobilize of Resources
i. Promote Rural Leadership
j. Represent the Rural People
k. Act as Innovators

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l. Ensure People’s Participation
m. Promote Appropriate Technology
n. Activate the Rural Delivery System

The widespread belief that NGOs are more successful in reaching the poor in poverty
reduction also resulted in rapid growth of funding for NGOs by government and external
donors. As far as the government funding is concerned, there are over 200 government
schemes initiated by the central and state governments through which NGOs can have
direct access to resources for rural development (Reddy and Rajasekhar 1996)

1.5 Role of NGOs in Social Mobilization:

In recent times, many Non Governmental organisations have been concentrating social
mobilization on contemporary issues of importance such as women empowerment,
human rights, and implementation of various central and state government development
programmes. The NGOs in India have contributed handsomely towards social
mobilization and social activism through their intensive campaigns, people’s mobilization
programmes and effective networks. The NGO as a social force facilitates collective
action and people mobilization for the purpose of achieving the desired objectives. The
NGOs are deploying various people-oriented as well as people-centered strategies, and
these organizations build rapport with the people and mobilize them.

The NGOs play in making the people environmentally aware and sensitive to take part in
the development process (Biswambhar Panda et.al -2003)

1.6 Role of NGO in Social Mobilization under SHG & SGSY:

Alleviation of poverty has persistently been on the agenda of the government. Various
programmes with contrasting methodologies have been tried, whopping funds expended,
yet the poverty yet the poverty seems indomitable. The Yojana (SGSY) is the latest
poverty alleviation programme integrating six erstwhile rural development programmes,
and it has been in operation since 1st April 1999. The very sticking feature of this scheme
is that it is quite different from earlier programmes in terms of objective, strategy,
methodology and sustainability. Obviating the loose ends of the earlier programmes, the
Yojana intends to overcome poverty through generation of self-employment
opportunities with a debatable participation, contribution and initiative of the poor
themselves. Doing away with the targeted individual-centric beneficiary approach, the
group approach is adopted, which is by itself a radical departure. The Yojana attempts to
address poverty in all its dimensions through multi-pronged strategy.

Thus, this SGSY scheme focuses on Group approach by organizing the poor into self
help groups (SHG) through social mobilization process. Against this backdrop of this
programme, the SGSY’s guidelines emphasis on the role of NGOs and their significant

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participation in mobilizing people and to creating awareness among the people for the
successful implementation of the SGSY schemes.

1.7 Need for the study:

The Study on Role of NGO in Social Mobilization in the context of SGSY has assumed
greater significance, in the recent past, as a response to the failure of the Top down,
welfare oriented approaches to the rural development programmes. In recent years,
development agencies, decision makers, and officials increasingly laud the role of NGOs
in Social Mobilization for any development programmes particularly in the context of
SGSY. Indeed, social mobilization has to be termed as an effective intervention with a
positive impact on Socio Economic improvement of rural people In responding to the
contemporary importance in the context of SGSY scheme, there is emerging a need to
understand various methods used and adopted by the NGOs in the process of social
mobilization for the promotion of SHG and implementation of SGSY. Also, it needs to be
studied in detail to understand the real impact made on social mobilization by the sample
NGOs in implementing the new scheme called SGSY. Hence the present study is aimed
at bringing out various methods used in social mobilization and significant impact made
on promotion of Self Help Groups and implementation of SGSY.

1.8 Statement of the Problems

Social Mobilization is a complex process and it requires meticulous and continuous


efforts for any purpose. The social mobilization process is of a particular quality and
character. Social Mobilization involves people and their behavior. These behaviors are
not static and keep on changing. It is impossible to control over the behavior of the
people and subject to changing, progressing and reversing. Hence, Social Mobilization is
also a continuous process according to the change of minds, attitudes and behaviors of
the people for making them to involve in any development process.

The NGOs and Government Departments are also struggling hard to organize the people
through social mobilization process for eliciting their participation in the successful
implementation of the development programmes. Some have succeeded in the process
and some are still struggling in progressive direction.

In the guidelines issued by the Government of India on SGSY, the need for social
mobilization has strongly been stressed for the successful implementation of the SGSY
scheme through effective and innovative role of NGOs. The NGOs role assumes greater
significance in the following process of implementation of SGSY.

• Identification of Swarojgaris
• Formation of Groups
• Groups Stabilization
• Training and Capacity Building
• Linkage with Bank, Officials
• Grading process

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• Micro Credit
• Micro enterprises development

In this context it is high time to understand the process of Social Mobilization done by
the NGOs in the above said process and implementing SGSY, it is high time to
understand and to documents on what are the various methods followed for social
mobilization while implementing SGSY in their respective areas so that if any innovative
methods used, it can be popularized and used in the future.

Hence the present study would be the miles stone for exploring various methods used and
impact made through social mobilization for making the SGSY effective and efficient in
the future.

1.9 Scope of the Study

As per the earlier discussions and understanding, Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarozgar


Yojana (SGSY) emerged as major programme aimed at promotion of Self Help Groups
and establishing a large number of micro enterprises in the rural areas building upon the
potential of the rural poor. To wards this end, Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana is
conceived as a holistic programme of micro-enterprises covering all aspects of self
employment. With this single most important objective, the central and state governments
are concentrating in promoting large number of micro enterprises across the country.

In the context of impressive growth of SHGs and implementation of SGSY and emphasis
on role of NGOs in Social Mobilization in our country, it is high time to understand the
various methods used for social mobilization by the NGOs for effective implementation
of SGSY so that the same methods and process can be adopted and applied elsewhere in
our country while implementing SGSY and promoting the Self Help Groups in the years
to come.

Keeping all the above in mind, the present study as the following objectives:

1. What are the various methods used for Social Mobilization in promoting the SHGs and
SGSY?

2. How effective are those methods in fulfilling the expectations of SGSY guidelines?

3. Background of the NGOs and their role in social mobilization

4. Problems that arose during the process of social mobilization.

5. What are the important suggestions to improve social mobilization process?

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1.10 Objectives of the study:

The major objective of the study is to understand the various methods applied by the
concerned NGOs for the purpose of Social Mobilization in the context of SGSY and its
impact in the promotion of SHGs and growth of SGSY, the background of NGOs, and
their role in process of Social Mobilization.

The following are the specific objectives of the Study.

1. To study and document the profile and background of the NGOs which are
extensively involved in the process of social mobilization and promotion of
SGSY.
2. To study the various methods used for Social Mobilization for the promotion of
SGSY and SHGs.
3. To Study the various experiences gained and problems faced by the NGOs during
the Social Mobilization process in the context of SHGs and SGSY.
4. To Study the various impacts made out of Social Mobilization
5. To suggest and advocate the successful processes and methods of Social
Mobilization for those involved in the promotion of SHGs and implementation of
SGSY

1.11 Limitations of the study

The present study has been conducted based on the following limitations.
1. The present study is limited to Ahmednagar, Beed, Satara and Solapur districts of
the Maharashtra
2. Further it is restricted to the four NGOs in each district.
3. Further it is restricted to Social Mobilization process and Impact made on SGSY

The goal of social mobilization is to raise the status of the poor in a society through
capacity building for self-awareness, self-development and self-realisation. Hence, to
understand this process, the present study is proposed. In this chapter an attempt is made
to trace the origin of the NGOs, Role of NGOs in Social Mobilization and merging needs
for conducting a study on various methods used and impact made on social mobilization.
Also this chapter deals with the objectives of the study, statement of the problems,
limitation etc. The second chapter provides with research methods and related
information on the present study.

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Chapter II
Review of the Related Literature

2.1 Review of Conceptual understandings on Social Mobilization

2.2 Meaning of Mobilization

2.3 Social Mobilization as means for Empowerment process

2.4 Relationship between social mobilization and development process

2.5 Social Mobilization is the process

2.6 Social Mobilization is a methodology

2.7 Community Mobilization and inter relationship

2.8 Social Mobilization as a means for Human Resource Development

2.9 Socio-economic development and Social Mobilization

2.10 Substantial role of NGO in Social Mobilization

2.11 Review of related research studies

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Chapter II

Review of the Related Literature

2.1 Review of Conceptual understandings on Social Mobilization

In the previous Chapter, an attempt was made to understand the brief introduction about
the study, role of NGOs in social mobilization, objective of the study, need for the study
etc. The present chapter it is devoted to present and analysis on conceptual framework
and other related issues on the Social Mobilization with regards to the present study. An
extensive review of literature was made to highlights various conceptual clarities and
process of Social Mobilization and Role of NGOs in social mobilization for the purpose
of the present study.

2.2 Meaning of Mobilization

The concept of mobilization was first used to refer to the shifting of the control of
resources from private-civilian to public-military process. More recently, it has been
applied to a society’s deliberate increase in the control of a variety of assets, such as new
nation’s mobilization of economic resources for development (Prasad 2003).

According to Jenkins (1983) “Mobilization is the process by which a group secures


collective control over the resources needed for collection action. The major issues,
therefore, are the resources controlled by the group prior to mobilization efforts, the
processes by which the group pools recourses and directs these towards social change and
the extent to which outsiders increase the pool of resources.

Any scheme that ignores the intrinsic features of resources is, therefore, of limited values.
In response, most analysis has simply listed the assets that are frequently mobilized by
movements (McCarthy & Zald’s (1977) money, facilities, labor, and legitimacy: or
Tilly’s (1978:69), land, labor, capital and technical expertise).

Mobilization is the process, argues Barua (2001), by which energy that is latent from the
viewpoint of the acting unit is made available for collection action. A more mobilized
unit can get more done collectively either by increasing the number of goals it realizes or
by increasing the intensity with which it pursues those goals already realized. Barua feels
that it is essential in this discussion to maintain the differences among sub-units, units
and supra-units, because mobilization of one entity often entails the demobilization of
some others.

Mobilization is, by definition, according to Barua (2001), both a process of change and a
changing process. Mobilization is also conceived as the process by which potentials are
brought closer to actualization: the raw material is processed to provide the societal
energy to fuel the pursuit of societal goals, and energy locked in other entities is made
available.

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2.3 Social Mobilization as means for Empowerment process

Of late, great success has been achieved around the world in programmes like
immunization, eradicating illiteracy; empowerment of the weak and the underprivileged,
creating self managed institutions of the poor etc. One of the key elements responsible for
this success has been the concept of social mobilization, the process of bringing together
all feasible and practical inter-sectoral social allies to raise people’s awareness of and
demand for a particular development programme, to assist in the delivery of resources
and services and to strengthen community participation for sustainable and self-reliance
(Prasad 2003).

Social mobilization is about empowering the poor based on three vital parameters of
power namely (Prasad 2003), a) their own capital, b) their own knowledge, c) their own
organizations. Its idea of empowerment is based on the assumption that there are three
fundamental sources of power that is:
Capital is power and for self-reliance, the habit of saving must be included.
Knowledge is power; no development can be sustained without the process being
grounded in one’s own knowledge base, culture and skills.
Organization is power for participation to be effective and dynamic; the groups must
respect the principle of social, economic and cultural homogeneity.

Sakuntala Narasimhan (1999) says that the strategies for empowering women must focus
beyond economic restructuring to improve the social relations, which constrain and
restrain women. She stresses social assurance and motivation as the most important
directions, especially for rural SC and ST women, to fight for their cause. She equates
awareness with empowerment and argues that women need to be aware of what they can
do legally, positively and constructively to overcome their oppression and borrows
Amartya Sen’s view that “ what is important is not so much what people receive, as how
much involvement they have, and what part they play in the process of growth itself
( Sen, Amartya, The Hindu, Delhi,6.11.1995)

2.4 Relationship between social mobilization and development process

There is a symbiotic relationship between social mobilization and development process.


Social mobilization lies at the genuine development. It gives impetus to the necessary
changes that must occur before development whether social, political or economic-can be
realized (Prasad 2003).

Social mobilization, argues Ikoiwak (1989), in fact, is an essential surgical operation for
the removal or virulent tissues of development in a polity. These malignant tissues are old
or traditional economic, social, institutional, administrative, cultural system.

2.5 Social Mobilization as a process


Social Mobilization is a process of dialogue, negotiation and consensus building for
action by people, communities, and organizations etc. to identify, address and solve a

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common problem (UNICEF, 1997). It can be an effective strategy to create the kind of
supportive environment necessary to create sustained behavioral change that will bring
about community participation for sustainability and self-reliance. To achieve this
according to UNICEF (1997), the strategy mush reach from the highest levels of societal
power to the hardest to reach and the most disempowered families and community.

The social mobilization process deals with the whole reality, unlike many projects that
deal with a slice of reality, simplifying and fragmenting the life of the poor, their
problems and solutions. Therefore, these fragmented solutions result in problems
continuing even after the project ends. (Prasad 2003).

Each mobilization is derived from a thorough probing and understanding of felt needs in
due order of priority. The iterative nature of the process results in a progressive
deepening of their understanding of their problems and how they can be collectively
addressed. Through a process of reflection-action-reflection, the spirals of activities move
simultaneously on both the material front as well as on the mind. The important aspect of
social mobilization is that the minds of the people are affected, consciousness is raised
and creativity is realized while at the same time immediate material benefits are enjoyed
by the prime actors (Prasad 2003).

Social Mobilization, argues Reddy (2001) means the process in which major clusters of
old social, economic and psychological commitments are eroded or broken and people
become available for new patterns of socialization and behavior’.

2.6 Social Mobilization is a methodology

Social mobilization is methodologies for making the poor contribute to economic growth.
Rana (2001) is of the opinion that “social mobilization provides a non-violent way of the
morass of deprivation, alienation, insecurity, political graft, and corruption experienced
relentlessly over the past fifty years of development and democracy”.

Deutsch (1961) states that social mobilization is a name given to an overall process of
change that happens to sustainable parts of human population in countries that are
moving from traditional to modern ways of life. This specific process of change, he says,
affects residence, occupation, social setting, associates, institutions, roles and ways of
acting, demands and capabilities. Later, Deutsch gave a rather short hand definition of his
concept of social mobilization as “the process in which major clusters of old social,
economic, and psychological commitments are eroded or broken and people become
available for new patterns of socializations and behavior”.

Jarry Gana (1987) argues, “Social Mobilization is the process of pooling together,
harnessing, actualizing and utilizing potential human resources for the purpose of
development. It is process whereby human beings are made aware of the resources at
their disposal, and are also motivated and energized to collectively utilize such resources
for the improvement of their spiritual and material conditions of living”.

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Social Mobilization, according to Rana (1995a:5), may be defined as “the process of
enabling the poor, marginalized and disenfranchised segments of society to build and
manage their own organisations and thereby participate in decisions affecting their day-
to-day lives through the use of their own creativity”.

Social Mobilization, argues Cohen (1996), can also be defined as “a process of engaging
a large number of people in joint action for achieving societal goals through self-reliant
efforts. Its immediate expected outcomes are the mobilization of all possible resources
and the sustained adoption/utilization of appropriate policies, technologies or services
through the modification of attitudes and behavior of various social actors”.

According to Amarsinghe (2001), “social mobilization is a process of organizing the


target groups to take initiatives and assert themselves”. It seeks to make people more
aware of the resources available to them, to raise their consciousness and to give them the
motivation to undertake development activities for their own betterment in the long run
social mobilization aims at empowering people to demand and generate the satisfaction
of their needs.

2.7 Community Mobilization and inter relationship

Social mobilization is an approach and tool that enables people to organize for collective
action, by pooling resources and building solidarity required to resolved common
problems and work towards community advancement (UNDP, 2002). It is a process that
empowers women and men to organize their own democratically self-governing groups
or community organizations which enable them to initiate and control their own personal
and communal development, as opposed to mere participation in an initiative designed by
the government or an external origination (ibid, 2002).

Social mobilization is commonly considered to be an important dimension of capacity,


organisation and institution building, particularly, when relating to disadvantaged people.
Social mobilization may occur at all levels. Most often, however, the term is used for
activities in local communities, although not necessarily confined to such communities.
When thus confined, the process is commonly referred to as community mobilization.
This may involve whole communities or be limited to sections of communities (for
instance, land-less people or groups of particularly poor women).

The interrelationship between community mobilization/participation and social


mobilization needs to be clarified. For some, social mobilization seems to cover mostly
social movements initiated from the top in which persuasion and /or ‘manipulation’
techniques are used to reach objectives on a massive and rapid scale. Conversely,
community mobilization for participation is often viewed as spontaneous movements
initiated from the grassroots, which take the form of self-help and small-scale projects
(Prasad 2003).

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Avoiding this simplistic and counterproductive dichotomy, Cohen (1996) argues that
community mobilization and social mobilization can be made unified parts of the same
process of social change so that, ultimately, community mobilization is viewed as the
community component of the national development process.

The forces of community awareness and social mobilization for development unleashed
by the UNDP sponsored project motivated the rural community of Garhwal to move
ahead on the already created path of development. And the all-women Self Help Groups
took upon themselves the task of giving a fresh thrust to developmental acidities and
community empowerment. Rightly and appropriately, RLEK christened this programme
a “Prakriya”, meaning a process of change for the rural community. As pointed out by
Kaushal, with a people-centered approach, Prakriya continues to focus on community
mobilization and capacity rather than on the direct service delivery (Radhakrishna Rao-
2005)

2.8 Social Mobilization as a means for Human Resource Development

Community members can maximize their potential not only by organizing themselves but
also by upgrading their existing skills to better manage new inputs-business and
community initiatives and establish effective links with local government and other
sectors. The change agent can support direct training, exchange visits and other capacity
building activities based on needs identified by the members of the community
organizations. These can cover: organizational development, leadership, savings, and
credits programmes, agriculture, natural resource management, and other key areas.
Local human resource development can best be promoted when trained individuals take
up the responsibility to train other community members (Prasad 2003).

The massive expansion of the rural water supply infrastructure has gone hand in hand
with increased community participation, awareness generation and decentralized
management. Since women are the principal beneficiaries of the programme, they are
involved in all stages of implementation of rural water supply and sanitation schemes,
from hand pump mechanics to members of village water and sanitation committees.

2.9 Socio-economic development and Social Mobilization

Socio-economic development initiatives are a great incentive for community members to


organize themselves. It is important, therefore, that initiatives, which include social
mobilization, provide supports in the form of matching grants or access to credit,
marketing and other services that will lead to tangible improvements in socio-economic
conditions within the community. The process of identifying community priorities,
participatory planning, implementing and monitoring of community projects and
managing partnerships with local government, private sector and other actors helps not
only to improve local conditions but also to empower people and their organizations
(Prasad 2003).

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According to UNICEF (1997), dialogue is at the heart of social mobilization. Information
sharing and discussion are critical elements of effective communication. Dialogue
includes debate, disagreement and negotiation. It builds consensus and unities in diverse
sectors of society around a common purpose. Sometimes, mediation is required to bring
discussion and debate to agreement on problem definition, goals, or actions. Often
dialogue is a means to empowerment. It may overcome or diffuse resistance, lead to
compromise or to new ideas.

Besides dialogue, UNCEF (1997) is of the view that collecting; understanding and using
information are other critical components of social mobilization. If gathering and
disseminating information are to be a genuine part of social mobilization, it must involve
local communities, families and children in the design and implementation of research
and action. This includes identification of the problem and its cause, carrying out surveys
or interviews, giving feedback, discussing the results and deciding what action to take;
whether to organize local groups, advocate for a new service, or seek funds to create new
infrastructure.

2.10 Substantial role of NGO in Social Mobilization

In recent times, many grassroots micro movements also known as new social movements
have been taking place centering on contemporary issues of importance such as ecology,
environment, women empowerment, human rights, sharing of natural resources and the
like. The NGOs in India have contributed handsomely towards social activism through
intense campaigns, people’s mobilization programmes and effective networks. The
NGOs, as a social force facilitates collective action and people’s mobilization. The NGOs
play in making the people environmentally aware and sensitive to take part in the social
activism through social mobilization process (Biswambhar Panda et.al - 2003).

Empowerment of poor, particularly approach and social mobilization are the possible
process for eradicating poverty. Poverty can be effectively eradicated only when the poor
start contributing to the growth process through their active involvement. Voluntary
organization, community based self-help groups and local governmental organizations
have a substantial role to play says Sivasubramanian (1999)

2.11 Review of related research studies

The experiences across the country have shown that group formation and development
are not a spontaneous process. A facilitator working closely with the communities at
grassroots level can play a critical role in the group formation and development. The
quality of the groups can be influenced by the capacity of the facilitator. The facilitator
may or may not be a official. In some cases, NGOs can not only work as the facilitator
but also help in Social Mobilization, Training, and capacity building of facilitators being
used by DRDAs. DRDAs may support such sensitive support mechanisms in the shape of
NGOs or Community Based Organizations (CBOs) or Network of Community
Institutions (SGSY Guidelines).

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Vasudeva Rao in his study on the “Swasakti Banks” which are established, organised and
run by SC women through self-management, has observed many changes in the thinking
process of women through social effective social mobilization process. Those SC women
who were once passive recipients have now become vocal, articulate and active
stakeholders. They are able to ask for equal wage, assert self esteem, and are able to
provide better education, nutrition and health facilities for their girl children. On the
community front, they could stop the social evil of ‘Joginism’ a system akin to the
Devadasi system, found in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra under which the
girls from SC and BC are set apart under the name of wives of the gods Jogins, who are
actually harassed and exploited by the rich and powerful of the villages. (Kumar 2002)
and prevented men from taking alcohol. Thus the illiterate SC women could gradually
change the social scenario thanks to social mobilization process and initiatives.

Sundari and Geeta (2000) opine that the gender disparity in access to institutional credit
is gradually narrowing down over time. Women should be encouraged to undertake
micro enterprises with the available credit facilities by banks and other financial bodies.
Poverty is often the consequence of unemployment, which being gender related, leads to
feminization of poverty as poverty particularly affects women. However, authors suggest
that factors such as training and skill formation, technology upgrading, credit women’s
bank, supply of raw material and market, promotion of small savings and publicity could
contribute to empowering women.

According to Agarwal (2001), women need to be viewed not as beneficiaries but a active
participants in the process of development and change. Empowerment of women can be
effectively achieved if poor women could be organised into groups – for community
participation as well as for assertion of their rights in various services related to their
economic and social well being.

Women’s empowerment is not only in financial terms but also in attitudinal and
motivational factors. There is no need for much inventions and innovation to empower
rural women and what needed is reorientation, mobilization and realisation of women
friendly environment in the rural areas, says Devasia, (2001).

According to Anand (2001), empowerment is the process of building capacities of


creating an atmosphere, which enables people to fully utilize their creative potential in
pursuance of quality of life. Empowerment gives women the capacity to influence
decision-making process, planning, implementation and evaluation. It also deepens and
popularizes the democratic process.

According to Gurumoorthy (2000), empowering women contributes to social


development. Economic progress in any country whether developed or underdeveloped
could be achieved through social development. The Self Help Group disburses micro
credit to the rural women for the purpose of making them enterprising women and
encouraging them to enter into entrepreneurial activities.

15
In summary it may be indicated that for the purpose of present study, review of related
literature is treated as a continuous process (Conway et.al, 1070), starting with concept
identification and editing with more pertinent for the research problem currently
undertaken. The review pertinent to the earlier studies as shown in the preceding pages
had clearly indicated that studies specifically aimed at the Social Mobilization are very
scarce and particularly there is no objective study of the type described has hitherto been
undertaken.

16
Chapter III

Public Intervention in Poverty Elimination and the SGSY

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY)

3.3 Coverage of SGSY

3.4 Funds

3.5 Performance of SGSY

3.6 Self Employment and Wage Employment

17
Chapter III

Public Intervention in Poverty Elimination and the SGSY

3.1 Introduction

Poverty reduction has been one of the major goals of development planning since
independence and the planning process has been sensitive to the needs of the poor.
Accordingly, the development efforts have been directed in creating adequate livelihoods
and provision of services for a better quality of life for the poor. It is recognized that
poverty is an outcome of multiple deprivations and it is not simply a matter of inadequate
income but also a matter of low literacy, short life expectation and lack of basic needs
such as drinking water. Since these deprivations are inter-related, a comprehensive
approach alone can eliminate poverty and ensure optimal utilization of human resources
for sustainable development. Thus, multi-pronged and convergent approaches with
proper targeting are deemed essential for elimination of poverty. It is also recognized that
poverty is not only an economic phenomenon but also a social one. Well designed
poverty alleviation programmes, if effectively implemented, not only supplement the
poverty reducing effects of growth but also could promote pro-poor growth.

Several poverty alleviation programmes have been in place for a long time now. The
programmes and schemes have been modified, consolidated, expanded and improved
over time. The targeted programmes fall into four broad categories: (i) self-employment
programmes, (ii) wage employment programmes, (iii) direct cash transfers to the targeted
groups and (iv) public distribution system. There are numerous centrally sponsored
schemes (CSS) under the first three categories which are designed by the Centre,
administered by the Ministry of Rural Development, but implemented by the States,
which generally contributing 25 per cent to their cost. In addition, some State
governments have their own poverty-reduction schemes. There has been multiplicity of
programmes on the grounds of multi-dimensionality of poverty, heterogeneity of the poor
and inter-state variations in the efficacy of the delivery system.

3.2 Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY)

In April 1999, the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was restructured
and combined with Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Supply of
Improved Tools for Rural Artisans (SITRA), Ganga Kalyan Yojana, Million Wells
Scheme (MWS) and Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA),
and a single self-employment programme known as Swarnajayanti GramSwarojgar
Yojana (SGSY) was put in place. The basic objective of SGSY is to bring the assisted
poor families above poverty line by providing them income-generating assets through
bank credit and government subsidy. Formation of organizations of the poor at the
grassroots level through a process of social mobilization for poverty reduction is central
to the programme. The approach of SGSY is based on SHGs that have to act as a
financial intermediary and in many cases there are women SHGs which are also expected
to serve as vehicle for their empowerment. Non-Government organizations (NGOs) are

18
expected to facilitate the formation of these groups. The community involvement as
emphasized in SGSY, in contrast to IRDP, is reflected in the mobilization for the
formation of SHG groups.

SGSY has been conceived as a holistic self-governing programme covering all aspects of
self-employment of the rural poor such as organization of the poor into SHGs, their
capacity building, selection of key activities, planning of activity clusters, infrastructure
build-up, technology and market support (See Box 1.1). The main tenets of the SGSY
are: (a) key activities, (b) cluster approach, and (c) group method. The first reduces the
number of activities; the second shrinks the geographical spread to fewer contiguous or
selected villages; and the third reduces the number of clients from a large number of
individuals to a small number of groups and enables peer group monitoring associated
with self-governing institutions. All these are expected to reduce the burden of follow-up
and the extension inputs for providing backward and forward linkages. The programme
aims at establishing a large number of micro enterprises by the poor in rural areas by
augmenting the ability of the poor in a manner appropriate to the potential of each area.
Financial assistance under SGSY is given in the form of subsidy by government and
credit by the banks.

Box 1.1
Salient Features of SGSY

• A Centrally sponsored self-employment scheme. Funding is shared between the


Centre and the State in the ratio of 75:25. For North-Eastern States, the ratio is
90:10.

• The scheme is implemented by District Rural Development Agency (DRDAs)/


Zilla Parishads through Panchayat Samitis with active involvement of Panchayats
based on the funds provided for the SGSY.

• NGOs, CBOs and Self Help Promoting Institutions (SHPIs) are assisted up to
Rs.10,000 per group by government for the formation and development of Self
Help Groups (SHGs)

• DRDA may incur a maximum amount of 10 per cent of allocation towards


training and capacity building

• SGSY Infrastructure Fund comprises upto 20 per cent of the allocation to States
and 25 percent in the case of North Eastern States.

• DRDA provides Rs.10,000 to each SHG as Revolving Fund, banks provide cash
credit of Rs.15,000 for Grade-I SHGs.

• Banks provide loans to Grade-II SHGs with minimum repayment period of three

19
to five years depending on the nature of scheme.

• Subsidy under SGSY is uniform at 30 per cent of the project cost, subject to a
maximum of Rs.7,500 per Swarojgari (Rs.10,000 for SC/ST / disabled
Swarojgari)

• Swarojgaris are not entitled for benefit of subsidy if the loan is fully repaid before
the lock-in period.

• The programme envisages establishing a large number of microenterprises by the


poor in rural areas with an emphasis on four to five key activities identified at the
block level based on resources, occupational skills of the people and availability
of markets.

3.3 Coverage of SGSY

Nearly 31 lakh SHGs were formed over a period of ten years since 1999-00 (Table 1.1).
Out of them, 20 lakh obtained the status of Grade I and 9.5 lakh Grade II. But only about
seven lakh SHGs could obtain credit for undertaking economic activities. Thus the
proportion of SHGs taking up economic activities financed by bank credit and supported
by subsidy was only 22 per cent. The programme since inception assisted 1.06 crore
Swarojgaris. Social composition of the assisted Swarojgaris was in favour of the most
vulnerable groups, such as scheduled tribes and scheduled castes, which accounted for
nearly half of the assisted swarojgaris in 2007-08. Women accounted for 66 per cent,
disabled two percent and minorities 8.4 per cent.

The relatively small number of assisted swarojgaris indicates the modest scale of the
programme when compared with the huge rural workforce in need of livelihoods outside
agriculture. Nevertheless, the programme has been able to create a productive base
among the most disadvantaged persons in rural areas. The efficacy of SGSY could be
improved in the years ahead if its experiences are reviewed, lessons are drawn for the
future and it is appropriately restructured. The MoRD proposal for universalizing the
SHG coverage of all poor households by 2013 and increasing the proportion of assisted
persons among swarojgaris to 50 per cent from the existing 22 per cent is a welcome
initiative in this direction (MoRD, Poverty Eradication in India by 2015, Government of
India, 15 November 2008).

20
Table 1.1
Physical Progress under SGSY since Inception

Since most of the rural poor are crowded in the low productivity primary sector activities,
the success of the programme depends on raising their ability to diversify into other high
productive activities. Most of the assisted SHGs were engaged in primary sector with
little diversification in their livelihood base (Figures 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3). In 2007-08, about
two-thirds of the assisted swarojgaris were engaged in primary sector, with dairy activity
alone accounting for 50 per cent. Even in the better performing State of Andhra Pradesh,
the income gain to a swarojgari from enterprise activities under SGSY was a mere
Rs.1,228 per month (P. Purushotham, Institutional Credit for Rural Livelihoods: A Study
of SGSY in the Regions of High Poverty, NIRD, 2008). The small income gain to
swarojgaris from enterprise activities was due to low productive traditional activities in
which the swarojgaris were engaged in and also due to low absorption of technology.
Unless at least one member of the family acquires skills and engages in high value
addition activities, a BPL family may not move out of poverty. It is in this context, the
proposal of MoRD to cover 1.7 crore BPL households by 2015 under skill development
and placement is to be seen as an encouraging step (MoRD, op cit).

21
3.4 Funds

For the implementation of a nation-wide centrally sponsored programme like SGSY,


adequate resource allocation is essential. In 1999- 2000, the first year of launching
SGSY, the funds available were Rs.1,962 crore, but it declined to Rs. 1,608 crore in the
very next year and varied between Rs.1200 to Rs.1400 crore per year between 2001-02
and 2005- 06 (Table 1.2). Though the fund showed an increasing trend since 2004- 05, it
could not cross the 1999-00 level till 2008-09. The total fund available for the
programme over the ten years of the programme was Rs 16,188 crore but the utilization
was only 74 per cent (Rs.11,963 crore) during this period. Clearly, the utilization of funds

22
improved over the years from 49 per cent in 1999-00 to over 80 per cent in recent years.
The resource allocation to SGSY has been on a very modest scale, compared to the recent
wage employment programme like the NREGP for which a sum of Rs.35,583 crore was
released over the last two and a half years and a budget allocation of Rs.28,000 crore for
just one year, 2009-10. The under-utilization of available funds could be due to lack of
motivation on the part of poor as well as inability to shift from wage employment to self-
employment. This suggests that the capacity of the poor to take up self-employment
activities needs to be strengthened considerably to pursue viable self-employment.

The ground reality is that only six per cent of the total SGSY funds were utilized for
training and capacity building during the past one decade (Table 1.2). Its share remained
at a low level of about six per cent and only recently it is close to the expected ten per
cent. Similarly, only 16 per cent of the total funds were utilized for infrastructure
development over the ten year period. Still worse, the over all utilization rate declined
over the years. Almost two-thirds of the funds went for subsidy, thus earning an epithet
that SGSY is subsidy-driven! Ill-trained groups in SGSY would be a severe handicap in
moving towards the Eleventh Five Year Plan goal of inclusive growth. In the case of hard
core poor, priority should be for providing handholding till they escape poverty.

23
Credit: The failure in the spread of the programme and the limited absorbing capacity
kept even the targets of credit more or less at a constant level. The target for credit under
SGSY increased very moderately from Rs.3,205 crore in 1999-00 to over Rs.3,744 crore
in 2007-08 at current prises (Table 1.3). Credit actually mobilized was only Rs.1,056
crore in 1999-2000 and rose to Rs.2,760 crore in 2007-08 but still much below the target.
It is important to find out the reasons for the persistent wide gap between the credit
targets set and the actual mobilization of credit. The ratio of credit to subsidy was about
two during the period and did not vary much from year to year. Thus, credit- subsidy
ratio remained much below the target ratio of 3:1. This is partly due to failure to
strengthen the demand side of the credit by improving the capacity of the poor to absorb
credit for income generating activities. But it is also due to supply side failures. The
financial services did not have the systems and procedures suited to the poor. On the
whole, credit and related indicators show that SGSY-bank linkage is yet to take off from
the perspective of credit facilitating the growth of micro enterprises. It signifies the
failure of both credit delivery systems to reach the poor as well as that of public
intervention to promote credit-worthy Swarojgaris.

24
Investment: The cumulative investment (credit + subsidy) over the period of ten years
was Rs 24,375 crore, consisting of Rs 16,412 crore of credit and Rs.7,963 crore as
subsidy (Tabale 1.3). The annual investment increased from Rs. 1600 crore in 1999-2000
to Rs 4,049 crore in 2007-08. As compared to the target of Rs.25,000, the average per
beneficiary investment during the period was Rs.22,995. This low level of investment
might be the reason for the low income gains accrued to swarjgaris engaged in enterprise
activities catering to local markets. There is need to raise productivity levels of SHGs by
increasing the investment level along with better technology. Relaxing economic norms,
especially bank lending to poor, would be justifiable in the case of these programmes so
long as they serve their priority objective of getting the poor out of the poverty trap.
However, micro-enterprises under SGSY need to be judged strictly by productivity and
viability.

3.5 Performance of SGSY

The experiences of some states show that with proper institutional architecture, the SHG
mode of collective action by the poor from the primary level (SHGs at village level) to
the district level (SHG federations) has been successful in mobilizing the poor. SHG
federations and their supporting institutions also facilitate more effective interaction with
the government and banking agencies. In many states, in the absence of appropriate pro-
poor institutions, SHGs are unable to achieve upward mobility with their own initiatives.
Further, poverty-reduction programmes such as SGSY often end up in the poor becoming
dependent on the government or other external interventions. The test of empowerment
of the poor lies in their ability to utilize effectively the programmes meant for their
development. Such programmes, collectively, should operate like a conveyor belt
receiving the hardcore poor at one end and releasing the empowered poor at the other
end.

Results of evaluation of the SGSY (Planning Commission, Mid- Term Appraisal of 10th
Five Year Plan 2002-07, Government of India, 2005, pp.238-242) show inadequate
infrastructure and insufficient capacity building as main constraints. Most of the factors
responsible for its poor performance relate to weaknesses in delivery systems. Cluster
approach has also been a non-starter in many of the states. DRDAs and the line
departments of most of the state governments have failed in providing non-credit inputs
to the Swarojgaris. Above all, the building up of gender perspective in the programme
has been conspicuously absent in many parts of the country. While the proportion of
about 15 per cent of funds earmarked for infrastructure development may not be small, it
is the total budgetary allocation made and the funds made available for the scheme which
appear to be too meager. The budgetary allocation to SGSY will have to be increased and
utilized efficiently if significant impact on poverty is to be made. The utilization of six
per cent to seven per cent for training and capacity building falls short of the target of 10
per cent. Funds for training and capacity building should be substantially raised along
with larger budgetary allocations for the SGSY as a whole.

25
The performance of SGSY was unsatisfactory in the states with high incidence of poverty
such as Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, West Bengal and Bihar.
The constraints underline their poor performance mostly relate to the delivery system. In
most of the above States, functionaries of DRDAs and BDOs did not possess adequate
knowledge of the programme and also banks had little interest in it, line departments
were hardly involved in planning, implementation and monitoring of the programme
(Purushotham, 2008 op cit). Consequently, very few swarojgaris could avail adequate
level of bank credit for investment. For instance, bank credit in Assam was as low as
Rs.665 per swarojgari. The poor performance of SGSY in East and North-east can be
seen in Table 1.4. In East and North-East, the credit disbursed as a proportion of credit
targeted in 2007-08 was low at about 40 per cent as against to the all India’s 73 percent.
Consequently, per swarojgari investment (credit plus subsidy) was low at Rs.19,700. The
Ministry of Rural Development sponsored study on “Evaluation of Functioning and
Implementation of SGSY”, though dated, brings out a number of deficiencies in the
delivery system (Box 1.2).

Box 1.2
What Went Wrong?
Delivery System
• Delay in sanctioning of loans, non-cooperation of the banks and lack of proper
guidance were creating problems
• There was lack of coordination between bank branches and block officials
• No effective monitoring was being made after sanctioning loans

26
• A number of SHGs were formed with the intension of availing the revolving fund
and subsidy and no economic activity was carried out
• In most of the areas, especially in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, influential persons in
the village were found to own a group

Project Outcomes

• Most of the assets (46 per cent) created under SGSY were livestock assets.
• 67 per cent of the beneficiaries were women, and 47 per cent were from the social
group of SC/ST and physically handicapped were 2.4 per cent.
• 46 per cent SHGs achieved improvement in their incomes through SGSY
activities
• 40 per cent SHGs reported increase in savings

Source: MoRD, Annual Report 2002-03, Government of India, 2003,


http://rural.nic/in/annual/0203/chapter-5/pdf.

In contrast to the Eastern states, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu show
successful implementation of the programme largely because of the existence of umbrella
organizations at the state level. These organizations promote formation of SHGs, ensure
thrift, establish bank linkage and facilitate capacity building. Also, they federate the
SHGs into effective self-governing organizations with a hierarchy of appropriate
functions, including ensuring coordination with the line departments. The Kudumbasree
in Kerala with active linkages with the PRI and the AP model which relies on federations
of SHGs have acquired the shape of effective organizations of the poor. Federations
acting as financial intermediary which is a high skill activity require investments in
training for enhancing their skill base. This also involves institutional partnerships
between SHGs / federations with the bankers. The ideal institutional strategy could be
based on the experiences of Kerala, Andhra Pradesh or Tamil Nadu. However, for a
country like India, no single strategy may be suitable, and alternatives need to be
developed where appropriate.

3.6 Self-employment and wage-employment

The preceding discussion brings out that the poor performance of SGSY is due to poor
quality of SHGs. Giving the poor viable livelihood in self-employment activities is an
extremely challenging and time-taking task. The programme should now move forward
with a two-pronged strategy of extending the base and activating the economy of the
hardcore poor to integrate it with the mainstream economy. Extending the base is
relatively easy, particularly in target-driven programmes. Integrating the economy of the
hardcore poor with the mainstream by giving them viable livelihoods with potential for
upward mobility is a far more challenging task. SGSY should team up with other
programmes and development oriented line departments to look beyond its own targets.

27
Need for Restructuring SGSY: The experience of the SGSY brings out that with the best
of the efforts in social mobilization, organizing SHGs, building up their capacities and
putting in place effective federal organizations of the poor, even in Kerala and Andhra
Pradesh, only about one-fourth of the SHGs could actually undertake self-employment
activities. Even among these self-employment activities, the average monthly earnings
per swarojgari in better performing states of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala is observed to
be as low as Rs.2,000 per month and there has been an element of self-exploitation
among women involved. This draws attention to the fact that poor households depend on
multiple sources of income which may include wage-employment and self employment.
Creating high productive self-employment opportunities is not only a time taking process
but also such opportunities may not exist in all places. Hence, paying attention to only
self-employment as a means of poverty reduction will miss a large proportion of poor
households. Therefore, there is a strong case for combining skill-based wage employment
with self-employment programmes. SGSY should be restructured so as to include
training in skills which enables placement based wage-employment, in addition to
generating self-employment.

28
Chapter IV
Research Methodology

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Definition of the term used in this study

4.3 Objectives of the study

4.4 Research design and methodology

4.5 Sampling Selection

4.6 Pilot study

4.7 Data Collection Analysis

4.8 Presentation of results

4.9. Summary

29
Chapter IV

Research Methodology

4.1 Introduction:

The present chapter is devoted to formulation of objectives, research designed & adopted,
sampling selection, construction of research tools, pilot study conducted, data collection
and its methods of analysis. The reviews of literature, personal inquiries and discussions
with various practitioners and NGO’s functionaries have lead to the next step of
formulating of objectives which is considered as a central step in any research attempt.

4.2 Definition of the term used in this study

1. Social Mobilization: The Term “Social Mobilization” is operationally defined in


this study as “the process in which various approaches and tools used by the
NGOs to organize and promoting Self Help Groups in the Context of SGSY”
2. N.G.O: The term “NGO is operationally defined as “the organizations as a social
force that facilitates collective action and people’s mobilization and involved in
promoting Self Help Groups under SGSY through various social mobilization
processes in the study areas”.
3. SGSY: The Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is the latest poverty
alleviation programme that has been in operation since 1st April, 1999. SGSY
focuses on groups approach by organizing the poor into Self Help Groups (SHGs)
through social mobilization. SGSY is aimed at establishment of large number of
micro-enterprises and expects to ensure that the groups’ members come out of
poverty clutches through incremental income of around Rs. 2000/- p.m. within 2-
3 years of group’s formation.
4. Self Help Group: The term “SHGs” is operationally defined and used for the
purpose of the present study “Self Help Groups are usually informal groups
whose members have a common perception of need and importance towards
collective action. These groups promote savings among members and use the
pooled resources to meet the emergent needs of their members, including
consumption and income generation.

4.3 Objectives of the study:

The major objective of the study is to understand the various processes and methods
applied by the concerned NGOs for the purpose of Social Mobilization in the context of
SGSY, and its impact in the promotion of SHGs and growth of SGSY, the background of
NGOs, and their role in process of Social Mobilization. The following are the specific
objectives of the Study.

1. To describe the profiles of the NGOs which are extensively involved in the
process of social mobilization and promotion of SGSY.

30
2. To study the various methods used for Social Mobilization for the promotion of
SGSY and SHGs.
3. To Study the various experiences gained and problems faced by the NGOs during
the Social Mobilization process in the context of SHGs and SGSY.
4. To analyse the various impacts made out of Social Mobilization
5. To suggest and advocate the successful processes and methods of Social
Mobilization for those involved in the promotion of SHGs and implementation of
SGSY

4.4 Research design and methodology

The present investigation has adopted exploratory nature. The exploratory design was
selected due to the very nature of the issues, respondents, and type of question rose, for
generating data. The nature of data obtained for the present study is qualitative in nature.
The data / information were collected from 4 NGOs in the state of Maharashtra i.e.,
Ahmednagar, Beed, Solapur and Satara. One NGO was selected from each District. The
explorative study is used for exploring the various processes, methods and tools used by
the NGOs for social mobilization in the context of SGSY.

4.5 Sampling Selection

The purposive sampling was adopted while identifying the NGOs when the investigator
identified the NGOs for the study; the following criteria were kept in mind to avoid
causality errors.

1. The NGO which has completed five years in existence


2. The NGO which has more than 300 Groups
3. The NGO which has active link with DRDA
4. The NGO extensively involved in social mobilization process
5. The NGOs linked with SGSY schemes.

Based on the above conditions, there are 4 NGOs in four districts namely, Ahmednagar,
Beed, Satara and Solapur districts were identified for the present study.

Name of District Name of NGO Number of SHGs


Ahmednagar Navjivan Gramodaya Pratishthan 405
Beed Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal 854
Satara Shramik Janata Vikas Sanstha 865
Solapur Mahatma Phule Samaj Seva Mandal 340

4.6 Pilot study

In order to perfect the structured interview schedule and get an idea for conducting
formal and informal interaction and observation, pilot study was conducted with two
NGOs working in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. For this purpose, the Self Help
Group’s members, officials of the NGOs and DRDA connected with SHG and SGSY

31
scheme were contacted and consulted. This pilot study has helped the researcher to
prepare the structured interview schedules, and to formulate the ideas for the formal and
informal interaction to be done during the data collection. After formulating the ideas, the
data were collected from the officials of the NGOs and SHG’s members.

4.7 Construction of the Tools

The tools of inquiry required for the study were constructed at different stages. At the
first state, the investigator reviewed available secondary data and details, available with
the official documents in the DRDA, which were helpful in identification of relevant
attributes for the purpose of the study.

At the second stage, various discussions were held with the Project Officers, Assistant
Project Officers, Block Development Officials and others who are connected with the
implementation of SGSY which helped the researcher to focus on the significance of the
study and preparing suitable the tools for the study.

In the next stage, based on the various consultations and discussions, it was decided to
collect data by adopting the following techniques and tools

A. Observation technique in the field


B. Informal interaction with Self Help Group’s members
C. Formal interaction with officials of DRDA, and NGOs concerned.
D. Structured interview schedule (open ended) for NGO Officials

4.8 Data Collection and Analysis

The data was collected with NGOs directly with the help of above said tools and methods
by experienced data enumerators along with the investigator. The study was conducted
with 4 NGOs using the above said criteria. The collected data were presented in the form
of profiles of the NGOs and qualitative analysis was used for the presentation of data
related to the methods and process for social mobilization by the NGOs in a cumulative
format.

4.9 Summary

In this chapter the methodology aspects of the study is presented. After deeper analysis of
the study process and clarity on the chosen methods, a suitable research design has been
evolved. Accordingly, it is considered that presentation of profile of the NGOs and
qualitative analysis of data collected was more suitable and it has been applied for the
purpose of data analysis for this study.

The next chapter deals with analysis and interpretation of the results.

32
Chapter V
Data Analysis and Interpretation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Profile of NGOs under study

a. Profile of Navjivan Gramodaya Pratishthan, Ahmednagar

b. Profile of Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal, Beed

c. Profile of Shramik Janata Vikas Sanstha, Satara

d. Profile of Mahatma Phule Samaj Seva Mandal, Solapur

5.3 Presentation of Qualitative Data

33
Chapter V
Data Analysis and Interpretation
5.1 Introduction

The major objective of the present study is to find out the various methods used for the
social mobilization in the context of SGSY by the NGOs in the study areas. In order to
collect data, various tools and techniques, listed in the previous chapter, were adopted in
the study. The exercise of pilot study has helped the researcher to refine and focus the
importance of data to be collected.

The primary data were collected through various tools and methods such as interview
schedule, formal and informal interactions, and observations. The collected data have
been presented in the form of profile of the NGOs, and presentation of qualitative
analysis of the methods used for social mobilization by NGOs in a cumulative format.

This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to presentation of profile
of the NGOs studied and second part is devoted to presentation of qualitative data
analysis of the data collected from the SHG’s members, and officials from the NGOs in
the respective district.

5.2 Profiles of the NGOs under Study

a) Profile of Navjivan Gramodaya Pratishthan, Ahmednagar

1. Name and Address of the NGO

Navjivan Gramodaya Pratishthan,


Kamkar Niwas,
At. Post. Tal. Pathardi, Dist. Ahmednagar 414102

Registered Office Head & Administrative Office


At. .Post. &Tal. Shevgaon Kamkar Niwas,
Dist. Ahmednagar 414 502 At. Post. Tal. Pathardi,
Dist. Ahmednagar 414102

34
2. Details of Branch Offices if any.

Field Office Field Office


--
Shree Kesheriroop Maharana Palace
Risala Bazar, Near Civil Hospital
At. Post. Tal &Dist:- Hingoli

3. Years of Existence in operational areas.

From 1994 to 2010 Total years 16 years

4. Legal status of the NGO

Sr.No Registration under which Act Yes / No


1 Societies Registration Act – 1860 Yes
2 Bombay Public Trust Act – 1950 Yes
3 Under Section 12 – A of Income Tax Act Yes
4 Under Section 80 – G of Income Tax Act Yes
5 Foreign Contribution Regulation Act - 1976 Yes

5. Organizational Management Structure.

The organization is managed by the Board of seven trustees. Organisation’s programme


administration looked after by the Secretary.

6. Type of NGO

The NGOs is concentrating on the following core type activities

 Development
 Training
 Campaign
 Advocacy

7. Core Organizational objectives


1. Socio Economic development of the poorest among the poor
2. Promoting holistic development of the people
3. Extending relief and referral activities.
4. Health empowerment activities
5. Promotion and organisation of self help groups
6. Promotion of income generation activities
7. Educational promotion and empowerment
8. Non- formal Education and literacy development

35
9. Social education and community Development
10. Women and Child development

8. Operational Areas

District Blocks No. of Panchayats No. of Villages


Ahmednagar Pathardi 78 85
Hingoli Aundha Nagnath 1 1
Pune Shirur 8 8

9. Target Groups

1. Farmers
2. Women and Children
3. Bonded labor

10. Type of Activities

1. Promotion of Self Help Groups


2. Special schools
3. Training
4. Counseling
5. Micro Credit
6. Income Generation Activities.

11. Type of Economic activities

1. Dairy forming
2. Vermin culture
3. Petty Shops
4. Gen cuttings

12. Type of Economic activities under SGSY

1. Dairy forming
2. Vermin culture
3. Petty shops
4. Gen cuttings

13. Involvement in implementation of SGSY and SHGs

Number of SHGs Number of SHGs Number of Groups


formed provided with RF under provided with E A
SGSY
405 356 278

36
14. Supporter for the NGOs

Name of the Organisation


State Level Ministry of Rural Development
DRDA, Zilla Parishad, Ahmednagar
Health Department, Zilla Parishad Ahmednagar
Department of Women and Child Development,
Mumbai
National Level NABARD
Foreign Sources Indo German Social Service Society,
Ahmednagar
GTZ, Germany

b) Profile of Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal (YGVM), Beed

1. Name and Address of the NGO


Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal (YGVM)
Akshay Niwas, Dharur Road
At.Post.Tal. Kaij, Dist. Beed 431123

Registered Office Head & Administrative Office


At. Post.Warapgaon, Tal. Kaij, Dist. Beed Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal (YGVM)
Akshay Niwas, Dharur Road
At.Post.Tal. Kaij
Dist. Beed 431123

2. Details of Branch Offices if any.


Field Office Field Office
No field office

3. Years of Existence in operational areas.

From 1985 to 2010 Total years 25 years

4. Legal status of the NGO

Sr.No Registration under which Act Yes / No


1 Societies Registration Act – 1860 Yes
2 Bombay Public Trust Act – 1950 Yes
3 Under Section 12 – A of Income Tax Act Yes
4 Under Section 80 – G of Income Tax Act Yes
5 Foreign Contribution Regulation Act - 1976 Yes

37
5. Organizational management structure.

YGVM is managed by the Executive Committee, which consists of 9 active members.


Organisation’s programme administration looked after by the Executive Secretary.

6. Type of NGO

The NGOs is concentrating on the following core type activities

 Development and Research


 Welfare and Rehabilitation

7. Core Organizational objectives

1) To attempt for the overall development of Dalits, tribals, de-notified tribes,


farmers, land laborers, marginalized farmers as well as women and children from
all the categories.
2) To undertake studies and conduct research on different social, economical,
cultural, and educational and health issues prevailing in the society.
3) To use available information and the innovations and create awareness at society
level utilizing various campaign mediums as well as creating occasional and in-
occasional material required for such campaigns.
4) To conduct and impart trainings to the activists at various levels engaged in social
development
5) To achieve the tasks of rural development through the science, technologies and
the informal education as well as initiating activities to solve the basic problems
like education, health and culture faced by the deprived lives in urban areas
6) To organize, conduct and participate in the discussions, conversations, trainings,
people’s collective programmes and the meets that could be helpful to achieve /
fulfill above aims
7) To receive and even extend all the possible support and help from and to the
individuals and organizations to implement and conduct the expected programmes
according to the aims and the objectives of the organization.

8. Operational Areas

District Blocks No. of Panchayats No. of Villages


Beed Kaij 87 87
Beed Dharur 49 49
Latur Latur 12 12
Osmanabad Omerga 09 09
Osmanabad Osmanabad 14 14

38
9. Target Groups

1. Schedule tribes (Pardhi) and Schedule casts


2. Women and children
3. Small and marginal farmers
4. Disables in all types
5. Youths & Adolescents
6. Small and Marginal farmers

10. Type of Activities

1. Promotion of Self Help Groups


2. Micro Credit under various model
3. Old Age home
4. Integrated skill training programme
5. Income generation programme
6. Total Rural Sanitation Programme
7. Dalit women empowerment activities
8. Natural forming and food processing
9. Creche programme
10. Short stay home
11. Environmental awareness programme
12. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan

11. Type of Economic activities

1. Tailoring
2. Cleaning powder
3. Petty trading
4. Banjara Embroidery

12. Type of Economic activities under SGSY


1. Tailoring
2. Cleaning powder
3. Petty trading
4. Banjara Embroidery

13. Involvement in implementation of SGSY and SHGs

Number of SHGs Number of SHGs Number of Groups


formed provided with RF under provided with E A
SGSY
854 598 487

39
14. Supporter for the NGOs

Name of the Organisation


State Level DRDA-Zilla Parishad -Beed
Maharashtra Aids Control Society. Govt. of
Maharashtra
National Level Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. GOI New
Delhi.
NABARD - Pune
Center Social Welfare Board-New Delhi
Women & Child Development Department, New Delhi
Ministry of Textiles New Delhi
Foreign Sources CASA, Mumbai
Indo-German Social Service Society, Pune
CORDAID Netherlands
DFID-UK
WATERAID – U.K
SWISS AID Pune
CARITAS- New Delhi.
Consulate General of Japan
Hivos Bangalore

ACHIEVMENTS:

Livelihood through Government Schemes: This is non supported activity continued by


the organisation as additional activities supported under various projects. It is a fact that
though ample of schemes has been launched at government level for the improvement
and betterment of underprivileged the people are vulnerable to the benefit thereof. The
organisation is sincerely attempting to affiliate eligible beneficiaries with govt. schemes
so that their life of standard is improved. The families assisted to avail benefits under
various government schemes during the year ware as under.

Sr. Nature of Families Total


Govt. Scheme Title
No Benefit Benefited
1 Annabhau Sathe BCD Corporation Ltd. Loan 126 103 229
2 Mahatma Phule BCD Corporation Ltd. Loan 192 003 195
Vasantrao Naik Tribal Development
3 Loan 298 97 395
Corporation Ltd
4 Jivandhara Scheme Grant 47 35 82
5 Jawahar Rojgar Schema Grant 30 11 41
6 Weaker Section Development Scheme Equipment 98 37 135
7 Sanjay Gandhi Niradhar Yojana Pension 67 34 101
8 Indira Gandhi Niradhar Yojana Pension 54 36 90
9 Social Security Scheme Insurance 23 17 40

40
10 Indira Gandhi Gharkul Yojana Housing 78 65 143
1013 438 1451

Local Community Empowerment Programme: In continuation of the programme the


organization was succeeded to organize and conduct mob level open community
sensitization cum education programmes especially for Dalit community and the women
member of the SHGs promoted under the organization the issues like very survival,
livelihood, and education. Health, reservations and equalities ware concentrated during
the programme.

Development Project for Child Labour : the programme was launched in 2005 at red
light area, Kaij. The Government of Maharashtra has been extended approval to run
informal school for about 50 students who are child labors from vulnerable families. The
school runs from 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 P.m. (Monday to Saturday) and given the education in
non-formal ways. Along with formal education children are equipped with vocational
inputs, examine medically, and provided with mid day meal. Every enrolled child has
opened saving account and mobilized saving so far is worth Rs. 4100/- That has been
deposited in the area bank At. the end of the year out 50 children 40 contested for the
final exams of which 11 children have been enrolled in the formal education institution
also bal kamgar school have been started.

HIV/AIDS TI Programme: There are growing number of HIV/AIDS death in the area
the reasons are mass migration of cane harvesting labors, the red-light areas in the
district, lack of awareness and sex education and National highway passing from the
district. Maharashtra AIDS Control Society Mumbai and Yuva Gram jointly implement
their programme. This programme is covering 300 CSWs from Kaij and Georai and
extends counseling, medical aid and health education support to the CSW and the clients.

Programme Highlights: Condom Distribution / Constitution of four SHGs/


Demonstration for condom application Conducting HIV tests/ Organizing and conduction
community awareness events/Support to combat women exploitation / Credit linkages to
banks etc. We have successfully implemented this programme from 2005 to May 2009.

Jalswaraj Drinking Water and Sanitation Programme : Yuva Gram since last 6 years
works for promotion of safe sanitation and hygiene practices. Working with WATER
AID UK has built our capacities in handing the critical issues of safe drinking water and
hygiene. Considering our past working experience Yuva Gram has been selected by
Government of Maharashtra to work as support organization in three districts namely
Beed, Osmanabad and Latur. Presently we work in 34 villages of three districts. Yuva
Gram does have separate administrative and fieldwork setup for three districts.

Y.B. Chavan Open University Course: Yuva Garam does run SHG promoters (Prerak
prerika) training course for six months I affiliation with Yashavantrao Chavan Open
University. This course This course is arranged by organization since four years. This
year 14 students ware enrolled for the course who ware passed with good marks. All the

41
candidates are placed in grass root organization in the district. Trained staff of
organization as designed by university conducts regular batches.

Workshops/ Trainings / Gatherings


Sr.
Particulars of the Programme Date Place AttendanceResource Persons
No
Adv. Rege & Datta
1 Women and Atrocities 23.06.2008 Kaij 242
Khandagle
Adv. Munde & Adv.
2 Women Rights & Governances 27.09.2008 Kaij 220
Waghmare
PD.DRDA &
3 Women and Govt. Schees 29.12.2008 Dharur 211
Tahsildar- Kaij
4 Health Issues & Policies 19.02.2009 Omerga 194 Dr. Ketan Bodhe
5 Women – Sexual exploitation 21.03.2009 Kaij 178 Adv. Pandit
Legal provisions for Dalit, Pardhi and 28.02.2009 Chetana Birge Reshma
6 Kaij 200
Backward Communities 01.03.2009 Jagtap Etc
7 World Women day 08.03.2009 Kaij 340 Adv. Sunder Tapse

Yuva Gram has promoted 649 in the district and has given the leadership trainings and
platform to more than 600 women leaders to face the local all nags of effective local
governance. The members of SHGs have established Federation fo SHG and are creation
the structure to meet the need of larger credit and handle the issues o gender. The
organization has initiated actions towards governing ll the promoted SHGs under
federation so that their financial needs are fulfilled easily and in time.

Pardhi/ ST Rehabilitation & Resettlement Project. :

Paradhi is a scheduled Tribe found in some part of Marathwada region that is Beed and
Osmanabad districts and is located in Kinship on the outskirt of the villages.. The tribes
have no access to the civic facilities and often get exploited. Considering the pathetic
situation of this particular cast Yuva Gram has stated an intervention programme. It was
in the form of identifying paradhis leader and trains them for self help, legal aid, legal
education, microfinance for agriculture aligned activities and women empowerment
through Training and micro credit. The revolving fund for housing has been provided this
year t bring the Pardhi community in mainstream. This programme has implemented in 4
blocks of Beed district and it was supported by SWISSAID, Switzerland.

Community Based Rehabilitation for persons with Disability:

The whole programme comprises of rehabilitation of disabled person. The programme


has implemented in 50 villages of Beed District covering. 928 disabled persons. The
rehabilitation includes educational rehabilitation, economic rehabilitation, social
rehabilitation and medical treatments. Twenty The SHGs of PWD are promoted in the

42
project area of which two SHGS have availed micro finance credit by concem Banks. 31
PWDs have started their own entrepreneurship in the area. CARITAS, INDIA, New
Delhi and CBR Forum – Bangalore supported this programme.

Training Center:

Organization does have training center facility at Kaij. The training center with minimum
facility of boarding and lodging also has books for reference and audiovisual equipments
for training. The training related to women empowerment, natural resource management
which includes water shed development and drinking water SHG management IGP for
SHGs, skill development for youths and adolescent, agricultural development skill
development to PWD (handlooms) and other HRD trainings. The center does have skilled
and master trained training team. Regular trainings of organization activities as well as
trainings of likeminded organization are conducted.

Banjara Community Handicraft SHGs :

The organisation is implementing one of the projects in association and support with
Textile Ministry, Government of India in the interest of the artists engaged in Banjara
embroidery, The project is implemented in Kaij. Wadveani, Dharur and Ambejogai
blocks of the district with major thrust to preserve and promote the Banjara art and
Generate employment. Therapist are Governed in the form of SHGs and provided with
basic training, production and marketing skills of Banjara embroidery. So far 556 Banjara
women artists are constituted in about 50 SHGs promoted and formed at four different
project locations.

Short Stay Home for Women in Distress:

The programme is supported by Ministry of Women and child Development. Through


out the reporting period about 15 women ware admitted in the home and ware assisted for
resettlements and rehabilitation. The enrolled Women ware provided with counseling,
food, medical treatment, legal support and vocational training during their stay in The
home. Basically the enrolled women ware victims of rape. Physical and mental
harassments, deserted, destitute and orphans. The network established involving of about
23 like minded organisations in the project areas play crucial role to identify the cases
and assist for justice.

Project to Accelerate Iodized Salt Consumption:

The project Acceleration of universal salt idolization consumption is implemented


especially in Kaij,Dharur and Ambejogai blocks of Beed district in association with
Voluntary Health Association fo Maharashtra, Sevagram the teacher and children in the
schools, pregnant & lactating women adolescent boys and girls, provisions storekeeper,

43
PRI members, Anganwadi Balwadi Teachers and local community are the basic target
under the project. The target group is awakened to accelerate the consumption through
corner meetings, technical demonstrations, flip charts and picture series on the subject.
As on today people in more than 250 villages have totally made aware who are now
consummating only Iodized salt.

c) Profile of Shramik Janata Vikas Sanstha (SJVS), Satara

1. Name and Address of the NGO

Shramik Janata Vikas Sanstha (SJVS)


At. Post. Medha, Tal. Jawali, Dist. Satara 415012

Registered Office Head & Administrative Office


At. Post. Medha, Tal. Jawali, Dist. Satara At. Post. Medha, Tal. Jawali, Dist. Satara
415012 415012

2. Details of Branch Offices if any.

Field Office Field Office


At. Post. Tal. Jawhar, Dist. Thane

3. Years of Existence in operational areas.

From 1994 to 2010 Total years 16 years

4. Legal status of the NGO

Sr.No Registration under which Act Yes / No


1 Societies Registration Act – 1860 Yes
2 Bombay Public Trust Act – 1950 Yes
3 Under Section 12 – A of Income Tax Act Yes
4 Under Section 80 – G of Income Tax Act Yes
5 Foreign Contribution Regulation Act - 1976 Yes

5. Organizational Management Structure.

SJVS is managed by the 7 Executive Committee members under the direction of General
Body and the programme administration looked after by President and Secretary.

6. Type of NGO

The NGOs is concentrating on the following core type activities

 Development
 Training and capacity building

44
 Advocacy

7. Core Organizational objectives

1. To make confidence in the mind common man that he can develop his own life.
Centralize progress of development around common man & aware him about his
problems.

2. Study various government schemes & programs to provide it's information to


ordinary peoples and implement it with their participation.

3. Make awareness in rural area about environment balance.

4. Creating new modules of economical development through localities which are


depends on local resources like forest, land & water.

5. Making groups of youths and provide them training of various aspects like agro
base business, sports, & cultural activities.

6. To promote Women and Children development

7. To generate employment sources and livelihood option.

8. Operational Areas

District Blocks No. of Panchayats No. of Villages


Satara Jaoli 29 40
Wai 26 36
Mahableshwar 19 24
Koregaon 22 25
Raigad Mangaon 65 84
Thane Jawhar 21 24

9. Target Groups

1. Dalits women, children, youths


2. Tribal community
3. Rural youths

10. Type of Activities


1. Micro credit program for women through formation of Women Self Help Groups
2. Income generation activities
3. Women co-operative organizations
4. Women industrial organizations
5. Women health workers programme

45
6. Formation of Mahila Mandals,
7. Adivasi Organization & Development Program
8. Awareness on Reproductive & Child Health
9. Agricultural Development & Organic Farming Movement
10. Dairy, fishery, poultry, goat rearing, Bee keeping , making crafts from bamboo
11. Ideal Village Program
12. Watershade development Program

11. Type of Economic activities


1. Dairy
2. Fishery
3. Poultry
4. Goat rearing
5. Bee keeping
6. Making crafts from bamboo

12. Type of Economic activities under SGSY


1. Dairy
2. Fishery
3. Poultry
4. Goat rearing
5. Bee keeping
6. Making crafts from bamboo

13. Involvement in implementation of SGSY and SHGs

Number of SHGs Number of SHGs Number of Groups


formed provided with RF under provided with E A
SGSY
865 649 598

14. Supporter for the NGOs

Name of the Organisation


State Level Ministry of Rural Development, DRDA, Satara
Mahila Arthik Vikas Mahamandal (MAVIM)
Department of Water and Sanitation, Government of
Maharashtra
National Level NABARD
Foreign Sources Swiss Aid
ACHEIVEMNTS

1) Women Organization & Awareness Program: -

This program has created various organizations of women in work place and
participation of women in various eras’ e.g. Micro credit program, women co-

46
operative organizations, women industrial organizations, Women health workers,
women Mandals, women Self Help Groups etc.

2) Adivasi Organization & Development Program:

A people in special categories like Adivasi tribles have landless & they are totally
depending on agricultural laboring and fishery for their earnings. The prime objective
of program to organize & develop them, implement government schemes with their
participation.

3) Educational Program:

Make awareness in villages about girl's education, child education, night studies,
sports campaigns and Strengthening Tribal Child .Primary Education in 12 Hamlets.

4) Rural Health Program:

SJVS has been documenting the medicinal plants in the area to study the traditional
Ayurveda process of healing at village level. The purpose of this study is to make
people aware about the importance of preservation of species and its use in first aid. It
has been also conducting awareness programmes on reproductive and child health

5) Agricultural Development & Organic Farming Movement:-

Organization of farmers and guide them in increasing the agricultural production,


organic farming & marketing.

6) Income Generation Program:

Income generation programmes for rural peoples is also an important programme of


SJVS. These programmes are dairy, fishery, poultry, goat rearing, bee keeping,
making deferent crafts from bamboo. It also guides the farmers for value addition of
agriculture produce by providing training on preservation techniques.

7) Watershade Development Program:

Water of heavy rainfall in work space of organization is flow down immediately due
to natural slope of land. Organization participated in various activities of water shade
development activities like soil & water conservation.

8) Jalswaraj Project

Shramik working with the help of State Govt. of Maharashtra through Z.P. Satara in
Jaoli ,Wai, Koregaon Blocks with 11 villages for Drinking Water scheme .

47
SJVS has also implemented several other programmes i.e. Ramai Women
Empowerment Scheme of MAVIM (Mahila Arthik Vikas Mahamandal) for women
empowerment in 45 villages of Jaoli block.

Biomass Energy and equipments Sale Project - This project is implemented in 40


villages from Jaoli and Mahabaleshwar Blocks

Strengthening the process of primary education among children and developing the
leadership potential from among a tribal community in the state of Maharashtra.

SJVS initiated following Community Based Organisations

1. Janata Milk Co-operative production society

2. Koyanamai women rural non agricultural co-operative organization

3. Shramik women rural non agricultural co-operative organization

4. Venna women industrial co-operative organization

5. Koyana oraganic farming agricultural co-operative organization

6. Venna organic farming co-operative organization

7. Adivasi social & educational Mandal.

8. Semi Adivasi fishery co-operative organization Dhom

9. Semi Adivasi fishery co-operative organization Kanher

10. Shramik women micro credit co-operative organization Medha.

d) Profile of Mahatma Phule Samaj Seva Mandal (MPSSM), Solapur

1. Name and Address of the NGO

Mahatma Phule Samaj Seva Mandal (MPSSM)


P.B. 9, Niyojan Nagar, Jamkhed Road,
At.Post.Tal. Karmala,
Dist Solapur (Maharashtra State), 413 203,

Registered Office Head & Administrative Office


At. Post. Pothare, Tal.Karmala, Dist. P.B. 9, Niyojan Nagar, Jamkhed Road,
Solapur At.Post.Tal. Karmala,
Dist Solapur (Maharashtra State), 413 203,

48
2. Details of Branch Offices if any.

Field Office Field Office


No field offices

3. Years of Existence in operational areas.

From 1982 to 2010 Total years 28 years

4. Legal status of the NGO

Sr.No Registration under which Act Yes / No


1 Societies Registration Act – 1860 Yes
2 Bombay Public Trust Act – 1950 Yes
3 Under Section 12 – A of Income Tax Act Yes
4 Under Section 80 – G of Income Tax Act Yes
5 Foreign Contribution Regulation Act - 1976 Yes

5. Organizational Management Structure.

MPSSM is managed by the Executive Committee consists of 7 active members and


governed by the governing body consists of several leading social workers.

6. Type of NGO

The NGOs is concentrating on the following core type activities

 Development
 Training
 Advocacy on National and Maharashtra Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
 Child Development
 Education

7. Core Organizational objectives

1. To utilize strength of youth for undertaking development activities with


their active participation.

2. To work in development fields of education, health and culture.

3. To undertake research in socio - economic development of the


disadvantaged.

4. To undertake activities for development of rural area and agricultural

49
Its main aim is overall development of the area, through various socio-economic
development programs. The main thrust has been on Scheduled Castes, Nomadic Tribes
& Weaker sections of the society.

8. Operational Areas

District Blocks No. of Panchayats No. of Villages


Solapur Karmala 40 60
Mangalvedha 8 10

9. Target Groups

1. Women and Children


2. Laborers
3. Dalit and Landless laborers
4. Marginal Farmers

10. Type of Activities

1. Promotion of Self Help Groups


2. Sustainable Pre-Primary Education Project
3. Key Resource Agency Under Total Sanitation Campaign
4. Village Libraries Project
5. Hostel for Seasonal Migrant Families
6. Assessment & Comparative Micro Level Planning of NREGA/ MREGS
schemes
7. Training and Capacity Building activities.

11. Type of Economic activities in general

1. Dairying
2. Sheep Rearing
3. Ready made garments

12. Type of Economic activities under SGSY

1. Dairying
2. Sheep Rearing
3. Ready made garments

13. Involvement in implementation of SGSY and SHGs

50
Number of SHGs Number of SHGs Number of Groups
formed provided with RF under provided with E A
SGSY
340 280 238

14. Supporter for the NGOs

Name of the Organisation


State Level District Rural Development Agency, Zilla Parishad,
Solapur
Department of Water Supply and Sanitation, Govt. of
Maharashtra , Mumbai
National Level Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, New Delhi
Foreign Sources OXFAM, U.K
Indo German Social Service Services
Canada Funds for Local Initiatives (CFLI).
Australian High Commission
Swiss Agency for International Development
Terres Des Hommes (TDH)
Intermon- OXFAM

ACHIEVMENT:

Through 340 SHGs around 4000 women were involved in their own self-help programme
activities. These women saved from their incomes and started their small micro-credit
organisations. In these types of organisations more than out of 4000 women, 1500
women were able to get small loans for various purposes. Not only this, these
organisations also started doing some social activities, like solving drinking water
problem, educational problems, etc.

The first project MPSSM got was from OXFAM U.K for Awareness on Employment
Generation Scheme, Act in the year 1990-91 and the amount was Rs 40,400/-. It spread
awareness to about 20000 laborers all over Maharashtra covering 27 districts.

It has trained more than 1000 small and marginal farmers in horticulture farming and
helped them to link to horticulture scheme of Govt. of Maharashtra, through the support
of funding agencies like Australian High Commission and Canada Funds.

It has provided houses to 12 nomadic tribe families in vicinity of our office, through the
support of Karuna Trust, London.

More than 2500 hectare land has been undertaken for watershed development activity in
different villages in 4 blocks of Solapur district, thus helping more than 10000 farmers to
improve their land productivity. The watershed programmes were supported by TDH
Germany, OXFAM U.K, Intermon- Spain and AFPRO-SDC.

51
More than 350 farmers were supported through old wells deepening or by giving them
new wells, these farmers were poor and most of them were from the backward class
communities. This activity was supported by TDH, Germany. As a result of these types
of individual investments on poor farmers have increased the poor farmers’ income levels
and overall improved their standard of living. The children of these families could go to
schools.

Through various awareness programmes, support class programmes at school level, the
enrollment rate and drop-out rate have increased considerably in the project villages in 3
blocks of Solapur district. More than 1000 children have benefited from this.

MPSSM believes that if there has to be any sustainability in its programmes then it is
necessary to build village organisation, by motivating village youth, educated and
enthusiastic persons. Working on this philosophy MPSSM has formed village
development institutions in each village it worked. It handed over the project
responsibility to them. In order to enable these village development institutions to work
on this philosophy, MPSSM has again developed its own policy and that is of revolving
fund. Whatever individual investments are done on the farmers land or to any individual
beneficiary, then the beneficiary has to return back the principal amount to the village
development institution. In this way the village development institutions starts working.
The village development institutions then invest the same amount in individual
beneficiary, who again repays the amount. While working on this philosophy, MPSSM,
enabled village development institutions from 30 villages in getting 15% of the revolving
fund from the individual beneficiaries.

This programme promoted villagers from 15 villages of Karmala Block to stop use of
stone while toilet and motivate the villagers to use water. This programme also promoted
waste water disposal through developing more than 100 kitchen gardens and 125 soak
pits. Further the drinking water problem was also solved by construction and restoration
of 18 hand pumps. The disposal of solid waste was done by installation of 50 compost
pit. One water-tank and one check dam was also constructed. To save trees and reduce
the incidence of respiratory diseases among women more than 100 smokeless chullas are
constructed till now. To give more impact on the programme it adopted child-to-child,
child to parent and child to community approach. This programme reduced incidence of
diseases like malaria, dysentery, diarrhea, etc in the villages to some extent.

While implementing so many programmes, MPSSM had to take various training


programmes. The office space was not sufficient for undertaking these activities. Hence
MPSSM requested the Consulate General of Japan, Mumbai to support MPSSM in order
to construct a full fledged training centre. After careful investigations by the officials of
Japanese consulate, the grant was finally approved on 29th January 2003. The
construction was over in March 2005 and its opening ceremony was held on 11th May
through the hands of Hon’ble Governor of Andhra Pradesh, Mr. Sushil Kumar Shinde
and the Consulate General of Japan, Mr. H. Yasui. The total cost of construction was Rs
30 lakhs out of which Japanese Consulate supported Rs 23 Lakhs.

52
5.3 Presentation of Qualitative Data

After analysis of the profiles of the NGOs in the present study, the data collected from
various project functionaries with the help of open ended questionnaires cum interview
schedules, has been analyzed and presented here under.

In order to get reliable data and response, various staff members of the NGOs such
project directors; project coordinators, supervisors and field level functionaries were
contacted and interacted with the help of interview schedule.

An informal meeting with the above functionaries individually was held in a participatory
way, and responses were collected. The accuracy and data perfection were found through
cross responses provided by the functionaries. The Group discussions were also done to
validate the responses collected individually. All the responses were compiled in a
cumulative way and presented as follows

NGO’s objectives of Social Mobilization under SGSY

As a first open ended question the interview started with asking about the “NGOs”
objective of Social mobilization under SGSY”. The following are responses as spelt out
by the respondents:

 To create equalities among the various communities


 To promote the standard of living
 Economic improvement
 Strengthening the unity among the people
 To make them responsible
 To remove inequality among the men and women
 To bring out their potential and skill
 Leadership development among the women
 To increase their contribution in the process of development
 Successful implementation of the schemes
 Identification of their needs and problems
 To increase their contribution in successful implementation of the schemes
 To understand the spirits of the people
 Awareness generation and to remove dependency
 Skill and capacity development
 To make them realize their potentials
 To reduce bureaucracy
 To promote Spirit of Voluntarism

Methods of Social Mobilization

53
Under this major question, there are five sub-questions were formulated for the purpose
of this study as follows.

1. Extension methods and activities


2. Educational methods and activities
3. Social methods and activities
4. Motivational methods and activities
5. Other Methods and Activities

Accordingly, the responses were collected and analyzed on five major methods and
activities as follows. On certain occasions, two or more respondents evoked the same
responses. In this case, similar responses were avoided while compiling the responses in
order to avoid duplication of responses.

1) Extension Methods

Under the Extension methods, following various methods were used in order to organize
the people in the process of Social Mobilization.
 Short film
 Street play
 Social drama through songs and drama division
 Regular meeting
 Door to door visits and contact
 Direct, Groups and Mass Contact & meetings
 Stay and living with the villages and interacting at nights

2) Educational Methods
 Exposure visits
 Presentation of successful case studies
 Films shows
 Pictorial presentations
 Live demonstration
 Charts reflecting social issues
 Non – Formal Education
 News reading in the groups

3) Social Methods
 Mingling with the people
 Meeting during the social gatherings
 Participatory learning and discussions
 Social games and sports
 Hearing their problems
 Addressing the Grama Sabha
 Relationship building

54
 Understanding their problems and offering solution
 Conducting sports for women and children
 Appreciations during the mass gatherings
 Competitions and distribution of gifts for School Children
 Enrolment drive during school beginning

4) Motivation methods and activities


 Providing subsidy
 Integrating Government Subsidy Schemes
 Incentives in the form of food materials
 Distribution of Awards and Rewards
 Inculcating Saving Habits
 Promoting Groups Concepts
 Linking with government schemes

5) Other Methods / activities used


 Participating in their social events and functions
 Building rapport among the people
 Frequent village visits.
 Mimicry and mono acting.

Individuals involved and type of support extended in Social Mobilization

In order to understand about who were all involved and the type of support extended in
the process of Social Mobilization, the question On “Individuals involved and type of
support extended in social mobilization was raised and responses are presented as
follows. In order to get clarity of the responses, the question was divided into three levels
of participation in social mobilization such as NGO’s level, Community level, and
Official level.

Level Persons Involved Type of support


NGO’s Level Project Executives, Staffs, Organizational Support
Coordinators, Cluster Attending the Meetings
Coordinators, Training and Campaign
Organizing functions
Community President, Teachers, Co operational support
Level Anganwadi Workers, Youth Guidance support
Club leaders, Social minded Facilitative role
people, Village Admn. Moral support
Officers,
Officials Level Union Staffs, Extension Providing information
Officers Block Resource Mobilization
Development Officer Encouragement
APO (Credit). Grading the Groups
Administrative support

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Impact of Social Mobilization:

The following responses were obtained for the question on “Impact of Social
Mobilization”.

 The people’s power mobilized together


 Confidence built on the NGOs
 Realized the importance of formation of SHGs
 Formation of Groups increased
 They started saving regularly
 Solving their problems by themselves
 Motivation and Awareness generated
 32 members of SHG elected as Gram Panchayat Members in the village
Panchayat elections
 Dependence reduced to some extent
 People contribution increased
 They are not expecting free of anything from anywhere.

In order to assess the impact of social mobilization process, the question was raised as
“How did you assess the impact of the Social Mobilization?” The following are the
responses received from the participants.

 Their self initiatives and self support for many development activities
 Their cooperation given to the project functionaries
 The problems of liquor prevented from the entire villages made a positive impact
on the surrounding villages.
 Their actions initiated in solving their social problems
 Team works and team sprit started
 Active participation in the Grama Sabha
 Voice their views in the pubic places
 People’s voluntary contribution increased
 Saving increased
 Laborers become owners in quarrying works
 Volunteering their support in all development process.

In order to understand the various problems faced by the NGOs during the process of
social mobilization, the question was raised as “What were the problems faced during the
Social Mobilization?” and responses are recorded as follows:

 Religion conflict
 Traditional leaders did not support
 Some local dominant groups discouraged our efforts
 Some Political people threatened our staffs and prevented our efforts

56
 Due to the fear of husbands, in the beginning, the women did not come forward
into the groups
 Opposition of the political leaders
 Communal related opposition
 Money lenders were prevented the formation of the groups

In order to understand the experiences gained by the NGOs, out of social mobilization,
the question was raised as “What were the experiences gained out of Social
Mobilization?” and the responses obtained are presented as follows.

 Satisfaction and gained confidence to continue the efforts in the future.


 Our NGO’s status improved at all levels
 Appreciation at the local and official levels
 Received Letters of Appreciation by the district administration and renowned
NGOs.
 People accepted our mission and vision
 Noticing visible changes among the people
 Self motivation to serve the people
 Our commitment increased
 Need for services increased
 Managerial skill developed in our staffs

In order to get responses on various steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through
social mobilization, the question was asked as “What were the steps taken to sustain the
motivation attained through social mobilization?” and their responses are recorded here.

 Involving local committees such as


 Village development committee
 Water and Sanitation committee
 Involving youth clubs
 Formation of Block level federation and sustain motivation
 Credit linkages
 Promoting income generation activities
 Frequent visits and contacts
 Observations of days of importance
 Integrating various departmental schemes
 Giving responsibility to the people

NGOs were asked to respond on “How social mobilization process helped your
organization to grow?” and the responses are presented as follows

 Experience gained in development project.


 Received Best NGO’s Award and got due recognition at all levels of people and
district administration.

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 Helped to raise more funds from different sources.
 Funding agencies are placed trust in our organisation
 Became the members of various State and National Level Committees
 Gave brand name to our NGO
 New schemes are coming up from various sources in recognition of services.
 Sustainable existence has ensured
 Became stabilized NGO

In addition to the above responses, a general question was raised as “Any other details
related to Social Mobilization the NGO wishes to share”. The responses are presented
as follows.

 Comprehensive scheme may be implemented to sustain motivation sustain


 Political will power needed for social mobilization
 The image of the women has improved
 Self esteem among the women has improved
 Social responsibly has improved
 Social consensus emerged on various issues
 Self reliance among the women has been witness to some extent

Any other opinions / suggestions on Social Mobilization in the context of SGSY

• Need continuous training


• Convergences of various department services
• NGOs should develop administrative skills
• NGOs should use experienced Groups members, leaders, and animators in Social
Mobilization.

In this chapter, an attempt was made to present the profile of the studied NGOs in order
to understand about the various aspects of the NGOs. Also, this chapter concentrated to
present the data collected from the functionaries of the respective NGOs. The next
chapter is deals with summary of results, discussion, conclusion and recommendations of
the study.

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Chapter VI

Findings, Conclusion and Policy Implications:

6.1 NGO’s objectives of social mobilization under SGSY

6.2 Methods Social Mobilization

6.3 Achievements or Impact made out of Social Mobilization

6.4 How did you assess the impact of the Social Mobilization?

6.5 Problems faced during the Social Mobilization

6.6 Experiences gained out of Social Mobilization

6.7 How Social Mobilization Process helped NGOs as an organisation to grow.

6.8 Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through Social Mobilization

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Chapter VI
Findings, Conclusion and Policy Implications:

In this concluding chapter, results, and certain valid conclusions are extracted on the
basis of objectively quantified results and same are presented as follows. As the major
objective of the study is to find out the role of NGO’s in social mobilization and various
methods used, the present study helped to understand the actual role-played and various
methods employed in the process of Social Mobilization in the context SGSY.

The investigators, cautiously, keeping the limitations of the study in mind, attempted to
bring out some useful findings, which would help other NGOs, and policy makers to
arrive at certain lessons in order to adopt some measures in the implementation of the
various schemes including SGSY, in the future.

By scanning the entire responses and objectively conducted study, the following
interpretations and conclusions are made for the purpose of the present study.

The NGO’s under study have taken enormous efforts and used various methods in Social
Mobilization in turn, to implement SGSY and other various development schemes. Based
on the results of the present study, no doubts, the process of Social Mobilization has
helped a lot in promoting, strengthening, and stabilizing the various development
schemes particularly SGSY.

6.1 NGO’s objectives of social mobilization under SGSY

The NGOs under study revealed that they had clear-cut objectives for Social Mobilization
in mind before starting the process. Their objectives for Social Mobilization were to
create equalities among the various communities, to promote standard of living,
economical Improvement, to strengthen the unity among the people, to make them
responsible, to remove inequality among the men and women, to bring out their potential
skill, leadership development among the women, to increase their contribution in
successful implementation of the schemes, to identify their needs and problems, to
understanding the spirits of the people, awareness generation and to remove dependency,
skill and capacity development, to make them realize their potentials, to reduce
bureaucracy, to promote Spirit of Voluntarism etc.

6.2 Methods Social Mobilization

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The study revealed that the NGOs used combination of various methods under Extension
methods and activities, educational methods and activities, social methods and activities,
motivational methods and activities.

• Extension Methods

Under the Extension methods they have used various following methods such as short
film, street play, social drama through songs and drama division, regular meeting, door to
door visits and direct contact, groups and mass contact and meetings, stay and living in
the villages and interacting at nights, in order to organize the people in the process of
Social Mobilization

• Educational Methods

Under the Educational Methods, they have used various following methods such as
exposure visits, presentation of successful Case Studies, films shows, pictorial
presentation, live demonstration, charts reflecting social issues, Non – Formal Education,
News reading in the groups in order to organize the people in the process of Social
Mobilization

• Social Methods

Under the Social Methods, the NGOs have employed used various methods such as
mingling with the people, meeting during the social gatherings, participatory learning and
discussions, social games and sports, hearing their problems, addressing the Grama
Sabha, relationship building, understanding their problems and offering solution,
conducting sports for women and children, appreciations during the mass gatherings,
competitions and distribution of gifts for school children, enrollment drive during school
beginning, motivation methods and activities, providing subsidy, integrating government
subsidy schemes, incentives in the form of food materials, distribution of awards and
rewards, inculcating saving habits, promoting groups concepts, linking with government
schemes etc.

• Other Methods / Activities used

In addition to the above methods, the other methods were also experimented by the
NGOs such as participating their social events and functions, building rapport among the
people, frequent village visits, mimicry and mono acting, individuals involved and type
of support extended in Social Mobilization.

It is strongly noticed from the finding of the study, that the NGOs under study involved
various individual and received innumerable support in the process of Social
Mobilization and received all round support for making social mobilization a success.

At the NGO’s level, it is revealed that they have involved all the functionaries from top to
bottom i.e. project executives, middle level functionaries such as coordinators, cluster

61
coordinators and field level staffs have actively involved and rendered all round support
such as organizational support, attending the meetings, training and campaign, organizing
functions etc.,

At the community level, the local president, Angan Wadi workers, youth club members,
social-minded peoples, village administrative officers have also actively participated and
rendered support such as Co- operation, guidance, facilitative role and moral support etc.
It is revealed that this support system has greatly contributed to effective Social
Mobilization.

At the official level, the union staffs such as Extension Officers and Block Development
Officers, APO (Credit) and Bankers have also contributed by providing information,
resource mobilization, encouragement, grading of the groups, administrative support,
motivation, and timely release of revolving funds and activities loans for the Self Help
Groups, which have immensely helped the NGOs in Social Mobilization.

6.3 Achievements or Impact made out of Social Mobilization

The various methods employed by the NGOs have contributed to the significant success
on the part of the NGOs and their progress. Due to the Social Mobilization process,
NGOs could make the people realize their power; build people’s confidence in NGOs;
people realized the importance of formation of SHGs; number of groups increased;
women started saving regularly; women solved their problems by themselves; motivation
was generated; level of awareness increased; the women have become elected
representative in Panchayat Raj Institutions (32 ward members and 2 Counselors),
dependency reduced among the women, etc.

6.4 How did you assess the impact of the Social Mobilization?

The NGOs have a system to assess the impact made by Social Mobilization and their
techniques used. And it was revealed that they have used various mechanisms in this
direction. These mechanisms are such as inviting university faculty members as external
evaluators, internal evaluation by themselves and objective observation by the field
functionaries. The result of these evaluations shows the impact clearly made by Social
Mobilization.

The impact made by Social Mobilization, as stated by NGOs are such as, the people paid
self initiatives and contribution in implementing many development programmes
including SGSY; the level of people’s cooperation for the project functionaries increased,
people started to prevent sales of liquor in the village which made positive impact among
the surrounding villages; the people initiated action to solve their social problems by
themselves; unity in diversity was realized; people understood their active role in the
process of Grama Sabha; they started to voice their views where they felt necessary;
savings increased considerably, the laborers became owners in quarrying works, People
volunteered their support in the development processes. The NGOs felt encouraged by

62
these positive developments and they feel that their services established the base for a
sustainable social development.

6.5 Problems faced during the Social Mobilization

The present study revealed that the NGOs faced a number of problems they were working
towards Social Mobilization. The important problems they faced were such as religion
conflict and communal problems; lack of cooperation by traditional leaders; Some local
dominant groups discouraged their efforts; some political people threatened their staffs
and prevented their functioning; Due to the fear towards their husbands, the women did
not come forward in the beginning, to form the groups; Opposition of the political nature
and vested interest of local leaders, communal related opposition, and all-out efforts of
the money lenders to prevent the formation of groups and social mobilization were the
main hurdles.

6.6 Experiences gained out of Social Mobilization

Though the NGOs have faced number of problems at the grassroots level as well as at the
administrative level, it is learnt that the NGOs have acquired immense experience in the
process of Social Mobilization. The NGOs felt Satisfied and gained confidence to
continue their endeavor in the also with same spirit. The NGOs felt encouraged by the
visible changes in the people and as a measure of quid pro quo, the status of NGOs also
was considerably enhanced.

The influence of the efforts of NGOs percolated to the grassroots level and the NGOs
earned an identity; the people recognized their services. People accepted their mission
and vision, need for services increased, managerial skill developed in their staffs, their
commitment level also increased and self motivation developed to serve the people in a
sustainable manner.

6.7 How Social Mobilization Process helped NGOs as an organisation to grow.

Any development process would benefit both receivers and providers. This is the logical
concept at all time and in all the processes. Under this assumption, an effort was made to
understand on how NGOs benefited out of social mobilization process. The qualitative
data revealed that the NGOs have greatly benefited in areas of continuous existence in
the project areas (ranges from 15 to 35 years), received best NGO’s award by district
administration, received due recognition at the local level, helped to raise more funds
from different sources; won the confidence from the funding agencies; became the
institutional members in the various State and National level committees, won the brand
name to NGOs; new schemes are coming up from various sources in recognition of their
Services; sustainability in existence is ensured; became stabilized NGO, and received
appreciations at the local and official levels.

6.8 Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through Social Mobilization

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Any development initiative should be sustained for a long time so that the people become
self-sustainable. As per this study, the NGOs have taken enormous development efforts
constantly through Social Mobilization. In order to understand through this study, an
attempt was made to ascertain from the NGOs on what are the various steps that have
been initiated to sustain the motivation attained through social mobilization.

Further, the study revealed that the NGOs have taken number of steps in this regard, such
as formation and involving various local committees, involving youth clubs, formation of
block level federation for sustained motivation, credit linkages, promoting income
generating activities, frequent visits and contacts, observations of National and
International days of importance, and integrating various departmental schemes, etc.,

Any other details you wish to share relating to Social Mobilization

The study revealed the expectation of NGOs that a comprehensive scheme should be
implemented to sustain motivation, and political will power needed for social
mobilization. Also revealed that the image of the women has improved; self-esteem
among the women has improved; social responsibility has improved; social consensus
has emerged in various issues; self reliance among the women has been witnessed to
some extend by Social Mobilization.

Any other opinions / suggestions on social mobilization in the context of SGSY

Based on the study, the NGOs suggested that they need continuous training in social
mobilization & convergences of services of various departments at the grass root level.
Also, they suggested that NGOs should develop administrative skills; and should use
experienced groups members, leaders, and animators in the process of Social
Mobilization.

Conclusion

By scanning the entire responses of objectively conducted study, it is pertinent to draw a


conclusion that the NGO’s under study have taken enormous efforts and used various
methods in social mobilization in turn, to implement SGSY and other various
development schemes. Based on the results of the present study, no doubts, the process of
Social Mobilization has helped a lot in promoting, strengthening, and stabilizing the
various development schemes particularly SGSY.

Recommendations of the Study:

Following are recommendations based on the present study;

1. The impressive methods employed by the NGOs can be used elsewhere while
they initiate Social Mobilization process instead of experimenting new methods

64
2. People already involved in the process of Social Mobilization, such as, SHG’s
supervisor, administrators, and officials can make different in the process of
Social Mobilization by their direct experiences.

3. National and regional level seminars, workshops can be organized to sensitize and
build capacity among the NGOs on various issues pertaining to the Social
Mobilization based on the finding of the study.

4. A larger level of documentation on very good experiments, experiences, and


achievements made by the NGOs, and other developmental organisations on
Social Mobilization can be made, in order to make this utility wider.

5. A similar study can be conducted with more NGOs covering more districts to
compare the geographical differences on the impact of Social Mobilization.

6. Various methods used by NGOs can be replicated elsewhere to the possible extent
for making successful implementation of all development programmes in the
future.

65
References

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Anand, V.K. (2001), “Avenue for Sustainable Empowerment of Rural Women”, Social
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vol.48, No.4, July, Pp. 3-4

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Experiment”. Social Welfare, Vol.48, No.4, July, Pp. 5-10

Gurumoorthy, T. R. (2000). “Self Help Groups Empower Rural Women”, Kurushetra,


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Study on Role of NGOs in Social Mobilization in the Context of SGSY
Open Ended Questionnaires for Primary Data collection for the study

1. NGO’s objectives of Social Mobilization under SGSY

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2. Methods Used in Social Mobilization

• Extension Methods / Activities Used

1
2
3
4
5
• Educational Methods / Activities
1
2
3
4
5
• Social Methods / Activities used
1
2
3
4

67
5

• Motivational Activities used


1
2
3
4
5

• Other Methods / Activities used

1
2
3
4
5

3. Individuals Involved and type of support extended in Social Mobilization

Level Persons involved Type of participation /


Support
NGO’s Level

Community /
Panchayat Level

Official Level

4. Concrete achievement or Impact made out of Social Mobilization

1
2
3
4
5

5. How did you assess the impact of Social Mobilization Process?

1
2
3

68
4
5

6. Problems faced during the Social Mobilization

1
2
3
4
5
7. Experiences gained out of Social Mobilization

1
2
3
4
5

8. Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through social mobilization

1
2
3
4
5

9. How social mobilization process helped your organisation to grow

1
2
3
4
5

10. Other Details related to social mobilization wishes to share

1
2
3
4
5

11. Any other opinion on social mobilization in the context of SGSY

1
2

69
3
4
5

70