Chapter I Introduction

1.1 Origin of Non Governmental Organisation 1.2 Emphasis on the role of NGOs in five years plans 1.3. Panchayat Raj Institutions and NGOs 1.4 Various Role and Functions of NGOs 1.5 Role of NGOs in Social Mobilization 1.6 Role of NGO in Social Mobilization under SHG & SGSY 1.7 Need for the study 1.8 Statement of the Problems 1.9 Scope of the Study 1.10 Objective of the study: 1.11 Limitation of the study


Chapter I Introduction Introduction Voluntary effort has always been an important part of our culture and social tradition. The need for organizing people into accredited associations and their involvement and participation in rural development have now been fully recognized. In recent years, they have increased in considerable number, acquired greater importance and significance and put up many new experiments in the field of rural development. Voluntary organisation can play a crucial role in rural development by supplementing government efforts as they are close to the minds and hearts of the rural people. They have their roots in the people and can respond to the needs and aspirations of the community very effectively. They can experiment new approaches to rural development. (Dhillon & Hansra -1995). The success of the rural development depends upon the active participation and willing co-operation of the rural people through Self-Help organizations and voluntary agencies. In recent years, the voluntary agencies have acquired greater importance and significance than before because the administration has not been able to reach the people, especially the poor and weaker sections. They have been able to make their presence felt from the local to the national level and now at the international level also. Many of them have pioneered works in areas, which were ignored by the process of national development planning (Anandharajakumar - 1995). 1.1 Origin of Non Governmental Organisation: Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and Voluntary action have been part of the historical legacy. In early 20th century, several voluntary efforts were started in the fields of education, health etc. The NGOs became prominent after independence, especially after 1970s. Development practitioners, government officials and foreign donors consider that Non-Governmental organizations by the virtue of being smallscale, flexible, innovative and participatory, are more successful in reaching the poor and in poverty alleviating. This consideration has resulted in the rapid growth of NGOs involved in initiating and implementing rural development programmes. According to the estimates of the working groups of NGOs, there are about 30,000 NGOs in India. A rapid growth took place in the 1980s and the early 1990s. With the SHG linkages programme introduced in 1989, the NGO sector has been recognized as a crucial partner, recognizing the strengths of the NGOs in organizing the community and the potential in saving and credit programmes (both under the linkage programme and other credit delivery innovations. (Laxmi R.Kulshresth - 2002). The concept of NGOs and Social welfare are not new. India has a glorious tradition of Voluntary organisations. In the pre-Independence days, Rabindranath Tagore in his Santiniketan experiements showed how rural development could be brought about by integration of education and culture. Gandhiji in his Wardha experiment showed how village industries could bring about the development of the poorest sections of the people in this country. (Malik-1995) After independence too, there was a lot of talk about the 2

role of NGOs and people’s participation when we started our planning process in the early 50s. The British Government in India spent minimum resources on social welfare programmes and so voluntary agencies played an important role in developing programmes for the poor, the destitute, women and children. 1.2 Emphasis on the role of NGOs in five years plans After Independence, India was declared as a welfare state and relevant provisions were included in the Constitution of India. Social welfare was included as part of the Five Year Plans. The major responsibility of organizing social welfare services continued with the voluntary organizations. Hence, even today it is the voluntary organizations that are taking care of welfare activities (Basanta Kumar - 1995). The VII plan documents had anticipated that voluntary efforts would be forthcoming in a massive way for better implementation of anti-poverty and minimum needs programmes (Malik - 1995) Also in the VII plan (1992-97), a greater emphasis has been laid on the role of voluntary organizations in rural development. The plan document states: “A nation-wide network of NGOs will be created. In order to facilitate the working of this network, three schemes relating to the creation/replication/multiplication and consultancy development have been worked out by the planning commission (Malik - 1995). 1.3 Panchayat Raj Institutions and NGOs: Recently, the revival and strengthening of Panchayati Raj Institutions – consequent upon the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992- the NGO’s role has become more significant. In order to promote holistic and integrated development with the range of development schemes and programmes, the role of NGOs services and their involvement in the development process will be all the more in demand (Malik - 1995). 1.4 Various Role and Functions of NGOs: Voluntary action stimulated and promoted by voluntary agencies engaged in development play a significant role at the grass roots level in the Indian social milieu; the success of rural development depends upon the active participation of the people through Self Help Organizations. The various roles of NGOs are described below for better understanding. a. Catalyze Rural Population b. Build Models and Experiment c. Supplement Government Efforts d. Organizing Rural Poor e. Educate the Rural People f. Provide Training g. Disseminate Information h. Mobilize of Resources i. Promote Rural Leadership j. Represent the Rural People k. Act as Innovators 3

and implementation of various central and state government development programmes. Activate the Rural Delivery System The widespread belief that NGOs are more successful in reaching the poor in poverty reduction also resulted in rapid growth of funding for NGOs by government and external donors. people’s mobilization programmes and effective networks. and it has been in operation since 1st April 1999.l. Promote Appropriate Technology n. the Yojana intends to overcome poverty through generation of self-employment opportunities with a debatable participation. human rights. Obviating the loose ends of the earlier programmes. strategy. The NGOs are deploying various people-oriented as well as people-centered strategies. As far as the government funding is concerned. The Yojana attempts to address poverty in all its dimensions through multi-pronged strategy. many Non Governmental organisations have been concentrating social mobilization on contemporary issues of importance such as women empowerment. The very sticking feature of this scheme is that it is quite different from earlier programmes in terms of objective.6 Role of NGO in Social Mobilization under SHG & SGSY: Alleviation of poverty has persistently been on the agenda of the government. The NGOs play in making the people environmentally aware and sensitive to take part in the development process (Biswambhar Panda et. The NGOs in India have contributed handsomely towards social mobilization and social activism through their intensive campaigns. yet the poverty yet the poverty seems indomitable. methodology and sustainability. Various programmes with contrasting methodologies have been tried. this SGSY scheme focuses on Group approach by organizing the poor into self help groups (SHG) through social mobilization process. Against this backdrop of this programme. whopping funds expended. and these organizations build rapport with the people and mobilize -2003) 1. the group approach is adopted. which is by itself a radical departure. The Yojana (SGSY) is the latest poverty alleviation programme integrating six erstwhile rural development programmes. Ensure People’s Participation m. Thus.5 Role of NGOs in Social Mobilization: In recent times. there are over 200 government schemes initiated by the central and state governments through which NGOs can have direct access to resources for rural development (Reddy and Rajasekhar 1996) 1. The NGO as a social force facilitates collective action and people mobilization for the purpose of achieving the desired objectives. Doing away with the targeted individual-centric beneficiary approach. the SGSY’s guidelines emphasis on the role of NGOs and their significant 4 . contribution and initiative of the poor themselves.

progressing and reversing. Indeed. In recent years. and officials increasingly laud the role of NGOs in Social Mobilization for any development programmes particularly in the context of SGSY. Hence. attitudes and behaviors of the people for making them to involve in any development process.participation in mobilizing people and to creating awareness among the people for the successful implementation of the SGSY schemes. Social Mobilization involves people and their behavior.8 Statement of the Problems Social Mobilization is a complex process and it requires meticulous and continuous efforts for any purpose. The social mobilization process is of a particular quality and character. Also. the need for social mobilization has strongly been stressed for the successful implementation of the SGSY scheme through effective and innovative role of NGOs. Social Mobilization is also a continuous process according to the change of minds. Hence the present study is aimed at bringing out various methods used in social mobilization and significant impact made on promotion of Self Help Groups and implementation of SGSY. decision makers. The NGOs and Government Departments are also struggling hard to organize the people through social mobilization process for eliciting their participation in the successful implementation of the development programmes. These behaviors are not static and keep on changing. The NGOs role assumes greater significance in the following process of implementation of SGSY. social mobilization has to be termed as an effective intervention with a positive impact on Socio Economic improvement of rural people In responding to the contemporary importance in the context of SGSY scheme. Some have succeeded in the process and some are still struggling in progressive direction.7 Need for the study: The Study on Role of NGO in Social Mobilization in the context of SGSY has assumed greater significance. welfare oriented approaches to the rural development programmes. Officials Grading process 5 . In the guidelines issued by the Government of India on SGSY. development agencies. there is emerging a need to understand various methods used and adopted by the NGOs in the process of social mobilization for the promotion of SHG and implementation of SGSY. 1. 1. as a response to the failure of the Top down. • • • • • • Identification of Swarojgaris Formation of Groups Groups Stabilization Training and Capacity Building Linkage with Bank. it needs to be studied in detail to understand the real impact made on social mobilization by the sample NGOs in implementing the new scheme called SGSY. in the recent past. It is impossible to control over the behavior of the people and subject to changing.

• • Micro Credit Micro enterprises development In this context it is high time to understand the process of Social Mobilization done by the NGOs in the above said process and implementing SGSY. Problems that arose during the process of social mobilization. it is high time to understand and to documents on what are the various methods followed for social mobilization while implementing SGSY in their respective areas so that if any innovative methods used. it can be popularized and used in the future. the present study as the following objectives: 1.9 Scope of the Study As per the earlier discussions and understanding. Keeping all the above in mind. To wards this end. With this single most important objective. 5. Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) emerged as major programme aimed at promotion of Self Help Groups and establishing a large number of micro enterprises in the rural areas building upon the potential of the rural poor. the central and state governments are concentrating in promoting large number of micro enterprises across the country. What are the important suggestions to improve social mobilization process? 6 . Hence the present study would be the miles stone for exploring various methods used and impact made through social mobilization for making the SGSY effective and efficient in the future. What are the various methods used for Social Mobilization in promoting the SHGs and SGSY? 2. 1. it is high time to understand the various methods used for social mobilization by the NGOs for effective implementation of SGSY so that the same methods and process can be adopted and applied elsewhere in our country while implementing SGSY and promoting the Self Help Groups in the years to come. Background of the NGOs and their role in social mobilization 4. How effective are those methods in fulfilling the expectations of SGSY guidelines? 3. In the context of impressive growth of SHGs and implementation of SGSY and emphasis on role of NGOs in Social Mobilization in our country. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana is conceived as a holistic programme of micro-enterprises covering all aspects of self employment.

the background of NGOs.11 Limitations of the study The present study has been conducted based on the following limitations. statement of the problems. The second chapter provides with research methods and related information on the present study. Hence. limitation etc. To study the various methods used for Social Mobilization for the promotion of SGSY and SHGs. Beed. Further it is restricted to the four NGOs in each district. self-development and self-realisation. To study and document the profile and background of the NGOs which are extensively involved in the process of social mobilization and promotion of SGSY. 1. The present study is limited to Ahmednagar. Further it is restricted to Social Mobilization process and Impact made on SGSY The goal of social mobilization is to raise the status of the poor in a society through capacity building for self-awareness. Role of NGOs in Social Mobilization and merging needs for conducting a study on various methods used and impact made on social mobilization. 3. 4.1. In this chapter an attempt is made to trace the origin of the NGOs. Satara and Solapur districts of the Maharashtra 2. Also this chapter deals with the objectives of the study. and their role in process of Social Mobilization. To Study the various impacts made out of Social Mobilization 5.10 Objectives of the study: The major objective of the study is to understand the various methods applied by the concerned NGOs for the purpose of Social Mobilization in the context of SGSY and its impact in the promotion of SHGs and growth of SGSY. To Study the various experiences gained and problems faced by the NGOs during the Social Mobilization process in the context of SHGs and SGSY. the present study is proposed. 1. To suggest and advocate the successful processes and methods of Social Mobilization for those involved in the promotion of SHGs and implementation of SGSY 1. 3. to understand this process. 7 . 2. The following are the specific objectives of the Study.

9 Socio-economic development and Social Mobilization 2.5 Social Mobilization is the process 2.10 Substantial role of NGO in Social Mobilization 2.6 Social Mobilization is a methodology 2.11 Review of related research studies 8 .4 Relationship between social mobilization and development process 2.1 Review of Conceptual understandings on Social Mobilization 2.7 Community Mobilization and inter relationship 2.8 Social Mobilization as a means for Human Resource Development 2.Chapter II Review of the Related Literature 2.3 Social Mobilization as means for Empowerment process 2.2 Meaning of Mobilization 2.

therefore.Chapter II Review of the Related Literature 2.1 Review of Conceptual understandings on Social Mobilization In the previous Chapter. Mobilization is also conceived as the process by which potentials are brought closer to actualization: the raw material is processed to provide the societal energy to fuel the pursuit of societal goals. land. Any scheme that ignores the intrinsic features of resources is. facilities. of limited values. are the resources controlled by the group prior to mobilization efforts. In response. argues Barua (2001). labor. by which energy that is latent from the viewpoint of the acting unit is made available for collection action. According to Jenkins (1983) “Mobilization is the process by which a group secures collective control over the resources needed for collection action. such as new nation’s mobilization of economic resources for development (Prasad 2003). units and supra-units. and legitimacy: or Tilly’s (1978:69). objective of the study. the processes by which the group pools recourses and directs these towards social change and the extent to which outsiders increase the pool of resources. Mobilization is. The present chapter it is devoted to present and analysis on conceptual framework and other related issues on the Social Mobilization with regards to the present study. capital and technical expertise). because mobilization of one entity often entails the demobilization of some others. most analysis has simply listed the assets that are frequently mobilized by movements (McCarthy & Zald’s (1977) money. A more mobilized unit can get more done collectively either by increasing the number of goals it realizes or by increasing the intensity with which it pursues those goals already realized. according to Barua (2001).2 Meaning of Mobilization The concept of mobilization was first used to refer to the shifting of the control of resources from private-civilian to public-military process. it has been applied to a society’s deliberate increase in the control of a variety of assets. by definition. More recently. Barua feels that it is essential in this discussion to maintain the differences among sub-units. An extensive review of literature was made to highlights various conceptual clarities and process of Social Mobilization and Role of NGOs in social mobilization for the purpose of the present study. The major issues. need for the study etc. labor. 2. an attempt was made to understand the brief introduction about the study. 9 . therefore. role of NGOs in social mobilization. Mobilization is the process. both a process of change and a changing process. and energy locked in other entities is made available.

a) their own capital. Sakuntala Narasimhan (1999) says that the strategies for empowering women must focus beyond economic restructuring to improve the social relations.2. especially for rural SC and ST women.1995) 2. Its idea of empowerment is based on the assumption that there are three fundamental sources of power that is: Capital is power and for self-reliance. communities. political or economic-can be realized (Prasad 2003). eradicating illiteracy.5 Social Mobilization as a process Social Mobilization is a process of dialogue. the process of bringing together all feasible and practical inter-sectoral social allies to raise people’s awareness of and demand for a particular development programme. cultural system. One of the key elements responsible for this success has been the concept of social mobilization. These malignant tissues are old or traditional economic. She stresses social assurance and motivation as the most important directions. as how much involvement they have. creating self managed institutions of the poor etc.6. Knowledge is power. to assist in the delivery of resources and services and to strengthen community participation for sustainable and self-reliance (Prasad 2003). and organizations etc. negotiation and consensus building for action by people. to identify. She equates awareness with empowerment and argues that women need to be aware of what they can do legally. b) their own knowledge. social. c) their own organizations. empowerment of the weak and the underprivileged. to fight for their cause. Social mobilization. is an essential surgical operation for the removal or virulent tissues of development in a polity. Organization is power for participation to be effective and dynamic. institutional. Social mobilization is about empowering the poor based on three vital parameters of power namely (Prasad 2003).11. address and solve a 10 . culture and skills. argues Ikoiwak (1989). in fact. It gives impetus to the necessary changes that must occur before development whether social. Social mobilization lies at the genuine development. and what part they play in the process of growth itself ( Sen. Amartya. which constrain and restrain women. administrative. the habit of saving must be included. Delhi.3 Social Mobilization as means for Empowerment process Of late.4 Relationship between social mobilization and development process There is a symbiotic relationship between social mobilization and development process. 2. positively and constructively to overcome their oppression and borrows Amartya Sen’s view that “ what is important is not so much what people receive. economic and cultural homogeneity. great success has been achieved around the world in programmes like immunization. The Hindu. the groups must respect the principle of social. no development can be sustained without the process being grounded in one’s own knowledge base.

and corruption experienced relentlessly over the past fifty years of development and democracy”. It is process whereby human beings are made aware of the resources at their disposal. roles and ways of acting. 2. consciousness is raised and creativity is realized while at the same time immediate material benefits are enjoyed by the prime actors (Prasad 2003). This specific process of change. Each mobilization is derived from a thorough probing and understanding of felt needs in due order of priority. The important aspect of social mobilization is that the minds of the people are affected. The social mobilization process deals with the whole reality. unlike many projects that deal with a slice of reality. harnessing. To achieve this according to UNICEF (1997). Rana (2001) is of the opinion that “social mobilization provides a non-violent way of the morass of deprivation. simplifying and fragmenting the life of the poor. social setting. actualizing and utilizing potential human resources for the purpose of development. economic and psychological commitments are eroded or broken and people become available for new patterns of socialization and behavior’. argues Reddy (2001) means the process in which major clusters of old social. Through a process of reflection-action-reflection. he says. “Social Mobilization is the process of pooling together. Later. Social Mobilization. It can be an effective strategy to create the kind of supportive environment necessary to create sustained behavioral change that will bring about community participation for sustainability and self-reliance. the strategy mush reach from the highest levels of societal power to the hardest to reach and the most disempowered families and community. Deutsch (1961) states that social mobilization is a name given to an overall process of change that happens to sustainable parts of human population in countries that are moving from traditional to modern ways of life. occupation. political graft. institutions. and are also motivated and energized to collectively utilize such resources for the improvement of their spiritual and material conditions of living”. Therefore. demands and capabilities. The iterative nature of the process results in a progressive deepening of their understanding of their problems and how they can be collectively addressed. these fragmented solutions result in problems continuing even after the project ends. (Prasad 2003).common problem (UNICEF. Jarry Gana (1987) argues. their problems and solutions. Deutsch gave a rather short hand definition of his concept of social mobilization as “the process in which major clusters of old social. the spirals of activities move simultaneously on both the material front as well as on the mind. associates. and psychological commitments are eroded or broken and people become available for new patterns of socializations and behavior”. economic. 1997). alienation. insecurity. 11 .6 Social Mobilization is a methodology Social mobilization is methodologies for making the poor contribute to economic growth. affects residence.

Social mobilization is commonly considered to be an important dimension of capacity. argues Cohen (1996). 2002). “social mobilization is a process of organizing the target groups to take initiatives and assert themselves”. 2002). Conversely. community mobilization for participation is often viewed as spontaneous movements initiated from the grassroots. however. According to Amarsinghe (2001). technologies or services through the modification of attitudes and behavior of various social actors”. particularly. which take the form of self-help and small-scale projects (Prasad 2003). social mobilization seems to cover mostly social movements initiated from the top in which persuasion and /or ‘manipulation’ techniques are used to reach objectives on a massive and rapid scale. may be defined as “the process of enabling the poor. as opposed to mere participation in an initiative designed by the government or an external origination (ibid. The interrelationship between community mobilization/participation and social mobilization needs to be clarified. 12 . 2. For some. Most often. It seeks to make people more aware of the resources available to them. Social mobilization may occur at all levels. although not necessarily confined to such communities.Social Mobilization. Social Mobilization. can also be defined as “a process of engaging a large number of people in joint action for achieving societal goals through self-reliant efforts. When thus confined.7 Community Mobilization and inter relationship Social mobilization is an approach and tool that enables people to organize for collective action. when relating to disadvantaged people. It is a process that empowers women and men to organize their own democratically self-governing groups or community organizations which enable them to initiate and control their own personal and communal development. the process is commonly referred to as community mobilization. by pooling resources and building solidarity required to resolved common problems and work towards community advancement (UNDP. Its immediate expected outcomes are the mobilization of all possible resources and the sustained adoption/utilization of appropriate policies. This may involve whole communities or be limited to sections of communities (for instance. to raise their consciousness and to give them the motivation to undertake development activities for their own betterment in the long run social mobilization aims at empowering people to demand and generate the satisfaction of their needs. marginalized and disenfranchised segments of society to build and manage their own organisations and thereby participate in decisions affecting their dayto-day lives through the use of their own creativity”. land-less people or groups of particularly poor women). organisation and institution building. according to Rana (1995a:5). the term is used for activities in local communities.

RLEK christened this programme a “Prakriya”. implementing and monitoring of community projects and managing partnerships with local government. with a people-centered approach. natural resource management. Since women are the principal beneficiaries of the programme. The massive expansion of the rural water supply infrastructure has gone hand in hand with increased community participation. Rightly and appropriately. leadership. As pointed out by Kaushal. participatory planning. and credits programmes. 2. It is important.Avoiding this simplistic and counterproductive dichotomy. These can cover: organizational development. meaning a process of change for the rural community. marketing and other services that will lead to tangible improvements in socio-economic conditions within the community. therefore. The change agent can support direct training. savings. 13 . provide supports in the form of matching grants or access to credit. private sector and other actors helps not only to improve local conditions but also to empower people and their organizations (Prasad 2003).8 Social Mobilization as a means for Human Resource Development Community members can maximize their potential not only by organizing themselves but also by upgrading their existing skills to better manage new inputs-business and community initiatives and establish effective links with local government and other sectors. that initiatives. The forces of community awareness and social mobilization for development unleashed by the UNDP sponsored project motivated the rural community of Garhwal to move ahead on the already created path of development. from hand pump mechanics to members of village water and sanitation committees. community mobilization is viewed as the community component of the national development process. The process of identifying community priorities. awareness generation and decentralized management. Prakriya continues to focus on community mobilization and capacity rather than on the direct service delivery (Radhakrishna Rao2005) 2.9 Socio-economic development and Social Mobilization Socio-economic development initiatives are a great incentive for community members to organize themselves. ultimately. exchange visits and other capacity building activities based on needs identified by the members of the community organizations. Cohen (1996) argues that community mobilization and social mobilization can be made unified parts of the same process of social change so that. And the all-women Self Help Groups took upon themselves the task of giving a fresh thrust to developmental acidities and community empowerment. and other key areas. they are involved in all stages of implementation of rural water supply and sanitation schemes. agriculture. which include social mobilization. Local human resource development can best be promoted when trained individuals take up the responsibility to train other community members (Prasad 2003).

advocate for a new service. particularly approach and social mobilization are the possible process for eradicating poverty. The NGOs. giving feedback. Besides dialogue. Empowerment of poor.10 Substantial role of NGO in Social Mobilization In recent times. A facilitator working closely with the communities at grassroots level can play a critical role in the group formation and development. Training. lead to compromise or to new ideas. If gathering and disseminating information are to be a genuine part of social mobilization. The quality of the groups can be influenced by the capacity of the facilitator.2003). This includes identification of the problem and its cause. Information sharing and discussion are critical elements of effective communication. or actions. human rights. dialogue is at the heart of social mobilization. community based self-help groups and local governmental organizations have a substantial role to play says Sivasubramanian (1999) 2. and capacity building of facilitators being used by DRDAs. Poverty can be effectively eradicated only when the poor start contributing to the growth process through their active involvement. Voluntary organization. women empowerment. It builds consensus and unities in diverse sectors of society around a common purpose. NGOs can not only work as the facilitator but also help in Social Mobilization. Dialogue includes debate. DRDAs may support such sensitive support mechanisms in the shape of NGOs or Community Based Organizations (CBOs) or Network of Community Institutions (SGSY Guidelines).al . UNCEF (1997) is of the view that collecting. people’s mobilization programmes and effective networks. discussing the results and deciding what action to take. The NGOs play in making the people environmentally aware and sensitive to take part in the social activism through social mobilization process (Biswambhar Panda et. many grassroots micro movements also known as new social movements have been taking place centering on contemporary issues of importance such as ecology. 14 .11 Review of related research studies The experiences across the country have shown that group formation and development are not a spontaneous process. In some cases. or seek funds to create new infrastructure. goals.According to UNICEF (1997). mediation is required to bring discussion and debate to agreement on problem definition. sharing of natural resources and the like. It may overcome or diffuse resistance. The facilitator may or may not be a official. it must involve local communities. 2. whether to organize local groups. Often dialogue is a means to empowerment. families and children in the design and implementation of research and action. as a social force facilitates collective action and people’s mobilization. environment. disagreement and negotiation. understanding and using information are other critical components of social mobilization. Sometimes. carrying out surveys or interviews. The NGOs in India have contributed handsomely towards social activism through intense campaigns.

empowerment is the process of building capacities of creating an atmosphere. which enables people to fully utilize their creative potential in pursuance of quality of life. (Kumar 2002) and prevented men from taking alcohol. According to Agarwal (2001). technology upgrading. empowering women contributes to social development. nutrition and health facilities for their girl children. found in Andhra Pradesh. Thus the illiterate SC women could gradually change the social scenario thanks to social mobilization process and initiatives.Vasudeva Rao in his study on the “Swasakti Banks” which are established. According to Anand (2001). mobilization and realisation of women friendly environment in the rural areas. According to Gurumoorthy (2000). has observed many changes in the thinking process of women through social effective social mobilization process. They are able to ask for equal wage. Women’s empowerment is not only in financial terms but also in attitudinal and motivational factors. On the community front. Maharashtra under which the girls from SC and BC are set apart under the name of wives of the gods Jogins. (2001). and are able to provide better education. which being gender related. they could stop the social evil of ‘Joginism’ a system akin to the Devadasi system. promotion of small savings and publicity could contribute to empowering women. However. says Devasia. Empowerment gives women the capacity to influence decision-making process. supply of raw material and market. 15 . Karnataka. Sundari and Geeta (2000) opine that the gender disparity in access to institutional credit is gradually narrowing down over time. organised and run by SC women through self-management. women need to be viewed not as beneficiaries but a active participants in the process of development and change. Economic progress in any country whether developed or underdeveloped could be achieved through social development. leads to feminization of poverty as poverty particularly affects women. Empowerment of women can be effectively achieved if poor women could be organised into groups – for community participation as well as for assertion of their rights in various services related to their economic and social well being. credit women’s bank. assert self esteem. Women should be encouraged to undertake micro enterprises with the available credit facilities by banks and other financial bodies. implementation and evaluation. planning. who are actually harassed and exploited by the rich and powerful of the villages. Those SC women who were once passive recipients have now become vocal. The Self Help Group disburses micro credit to the rural women for the purpose of making them enterprising women and encouraging them to enter into entrepreneurial activities. It also deepens and popularizes the democratic process. authors suggest that factors such as training and skill formation. articulate and active stakeholders. There is no need for much inventions and innovation to empower rural women and what needed is reorientation. Poverty is often the consequence of unemployment.

In summary it may be indicated that for the purpose of present study. starting with concept identification and editing with more pertinent for the research problem currently 1070). review of related literature is treated as a continuous process (Conway et. The review pertinent to the earlier studies as shown in the preceding pages had clearly indicated that studies specifically aimed at the Social Mobilization are very scarce and particularly there is no objective study of the type described has hitherto been undertaken. 16 .

5 Performance of SGSY 3.6 Self Employment and Wage Employment 17 .2 Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) 3.3 Coverage of SGSY 3.Chapter III Public Intervention in Poverty Elimination and the SGSY 3.1 Introduction 3.4 Funds 3.

Chapter III Public Intervention in Poverty Elimination and the SGSY 3.1 Introduction Poverty reduction has been one of the major goals of development planning since independence and the planning process has been sensitive to the needs of the poor. Accordingly, the development efforts have been directed in creating adequate livelihoods and provision of services for a better quality of life for the poor. It is recognized that poverty is an outcome of multiple deprivations and it is not simply a matter of inadequate income but also a matter of low literacy, short life expectation and lack of basic needs such as drinking water. Since these deprivations are inter-related, a comprehensive approach alone can eliminate poverty and ensure optimal utilization of human resources for sustainable development. Thus, multi-pronged and convergent approaches with proper targeting are deemed essential for elimination of poverty. It is also recognized that poverty is not only an economic phenomenon but also a social one. Well designed poverty alleviation programmes, if effectively implemented, not only supplement the poverty reducing effects of growth but also could promote pro-poor growth. Several poverty alleviation programmes have been in place for a long time now. The programmes and schemes have been modified, consolidated, expanded and improved over time. The targeted programmes fall into four broad categories: (i) self-employment programmes, (ii) wage employment programmes, (iii) direct cash transfers to the targeted groups and (iv) public distribution system. There are numerous centrally sponsored schemes (CSS) under the first three categories which are designed by the Centre, administered by the Ministry of Rural Development, but implemented by the States, which generally contributing 25 per cent to their cost. In addition, some State governments have their own poverty-reduction schemes. There has been multiplicity of programmes on the grounds of multi-dimensionality of poverty, heterogeneity of the poor and inter-state variations in the efficacy of the delivery system. 3.2 Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) In April 1999, the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was restructured and combined with Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Supply of Improved Tools for Rural Artisans (SITRA), Ganga Kalyan Yojana, Million Wells Scheme (MWS) and Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), and a single self-employment programme known as Swarnajayanti GramSwarojgar Yojana (SGSY) was put in place. The basic objective of SGSY is to bring the assisted poor families above poverty line by providing them income-generating assets through bank credit and government subsidy. Formation of organizations of the poor at the grassroots level through a process of social mobilization for poverty reduction is central to the programme. The approach of SGSY is based on SHGs that have to act as a financial intermediary and in many cases there are women SHGs which are also expected to serve as vehicle for their empowerment. Non-Government organizations (NGOs) are


expected to facilitate the formation of these groups. The community involvement as emphasized in SGSY, in contrast to IRDP, is reflected in the mobilization for the formation of SHG groups. SGSY has been conceived as a holistic self-governing programme covering all aspects of self-employment of the rural poor such as organization of the poor into SHGs, their capacity building, selection of key activities, planning of activity clusters, infrastructure build-up, technology and market support (See Box 1.1). The main tenets of the SGSY are: (a) key activities, (b) cluster approach, and (c) group method. The first reduces the number of activities; the second shrinks the geographical spread to fewer contiguous or selected villages; and the third reduces the number of clients from a large number of individuals to a small number of groups and enables peer group monitoring associated with self-governing institutions. All these are expected to reduce the burden of follow-up and the extension inputs for providing backward and forward linkages. The programme aims at establishing a large number of micro enterprises by the poor in rural areas by augmenting the ability of the poor in a manner appropriate to the potential of each area. Financial assistance under SGSY is given in the form of subsidy by government and credit by the banks.

Box 1.1 Salient Features of SGSY • A Centrally sponsored self-employment scheme. Funding is shared between the Centre and the State in the ratio of 75:25. For North-Eastern States, the ratio is 90:10. The scheme is implemented by District Rural Development Agency (DRDAs)/ Zilla Parishads through Panchayat Samitis with active involvement of Panchayats based on the funds provided for the SGSY. NGOs, CBOs and Self Help Promoting Institutions (SHPIs) are assisted up to Rs.10,000 per group by government for the formation and development of Self Help Groups (SHGs) DRDA may incur a maximum amount of 10 per cent of allocation towards training and capacity building SGSY Infrastructure Fund comprises upto 20 per cent of the allocation to States and 25 percent in the case of North Eastern States. DRDA provides Rs.10,000 to each SHG as Revolving Fund, banks provide cash credit of Rs.15,000 for Grade-I SHGs. Banks provide loans to Grade-II SHGs with minimum repayment period of three 19

• • • •

to five years depending on the nature of scheme. • Subsidy under SGSY is uniform at 30 per cent of the project cost, subject to a maximum of Rs.7,500 per Swarojgari (Rs.10,000 for SC/ST / disabled Swarojgari) Swarojgaris are not entitled for benefit of subsidy if the loan is fully repaid before the lock-in period. The programme envisages establishing a large number of microenterprises by the poor in rural areas with an emphasis on four to five key activities identified at the block level based on resources, occupational skills of the people and availability of markets.

• •

3.3 Coverage of SGSY Nearly 31 lakh SHGs were formed over a period of ten years since 1999-00 (Table 1.1). Out of them, 20 lakh obtained the status of Grade I and 9.5 lakh Grade II. But only about seven lakh SHGs could obtain credit for undertaking economic activities. Thus the proportion of SHGs taking up economic activities financed by bank credit and supported by subsidy was only 22 per cent. The programme since inception assisted 1.06 crore Swarojgaris. Social composition of the assisted Swarojgaris was in favour of the most vulnerable groups, such as scheduled tribes and scheduled castes, which accounted for nearly half of the assisted swarojgaris in 2007-08. Women accounted for 66 per cent, disabled two percent and minorities 8.4 per cent. The relatively small number of assisted swarojgaris indicates the modest scale of the programme when compared with the huge rural workforce in need of livelihoods outside agriculture. Nevertheless, the programme has been able to create a productive base among the most disadvantaged persons in rural areas. The efficacy of SGSY could be improved in the years ahead if its experiences are reviewed, lessons are drawn for the future and it is appropriately restructured. The MoRD proposal for universalizing the SHG coverage of all poor households by 2013 and increasing the proportion of assisted persons among swarojgaris to 50 per cent from the existing 22 per cent is a welcome initiative in this direction (MoRD, Poverty Eradication in India by 2015, Government of India, 15 November 2008).


3). op cit). 1.7 crore BPL households by 2015 under skill development and placement is to be seen as an encouraging step (MoRD.Table 1.1 Physical Progress under SGSY since Inception Since most of the rural poor are crowded in the low productivity primary sector activities. It is in this context. 2008). 21 . a BPL family may not move out of poverty. The small income gain to swarojgaris from enterprise activities was due to low productive traditional activities in which the swarojgaris were engaged in and also due to low absorption of technology. the proposal of MoRD to cover 1.1. the success of the programme depends on raising their ability to diversify into other high productive activities. Purushotham. the income gain to a swarojgari from enterprise activities under SGSY was a mere Rs.1. with dairy activity alone accounting for 50 per cent.228 per month (P. In 2007-08. Institutional Credit for Rural Livelihoods: A Study of SGSY in the Regions of High Poverty. Even in the better performing State of Andhra Pradesh.2 and 1. Most of the assisted SHGs were engaged in primary sector with little diversification in their livelihood base (Figures 1. NIRD. about two-thirds of the assisted swarojgaris were engaged in primary sector. Unless at least one member of the family acquires skills and engages in high value addition activities.

963 crore) during this period. the utilization of funds 22 .2).962 crore. Clearly. the first year of launching SGSY. 1. but it declined to Rs. adequate resource allocation is essential.1400 crore per year between 2001-02 and 2005. the funds available were Rs.608 crore in the very next year and varied between Rs.06 (Table 1. Though the fund showed an increasing trend since 2004. The total fund available for the programme over the ten years of the programme was Rs 16.1200 to Rs.2000. In 1999.188 crore but the utilization was only 74 per cent (Rs.1.05.11. it could not cross the 1999-00 level till 2008-09.4 Funds For the implementation of a nation-wide centrally sponsored programme like SGSY.3.

In the case of hard core poor. only 16 per cent of the total funds were utilized for infrastructure development over the ten year period. Still worse. the over all utilization rate declined over the years. The under-utilization of available funds could be due to lack of motivation on the part of poor as well as inability to shift from wage employment to selfemployment.2). compared to the recent wage employment programme like the NREGP for which a sum of Rs. thus earning an epithet that SGSY is subsidy-driven! Ill-trained groups in SGSY would be a severe handicap in moving towards the Eleventh Five Year Plan goal of inclusive growth. This suggests that the capacity of the poor to take up self-employment activities needs to be strengthened considerably to pursue viable self-employment.35. The resource allocation to SGSY has been on a very modest scale. The ground reality is that only six per cent of the total SGSY funds were utilized for training and capacity building during the past one decade (Table 1. 2009-10. 23 . Almost two-thirds of the funds went for subsidy.583 crore was released over the last two and a half years and a budget allocation of Rs. priority should be for providing handholding till they escape poverty.28. Similarly.000 crore for just one year. Its share remained at a low level of about six per cent and only recently it is close to the expected ten per cent.improved over the years from 49 per cent in 1999-00 to over 80 per cent in recent years.

The financial services did not have the systems and procedures suited to the poor. credit.3.056 crore in 1999-2000 and rose to Rs.205 crore in 1999-00 to over Rs. 24 . But it is also due to supply side failures. credit and related indicators show that SGSY-bank linkage is yet to take off from the perspective of credit facilitating the growth of micro enterprises.3.760 crore in 2007-08 but still much below the target.2. The ratio of credit to subsidy was about two during the period and did not vary much from year to year. It signifies the failure of both credit delivery systems to reach the poor as well as that of public intervention to promote credit-worthy Swarojgaris. Thus.3). Credit actually mobilized was only Rs.1. The target for credit under SGSY increased very moderately from Rs.subsidy ratio remained much below the target ratio of 3:1. On the whole.Credit: The failure in the spread of the programme and the limited absorbing capacity kept even the targets of credit more or less at a constant level. This is partly due to failure to strengthen the demand side of the credit by improving the capacity of the poor to absorb credit for income generating activities. It is important to find out the reasons for the persistent wide gap between the credit targets set and the actual mobilization of credit.744 crore in 2007-08 at current prises (Table 1.

should operate like a conveyor belt receiving the hardcore poor at one end and releasing the empowered poor at the other end. The test of empowerment of the poor lies in their ability to utilize effectively the programmes meant for their development.375 crore.049 crore in 2007-08. Funds for training and capacity building should be substantially raised along with larger budgetary allocations for the SGSY as a whole. Most of the factors responsible for its poor performance relate to weaknesses in delivery systems. However. While the proportion of about 15 per cent of funds earmarked for infrastructure development may not be small. pp. 25 . In many states.22.Investment: The cumulative investment (credit + subsidy) over the period of ten years was Rs 24. DRDAs and the line departments of most of the state governments have failed in providing non-credit inputs to the Swarojgaris. Above all. Further. Cluster approach has also been a non-starter in many of the states. Relaxing economic norms.3). SHG federations and their supporting institutions also facilitate more effective interaction with the government and banking agencies. the building up of gender perspective in the programme has been conspicuously absent in many parts of the country.7. The utilization of six per cent to seven per cent for training and capacity building falls short of the target of 10 per cent. Such programmes. in the absence of appropriate propoor institutions. Mid. 1600 crore in 1999-2000 to Rs 4. As compared to the target of Rs.Term Appraisal of 10th Five Year Plan 2002-07. Government of India. Results of evaluation of the SGSY (Planning Commission. There is need to raise productivity levels of SHGs by increasing the investment level along with better technology. it is the total budgetary allocation made and the funds made available for the scheme which appear to be too meager. consisting of Rs 16. The budgetary allocation to SGSY will have to be increased and utilized efficiently if significant impact on poverty is to be made. collectively. SHGs are unable to achieve upward mobility with their own initiatives. would be justifiable in the case of these programmes so long as they serve their priority objective of getting the poor out of the poverty trap.412 crore of credit and Rs.238-242) show inadequate infrastructure and insufficient capacity building as main constraints. The annual investment increased from Rs. the SHG mode of collective action by the poor from the primary level (SHGs at village level) to the district level (SHG federations) has been successful in mobilizing the poor. especially bank lending to poor.25. 3.5 Performance of SGSY The experiences of some states show that with proper institutional architecture.000. This low level of investment might be the reason for the low income gains accrued to swarjgaris engaged in enterprise activities catering to local markets.995. 2005.963 crore as subsidy (Tabale 1. micro-enterprises under SGSY need to be judged strictly by productivity and viability. poverty-reduction programmes such as SGSY often end up in the poor becoming dependent on the government or other external interventions. the average per beneficiary investment during the period was Rs.

In East and North-East. implementation and monitoring of the programme (Purushotham. Jharkhand. For instance. though dated.2).The performance of SGSY was unsatisfactory in the states with high incidence of poverty such as Assam. very few swarojgaris could avail adequate level of bank credit for investment. functionaries of DRDAs and BDOs did not possess adequate knowledge of the programme and also banks had little interest in it. non-cooperation of the banks and lack of proper guidance were creating problems • There was lack of coordination between bank branches and block officials • No effective monitoring was being made after sanctioning loans 26 .2 What Went Wrong? Delivery System • Delay in sanctioning of loans. line departments were hardly involved in planning. Orissa. The Ministry of Rural Development sponsored study on “Evaluation of Functioning and Implementation of SGSY”. West Bengal and Bihar. Chattisgarh. In most of the above States.700. Consequently. Madhya Pradesh.19.4.665 per swarojgari. brings out a number of deficiencies in the delivery system (Box 1. 2008 op cit). Consequently. the credit disbursed as a proportion of credit targeted in 2007-08 was low at about 40 per cent as against to the all India’s 73 percent. The constraints underline their poor performance mostly relate to the delivery system. per swarojgari investment (credit plus subsidy) was low at Rs. bank credit in Assam was as low as Rs. The poor performance of SGSY in East and North-east can be seen in Table 1. Box 1.

Integrating the economy of the hardcore poor with the mainstream by giving them viable livelihoods with potential for upward mobility is a far more challenging task. http://rural. for a country like India. particularly in target-driven programmes. These organizations promote formation of SHGs. Andhra Pradesh or Tamil Nadu. Extending the base is relatively easy. The programme should now move forward with a two-pronged strategy of extending the base and activating the economy of the hardcore poor to integrate it with the mainstream economy. Government of India. establish bank linkage and facilitate capacity building. influential persons in the village were found to own a group Project Outcomes • Most of the assets (46 per cent) created under SGSY were livestock assets. 3. including ensuring coordination with the line departments. 2003. ensure thrift. and 47 per cent were from the social group of SC/ST and physically handicapped were 2. • 46 per cent SHGs achieved improvement in their incomes through SGSY activities • 40 per cent SHGs reported increase in savings Source: MoRD. Also. However. and alternatives need to be developed where appropriate. • 67 per cent of the beneficiaries were women. In contrast to the Eastern states. especially in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. The Kudumbasree in Kerala with active linkages with the PRI and the AP model which relies on federations of SHGs have acquired the shape of effective organizations of the poor. they federate the SHGs into effective self-governing organizations with a hierarchy of appropriate functions. Giving the poor viable livelihood in self-employment activities is an extremely challenging and time-taking task. 27 . The ideal institutional strategy could be based on the experiences of Kerala.• A number of SHGs were formed with the intension of availing the revolving fund and subsidy and no economic activity was carried out • In most of the areas. This also involves institutional partnerships between SHGs / federations with the bankers. Federations acting as financial intermediary which is a high skill activity require investments in training for enhancing their skill base. Annual Report 2002-03. no single strategy may be suitable.6 Self-employment and wage-employment The preceding discussion brings out that the poor performance of SGSY is due to poor quality of SHGs. Andhra Pradesh.nic/in/annual/0203/chapter-5/pdf. SGSY should team up with other programmes and development oriented line departments to look beyond its own targets.4 per cent. Kerala and Tamil Nadu show successful implementation of the programme largely because of the existence of umbrella organizations at the state level.

building up their capacities and putting in place effective federal organizations of the poor. Even among these self-employment activities.2. organizing SHGs. 28 . there is a strong case for combining skill-based wage employment with self-employment programmes.000 per month and there has been an element of self-exploitation among women involved. the average monthly earnings per swarojgari in better performing states of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala is observed to be as low as Rs. even in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. SGSY should be restructured so as to include training in skills which enables placement based wage-employment. Creating high productive self-employment opportunities is not only a time taking process but also such opportunities may not exist in all places. in addition to generating self-employment.Need for Restructuring SGSY: The experience of the SGSY brings out that with the best of the efforts in social mobilization. Therefore. only about one-fourth of the SHGs could actually undertake self-employment activities. Hence. paying attention to only self-employment as a means of poverty reduction will miss a large proportion of poor households. This draws attention to the fact that poor households depend on multiple sources of income which may include wage-employment and self employment.

5 Sampling Selection 4.2 Definition of the term used in this study 4.1 Introduction 4.Chapter IV Research Methodology 4.4 Research design and methodology 4.9.3 Objectives of the study 4. Summary 29 .8 Presentation of results 4.7 Data Collection Analysis 4.6 Pilot study 4.

the background of NGOs. personal inquiries and discussions with various practitioners and NGO’s functionaries have lead to the next step of formulating of objectives which is considered as a central step in any research attempt. The reviews of literature. 1999. construction of research tools. 4.3 Objectives of the study: The major objective of the study is to understand the various processes and methods applied by the concerned NGOs for the purpose of Social Mobilization in the context of SGSY. To describe the profiles of the NGOs which are extensively involved in the process of social mobilization and promotion of SGSY. SGSY focuses on groups approach by organizing the poor into Self Help Groups (SHGs) through social mobilization.G. 4. SGSY is aimed at establishment of large number of micro-enterprises and expects to ensure that the groups’ members come out of poverty clutches through incremental income of around Rs. 3. including consumption and income generation. SGSY: The Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is the latest poverty alleviation programme that has been in operation since 1st April.O: The term “NGO is operationally defined as “the organizations as a social force that facilitates collective action and people’s mobilization and involved in promoting Self Help Groups under SGSY through various social mobilization processes in the study areas”. Self Help Group: The term “SHGs” is operationally defined and used for the purpose of the present study “Self Help Groups are usually informal groups whose members have a common perception of need and importance towards collective action.p. within 23 years of group’s formation.1 Introduction: The present chapter is devoted to formulation of objectives. 1. 4. and their role in process of Social Mobilization. Social Mobilization: The Term “Social Mobilization” is operationally defined in this study as “the process in which various approaches and tools used by the NGOs to organize and promoting Self Help Groups in the Context of SGSY” 2. The following are the specific objectives of the Study. 30 .m.2 Definition of the term used in this study 1. These groups promote savings among members and use the pooled resources to meet the emergent needs of their members. data collection and its methods of analysis. pilot study conducted.Chapter IV Research Methodology 4. and its impact in the promotion of SHGs and growth of SGSY. 2000/. sampling selection. N. research designed & adopted.

the Self Help Group’s members. 4. To study the various methods used for Social Mobilization for the promotion of SGSY and SHGs. The explorative study is used for exploring the various processes.5 Sampling Selection The purposive sampling was adopted while identifying the NGOs when the investigator identified the NGOs for the study. officials of the NGOs and DRDA connected with SHG and SGSY Name of NGO Navjivan Gramodaya Pratishthan Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal Shramik Janata Vikas Sanstha Mahatma Phule Samaj Seva Mandal Number of SHGs 405 854 865 340 31 .6 Pilot study In order to perfect the structured interview schedule and get an idea for conducting formal and informal interaction and observation. Satara and Solapur districts were identified for the present study. respondents. The exploratory design was selected due to the very nature of the issues. the following criteria were kept in mind to avoid causality errors.4 Research design and methodology The present investigation has adopted exploratory nature. Beed.. For this purpose. Beed. Based on the above conditions. The nature of data obtained for the present study is qualitative in nature. and type of question rose. there are 4 NGOs in four districts namely. The data / information were collected from 4 NGOs in the state of Maharashtra i. One NGO was selected from each District. To analyse the various impacts made out of Social Mobilization 5. Ahmednagar. The NGO which has more than 300 Groups 3. The NGOs linked with SGSY schemes. methods and tools used by the NGOs for social mobilization in the context of SGSY. 4. Name of District Ahmednagar Beed Satara Solapur 4. pilot study was conducted with two NGOs working in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra.e. The NGO which has active link with DRDA 4. 1. The NGO extensively involved in social mobilization process 5. To suggest and advocate the successful processes and methods of Social Mobilization for those involved in the promotion of SHGs and implementation of SGSY 4. Solapur and Satara. Ahmednagar. 3.2. The NGO which has completed five years in existence 2. To Study the various experiences gained and problems faced by the NGOs during the Social Mobilization process in the context of SHGs and SGSY. for generating data.

available with the official documents in the DRDA. Block Development Officials and others who are connected with the implementation of SGSY which helped the researcher to focus on the significance of the study and preparing suitable the tools for the study. In the next stage.8 Data Collection and Analysis The data was collected with NGOs directly with the help of above said tools and methods by experienced data enumerators along with the investigator. which were helpful in identification of relevant attributes for the purpose of the study. This pilot study has helped the researcher to prepare the structured interview schedules. it was decided to collect data by adopting the following techniques and tools A. The next chapter deals with analysis and interpretation of the results. it is considered that presentation of profile of the NGOs and qualitative analysis of data collected was more suitable and it has been applied for the purpose of data analysis for this study. Formal interaction with officials of DRDA. Accordingly. and to formulate the ideas for the formal and informal interaction to be done during the data collection. 4. After formulating the ideas. Informal interaction with Self Help Group’s members C. the investigator reviewed available secondary data and details. Structured interview schedule (open ended) for NGO Officials 4.9 Summary In this chapter the methodology aspects of the study is presented. Observation technique in the field B. At the first state. various discussions were held with the Project Officers. 32 . The study was conducted with 4 NGOs using the above said criteria. based on the various consultations and discussions. and NGOs concerned. 4. After deeper analysis of the study process and clarity on the chosen methods. a suitable research design has been evolved.scheme were contacted and consulted. The collected data were presented in the form of profiles of the NGOs and qualitative analysis was used for the presentation of data related to the methods and process for social mobilization by the NGOs in a cumulative format. D.7 Construction of the Tools The tools of inquiry required for the study were constructed at different stages. At the second stage. Assistant Project Officers. the data were collected from the officials of the NGOs and SHG’s members.

Profile of Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal. Satara d.3 Presentation of Qualitative Data 33 . Ahmednagar b. Beed c. Profile of Mahatma Phule Samaj Seva Mandal. Profile of Navjivan Gramodaya Pratishthan. Solapur 5.Chapter V Data Analysis and Interpretation 5.2 Profile of NGOs under study a.1 Introduction 5. Profile of Shramik Janata Vikas Sanstha.

Pathardi. Ahmednagar 414102 34 . 5. &Tal. . Tal. The exercise of pilot study has helped the researcher to refine and focus the importance of data to be collected. Pathardi. This chapter is divided into two parts. were adopted in the study. Ahmednagar 414102 Registered Office At. Dist. The primary data were collected through various tools and methods such as interview schedule.Chapter V Data Analysis and Interpretation 5. listed in the previous chapter. Kamkar Niwas. Post. Name and Address of the NGO Navjivan Gramodaya Pratishthan. Ahmednagar 414 502 Head & Administrative Office Kamkar Niwas. formal and informal interactions. At. various tools and techniques. The collected data have been presented in the form of profile of the NGOs. Ahmednagar 1. Shevgaon Dist.Post. and officials from the NGOs in the respective district.2 Profiles of the NGOs under Study a) Profile of Navjivan Gramodaya Pratishthan. In order to collect data. and presentation of qualitative analysis of the methods used for social mobilization by NGOs in a cumulative format.1 Introduction The major objective of the present study is to find out the various methods used for the social mobilization in the context of SGSY by the NGOs in the study areas. The first part is devoted to presentation of profile of the NGOs studied and second part is devoted to presentation of qualitative data analysis of the data collected from the SHG’s members. and observations. Dist. Tal. At. Post.

Legal status of the NGO Sr.Hingoli Field Office -- 3.1976 Yes / No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 5. Health empowerment activities 5. Promotion and organisation of self help groups 6. From 1994 to 2010 Total years 16 years 4. Years of Existence in operational areas. Promoting holistic development of the people 3. Educational promotion and empowerment 8. Organisation’s programme administration looked after by the Secretary. Socio Economic development of the poorest among the poor 2. Extending relief and referral activities. Core Organizational objectives 1.formal Education and literacy development 35 . Details of Branch Offices if any. Post.No 1 2 3 4 5 Registration under which Act Societies Registration Act – 1860 Bombay Public Trust Act – 1950 Under Section 12 – A of Income Tax Act Under Section 80 – G of Income Tax Act Foreign Contribution Regulation Act . Promotion of income generation activities 7. Field Office Shree Kesheriroop Maharana Palace Risala Bazar. Non. Organizational Management Structure. 6. Near Civil Hospital At. Tal &Dist:. Type of NGO The NGOs is concentrating on the following core type activities     Development Training Campaign Advocacy 7. 4.2. The organization is managed by the Board of seven trustees.

Type of Economic activities 1. Gen cuttings 12. Vermin culture 3. Micro Credit 6. Dairy forming 2. Petty shops 4. of Panchayats 78 1 8 No. Vermin culture 3. of Villages 85 1 8 36 . Women and Child development 8. Bonded labor 10. Social education and community Development 10.9. Operational Areas District Ahmednagar Hingoli Pune 9. 11. Target Groups 1. Type of Economic activities under SGSY 1. Involvement in implementation of SGSY and SHGs Number of SHGs formed 405 Number of SHGs provided with RF under SGSY 356 Number of Groups provided with E A 278 Blocks Pathardi Aundha Nagnath Shirur No. Promotion of Self Help Groups 2. Special schools 3. Gen cuttings 13. Income Generation Activities. Farmers 2. Counseling 5. Type of Activities 1. Training 4. Women and Children 3. Dairy forming 2. Petty Shops 4.

From 1985 to 2010 Total years 25 years 4.Tal. Ahmednagar Health Department. Supporter for the NGOs State Level Name of the Organisation Ministry of Rural Development DRDA. Beed 431123 Registered Office At. Post.No 1 2 3 4 5 Registration under which Act Societies Registration Act – 1860 Bombay Public Trust Act – 1950 Under Section 12 – A of Income Tax Act Under Section 80 – G of Income Tax Act Foreign Contribution Regulation Act .14. Zilla Parishad. Legal status of the NGO Sr. Dharur Road At. Zilla Parishad Ahmednagar Department of Women and Child Development.Post. Years of Existence in operational areas. Dist.1976 Yes / No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 37 . Dharur Road At. Name and Address of the NGO Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal (YGVM) Akshay Niwas. Details of Branch Offices if any. Beed Head & Administrative Office Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal (YGVM) Akshay Niwas. Field Office Field Office No field office 3. Kaij. Beed 431123 2.Post. Kaij Dist. Kaij. Beed 1. Germany National Level Foreign Sources b) Profile of Yuva Gram Vikas Mandal (YGVM).Tal. Mumbai NABARD Indo German Social Service Society. Dist.Warapgaon. Tal. Ahmednagar GTZ.

Organisation’s programme administration looked after by the Executive Secretary. Operational Areas District Beed Beed Latur Osmanabad Osmanabad Blocks Kaij Dharur Latur Omerga Osmanabad No. Core Organizational objectives 1) To attempt for the overall development of Dalits. and educational and health issues prevailing in the society. cultural. of Panchayats 87 49 12 09 14 No. land laborers. Type of NGO The NGOs is concentrating on the following core type activities   Development and Research Welfare and Rehabilitation 7. 6. health and culture faced by the deprived lives in urban areas 6) To organize. conversations. trainings. de-notified tribes. 3) To use available information and the innovations and create awareness at society level utilizing various campaign mediums as well as creating occasional and inoccasional material required for such campaigns. tribals. 8. conduct and participate in the discussions. 4) To conduct and impart trainings to the activists at various levels engaged in social development 5) To achieve the tasks of rural development through the science. of Villages 87 49 12 09 14 38 . YGVM is managed by the Executive Committee. economical. farmers. which consists of 9 active members. 2) To undertake studies and conduct research on different social. Organizational management structure. technologies and the informal education as well as initiating activities to solve the basic problems like education. people’s collective programmes and the meets that could be helpful to achieve / fulfill above aims 7) To receive and even extend all the possible support and help from and to the individuals and organizations to implement and conduct the expected programmes according to the aims and the objectives of the organization.5. marginalized farmers as well as women and children from all the categories.

Old Age home 4. Petty trading 4. Dalit women empowerment activities 8. Women and children 3. Natural forming and food processing 9.9. Target Groups 1. Total Rural Sanitation Programme 7. Youths & Adolescents 6. Small and Marginal farmers 10. Promotion of Self Help Groups 2. Income generation programme 6. Banjara Embroidery 13. Tailoring 2. Involvement in implementation of SGSY and SHGs Number of SHGs formed 854 Number of SHGs provided with RF under SGSY 598 Number of Groups provided with E A 487 39 . Type of Economic activities under SGSY 1. Integrated skill training programme 5. Type of Economic activities 1. Cleaning powder 3. Environmental awareness programme 12. Small and marginal farmers 4. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan 11. Micro Credit under various model 3. Schedule tribes (Pardhi) and Schedule casts 2. Banjara Embroidery 12. Cleaning powder 3. Short stay home 11. Disables in all types 5. Type of Activities 1. Petty trading 4. Tailoring 2. Creche programme 10.

The families assisted to avail benefits under various government schemes during the year ware as under. The organisation is sincerely attempting to affiliate eligible beneficiaries with govt. GOI New Delhi.14. Mumbai Indo-German Social Service Society. NABARD . New Delhi Ministry of Textiles New Delhi CASA. Sr.K SWISS AID Pune CARITAS. schemes so that their life of standard is improved. Supporter for the NGOs State Level National Level Name of the Organisation DRDA-Zilla Parishad -Beed Maharashtra Aids Control Society. Mahatma Phule BCD Corporation Ltd. It is a fact that though ample of schemes has been launched at government level for the improvement and betterment of underprivileged the people are vulnerable to the benefit thereof. Consulate General of Japan Hivos Bangalore Foreign Sources ACHIEVMENTS: Livelihood through Government Schemes: This is non supported activity continued by the organisation as additional activities supported under various projects. Scheme Title Annabhau Sathe BCD Corporation Ltd. of Maharashtra Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.New Delhi. Vasantrao Naik Tribal Development Corporation Ltd Jivandhara Scheme Jawahar Rojgar Schema Weaker Section Development Scheme Sanjay Gandhi Niradhar Yojana Indira Gandhi Niradhar Yojana Social Security Scheme Nature of Benefit Loan Loan Loan Grant Grant Equipment Pension Pension Insurance Families Benefited 126 103 192 003 298 47 30 98 67 54 23 97 35 11 37 34 36 17 Total 229 195 395 82 41 135 101 90 40 40 . No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Govt.Pune Center Social Welfare Board-New Delhi Women & Child Development Department. Pune CORDAID Netherlands DFID-UK WATERAID – U. Govt.

B. 4100/. Osmanabad and Latur. Presently we work in 34 villages of three districts.10 Indira Gandhi Gharkul Yojana Housing 78 1013 65 438 143 1451 Local Community Empowerment Programme: In continuation of the programme the organization was succeeded to organize and conduct mob level open community sensitization cum education programmes especially for Dalit community and the women member of the SHGs promoted under the organization the issues like very survival. HIV/AIDS TI Programme: There are growing number of HIV/AIDS death in the area the reasons are mass migration of cane harvesting labors. Kaij. the end of the year out 50 children 40 contested for the final exams of which 11 children have been enrolled in the formal education institution also bal kamgar school have been started. Development Project for Child Labour : the programme was launched in 2005 at red light area. (Monday to Saturday) and given the education in non-formal ways.m. Along with formal education children are equipped with vocational inputs. medical aid and health education support to the CSW and the clients. and provided with mid day meal. This course This course is arranged by organization since four years. examine medically. lack of awareness and sex education and National highway passing from the district. This year 14 students ware enrolled for the course who ware passed with good marks. to 4. We have successfully implemented this programme from 2005 to May 2009. the red-light areas in the district. Chavan Open University Course: Yuva Garam does run SHG promoters (Prerak prerika) training course for six months I affiliation with Yashavantrao Chavan Open University. Maharashtra AIDS Control Society Mumbai and Yuva Gram jointly implement their programme.00 P.That has been deposited in the area bank At.00 a. The school runs from 9. Jalswaraj Drinking Water and Sanitation Programme : Yuva Gram since last 6 years works for promotion of safe sanitation and hygiene practices. The Government of Maharashtra has been extended approval to run informal school for about 50 students who are child labors from vulnerable families. This programme is covering 300 CSWs from Kaij and Georai and extends counseling. and education. Every enrolled child has opened saving account and mobilized saving so far is worth Rs. livelihood. Programme Highlights: Condom Distribution / Constitution of four SHGs/ Demonstration for condom application Conducting HIV tests/ Organizing and conduction community awareness events/Support to combat women exploitation / Credit linkages to banks etc. Considering our past working experience Yuva Gram has been selected by Government of Maharashtra to work as support organization in three districts namely Beed. Y. Health.m. Yuva Gram does have separate administrative and fieldwork setup for three districts. reservations and equalities ware concentrated during the programme. All the 41 . Working with WATER AID UK has built our capacities in handing the critical issues of safe drinking water and hygiene.

The rehabilitation includes educational rehabilitation.Kaij Dr. Pardhi and Backward Communities World Women day Date 23.2009 21. Twenty The SHGs of PWD are promoted in the 42 . Rege & Datta Khandagle Adv. This programme has implemented in 4 blocks of Beed district and it was supported by SWISSAID. Considering the pathetic situation of this particular cast Yuva Gram has stated an intervention programme.2009 28. Community Based Rehabilitation for persons with Disability: The whole programme comprises of rehabilitation of disabled person.DRDA & Tahsildar.09.06. Workshops/ Trainings / Gatherings Sr. economic rehabilitation. Ketan Bodhe Adv.03.2009 08. The organization has initiated actions towards governing ll the promoted SHGs under federation so that their financial needs are fulfilled easily and in time. It was in the form of identifying paradhis leader and trains them for self help. The members of SHGs have established Federation fo SHG and are creation the structure to meet the need of larger credit and handle the issues o gender. Switzerland. The tribes have no access to the civic facilities and often get exploited.2009 Place Kaij Kaij Dharur Omerga Kaij Kaij Kaij AttendanceResource Persons 242 220 211 194 178 200 340 Adv.2008 29. Munde & Adv. 928 disabled persons. social rehabilitation and medical treatments.02.. The revolving fund for housing has been provided this year t bring the Pardhi community in mainstream.02. Trained staff of organization as designed by university conducts regular batches.12.2009 01. Waghmare PD. microfinance for agriculture aligned activities and women empowerment through Training and micro credit.03. legal education.candidates are placed in grass root organization in the district. legal aid. Schees Health Issues & Policies Women – Sexual exploitation Legal provisions for Dalit. Particulars of the Programme No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Women and Atrocities Women Rights & Governances Women and Govt.03. Sunder Tapse Yuva Gram has promoted 649 in the district and has given the leadership trainings and platform to more than 600 women leaders to face the local all nags of effective local governance.2008 19. The programme has implemented in 50 villages of Beed District covering.2008 27. Pandit Chetana Birge Reshma Jagtap Etc Adv. Pardhi/ ST Rehabilitation & Resettlement Project. : Paradhi is a scheduled Tribe found in some part of Marathwada region that is Beed and Osmanabad districts and is located in Kinship on the outskirt of the villages.

31 PWDs have started their own entrepreneurship in the area. legal support and vocational training during their stay in The home.project area of which two SHGS have availed micro finance credit by concem Banks. Sevagram the teacher and children in the schools. Training Center: Organization does have training center facility at Kaij. The project is implemented in Kaij. Wadveani. Government of India in the interest of the artists engaged in Banjara embroidery. destitute and orphans. INDIA. provisions storekeeper. The training related to women empowerment. New Delhi and CBR Forum – Bangalore supported this programme. Short Stay Home for Women in Distress: The programme is supported by Ministry of Women and child Development. The enrolled Women ware provided with counseling. The network established involving of about 23 like minded organisations in the project areas play crucial role to identify the cases and assist for justice. skill development for youths and adolescent. So far 556 Banjara women artists are constituted in about 50 SHGs promoted and formed at four different project locations. food. Regular trainings of organization activities as well as trainings of likeminded organization are conducted. production and marketing skills of Banjara embroidery. The center does have skilled and master trained training team. 43 . agricultural development skill development to PWD (handlooms) and other HRD trainings. deserted. CARITAS. Basically the enrolled women ware victims of rape. medical treatment. Through out the reporting period about 15 women ware admitted in the home and ware assisted for resettlements and rehabilitation.Dharur and Ambejogai blocks of Beed district in association with Voluntary Health Association fo Maharashtra. Project to Accelerate Iodized Salt Consumption: The project Acceleration of universal salt idolization consumption is implemented especially in Kaij. natural resource management which includes water shed development and drinking water SHG management IGP for SHGs. Physical and mental harassments. Therapist are Governed in the form of SHGs and provided with basic training. Dharur and Ambejogai blocks of the district with major thrust to preserve and promote the Banjara art and Generate employment. The training center with minimum facility of boarding and lodging also has books for reference and audiovisual equipments for training. Banjara Community Handicraft SHGs : The organisation is implementing one of the projects in association and support with Textile Ministry. pregnant & lactating women adolescent boys and girls.

1976 Yes / No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Field Office Head & Administrative Office At. SJVS is managed by the 7 Executive Committee members under the direction of General Body and the programme administration looked after by President and Secretary. Satara 415012 Registered Office At.PRI members. Tal.No 1 2 3 4 5 Registration under which Act Societies Registration Act – 1860 Bombay Public Trust Act – 1950 Under Section 12 – A of Income Tax Act Under Section 80 – G of Income Tax Act Foreign Contribution Regulation Act . Medha. Satara 415012 5. From 1994 to 2010 Total years 16 years 4. Post. Organizational Management Structure. Post. Post. Medha. Tal. Details of Branch Offices if any. Dist. The target group is awakened to accelerate the consumption through corner meetings. Thane 3. Medha. Jawhar. c) Profile of Shramik Janata Vikas Sanstha (SJVS). Dist. Dist. Name and Address of the NGO Shramik Janata Vikas Sanstha (SJVS) At. Satara 415012 2. Anganwadi Balwadi Teachers and local community are the basic target under the project. Tal. technical demonstrations. Satara 1. Dist. Post. Field Office At. Jawali. Tal. As on today people in more than 250 villages have totally made aware who are now consummating only Iodized salt. Jawali. Type of NGO The NGOs is concentrating on the following core type activities   Development Training and capacity building 44 . 6. Years of Existence in operational areas. Jawali. flip charts and picture series on the subject. Legal status of the NGO Sr.

Tribal community 3. Women co-operative organizations 4. land & water. To promote Women and Children development 7. sports. 8. 4. Advocacy 7. To make confidence in the mind common man that he can develop his own life. To generate employment sources and livelihood option. Core Organizational objectives 1. & cultural activities. 2. youths 2. Making groups of youths and provide them training of various aspects like agro base business. Type of Activities 1. Target Groups 1. children. Operational Areas District Satara Blocks Jaoli Wai Mahableshwar Koregaon Mangaon Jawhar No. 6. of Villages 40 36 24 25 84 24 Raigad Thane 9. Women health workers programme 45 . Dalits women. Study various government schemes & programs to provide it's information to ordinary peoples and implement it with their participation. Make awareness in rural area about environment balance. Women industrial organizations 5. 5. Centralize progress of development around common man & aware him about his problems. Rural youths 10. Creating new modules of economical development through localities which are depends on local resources like forest. Income generation activities 3. Micro credit program for women through formation of Women Self Help Groups 2. 3. of Panchayats 29 26 19 22 65 21 No.

6. Poultry 4. Government of Maharashtra National Level NABARD Foreign Sources Swiss Aid ACHEIVEMNTS State Level 1) Women Organization & Awareness Program: This program has created various organizations of women in work place and participation of women in various eras’ e. Dairy. Micro credit program. Supporter for the NGOs Name of the Organisation Ministry of Rural Development. poultry. Bee keeping 6. DRDA. Ideal Village Program 12. Awareness on Reproductive & Child Health 9. Bee keeping . Watershade development Program 11. women coNumber of SHGs provided with RF under SGSY 649 Number of Groups provided with E A 598 46 . Formation of Mahila Mandals. making crafts from bamboo 11. Bee keeping 6. Goat rearing 5. Agricultural Development & Organic Farming Movement 10. Fishery 3. Dairy 2. Involvement in implementation of SGSY and SHGs Number of SHGs formed 865 14. Making crafts from bamboo 12. Making crafts from bamboo 13. fishery. goat rearing. Satara Mahila Arthik Vikas Mahamandal (MAVIM) Department of Water and Sanitation. Fishery 3. Goat rearing 5. Adivasi Organization & Development Program 8. Type of Economic activities 1. Type of Economic activities under SGSY 1. 7. Dairy 2. Poultry 4.g.

bee keeping. It has been also conducting awareness programmes on reproductive and child health 5) Agricultural Development & Organic Farming Movement:Organization of farmers and guide them in increasing the agricultural production. 7) Watershade Development Program: Water of heavy rainfall in work space of organization is flow down immediately due to natural slope of land. goat rearing. Organization participated in various activities of water shade development activities like soil & water conservation.operative organizations. It also guides the farmers for value addition of agriculture produce by providing training on preservation techniques. These programmes are dairy. of Maharashtra through Z. sports campaigns and Strengthening Tribal Child . Koregaon Blocks with 11 villages for Drinking Water scheme . Satara in Jaoli . women industrial organizations.Wai. poultry. 3) Educational Program: Make awareness in villages about girl's education. making deferent crafts from bamboo. implement government schemes with their participation. organic farming & marketing. child education. The prime objective of program to organize & develop them.Primary Education in 12 Hamlets. 47 . 6) Income Generation Program: Income generation programmes for rural peoples is also an important programme of SJVS. fishery.P. women Self Help Groups etc. 2) Adivasi Organization & Development Program: A people in special categories like Adivasi tribles have landless & they are totally depending on agricultural laboring and fishery for their earnings. 8) Jalswaraj Project Shramik working with the help of State Govt. The purpose of this study is to make people aware about the importance of preservation of species and its use in first aid. Women health workers. women Mandals. 4) Rural Health Program: SJVS has been documenting the medicinal plants in the area to study the traditional Ayurveda process of healing at village level. night studies.

Ramai Women Empowerment Scheme of MAVIM (Mahila Arthik Vikas Mahamandal) for women empowerment in 45 villages of Jaoli block. Shramik women rural non agricultural co-operative organization 4. Janata Milk Co-operative production society 2. Karmala. Shramik women micro credit co-operative organization Medha.This project is implemented in 40 villages from Jaoli and Mahabaleshwar Blocks Strengthening the process of primary education among children and developing the leadership potential from among a tribal community in the state of Maharashtra. 413 203.SJVS has also implemented several other programmes i. Venna organic farming co-operative organization 7. Koyanamai women rural non agricultural co-operative organization 3. Semi Adivasi fishery co-operative organization Kanher 10. d) Profile of Mahatma Phule Samaj Seva Mandal (MPSSM). Niyojan Nagar. Name and Address of the NGO Mahatma Phule Samaj Seva Mandal (MPSSM) P. Jamkhed Road. Dist.Tal.Post.B. 48 . SJVS initiated following Community Based Organisations 1. At. Registered Office At. 413 203. Solapur Head & Administrative Office P.e.Tal.Post. Dist Solapur (Maharashtra State). Post. Semi Adivasi fishery co-operative organization Dhom 9. Pothare. 9. Niyojan Nagar. 9.B. Venna women industrial co-operative organization 5. At. Tal. Jamkhed Road.Karmala. Karmala. Biomass Energy and equipments Sale Project . Koyana oraganic farming agricultural co-operative organization 6. 8. Solapur 1. Dist Solapur (Maharashtra State). Adivasi social & educational Mandal.

Legal status of the NGO Sr. Core Organizational objectives 1.2.economic development of the disadvantaged. Child Development Education 7. To undertake research in socio . Years of Existence in operational areas.No 1 2 3 4 5 Registration under which Act Societies Registration Act – 1860 Bombay Public Trust Act – 1950 Under Section 12 – A of Income Tax Act Under Section 80 – G of Income Tax Act Foreign Contribution Regulation Act . 3. To work in development fields of education. 4.1976 Yes / No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 5. health and culture. To undertake activities for development of rural area and agricultural 49 . MPSSM is managed by the Executive Committee consists of 7 active members and governed by the governing body consists of several leading social workers. From 1982 to 2010 Total years 28 years 4. 6. 2. Type of NGO The NGOs is concentrating on the following core type activities      Development Training Advocacy on National and Maharashtra Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. To utilize strength of youth for undertaking development activities with their active participation. Field Office Field Office No field offices 3. Organizational Management Structure. Details of Branch Offices if any.

Ready made garments Blocks Karmala Mangalvedha No. Sheep Rearing 3.Its main aim is overall development of the area. Promotion of Self Help Groups 2. of Villages 60 10 13. of Panchayats 40 8 No. Dairying 2. Target Groups 1. Laborers 3. Dairying 2. Type of Activities 1. Assessment & Comparative Micro Level Planning of NREGA/ MREGS schemes 7. Sustainable Pre-Primary Education Project 3. Women and Children 2. Type of Economic activities in general 1. Ready made garments 12. Sheep Rearing 3. Village Libraries Project 5. through various socio-economic development programs. Nomadic Tribes & Weaker sections of the society. Marginal Farmers 10. Key Resource Agency Under Total Sanitation Campaign 4. Dalit and Landless laborers 4. Type of Economic activities under SGSY 1. 11. Operational Areas District Solapur 9. Hostel for Seasonal Migrant Families 6. 8. Training and Capacity Building activities. Involvement in implementation of SGSY and SHGs 50 . The main thrust has been on Scheduled Castes.

OXFAM U. of Maharashtra. through the support of Karuna Trust.K. 51 . Mumbai Rajiv Gandhi Foundation. The first project MPSSM got was from OXFAM U. like solving drinking water problem. It has trained more than 1000 small and marginal farmers in horticulture farming and helped them to link to horticulture scheme of Govt.400/-. In these types of organisations more than out of 4000 women. It has provided houses to 12 nomadic tribe families in vicinity of our office. thus helping more than 10000 farmers to improve their land productivity.OXFAM ACHIEVMENT: Through 340 SHGs around 4000 women were involved in their own self-help programme activities. Solapur Department of Water Supply and Sanitation. Intermon. London. It spread awareness to about 20000 laborers all over Maharashtra covering 27 districts.Number of SHGs formed 340 14. New Delhi OXFAM. Zilla Parishad. etc. 1500 women were able to get small loans for various purposes. More than 2500 hectare land has been undertaken for watershed development activity in different villages in 4 blocks of Solapur district. educational problems. Govt. these organisations also started doing some social activities. Not only this. The watershed programmes were supported by TDH Germany.Spain and AFPRO-SDC. of Maharashtra .K for Awareness on Employment Generation Scheme. U.K Indo German Social Service Services Canada Funds for Local Initiatives (CFLI). through the support of funding agencies like Australian High Commission and Canada Funds. These women saved from their incomes and started their small micro-credit organisations. Australian High Commission Swiss Agency for International Development Terres Des Hommes (TDH) Intermon. Act in the year 1990-91 and the amount was Rs 40. Supporter for the NGOs State Level Number of SHGs provided with RF under SGSY 280 Number of Groups provided with E A 238 National Level Foreign Sources Name of the Organisation District Rural Development Agency.

educated and enthusiastic persons. the grant was finally approved on 29th January 2003. As a result of these types of individual investments on poor farmers have increased the poor farmers’ income levels and overall improved their standard of living.More than 350 farmers were supported through old wells deepening or by giving them new wells. The construction was over in March 2005 and its opening ceremony was held on 11th May through the hands of Hon’ble Governor of Andhra Pradesh. Hence MPSSM requested the Consulate General of Japan. Whatever individual investments are done on the farmers land or to any individual beneficiary. MPSSM had to take various training programmes. then the beneficiary has to return back the principal amount to the village development institution. enabled village development institutions from 30 villages in getting 15% of the revolving fund from the individual beneficiaries. The office space was not sufficient for undertaking these activities. 52 . More than 1000 children have benefited from this. The children of these families could go to schools. Further the drinking water problem was also solved by construction and restoration of 18 hand pumps. It handed over the project responsibility to them. The village development institutions then invest the same amount in individual beneficiary. H. The total cost of construction was Rs 30 lakhs out of which Japanese Consulate supported Rs 23 Lakhs. dysentery. MPSSM believes that if there has to be any sustainability in its programmes then it is necessary to build village organisation. To give more impact on the programme it adopted child-to-child. support class programmes at school level. Mumbai to support MPSSM in order to construct a full fledged training centre. by motivating village youth. While implementing so many programmes. Mr. This programme reduced incidence of diseases like malaria. One water-tank and one check dam was also constructed. MPSSM has again developed its own policy and that is of revolving fund. After careful investigations by the officials of Japanese consulate. child to parent and child to community approach. etc in the villages to some extent. Yasui. who again repays the amount. Mr. This activity was supported by TDH. While working on this philosophy. the enrollment rate and drop-out rate have increased considerably in the project villages in 3 blocks of Solapur district. The disposal of solid waste was done by installation of 50 compost pit. Through various awareness programmes. MPSSM. Working on this philosophy MPSSM has formed village development institutions in each village it worked. these farmers were poor and most of them were from the backward class communities. In this way the village development institutions starts working. In order to enable these village development institutions to work on this philosophy. diarrhea. To save trees and reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases among women more than 100 smokeless chullas are constructed till now. Sushil Kumar Shinde and the Consulate General of Japan. This programme promoted villagers from 15 villages of Karmala Block to stop use of stone while toilet and motivate the villagers to use water. Germany. This programme also promoted waste water disposal through developing more than 100 kitchen gardens and 125 soak pits.

All the responses were compiled in a cumulative way and presented as follows NGO’s objectives of Social Mobilization under SGSY As a first open ended question the interview started with asking about the “NGOs” objective of Social mobilization under SGSY”. In order to get reliable data and response. supervisors and field level functionaries were contacted and interacted with the help of interview schedule. The accuracy and data perfection were found through cross responses provided by the functionaries. and responses were collected.3 Presentation of Qualitative Data After analysis of the profiles of the NGOs in the present study. the data collected from various project functionaries with the help of open ended questionnaires cum interview schedules. has been analyzed and presented here under. An informal meeting with the above functionaries individually was held in a participatory way.5. The following are responses as spelt out by the respondents:                   To create equalities among the various communities To promote the standard of living Economic improvement Strengthening the unity among the people To make them responsible To remove inequality among the men and women To bring out their potential and skill Leadership development among the women To increase their contribution in the process of development Successful implementation of the schemes Identification of their needs and problems To increase their contribution in successful implementation of the schemes To understand the spirits of the people Awareness generation and to remove dependency Skill and capacity development To make them realize their potentials To reduce bureaucracy To promote Spirit of Voluntarism Methods of Social Mobilization 53 . various staff members of the NGOs such project directors. The Group discussions were also done to validate the responses collected individually. project coordinators.

following various methods were used in order to organize the people in the process of Social Mobilization. 2. two or more respondents evoked the same responses. On certain occasions. 1) Extension Methods Under the Extension methods. Extension methods and activities Educational methods and activities Social methods and activities Motivational methods and activities Other Methods and Activities Accordingly.Under this major question. 3. there are five sub-questions were formulated for the purpose of this study as follows. the responses were collected and analyzed on five major methods and activities as follows. 4. Groups and Mass Contact & meetings  Stay and living with the villages and interacting at nights 2) Educational Methods  Exposure visits  Presentation of successful case studies  Films shows  Pictorial presentations  Live demonstration  Charts reflecting social issues  Non – Formal Education  News reading in the groups 3) Social Methods  Mingling with the people  Meeting during the social gatherings  Participatory learning and discussions  Social games and sports  Hearing their problems  Addressing the Grama Sabha  Relationship building 54 .  Short film  Street play  Social drama through songs and drama division  Regular meeting  Door to door visits and contact  Direct. In this case. similar responses were avoided while compiling the responses in order to avoid duplication of responses. 1. 5.

Staffs. the question On “Individuals involved and type of support extended in social mobilization was raised and responses are presented as follows. Village Admn. Social minded Facilitative role people. Individuals involved and type of support extended in Social Mobilization In order to understand about who were all involved and the type of support extended in the process of Social Mobilization. the question was divided into three levels of participation in social mobilization such as NGO’s level. Co operational support Anganwadi Workers. Cluster Coordinators. Extension Providing information Officers Block Resource Mobilization Development Officer Encouragement APO (Credit).  Mimicry and mono acting. Teachers. Moral support Officers. Level NGO’s Level Persons Involved Project Executives. Grading the Groups Administrative support 55 Community Level Officials Level . Type of support Organizational Support Attending the Meetings Training and Campaign Organizing functions President. In order to get clarity of the responses. Coordinators. and Official level. Community level. Union Staffs.     Understanding their problems and offering solution Conducting sports for women and children Appreciations during the mass gatherings Competitions and distribution of gifts for School Children Enrolment drive during school beginning 4) Motivation methods and activities  Providing subsidy  Integrating Government Subsidy Schemes  Incentives in the form of food materials  Distribution of Awards and Rewards  Inculcating Saving Habits  Promoting Groups Concepts  Linking with government schemes 5) Other Methods / activities used  Participating in their social events and functions  Building rapport among the people  Frequent village visits. Youth Guidance support Club leaders.

The people’s power mobilized together Confidence built on the NGOs Realized the importance of formation of SHGs Formation of Groups increased They started saving regularly Solving their problems by themselves Motivation and Awareness generated 32 members of SHG elected as Gram Panchayat Members in the village Panchayat elections  Dependence reduced to some extent  People contribution increased  They are not expecting free of anything from anywhere. the question was raised as “How did you assess the impact of the Social Mobilization?” The following are the responses received from the participants.  Their actions initiated in solving their social problems  Team works and team sprit started  Active participation in the Grama Sabha  Voice their views in the pubic places  People’s voluntary contribution increased  Saving increased  Laborers become owners in quarrying works  Volunteering their support in all development process.         In order to assess the impact of social mobilization process.  Their self initiatives and self support for many development activities  Their cooperation given to the project functionaries  The problems of liquor prevented from the entire villages made a positive impact on the surrounding villages. the question was raised as “What were the problems faced during the Social Mobilization?” and responses are recorded as follows:     Religion conflict Traditional leaders did not support Some local dominant groups discouraged our efforts Some Political people threatened our staffs and prevented our efforts 56 . In order to understand the various problems faced by the NGOs during the process of social mobilization.Impact of Social Mobilization: The following responses were obtained for the question on “Impact of Social Mobilization”.

People accepted our mission and vision Noticing visible changes among the people Self motivation to serve the people Our commitment increased Need for services increased Managerial skill developed in our staffs In order to get responses on various steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through social mobilization. out of social mobilization. the women did not come forward into the groups  Opposition of the political leaders  Communal related opposition  Money lenders were prevented the formation of the groups In order to understand the experiences gained by the NGOs. Due to the fear of husbands.  Received Best NGO’s Award and got due recognition at all levels of people and district administration.  Involving local committees such as  Village development committee  Water and Sanitation committee  Involving youth clubs  Formation of Block level federation and sustain motivation  Credit linkages  Promoting income generation activities  Frequent visits and contacts  Observations of days of importance  Integrating various departmental schemes  Giving responsibility to the people NGOs were asked to respond on “How social mobilization process helped your organization to grow?” and the responses are presented as follows  Experience gained in development project. the question was asked as “What were the steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through social mobilization?” and their responses are recorded here. 57 . Our NGO’s status improved at all levels Appreciation at the local and official levels Received Letters of Appreciation by the district administration and renowned NGOs. in the beginning.           Satisfaction and gained confidence to continue the efforts in the future. the question was raised as “What were the experiences gained out of Social Mobilization?” and the responses obtained are presented as follows.

discussion. The responses are presented as follows. this chapter concentrated to present the data collected from the functionaries of the respective NGOs. Also. Sustainable existence has ensured Became stabilized NGO In addition to the above responses. The next chapter is deals with summary of results. and animators in Social Mobilization. Funding agencies are placed trust in our organisation Became the members of various State and National Level Committees Gave brand name to our NGO New schemes are coming up from various sources in recognition of services. leaders.       Helped to raise more funds from different sources. an attempt was made to present the profile of the studied NGOs in order to understand about the various aspects of the NGOs. a general question was raised as “Any other details related to Social Mobilization the NGO wishes to share”. 58 . conclusion and recommendations of the study.        Comprehensive scheme may be implemented to sustain motivation sustain Political will power needed for social mobilization The image of the women has improved Self esteem among the women has improved Social responsibly has improved Social consensus emerged on various issues Self reliance among the women has been witness to some extent Any other opinions / suggestions on Social Mobilization in the context of SGSY • • • • Need continuous training Convergences of various department services NGOs should develop administrative skills NGOs should use experienced Groups members. In this chapter.

6.6 Experiences gained out of Social Mobilization 6.3 Achievements or Impact made out of Social Mobilization 6.Chapter VI Findings.4 How did you assess the impact of the Social Mobilization? 6. Conclusion and Policy Implications: 6.2 Methods Social Mobilization 6.1 NGO’s objectives of social mobilization under SGSY 6.8 Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through Social Mobilization 59 .7 How Social Mobilization Process helped NGOs as an organisation to grow.5 Problems faced during the Social Mobilization 6.

no doubts. skill and capacity development. awareness generation and to remove dependency. to identify their needs and problems. to reduce bureaucracy. As the major objective of the study is to find out the role of NGO’s in social mobilization and various methods used. Based on the results of the present study. to promote standard of living. 6. economical Improvement. to promote Spirit of Voluntarism etc. to implement SGSY and other various development schemes.1 NGO’s objectives of social mobilization under SGSY The NGOs under study revealed that they had clear-cut objectives for Social Mobilization in mind before starting the process. The investigators. to understanding the spirits of the people. and policy makers to arrive at certain lessons in order to adopt some measures in the implementation of the various schemes including SGSY. 6. to make them realize their potentials. the following interpretations and conclusions are made for the purpose of the present study. Conclusion and Policy Implications: In this concluding chapter. to bring out their potential skill. and stabilizing the various development schemes particularly SGSY. keeping the limitations of the study in mind. the process of Social Mobilization has helped a lot in promoting. leadership development among the women. cautiously.Chapter VI Findings.2 Methods Social Mobilization 60 . and certain valid conclusions are extracted on the basis of objectively quantified results and same are presented as follows. By scanning the entire responses and objectively conducted study. results. in the future. Their objectives for Social Mobilization were to create equalities among the various communities. strengthening. to increase their contribution in successful implementation of the schemes. the present study helped to understand the actual role-played and various methods employed in the process of Social Mobilization in the context SGSY. The NGO’s under study have taken enormous efforts and used various methods in Social Mobilization in turn. to make them responsible. to strengthen the unity among the people. to remove inequality among the men and women. attempted to bring out some useful findings. which would help other NGOs.

conducting sports for women and children. distribution of awards and rewards. inculcating saving habits. participatory learning and discussions. motivation methods and activities. At the NGO’s level. project executives. films shows. live demonstration. linking with government schemes etc. meeting during the social gatherings. groups and mass contact and meetings. middle level functionaries such as coordinators. educational methods and activities. addressing the Grama Sabha. It is strongly noticed from the finding of the study. social games and sports. understanding their problems and offering solution. stay and living in the villages and interacting at nights. appreciations during the mass gatherings. regular meeting. promoting groups concepts. building rapport among the people. pictorial presentation. presentation of successful Case Studies. incentives in the form of food materials.The study revealed that the NGOs used combination of various methods under Extension methods and activities. street play. social drama through songs and drama division.e. hearing their problems. Non – Formal Education. enrollment drive during school beginning. door to door visits and direct contact. it is revealed that they have involved all the functionaries from top to bottom i. competitions and distribution of gifts for school children. the NGOs have employed used various methods such as mingling with the people. the other methods were also experimented by the NGOs such as participating their social events and functions. providing subsidy. mimicry and mono acting. individuals involved and type of support extended in Social Mobilization. that the NGOs under study involved various individual and received innumerable support in the process of Social Mobilization and received all round support for making social mobilization a success. they have used various following methods such as exposure visits. social methods and activities. in order to organize the people in the process of Social Mobilization • Educational Methods Under the Educational Methods. frequent village visits. cluster 61 . • Other Methods / Activities used In addition to the above methods. relationship building. integrating government subsidy schemes. News reading in the groups in order to organize the people in the process of Social Mobilization • Social Methods Under the Social Methods. motivational methods and activities. charts reflecting social issues. • Extension Methods Under the Extension methods they have used various following methods such as short film.

motivation. Angan Wadi workers. the women have become elected representative in Panchayat Raj Institutions (32 ward members and 2 Counselors). village administrative officers have also actively participated and rendered support such as Co. 6. attending the meetings. At the official level. The result of these evaluations shows the impact clearly made by Social Mobilization. savings increased considerably. dependency reduced among the women. which have immensely helped the NGOs in Social Mobilization. people realized the importance of formation of SHGs.coordinators and field level staffs have actively involved and rendered all round support such as organizational support. NGOs could make the people realize their power. training and campaign. they started to voice their views where they felt necessary. the union staffs such as Extension Officers and Block Development Officers. people understood their active role in the process of Grama Sabha. At the community level.3 Achievements or Impact made out of Social Mobilization The various methods employed by the NGOs have contributed to the significant success on the part of the NGOs and their progress. build people’s confidence in NGOs. internal evaluation by themselves and objective observation by the field functionaries. These mechanisms are such as inviting university faculty members as external evaluators. and timely release of revolving funds and activities loans for the Self Help Groups. The impact made by Social Mobilization. youth club members. social-minded peoples. number of groups increased. the people paid self initiatives and contribution in implementing many development programmes including SGSY. the level of people’s cooperation for the project functionaries increased. level of awareness increased. People volunteered their support in the development processes. grading of the groups. APO (Credit) and Bankers have also contributed by providing information. the people initiated action to solve their social problems by themselves. women solved their problems by themselves.. And it was revealed that they have used various mechanisms in this direction. Due to the Social Mobilization process. It is revealed that this support system has greatly contributed to effective Social Mobilization.4 How did you assess the impact of the Social Mobilization? The NGOs have a system to assess the impact made by Social Mobilization and their techniques used. women started saving regularly. etc. motivation was generated. 6. unity in diversity was realized. resource mobilization. encouragement. guidance. organizing functions etc. The NGOs felt encouraged by 62 .operation. the local president. as stated by NGOs are such as. the laborers became owners in quarrying works. facilitative role and moral support etc. administrative support. people started to prevent sales of liquor in the village which made positive impact among the surrounding villages.

to form the groups. Opposition of the political nature and vested interest of local leaders. need for services increased. their commitment level also increased and self motivation developed to serve the people in a sustainable manner. some political people threatened their staffs and prevented their functioning. This is the logical concept at all time and in all the processes. The NGOs felt Satisfied and gained confidence to continue their endeavor in the also with same spirit.5 Problems faced during the Social Mobilization The present study revealed that the NGOs faced a number of problems they were working towards Social Mobilization. became the institutional members in the various State and National level committees. received due recognition at the local level. People accepted their mission and vision. helped to raise more funds from different sources. The qualitative data revealed that the NGOs have greatly benefited in areas of continuous existence in the project areas (ranges from 15 to 35 years). and all-out efforts of the money lenders to prevent the formation of groups and social mobilization were the main hurdles. Any development process would benefit both receivers and providers. it is learnt that the NGOs have acquired immense experience in the process of Social Mobilization. sustainability in existence is ensured. The important problems they faced were such as religion conflict and communal problems. The NGOs felt encouraged by the visible changes in the people and as a measure of quid pro quo. 6. won the brand name to NGOs. the people recognized their services. communal related opposition. Due to the fear towards their husbands. the women did not come forward in the beginning. new schemes are coming up from various sources in recognition of their Services. received best NGO’s award by district administration.6 Experiences gained out of Social Mobilization Though the NGOs have faced number of problems at the grassroots level as well as at the administrative level. 6. won the confidence from the funding agencies. The influence of the efforts of NGOs percolated to the grassroots level and the NGOs earned an identity. managerial skill developed in their staffs.8 Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through Social Mobilization 63 . 6. an effort was made to understand on how NGOs benefited out of social mobilization process. the status of NGOs also was considerably enhanced. Some local dominant groups discouraged their efforts. Under this assumption.7 How Social Mobilization Process helped NGOs as an organisation to grow. and received appreciations at the local and official levels. became stabilized NGO.these positive developments and they feel that their services established the base for a sustainable social development. 6. lack of cooperation by traditional leaders.

Based on the results of the present study. promoting income generating activities.. Any other details you wish to share relating to Social Mobilization The study revealed the expectation of NGOs that a comprehensive scheme should be implemented to sustain motivation. self-esteem among the women has improved. credit linkages. In order to understand through this study. Also. Conclusion By scanning the entire responses of objectively conducted study. it is pertinent to draw a conclusion that the NGO’s under study have taken enormous efforts and used various methods in social mobilization in turn. social consensus has emerged in various issues. involving youth clubs. and stabilizing the various development schemes particularly SGSY. Any other opinions / suggestions on social mobilization in the context of SGSY Based on the study. social responsibility has improved. Recommendations of the Study: Following are recommendations based on the present study. observations of National and International days of importance. leaders. strengthening. no doubts. such as formation and involving various local committees.Any development initiative should be sustained for a long time so that the people become self-sustainable. an attempt was made to ascertain from the NGOs on what are the various steps that have been initiated to sustain the motivation attained through social mobilization. the NGOs suggested that they need continuous training in social mobilization & convergences of services of various departments at the grass root level. The impressive methods employed by the NGOs can be used elsewhere while they initiate Social Mobilization process instead of experimenting new methods 64 . etc. Also revealed that the image of the women has improved. and integrating various departmental schemes. the study revealed that the NGOs have taken number of steps in this regard. the process of Social Mobilization has helped a lot in promoting. 1. and should use experienced groups members. and animators in the process of Social Mobilization. to implement SGSY and other various development schemes. formation of block level federation for sustained motivation. Further. and political will power needed for social mobilization. they suggested that NGOs should develop administrative skills. the NGOs have taken enormous development efforts constantly through Social Mobilization. self reliance among the women has been witnessed to some extend by Social Mobilization. As per this study. frequent visits and contacts.

4. workshops can be organized to sensitize and build capacity among the NGOs on various issues pertaining to the Social Mobilization based on the finding of the study. 3. 5. 65 .2. and achievements made by the NGOs. National and regional level seminars. SHG’s supervisor. and other developmental organisations on Social Mobilization can be made. Various methods used by NGOs can be replicated elsewhere to the possible extent for making successful implementation of all development programmes in the future. administrators. 6. A similar study can be conducted with more NGOs covering more districts to compare the geographical differences on the impact of Social Mobilization. A larger level of documentation on very good experiments. such as. People already involved in the process of Social Mobilization. in order to make this utility wider. and officials can make different in the process of Social Mobilization by their direct experiences. experiences.

48.References Vasudeva Rao. Rao. p. Leelamma.2. Rao. Vol. November. No. February. For the Community”.K. Laxmi R. November. Sage Publications. New Delhi. “NGO in micro finance” 66 . Hyderabad: Council for Social Development. Pp. Hyderabad. Credit and Micro Enterprises: A Gender Study.53 April-June Anand. July. Vol. No. (2000). V. “Self Help Groups Empower Rural Women”. Social Welfare. Sivasubramanian. “Emerging Leadership of Women in Institutions of Local Governance: A Study in Andhra Pradesh”.3-8 Sinha. Sakuntala. No. Pp. Geeta.48. (2001). D. No. Vol. Social Welfare. 2000.4.48. No. Agarwar. Vol. “Povert. “Empowering Women: An alternative Strategies from Rural India” . S. Devadasis – Social Problems in India – Series 1. “Rural Women’s Empowerment: A Grass Root Level Experiment”.2. 2002. Kurushetra. “Credit Based Poverty Alleviating Programme: Innovative Approach”. Vol. (2000) “Swaskti Bank – Of the community. Pp. (1999).48. August. vol. and A. “Avenue for Sustainable Empowerment of Rural Women”. R. No. and N. (2001). By the Community.5. National Commission for Women. et. Kurushetra.49. T. Kulshrestha . Pp. Vol. July. 36-39 Narasimhan. (2001). Pp. AMDISA and SAARC. Kalpana (ed). (1999).4. (2000).P. (2000 Empowerment of Women in south Asia.26-35 Vijaya Kumar.4. Vasudeva D.24-26 Deepti. July. “Empowerment of Rural Women in India” . Social Welfare. 37-41 Sundari S. M.48. Social Action. 5-10 Gurumoorthy.N. 2002. Social Welfare. 3-4 Devasia. Kurushetra.

NGO’s objectives of Social Mobilization under SGSY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2.Study on Role of NGOs in Social Mobilization in the Context of SGSY Open Ended Questionnaires for Primary Data collection for the study 1. Methods Used in Social Mobilization • 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 • Educational Methods / Activities Extension Methods / Activities Used • Social Methods / Activities used 67 .

Concrete achievement or Impact made out of Social Mobilization 1 2 3 4 5 5. Individuals Involved and type of support extended in Social Mobilization Level NGO’s Level Community / Panchayat Level Official Level Persons involved Type of participation / Support 4.5 1 2 3 4 5 • Motivational Activities used • 1 2 3 4 5 Other Methods / Activities used 3. How did you assess the impact of Social Mobilization Process? 1 2 3 68 .

Problems faced during the Social Mobilization 1 2 3 4 5 7.4 5 6. Any other opinion on social mobilization in the context of SGSY 1 2 69 . How social mobilization process helped your organisation to grow 1 2 3 4 5 10. Steps taken to sustain the motivation attained through social mobilization 1 2 3 4 5 9. Other Details related to social mobilization wishes to share 1 2 3 4 5 11. Experiences gained out of Social Mobilization 1 2 3 4 5 8.

3 4 5 70 .

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