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and have 1)ccu f. and from his plates the books can be printed as they are wanted. or in their immediate vicinity. t!ic " London and Blacklieatli Association for Embossing the Scriptures in various hm^uagcs. or common embossing. ]\Ir.ra(l\i. Its object is to stereotype the Holy Scriptures in James Hartley Frere's phoiu'iic ciiaractcrs. - -/ -Z." was established. Frere's books^are well embossed. drawn with angles. The follortin. master of tlie Brighton Blind Asylum. the plan has been suited to such an arrangement. Roberts." the president. chaptp:r xyi. the Blind to Head on tlie Phonetic System. :> OF THE WOULD'S INDUSTKY. and even of a fourth story desirable. which are similar to those of Gurney's system of short-hand. but to form an easy introduction to tiiem. without any other alteration than the re(piisite increase in the strength of the walls. Prince Albert. having supplied tlie means. The lines are read forwards and back like Frere's plan.'. have already in an earlier part of this work noticed at some length Prince Albert's The building was designed and practically superintended by iNIr. \ . Mr. and obtained The following additional particulars arc from the advantageous site on which it stood.58. and it is even more bulky and expensive than his. and is fast when cold. 1H.Aorn. ^^'^ system. Moon defines tliem as the "Common Alphabet Simplified. the lionorary architect to the excellent " Society for Improving the Condition of the Working Classes. Frcre devised a cheap plan for embosIt consists simply of small wires. Moon. The wires are attached to the plate by heating it sufKcicutly to melt the coating of tin.illy iinproviiif^ it. Since then their press has not been idle. W.— — G^oss Co. The characters are arbitrary. and for Tcacliiiij. or the common printing. which leads to the economising of space. spelling. Romans. by which the characters are rendered sharp and prominent. after tlie manner of tlie ancient Greek boustrophedon writing. and cut by means of ingenious spindles to form the characters. Frere's books are read from left to right and back. and the printing is now done by the blind at the institution in the Avcnuc-road. 'I'he new mode of stereotyping is believed to be quite the same as Frere's^ ty means of wires laid on tin plates. in some cases. and sheltered — — We Model Houses.:. The most prominent peculiarity of the design is tliat of the receding and protected central open staircase. Mr. by the placing of more than one family under the same roof. ADBITIONAL REMAKKS UPON PHINCE ALBERT'S MODEL HOUSES ESTIMATE OF THEIR COST ORIGINAL IDEA OF THE GREAT EXHIBITION ISY PRINCE ALBEUT THE PRINCE's REPLY TO THE REPORT OF LORD CANNING. The wires are bent. year tlic types and printiiif. into which The common printing press is used in emthe wire sinks. and in 1811 the society issued The Eyislh: to the. formed of slate.'51). upon tin plates. More recently still. however. BENNETt's DESIGN FOR A NATIONAL MONUMENT TO PRINCE ALBERT. About the year 18. laid down sing or stereotyping. Lib. transferred ironi IJristol to London.'oction — ?^s. does not claim to supersede the common alphabets arc obvious. In May. Frere. apparatus wen. who usually reside in towns. "In its general arrangement the building is adapted those drawn up by the architect: for the occupation of four families of the class of manufacturing and mechanical operatives. though Mr. The ol)jections to phonetic Mr. renders the addition of a third. bossing. another system has been devised by Mr. Ilcf^ent's-park." He claims also a new mode of stereotyping. with the connecting gallery on the first floor. and as the value of land.

and to whom the nation at large important subject. lighted from the upper part of the door. The scullery is fitted up with a sink. is so essential to morality and decency. a plate-rack at one end. in number. might be adduced of the interest taken by his Royal Highness with respect ous examples to the success of the Exhibition. The claims of the is so deeply indebted for the promotion of this prince to the original idea of collecting under one roof examples of the varied industry and talent of the whole world are so fully admitted that we need not advance them anew In addition. The parents' bed-room. ." " In most With reference to the cost of construction. or improving their physical and moral" condition. and finished similar to the ground floor apartments. obtaining materials and the value of labour. and a window into the open air . A variety of objects of art.week. The jury unanimously recommended to the council that they should award the medal reserved to their gift to His Royal Highness Prince Albert. two have The children's bed-rooms contain 50 feet superficial each. numerto our readers. covers the entrance to the dust-shaft. A . to what we have already laid before them. Where hollow bricks are obtainable at a fair price. provide for that separation which. each floor. on the cost of the brickwork It is difiicult to over-estimate the magnitude and imporfour houses to about £40. safe is ventilated through the hollow brickwork. particularly in cases of sickness. two on to the dwellings. to which warm air may be introduced from the back of the range. which is The dust-shaft leads into a closed deposiinclosed by a balanced self-acting iron door. The recess in this room pro\'ides a closet living and a shelf is carried over the door. and shelves are fixed over the doors. with a family. and has a ventilating flue. without the unwholesome crowding of the living room. The water-closet is fitted up with a Staftbrdshire glazed basin. 6d. with a rail fixed beneath it— a provision for linen which is made in each of the other bed-rooms. carried up above the roof. on the amount of outlay. by the introduction of such dwellings as these for the poorer classes of the community whether as adding to their individual happiness. in common. contingent on the facilities for Such dwelliugs. The meattory under the stairs. as well as of . with a closet on one side of the tire-place. and on the opposite side of the room a shelf is carried above the doors. the following statement is made parts of England the cost of four houses. is entered through the an arrangement in many respects preferable to a direct approach from the scullery room. which display with what unwearied zeal he constantly . and. The sleeping apartments. to 4s. afibrd a return of seven per cent. an opportunity is afforded for the exercise of parental watchfulness. being three dresser-flap may be fixed against the partition. their use ought or equal on these to efl'ect a reduction of about 25 per cent. drained by a slate slab into the sink. of the living room. and thus rendering them more valuable and usel'ul members of society. opening out fireplaces. after deducting ground-rent and taxes. as the exhibitor of this most useful and interesting contribution to the exhibition. may be stated at : — £440 to £480. Each haS" its distiuct access. beneath which is a coal-bin of slate . and supplied with water from a slate cistern." tance of the effects of such a change as would be induced upon the population of the country. of 160 gallons. with a superficial area of about 100 feet. by its use as a sleeping apartment. let at 3s. however. over the fire-place is an iron rod for hanging pictures. built on the plan of this model structure. which is complete without any wood fittings. endeavoured to promote its advancement. which also screens the entrances The four tenements are arranged on precisely the same plan. or from £110 to £120 for each tenement. placed on the roof over the The same pipes which carry away the rainwater from the roof party and staircase walls. with a rail fixed between them. — . would. serve for the use of the closets. The living room has a superficial area of about 150 feet. The entrance is through a small lobby. with ordinary materials. a.110 THE CHEAT EXHIBITION from the weather by the continuation of the main roof.

and we shall aeeordiii^ily transcriljc it from the speech of His Royal Hi.(l by Tlis Koyal Ilinlinoss. by tlu. but rear the Exhibition. \\ hieh by its exhibitions of works success of the undertaking. had it not been for the hearty The good-will and assistance of the whole body of exhibitors. intend the illustration of their respective national industries at the Exhibition. and nuiy grant that the interchange of knowledge. on presenting the awards of tiie juries to tht! royal commission. in favour of the support which had been afforded by foreij. both foreign and British. in testimony of the approbation of the jury.. If the Exhibition be successful in aiding the healthy progress of manufactures. let us all earnestly pray that JDivine Providence. who. on various occasions.n countries to our great national undertakinj. in reply to the report of liOrd Canning. "on behalf of the royal commissioners. I cannot refrain from remarking. And finally. npric^ultnral produce. from them during the progress of the undertaking. can only be equalled by the successful efforts The commission have always had support and encouragement of their industrial skill. may be dispersed far and wide — . and while we return our humble and hearty thanks to Almighty God for the blessing he has vouchsafed to our labours. may still protect us.quent addresses were also delivered. we cannot forget that all the labours of those thus officially connected with the Exhibition would have been in vain. as their president. 1 1 were coiitril)uti. in furThe testimony of His Royal Highness therance of the views of the Great Exhibition. resulting from the meeting of enlightened people in friendly livulry. and exhibitors. our best acknowledgments are also due. Many eU. we trust that their efforts will meet with a due tlie reward. the royal commission and the puijlic feel that their aeknowledgments are specially due. scientific. that we feel justified in layiuf^ it before our readers. conceived by human intellect. foreign and local commissioners. althougli sometimes producing personal inconvenience to themselves. and the eominission have to thank that body for having carried out the preliminary arrangements to an extent which justified me. Without their zealous aid it would have i)een impossible to have obtained an elHcieut representation of the industrial products of their respective localities. and professional men.lincss. members of the Society of Arts. The commission have also to acknowledge the valuable services afforded by the eminent. which has so beniguantly watched over and shielded this illustration of nature's productions. aided most materially in founding a scientific basis on which to To the local commissioners and members of local committees. the singular harmony which has prevailed amongst the eminent men representing so many national interests harmony which cannot end with the event which produced it. Let us receive it as an auspicious omen for the future . with heartfelt pleasure.d prince. more especially to those wlio have undertaken the onerous duties of secretaries. "In now taking leave of all those who have so materially aided us in their respective characters of jurors and associates. of national industry prepared the way for this international Exhibition.. several of which received award of prize medals. to deliver my most sincere aeUnowlcdgnuuits and thanks for the hearty co-operation and support which the Exhibition has constantly received from The foreign commissioners who have left their own countries to superforeign countries. is in particular so well exjjressed. and they cannot forget how cheerfully they submitted to regulations essential for their general good. members and secretaries of local and sectional committees. "It now becomes my pleasing duty. and contains so many true and beautiful sentiments. accoinplisb(. zeal which they have displayed in affording a worthy illustration of the state of the industry of the nations to which they belong. in the application which I made to the crown for the issue of a royal commission. have ever shown that desire to aid the general arrangements which alone has rendered possible the To the Society of Arts." oijserved His Royal Highness. ou the sectional committees. and fashioned by human skill.1 a OF THE WORLD'S IXDQSTRY.

hope that on tlie site of the Exhibition Building a statue will be On its base should be recorded the share v/hich statesmen erected to Prince Albert. ten years hence. did not trust to the historian and the poet alone for the record of their achievements. our masters additional claim to a grateful record in the annals of mankind. to the attractions of which they have so variously and so powerfully contributed. these hopes realized." says our learned reporter. the fact that his celebrated speech at the Mansion-house dinner was translated into several European and Oriental languages. in the nobler arts. We may here be allowed to observe. a design for a National Monument to Prince The design was square in Albert was exhibited by Bennett. which already stands out so prominently in the past. and exhibited. on the opening. THE GREAT EXHIBITION and thus. to submit. with great deference. that impels the jury.. but committed to the greatest artists the task of immortalising their The Great Exhibition deserves to be celebrated as the triumph of military triumphs. plan. on the one hand. on the other. among other specimens of fine printing. It is in the Crystal Palace that ths great truth has been impressed upon us. in testimony of the high estimation in which the oratorical talent of His Royal Highness is held. industry and of the arts . of a new Great Exhibition it would serve alike as a guide and as a beacon. that a statue of His Royal Highness should be erected on the site of the late building. and would acquire an Tiie Greeks. seems to the jury the logical and practical consequence of this Exhibition. posterity will look for some mark of gratitude to the illustrious prince to whom the present generation owe the realisation of a gigantic thought . services rendered by the Prince to the Great National Undertaking. even at the risk of overstepping the strict limits oi their functions. to commemorate the The first repreIndustrial Exhibition of 1851. that art and taste are henceforth to be considered as elements of It industry and trade of scarcely less importance than the most powerful machinery. the metropolis of trade and industry. and others have borne in bringing such an undertaking to completion. and peace and good will among the Albert. their views on tliis point to the The foundation of a permanent industrial museum in the heart of royal commissioners. cannot refrain from expressing their hope that steps may be taken for rendeiing the Great Exhibition as useful now it has ceased to be. therefore. consist of the objects to which the several juries have called public attention as happy types and models for While such a museum. Whether industry and invention over commercial routine and international jealousies. The Fine Arts would thus be called upon to perpetuate the memory of the Great Exhibition." In anticipation of the foregoing wish. Class XXX. and was brought to maturity by his energy and perseverance. Thus the Great Exhibition of 1851.— 112 over distant lauds . and the chief events connected therewith. we may quote the following passage from the juries' reports. seems also natural that this museum should. should at no very distant period be realised. it would. be a happy means of promoting unity among nations. would be a lasting depository of imitation. — . " having brought their labours to a conclusion. and we trust that the wish therein expressed. as it has proved It is the wish to see gratifying and instructive in the course of its short existence. in lasting token of the grateful acknowledgment of the nation. by showing our mutual dependence upon each other. a thought which may have floated in the minds of others.." various races of mankind. . but which received The Jury of consistency. the Crystal Palace shall be removed or not. in the Fine Arts' Court. would bear fruitful and lasting consequences for the future. On the four sides were four large panel castings in relief. serve as the best and easiest standard of comparison by which human ingenuity might mark its progress. in the department appropriated In further evidence of the valuable nature of the to similar works in the Crystal Palace. in the first instance. " The Jury of Class XXX.

the grand openiup. — .•oiripartments were intended to be twice the size of those on the base of the Nelson column in 'I'rafalgarsqnarc. those who. upon which were illustrated the emblems of royalty and peace.. 2 G .. were seated at the four angles of the base above which the globe of the earth was represented in [jolishcd granite. indomitable energy and perseverance the great thought of such a spectacle was embodied in a visible. — — OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. and say. the scenes in which they have thus had to live I have been in the Exhibition. material shape. and especially as a token of my admiration of the truly royal mind. which saw clearly. "Whewell. to denote the royal auspices under which the Great Exhibition had been so successfully accomplished. — — . I am not one. THE GENERAL BEARING OF THE GKE. Europe. as emblematic figures. those who can point to the glories of the those persons may well be considcrcfl Exhibition. the second. and dedicated to Prosperity and Fame. ." "It seems to me. the distribution of prizes. II. and stamped their approval on the worthiest. to pive the subjects of the eastings in an eniblcniatic sense. by whose there. carried out as abutments. in des|)ite of the maxims of antiquity. to all nations.\T EXIIIBITIOX ON THE PROGRESS OF ART AND SCIENCE. on cither side. at the request of the Council of tiie Society of Arts. on " The general bearing of the Great Exhibition on the progress of Art and Science. with the crown of England above. that there wan such a royal road to knowledge. — — — We extract the following able remarks from the Inaugural Lecture. of which the doors have so lately closed inasmuch as I have had no connexion with that great event. quorum pars magna fui as having a right to express to you the thoughts which have been suggested by but of these. and. those who. except that of a mere spectator one of the many millions The eminent and zealous men in whose wide views it originated. and America. Asia. These (. rcfiectious as the spectacle of the Great Exhibition has suggested to me. the Council of the Society of Arts have done me the honour to express a wish that 1 should offer to you snclj. and the foiirtli. PUOl-ESSOE WHEWBLL CEITICISM APTEE POETET POETET OF THE ORF. supplied it with the treasures and wonders of art. Nevertheless. a mere spectator. and to have sculptured figures in niches. and at the extreme angles of the base. though talented lecturer. showing the noble intention of His Itoyal llighness relative to each. VOL.AT EXHIIilTIOX OBJECT OF CKTTICISM tilFFEREXCE BETWEEN THE ARTS IN ORIENTAL AND EUROPEAN COUNTRIES CLASSIFICATION. with scrutinizing eye and judicial mind. in a metal temple." observes the modest. " as if 1 were one of the persons who have the least right of any to address an audience like this on the subject of the Great Exhibition of the Art and Industry of All Nations. gilt. its interior. ETC. were sculptured blocks. delivered by the learned and philosophic Dr. nor relation to it. Africa. precisely on account of the circumstances I have stated. may be considered as repre scuting the views of an unconnected spectator of the great spectacle. in deference to their wishes. as I have said. on which was placed a marble statue of the prince. from our own countries or from foreign lands. I shall venture to offer you a few remarks which. CHAPTER XA'II. the third. 113 scntcd the exterior of the Exhibition. compared those treasures and those wonders. ETC.

Nor. the grand machinery of the epic. those days of wonderment at the creations of such a poetry being gone by. The Crystal Palace was the cabinet in which were contained a vast multitude of compositions ^not of words but of things. day after day in past months. contained also the works of many who were truly makers . and power. — — . had been audible words and melodious sentences. to speak an epilogue at all. in the machinery. Longinus after Homer. that words.. in any sense. lofty aims we have been following with the profoundest interest. appear in the form in which the poet utters them and works with them for his purposes. but with works also. as when. also. full as it was of the works of roan. And man's power of making may show itself not only in the beautiful textui'e of language. and according to our ability. before they appear in the form in which the critic must use them language is picturesque and afi'ecting first . criticism does come after poetry. is by no means \Ve see the confession of the difficulty in the very incongruity of the an easy task. the office of reading and enjoying being over the time for criticism seems to have arrived. . AVe must now conmust try to analyse the works which sider what it is that we have admired. on the present occasion. as the Greeks called him. no less than if they power. after the curtain has manner in which the task is sometimes attempted fallen upon a deep and solemn tragedy. it is philosophical and critical afterwards it is first concrete. in the images which express to the eye beauty and dignity. at least. only. The poet. and thus produce beauty. Aristotle after Sophocles. it analyses afterwards. where the fancy to use disports itself in wreaths of visible flowers . And now. day by day. not have the difficulty of the task shown in this manner. There were expressed in the rauks of that great display many beautiful and many powerful thoughts of gifted men of our own and of other lands. Perhaps such remarks indeed. which we. who stamped upon matter and the combinations of matter. that season of the perusal of such a collection of works being past . operating through the medium of language of material art. as I have to make may rather be likened to the criticism wliich comes after the drama. to rend the oak appointed place. the symbols. and utility. some startling attempt at wit and pleasantry is uttered to the audience . As the critic of literary art endeavours to discern the laws of man's nature. who wandered along its corridors and galleries might con. as the poet's verse does to the mind . as our English fathers. and why we have thus gazed upon and to discover the principles of their excellence. operating through the medium of matter. the age of criticism after the age And the reason of this of poetry. to discover what : : : : : — — — . the sublime display of poetical imagery. but in those material works which supply the originals from which are taken the derivative terms which I have just been compelled in the textures of soft wool. then And this is the case. that human language. as you know. instruments and manifestations of beauty and of man. mighty as the thunderor light as the breath of air which carries the flower-dust to its bolt. power. of their meaning. 114 THE GREAT EXHIBITION To write or spoak the epilogue after any great and grand drama. or glossy sil'k. articulate utterances of the human mind. as Ave may so the critic of such art as we have had here presented to us terra it endeavours to discern the laws of material nature. This kind of criticism appears to be the natural and proper sequel to such a great liurst of production and exhibition as we have had to witness . along the aisles of which we have wandered truly a poet. were utterances. then. so that it is difficult to say whether Homer or Phidias be more That mighty building. is it my office. so as to possess ourselves in some measure. was the maker. For. hy which he can produce that which is beautiful and powerful. has been well pointed out in our time. that significance and efficacy which makes it a true exponent of the inward activity The objects there. or fine linen. to learn how man can act by these. not with words abstract it acts first. it may be by one of the characters whose deep sorrows or You will. and spirit. were wont to call him.

and power. of practical knowledge of the properties of branch and leaf. though inferior to ourselves. we had clothes and armour. Whereas. From our wide Indian empire we had a profusion of contributions. and to show at every step that with mere utility he cannot be And when we come to the higher stages of cultiu-ed art to the works of content. we advance also to a more skilful. that man is by nature and universally. viz. in advancing from these to the productions of our own form of civilisation. of prettiness. From Otaheite. and would moreover have required the most felicitous combination of opportunity. of manual dexterity. which has even in that country. rose like an exhalation had there collected examples of the food and clothing. to mould the bounty of nature into such forms as utility demands. how much do we find in their works which we must admire. indeed mi^'ht drive us to despair and ornamented works of Persia and of India have beauties which we.OV THE WORLD'S INDUSTUY. and fibre. not easy not only how well adapted are these works of art to the mere needs of life. so long in the eyes of Englishmen the type of gentle but uncultured life. of invention. again.. as I have said. queen Pomare sent mats and cloth. an artist. with all our The gorgeous East showers its barbaric pearl and appliances and means. the wealth. and other works of art of nations in every stage of the progress of art. at a glance." continues Dr. this: In the first place. not only an artificer. from Singapore and Ceylon. may often learn from them lessons of taste." After an able exposition of tlie nature of these laws. as it were. shown its greater power. before their charmed sight. work of savage hands but an artist. in the magic palace that. in the works of the rudest tribes And then. but how nuich of neatness. the ])lougli. which the native art of her women From Labuan. while we look down from our lofty summit of civilized and mechanically-aided skill upon the infancy of art. Whcwell. 1 •'» 1 the laws of operative power arc. even when the So that man is naturally. ! his magnificence to native manufactures. even of beauty. Even still. So wonderfully and eflectually has providence planted in man the impulse which urges him on to his destination. which is. in progressive civilization We — We ! ! ! — — and mechanical power. do they often possess. acquired by long and persevering practice. and proAnd looking at the whole of this spectacle of the arts of life in all gressive form of art. wovdd have i)cen the work of a life. "we perceive that. after having had so great a manifestation of what they do. rude and savage. indeed. Celebes and Java. to strike us. as if by the magic influence of some fairy wand. of magnificence and beauty. an call the nations from which such specimens came as those which artizau. whence they were drawn. again. of taking a survey. whole glorious spectacle has been presented to the wondering eyes of assembled midtitudcs in its crystal bounds. the learned lecturer proceeds to descant on the " f^rcat and uni(|\ic'' opportunity we have had in the grand display of our late Exhibition. weapons and musical instruments. there is one train of reflection which cannot fail. and of a long and laljorious one. and even so. Even we. head-dresses and female gear. I first mentioned. and from Central and Ancient India innumerable treasui-es of skill and ingenuity. of the state of art in every To have inspected all these treasures in the various countries from part of the world. But is there really anything barbaric in the skill gold into its magnificent textures. and taste which they display ? Does the Oriental prince or monarch. and yet how much is there of ingenuity. cannot surpass. laequered-work and silken wares. their successive stages. comprehensive. of vegetable texture How much. an artificer. nations long civilized. a less present himself to the eyes of his slaves in splendid or less elegant attire than the nobles and the sovereigns of this our . I think. even if he confine . the tissues which we might envy which. From Sumatra the loom. it may be. fabricates from their indigenous plants. powerful. ]Mengatal and Palembang. "And yet.

were to be subordinate . and whom they enrich . There art labours for the There the multitude produce only to rich alone . for. is that so that the smallest advantage in the wares produced should be very great in quantity the power of working. while. to which other classes. gradations of classification. that we have indeed. and the gradual improvement that took place in the succeeding ones till the year 1849. I The silks and shawls. in remote countries. And thus sucli machinery is applied when wares are manufactured for a vast population . reached a point beyond theirs in the social progress of nations ?" The learned lecturer then proceeds to the subject of classification. he. here. or pleased with This. bestows great commendation upon the system that was adopted in the Great Exhibition of 1851. " there is any presumption in claiming. capital and machinery. for the classification which has been adopted iu the Great Exhibition of 1851. a vast scale. mighty warrior . and If this be truly the relation thus becomes rich while he enriches others with his goods. whose servant he is. " I do not think." says the superior advantages of which he very clearly points out. far more homogenous than was possible while these sections were all thrown into one mass when. . simple as it may seem. is the meaning of the vast and astonishing the things so produced. classes could be formed. and which decorate their palaces and their dwellers in palaces. the gigantic weapons of the peaceful potentate are used to provide — which The learned master — For that which makes it suitable that machinery. by a just and happy thought. Manufactured Goods. constructed on clothing for the world. are even now such as -we cannot excel. and embodying enormous capital. therefore. between the condition of the arts of life in this country and in those of others. -would answer in the affirmative. or upon the manner in which it has been found And there is one leading feature in it. the moulding and carving which those countries can produce. shall turn the scale of profit. here she works for the poor no less. There were a certain number. uses them to give comfort and enjoyment to the public. — : give splendour and grace to the despot or the warrior. In the systems already mentioned there were no gives it a new recommendation. when millions upon millions have to be clothed. should be used in manufacture. and nations which have felt the full influence of progress like ourselves. lery." " If I am not mistaken. here the man who is powerful in the weapons of peace. within each of these sections. or ornamented. afterwards established. but in a condition of nearly stationary civilization. where magnificence and savagery stand side by side. and the works of the Fine Arts. : . a division was adopted of the subjects to be exhibited into four great Sections. thirty-nine. which. of co-ordinate classes. and that was all. may we not with reason and with gratitude say. these sections being. if we ground our opinion either upon the way in which this last classification was constructed. for instance. nine or In the arrangements of the Great Exhieight. the embroidery and jewelthink. or fed. Oriental magnificence is still a proverbial mode of describing a degree of splendour and artistical richness is not found among ourselves. the wealth of a province is absorbed in the dress of a the wants of the many. a more satisfactory character than we can allow for any of those just mentioned. "the difference may be briefly expressed thus: that in those countries the arts are mainly exercised to gratify the tastes of the few . like Oriental nations. or five. Machinery.IIG THE GREAT EXPIIBITION western -world more highly civilized as we nevertheless deem it? Few persons. tens of thousands work for one. being multiplied a million-fold. The effect of this grand division was highly beneficial. whose slaves they are." says he. at once to work." of Trinity then proceeds to describe the difference between the arts of " nations rich. prevalence of machine-work in this country that the machine with its million fingers works for millions of purchasers . with us to supply There. and after shewing the errors and deficiencies in classifying in the French Exposition of 1806. bition of 1851. Raw Materials.

an exact and philosophical science. iu accordance with this maxim. The first class of arts. and purify. as I have already said. adopted in the Great Exhibition. were invited to assist in drawing each one the boundaries of And it was resolved. art preceded science if even now science has overtaken art if even now science can tell us why the Swedish steel is still unmatched. . never could have existed if there had not been a science of chemistry. science has not only overtaken art. but is the whole foundation. sound. Chemical In looking at these two classes. or to what peculiar composition the Toledo blade owes its fine temper. the The great chemical Here art is the daughter of science. In this ease. as being cxamides. at Glasgow. as I have said. and that. five or six large stcaui-engiucs . and of manufactures in all branches. VOL. '- H . . since it has been delivered independently by two persons. whose streets gather in the world rouud the walls of the mighty work-shop. only because we have such a classifiIt is an important character of a right classification. with the second class. some of them. and where we so often w audercd till our feet were They employ. a remark which it is possible to express. "There is yet. that there are general reflections appropriate to several of the divisions Vor example: let us into which the Exhibition is l)y its classification distributed. six of Machinery. ibur were of Raw Materials. in which the productions of all the arts ofthe world were gathered. general propositions possible. that it makes cation before us. which allows it to coil itself up in its sheath when its rigid thrust is not Here art has preceded science.' but first ages of the world. from the introduction of a coherent. I another than Cuvier and Jeremy Beutham. the loom. the second class. of which classes. no less diflerent from one Now. we are assured in the Illuslrated Catalogue. suggested by the classification of the objects of the Exhibition. before they knew anything of the chemistry of metals before they knew that to purify them was to expel oxygen or sulplmr that combination may be definite or indcfi-nite. Bat iu needed. and graduated classification. II. for the general purposes of his own special class of productions. and melt." continues our eloquent lecturer. Tubal-Cain. would remark. stood side by side. a maxim which we may safely regard as well grounded. They occupy spaces not smaller than that great building. ' : . to adopt thirty broad divisions. obelisks which convey away their smoke and fumes to the height of the highest steeples they occupy a population equal to that of a town. in the the instructor of every artificer in brass and iron . nineteen of Manufactures. the former Suitable gradation is the /elicit ij of latter of chemical ])roccsses. entire creator of the art. to the formation of which. the We arc next favoured the classifying art." with an able discussion upon the ininicnsc advantasc that will accrue to the world of science and of art. in fact. In the former class. was it was very long before there came au instructor to teach what was the philosophical import of the artificer's practices. " eminent men of science. . and science has barely overtaken art. are among the most ancient . are among the most modern which exist. or when woven or dyed goods were far removed. rather. and one of the Fine Arts. at Newcastle. Vet these processes are all derived from the . we may see some remarkable Processes and Products. they shoot up the weary. manufactories which have sprung up at Liverpool. owe their These arts existence entirely to a profound and scientific knowledge of chemistry. and working the metals. such as was. the second. the arts of manufacturing chemical products on a large scale. or. compare the first class. These manufactories are now on a scale at least equal to the largest establishments which exist among the successors of Tubal-Cain. and the muslin. ol' mechanical. Mining and Mineral I'rodncls. those which are employed in obtaining contrasts between them. and combine the metals for their practical purposes. and so it was lound to be iu this instance. Art existed before Science men eo\dd shape. 117 the cotton-tree." the Exhibition.OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. as belonging to vrslinry art. "one other remark which I should wish to make.

No doubt a number of new metals and mineral and these have their use and of these the Exhibisubstances have been discovered But still. In the great collection were some recent is the discovery of the uses of gutta percha? Yet how of the original specimens sent by Dr. but also a constantly growing variety of objects. what beautiful materials for the makers of furniture are to be foimd in the collections of woods from the various forests of the Indian Archipelago. And various and peculiar are now its uses. be enlarged. such as no other substance could replace is it not to be expected that our contemporaries. thus bringing out of the earth. endless forms of vegetable life. or rather with the fourth. . not as wares to a known market. their use is upon a small scale. But in the vegetable world the case is different . — — ! — — . but as specimens and suggestions of unexplored wealth. Tea. fitted to the needs and uses of man. upon so gigantic truths of science been embodied in the domain of art. examples of such novelties . among the various sources of vegetable wealth wliich the Great Exhibition has disclosed to them. but of new and rich localities of old ones. Minerals. sugar. .— the opening of the treasures of the earth in Mexico and Peru in the sixteenth century. from the investigations carried on So rapidly in laboratories of Scheele and Kirwan. of objects of the same' kind. joining the insiglit of science to the instinct of art. . in California and Australia in our own day. and the And no one arts which sustain it. and so many more than we yet can tell. still In the class of Minerals. are not the discovery of new substances. we have not only a constant accumulation and reproduction. we can have no doubt Who knows that the list of imports will hereafter. the most numerous. there. coffee. with the third class . there is another remark which we may make in comparing the first class. some from various countries. as in ancient times. tobacco. or as hnplements or ornaments. Vegetable and Animal substances used in Manufactures. and medicines and dyes of threads and cordage. shall discover. are the rulers of the world . cotton. produce are If we look at the multiplied collections implies that already they are extensively used. and events in the world of mineral art. to cheer. have made man's life. And I wish to speak especially of veqetable substances. as those aids thus recently obtained for the iises of life ? Before we as it is impossible. which may. in every varying clime. Montgomery to various experimentalists. all the great members of the class are what they were in ancient times. the great at the present day. Berthollet and Lavoisieur. Liverpool local committee have enabled us to take a starting point for such a survey. without I think can have looked at the vegetable treasures of the Crystal Palace The seeing that the various wealth of the vegetable world is far from exhausted. not to reflect when viewing quit this subject. or of Australia. in some unforeseen manner. Who knows what we may hereafter discover to have been collected or of New Zealand? of fruits and oils. of gums and vegetable substances. very different from wliat they were in ancient times. with great advantage. are adapted to sustain. I think. of which so many. tion presented fine examples. how there is scarcely any use to which it may not be applied with advantage. as we had here from New Zealand and from China.118 clieraical theories of THE GREAT EXHIBITION the last and the present century. let us reflect thus the constantly enlarging sphere of the utility which man draws. substances as peculiar and precious. in the manner of their utility. by sending to the Exhibition a noble collection of specimens of every kind of import among which. promote and facilitate the processes of How recent is the application of caoutchouc to general purposes ? Yet we know art ? and on this occasion America would have taught us if we had not known that ijo^ Again. as might be expected. to . or of Tasmania. the varieties of vegetable of that great emporium But that objects should be reckoned among imports. in the a this case has the tree of art blossomed from the root of science . from the vegetable ^orld what a view this also gives us of the bounty of Providence to man . scale have the Again. Gold and iron.

of course) of the history of shipwe ought to have been able to trace our building in England from the earliest times progress from the days of the coracle and the primitive galley. only one side of the vessel was represented. There were also a fair number of models of steam-boats some screw and some paddle some in relief and others entire. ever new. with four banks of oars. we now ]irocecd to of the Exhibition. ETC. many of them having been built during the long contest which agitated the naval world between the surveyor of the navy and his numerous antagonists. THE NAUTICAL DEPAHTMKiNT. CHAPTER XVIII. A large passenger-ship or two were exhibited. which carried him to the conference of the Eield of the Cloth of Gold . showing the arrangements between decks. ought to have been assigned. CEKEBAL ItEMARKS — MODEL STEAM-BOATS— S1I1P3 OF 'WAK — SUIPS' MACUINEBY — THE QUEEN MAN-OF-WAR — TUE PIQUE. RIS'S LIOIITNINO CONDUCTOR. lection was. launched from Woolwich or Wymouth. to (loli^lit 119 man. These were arranged upon the western wall of the Exhibition. of models of ships of war. to the last screw-proj)ellcr man-of-war. — — — . built in the time of Charles I. ever large. however. HARTHE NORTIIUMBEUI. we ought to — have had a complete epitome of the naval architecture of the realm.. and. and were principally rej)resentations of vessels constructed in our naval dockyards within the last twenty years. lionefit. also. and several of the not ancient. tubs in which Rodney and his sea-dogs won their battles. and. or interested in. he little donLt in the opinion of all connected with. in a great measure. more than another. and. TUE INCONSTANT. perhaps. principally. we appreliciid. The colbut old-fashioned. A few ancient models were certainly to be found in the naval gallery . iu If there was lier maritime capacity. showing some of the most recent improvements in interior arrangements . in ways ever kind. the place of honour. if completed. the object simply being to show her mould and run. the former class of models were iu what may be called bas-relief that is. upon Roman models. which we will not extend. then. but fragmentary we had only scattered links of the chain. was not adequately represented in the Exhibition. very curious. Thf. a complete epitome (both by means of models. founded. in all the meanings of the phrase. and of which the novelty itself is a new source of (leli{?hted conteinplatio. any one department of industry any one national pursuit to which.— OF THE WOHLirS INDUSTRY. we had a model of a Roman war-galley." But it is time to close our eliaptcr and take leave of the learned Doctor. if possible. after glancing at a number of minor . it was surely that connected with our much-boasted empire of the seas. naval art and the national science of ship-buildinjr. and another of the famed ship of Henry VIII. — OUN BUIGS — SAILINO VESSELS — ABERDEEN CLIPPER SCIIOONEn — HOVAL YACHTS — 0RAVE8END BOATS — MOYEN-AOE SHIPS — LIFEBOATS W. another of a first-rate.AXB PltlZE LIFE BOAT — LIFE PBESERVING CONTRIVANCES — Sill 11. of section models. that (rrcat liritain. would have formed one of the most interesting and purely national portions "With these remarks. Many of in a few cases.re can. showing their lines . It consisted. or the last crack yacht set afloat at Cowes. describe the main features of the collection which was actually brought together. which..!. duly acknowledging the gratilication and instruction he has afforded us. .

upon comparison of an old-fashioned with a newly-built hull. particularly that connected with anchorage. . The peculiarities of modern improvement in all these respects are easily The bows of observable. flinging its full force upon the helm. Beneath the watermark the tendency of advancing ship-building has been to adapt the curve of the swelling side and the concave portions of the ship. of which we shall treat hereafter. On the other side of the stall on which the life-boats. Had the set been complete. at all events. diminish so as to allow the body of water displaced to close quickly and easily. introduced rather as specimens of the skilled neat handedness of their builders. and the naval battles in the latter third of the last century were fought by ships of the line with taflVails rising forty and sixty feet above the water. the thing having vanished more than a century ago. chains. we came upon a vast variety of plans and inventions for life-boats. we came to an infinity of diving apparatus. windlases." and in which the convex form changes into a pure and finely modelled concave. however. The castles. and the dimensions of the part of the ship immediately before the rudder. catamarans constructed out of spars of wood. remaining. had then a number of compasses and graceful designs for biuuacles . the heavy and injurious rolling motion. until a much more recent period that the mountains of timber piled up astern began to be reduced. after inspecting an omnium gatherum of naval odds and ends. with which they delighted to encumber their vessels. or had specimens of different ages been copiously given. To these divers qualities the naval architect has. we could gather from the collection hints not without significance. models of oddly-shaped ships with sliding keels. illustrative of the entire process of adventuring. and the delicacy of the ship in answering the slightest touch of her helm. We will first briefly remark upon the bas-relief models of men-of-war. we believe. an improvement which diminishes the tendency to roll . such as capstans. " take most hold of the water . modern men-of-war are sharper and far finer than the old style. the sides or walls being far flatter. and air-tight bags acting as buoys. A few smaller vessels. and there is more of the concave shape about them a form which flings the seas sideways and backwards instead of abroad. — — — : . the modest height of the quarter-decks now constructed contrasts strangely with the old notion of the symmetry and propriety of a towering poop. and furnished with range over range of quarter galleries.120 THE GREAT EXHIBITION • rigged models of schooners and cutters. in nautical phrase. as the old bluff bows used to do the belly of the ship is by no means so round as it used to be. such as the gunharpoons for striking whales. was arranged a great variety of models of ship machinery. An exception . ornamented with all the art or the carver. of course. It was not. As it was. which. and almost equally formidable weapons for shooting ducks from punts. The spectator will observe that in modern ships this run is of larger dimensions than in the olden craft. The tendency of improved ship-building is now to lay the whole expanse of deck as nearly as possible upon the same level. however. made so conspicuous a figure. and. to add the considerations of that of speed. and heel over as little as posthespecial desideratum in a fighting vessel sible and to arrange the lines of flotation so that the lowest tier of guns shall be carried at least three or four feet above the water line. as much as possible. than as exemplifying any principles of naval architecture. quarter-decks and poops. began first to give way at the bows and the forecastle has long been a mere name. the observation of the gradually shifting forms adopted in our dockvards would have been specially interesting. called " the run. and anchors themselves. lastly. which our ancestors were fond of rearing above the water."' so as to prevent. have been actually built flush from stem to stern but. which is increased by the quantity of weight a man-of-war must carry above the water to cause the ship to sit as stiffly as may be. The first thiug which strikes one in modern ship-building is the cutting down of the hulk. and working below We water.

Her bows are sharp. "the runs" of great size and delicacy of mould. Both the Pique and Inconstant. two of our heavy first-elass frigates. was so wet. furnished with anxiliary screw propelsuch as the Hoyue and the Agamemnon vessels carrying the most formidable batteries of cannon ever borne across the ocean. and. The Flying-Fish. The attention of the s])ectator might be profitably directed to the models of the I'ir/ue and tlie Inconstant. we allude to the model of the hull of the Owen Glcndower. that they acquired the significant niek-name of " coffins . the former seems the more graceful. Of these. they went down or went ashore with such sad regularity. Nowa-days. The elTect of this latter arrangement. one of Mr. but only a few. rhimsv uf^lincss of mould. but the latter has proved herself the most efficient vessel. is them to draw many more feet of water aft than forward. a (irst olass man-of-war of 1 10 frniis a full model of iii-r hull was pxliihitcd. and the height of the ship attaining its extreme point when measured from the taliiail to the lower extremity of the stern-post. firm hold of the water. The old vessels of this class were a disgrace and a reproach to our dockyards. 121 to this rule is. WORLD'S INDUSTRY." but were still not much to the credit of successive governments employed as packets. In this department of the Exhibition we saw the models and beautiful they are of the fleet. the peaceful records of whose cruizes filled so many newspaper columns half-a-dozen years ago. built at Blaekwall. iler best qualitieation is. A VOL. however. deep-waisted. Take the Queen for oxaniplo. we believr. the most beautiful and best adapted squadron which ever went to sea. — — — — — — — . built both by private and official enterprise. and have that slightly concave tendency which denotes speed and dryness. One of these was a perfect specimen of the latest improvements in first-elass passenger-ships. 2 I . The precise question of their merits was never very fairly settled but the general opinion was. imtil the last of the fleet was either wrecked or worn out. one of the quickest of the squadron. few. in some degree to be foiind in the vessels built nndcr the survey of the navy. In the lines shown of new frigates and gun brigs. 11. altogether. but she is slow. and no doubt destined to take a conspicuous part in our next naval war if ever such a misfortune should arise we may advantageo\isly study the moulds of the little squadron of experimental gun-brigs. guished herself on the coast of Africa. and bigger than Lord Nelson's old seventy-fottrs. perhaps. The capacity for stowage in this fine ship is beautifully combined with a faultless outward mould. called gun-brigs. rould not he beaten by any of the sliips which carried tlie (la^s of Bvn<5 or Koducy. the Daring. that the Mutinf. models of merchant sailing-vessels were exhibited.<)l' TIIF. and the run lers. but still. it is curious to observe the approach to the style of building which has been long ago adopted in the construction of yachts the bows sharper and fnier than ever. than in. taking into con- — sideration that the ships in question are made to sit with the stern low in the water. The merits of the Queen have accordingly been lon^ a friiitfid theme of controversy in the naval world. to give them great steering power. ill-modelled. the gun-brigs form one of the most creditable departments of the navy. belong to the old school. The Mutine afterwards greatly distinand the Espiegle were the flowers of the fleet. which for blufliioss. After inspecting the new-fashioned men-of-war. liowever.the construction of the small men-of-war. that she carries her : guns well out of the water. Over-masted. to modoiii eves. and a strong. as seriously to interfere with the comfort of all on board . the vessels in question formed. the evolutions of which excited so much interest some five or six years ago. There is no department of our naval architecture in which we have made more progress. (Jreen's splendid fleet of frigate-like merchantmen. and beautiful specimens of these are found in the models of the lines of tlie Naleii/h and the to cause Arrogant — two of the noblest ships on the water. Our first-elass frigates are now rated to carry fifty guns. and rolls tremendously in a sea-way.

between the Thames and Ireland. and ship. such as round-houses. They are now commonly used in traffic for the conveyance of easily-spoiled goods. cuddies. and Aberdeen has recently been asserting lier right still to continue in the van of the race in naval architecture. by building clipper ships of large tonnage. loudly trumpeted as the fastest vessel which ever Dore the stars and stripes The consequently. removed as much as possible from unpleasant smells. first built to carry up perishable cargoes of five or six. salmon from Norway and the north of Scotland to the Thames. in the Oiven Glertdoiver. and thus a handsome airy apartment is secured. A similar arrangement now very generally holds in the American packets and diS'erent modifications of the same plan. and able to go from the Nore to the Humber in the time which a clumsy Newcastle brig would take The fast increasing class of screw-propeller boats to work down the Swin to Harwich. principally devoted to traffic in cattle. which are always the stronger the further down you go in a ship . or privateer schooners." In one respect the Owen Glendower from the new fashion of flush building. pirate. with a long and fine run. and so forth. stand conspicuously out for their excellence in constructing a new class of exceedingly elegant and exceedingly fast-going ships. and with that speed a preference for cargo and a greater degree of safety from the accidental risks of the sea . Above Mr. the fastest in the world. rising into a concave shoulder of exaggerated hollowness. beat an American. and for that of cattle. in a voyage from China lately. as we have explained. are now almost entirely carried on by clippers ance on the water. principle as the passengers abaft. the orange trade from the Azores. coast. The " clipper" is constructed upon the general theory. which are deteriorated in condition by being long at sea. we believe. and ventilation. and very high from the bottom of the stern-post to the taffrail involving are modelled forward upon the principle of the bows of a Clyde steamer great sharpness.— 123 is THE GREAT EXHIBITION and what sailors call "clean. stability not being sacrificed. They have plenty of air passengers are accommodated upon the level of the main deck. while the crew are accommodated beneath a raised forecastle upon exactly the same beautifully fine. now so prevalent. one of which. very safe. gradually come into universal use. in the nature of things. and a compact cooking apparatus. both men-of-war and merchantmen. The general fruit trade from the Mediterranean. with berths and state rooms to extend below it. and very fast class of vessel. no doubt. and Holland are also built and rigged on clipper principles . in the opinion of Yankee-land. and sufficiently lofty to allow an Thus the airy and comfortable cabin. of course. Indeed. but of more than ordinary length. which will. be amoi'e secure ship in every respect than one which is able to go only Tlie clippers were. the Scotch ports on the eastern tiful. while they are formed abaft much upon the ordinary moulding of a yacht that is. compared with that mere tendency to concavity that we have described as characterizing many new The efl'ect of this construction is not to vessels. as any of Cooper's slaving. particularly Leith and Dundee. since no one can dispute that a vessel able to go ten or twelve miles an hour. that a small amount of stowage-room may be advantageously given up to secure a great amount of speed. must. The height at which they stand above the sea allows of larger windows being formed than would be possible had they to descend a "companion" to attain their cabin. whde a considerable space is gained beneath for extra stowage. have been long familiar to the Forward of the deck cabin. is passengers of East India ships. She carries a quarterdeck not too high. as well as the Scotch coasting craft of as beautiful an appeartraffic. an excellent arrangement of pens for live stock. — — — — — — . Green's fine ship stood a rigged model of a class of vessels which is making an Aberdeen clipper great and rapid innovations on our old-fashioned mercantile marine The port in question has taken the lead in the production of this very beauschooner. model in the Exhibition showed that the Aberdeen clipper schooners. differs .

and however supported by abstract scientific laws. and not uninteresting. no doubt. and that all sorts of tricks and sly patching had been resorted to in order to make her sail respectably. A A — — — . but her yards are squarer. sailing from Liverpool and Of the coasting Al)crdcen. We do r. but it was often asserted. numoer of contrivances. A number of baswere shown of vessels in the process of construction by Mr. if we mistake not. Whether these stories were true or not. was placed in a prominent position. her boom and gaff longer. Tlie clipper uniformly contents herself with a fore-mast and fore-top-mast. too. the screw achieve the final overthrow of the paddle-wheel. has such an unfortunate tendency to get out of order. but only a few. indeed. Tiie clipper is less towering aloft than the old-fashioned hermaphrodite schooner. while the sliarimess beneath cnal)lc3 the ship to slide (juiekly and stea(hly throu<?h the As yet. the Victoria . The models of the Victoria and Albert and the Fairy the well-known royal yachts excited much attention. reliefs The steam-boat models were numerous. She can go at double the speed of the lumbering collier brig or coast schooner. more or less ingenious. but water. has lately formed the subject of newspaper jiaragraplis. as to counterbalance the nominal advantages. and to expend the whole force of the paddle upon a productive lateral. for the Yiecroy of Egypt. considerable improvements. With improved mechanical contrivances. which has since been launched. Mare. and forc-top-gailant-mast. facing the eastward-running inner gallery. forc-top-mast. however theoretically plausible. further.ot know. the eli|>per-i)uil<l is coniincd to coasting craft." by tlie great squareness of the yards the fore-top-gallant-yard being sometimes. we cannot vouch. whether we are to place perfect credence in the niiiuature presentment of the larger vessel. so as to strike the water edgewise. down to the minutest details of hnish. for the General Steam Navigation Company craft of beautiful design. diminish the leverage of the swing of high and heavy top hamper. liowevcr. it was pretty generally reported tiiat she was a contemptible botch. however. and which deservedly attracted a great deal of admiration. cli[)pcr i)rig3 liave been built.000-ton steam screw-propeller yacht on the stocks. craft. and not an improductive downward movement. have taken place. as in consequence of some mistake in her hues. of feathering paddle floats were displayed. made to come down upon the fore-top-sail-yard. 123 prevent the vessel pitcliing. In the rigging. — dray-horses. a few. — turn out very fast and there was a half-model of a 2. Siie was flush-decked and carried swivel signal guns upon her paddle platform. an air of smartness and ship-sha])e which the ordinary merchant coaster is far from pretending to. and occasionally even a foreroyal-mast. like a hunter compared with a couple of .OF THE WORLD'S EST)USTOY. fully rigged and complete. and shows beside them. that. the initiative has been taken in tlie eonstruclion of large full-rigged siii[)s upon the same principle tlu. but to cause her to pitcli witliout bein^ wet. success of more than one of whicli. the overlapping portion of the bows flinf^ing tlic water downwards and backwards from the oljstaele. making up for the diminished height of the " stick. the majority of the smaller vessels being sciiooners. but we understand that it is found in practice that machinery of this sort. so as to compact the rigging and The clipi)er has. The old hermaplirodite schooner carried fore-mast. it is quite possible that the feathering system may yet be made practically available unless. but perpendicularly. not after the too common fashion. The floats of the wheels were disposed. Soon after the launch. botii as respects lightness and elegance. in all four pieces. and slie is thus enabled to carry as great a spread of canvass and to manage the elotli with more faeihty than the loftier rigged vessels. and repaid minute inspection as a peculiarly perfect model of a first-class craft of her species. and never denied. and which will. in a plane with spokes. with few exceptions. large model of a new paddlewheel steamer.

built by Mr. to thank the immense steam power wherewith slie has been provided. rise all round the bulwark. of Cowes. White. combined with a sharp wedge-like outline. considering her shallowness. were well worthy inspection. although the latter was built not less than 113 years before her. and newly painted. Both ships are piled up with huge unwieldy masses of forecastle and poop. She is elaborately carved. above the keel but upon it are erected double platforms of four different heights. Not far from the models of the royal packets. the Jupiter. It is difficult to get anything like a clue to the actual accommodations for the residence of a number of men in these ships. a number of circular sentryboxes. The slaves who rowed and awful slavery it must have been to tug these long heavy sweeps probably took up their sleeping quarters upon the pricking for the softest — — . The Peterhoff seems much such a vessel as the Fairy very fast. in fact. ahull. to conceal her awkward sit upon the water. however. so far. for the Emperor of . Beneath the water-line. or watch-towers. that the sea washed in tons over the fore part of the deck of the Caradoc. : . and will probably go at high velocity. — — plank" principle. The circular holes through which they pass. Her speed in smooth wiiter is wonderful. but is only intended for smooth water. and made a good sea boat by the very force of her lightness and buoyancy. principally with Roman emblems and devices but we — . she was built ballasted so as to bring her into np upon. Be that as it may. each platform seating five or six rowers. but we much doubt whether any authority exists for the exact mathematical proportions actually observed by the early Italian shipwrights. The Royal Sovereign appears to have been built rather for purposes of pageantry than war. while crossing at the self-same hour. in the shape of a model of a Roman gallej'. observing a similar disposition. In the Harry Grace de Dieu. is equally marvellous. one of the new crack Holyhead and Kingstown packets. which afford shelter from the weather and the sea. over her predecessor. merely as the bulwarks went. The arrangement of these sweeps is curious. the day her Majesty returned from Belfast. she did not ship a couple of buckets-full of water. with vast paddles. the benches within. in some degree at least. showing the way in which the oars were worked on board these eminently clumsy vessels. while we can bear personal testimony to the fact. extremely elegant and graceful upon the water. differing in no remarkable respect from. the model is round and lumpy. however. and showing little advance in construction. offering them but a very trifling resistance. The two moyen-age ships the Harry Grace de Dieu and the Royal Sovereign. and crossing from side to side somewhat in the fashion of a steamer's paddle-bridges the warriors stand and at the stem and stern there are species of covered receptacles surrounded by circular wooden roofs. except mere spray. Close to her was deposited a curious contrast. run diagonally from the upper gunwale sternwise towards the keel. the latter only Charles II. which enables her to slip through head seas. running round the bulwarks.. when down by the head. — — . and then Russia. of course. In the same case was a large handsome model of a Gravesend boat. said to be the fastest on the river Thames. with very little indication of a run. She is immensely long and narrow. Upon small patches of deck. as though it had been the outer wall of a fortification and the port-holes are surmounted by ranges of loop-holes for musketry. The Fairy is a sweetly formed and almost faultless little craft. and the good weather she manages to make in rough. was one of the screw steam yachts. of course. her form and general mould. What may be called the main deck is very low down indeed a mere flooring. built by The former model was rigged. In crossing the Irish Channel in a gale of wind. who grasp the vast sweeps by which the vessel is propelled. the Victoria and Albert now goes very quickly through the water a consummation for which she has. we are told that.V24> THE GREAT EXHIBITION fastest and Albert went to this position.

&e. with loaded keel and self-shifting wheels. rockets. the two after-masts showing the lateen rig. and flinging thousands of pounds of iron at every broadside. carrying 81-pounders on her lower decks. and other lights. label attached to these boats stated that they are in use over a range of coast of about twenty miles that not one of them has been ever upset. piercing her sides in continuous lines beneath she was open to the water. and that they have saved from 500 to GOO lives. The " Infallible Life-boat" was a whimsical construction. or oblong spherical cases of metal to contain air. boat. indeed. thus letting the seas break in and out the level in the water of the boat being never altered the bottoms of some of the life-boats consisted merely of cross bars. . were exhibited by Erskine one propelled by new pinionwheels and self-acting syphon pump the other fitted with revolving air-tight cylinders. wluch had been experimented on in the Serpentine and the Thames with unvaried success. to act like railway buffers in collisions. 2 K. still in existence. Altogether. for a short transit The Lowestoft and Yarmouth life-boats had their buoyant tiirough the breakers. She carries three masts rigged scpiarc. which afterwards changed into the common schooner fore-and-aft mode of slinging the yards. and letting off shipped water by 3. with huge round tops. The United States showed several surf-boats. apparatus in the sides beneath tlie thafts the oars double-banked." and a salvage-boat. A Land's-end lifeboat was remarkable for the horizontal cuts or longitudinal openings. in the convexcd bottom are three perforated steadying fins. castles the idea of the architects having. also of a novel kind. and beside every man was a pump for getting rid of the sea when it filled the boat. A . running in the form of a square or circular box round the boat. : . Two boats..." possessing the self-righting power under all interruptions. There were several adaptations of surf-boats. capable of sustaining upwardsof uinc-and-a-half tons. exactly after the same fashion. A few sj)ecimeus were fitted with cork belts and finishings. Haly exhibited his "Catamaran. II. . lower. for passengers to be conveyed in them. The rigging of the llurnj Grace <lc Dint shows us the earlier stages of the combination of the still existing s(piare rijr. and between them two tons of water. VOL. to be put in requisition in a few minutes. The same inventor exhibited a Portable and Folding Emigration Life-boat. . entirely open at the bottom and made. the two models are so interesting as to make ns again regret that they only show two incidental eras in the history of our naval architecture two accidental links in the chain which began with the log or bark canoe. with the lateen disposition of yards common to feluccas and their northern oll'spring luggers. indeed. miss tlic 125 warlike appendages of turrets and pepper-box towers which gave the true ships the air of sailiii. took for their common prin ciple of buoyancy the construction of an air-tight lining in the interior of the boat the space between tlie outward and the inward sides of the vessel gradually widening until In other specimens. South Shields and Whitby also had their respective and Skinner exhibited his Aberdeen " jMomcntary-motion Lifeingenious inventions 7)wyeii-a[ic — — — — — : . serving as atmospheric and hydraulic chambers. life-protecting rings. and ends for the present with the 120-gun ship. its outer sheathing formed of gutta-percha its buoyancy is 350 cubic feet of air. bottom and top. laid lattice-wise. wholly formed of metallic tubes. Dyne's Life-boat is built with diagonal battens. not one ounce weight to the boat when upright there are also galvanised springs placed at the stern. the buoyant agency being placed entirely in the sides. like loop-holes. The general characteristics of the life-boats exhibited. on which to rest the men's feet. besides fusees. the air-tight cell was placed a very broad guTiwale is formed. : OF THE WOKLD'S INDUSTRY. and which is based upon the same principle as the felucca arrangement of the ^Mediterranean.G00 holes . manifestly been to niamifacture a species of feudal floating fortress. Holijrook's iron bottomless life-boat was well worthy attention as was also Bonney's life-boat. built open beneath. : .

The form given to this boat would make her efficient either for pulling or sailing in all weathers . details the requisite qualities of a life-boat the accidents to life-boats . . M'Donald. boat-builder. she would prove a good sea boat. suitable for hammocks and berths. The success of the boat has been cleared herself to the grating in about twelve seconds. with Lieutenant Simmons and Mr. where there are always plenty of hands to launch a boat. the number of shipwrecks on the coasts of the United Kingdom . &c. and her iron keel. : — . are exceedingly buoyant . Air-tight mattresses were shown. in consequence of the accidents that had happened to life-boats around the coasts of Great Britain. together with " floating buoyant settees. and more especially the lamentable case oft' Shields. 1850. and the models carefully compared with each other . were exhibited. and was stated to enable passenger vessels to take to sea enough boats for any emergency. his grace the Duke of Northumberland offered a reward of 100 guineas for the best model of a life-boat the result being that 280 models and plans were sent to Somerset-house for competition. described as capable of supporting the wearer in the water. and lumps of cork. and a crew of fourteen picked men. wheu. where she was placed in such positions as to allow the surf to have the Nothing could exceed the admirable style in which she greatest effect upon her. this boat would right herself in the event of being capsized . the master of the Rose revenue cutter. placed side by side. . and proved herself of the most extraordinary qualities as a sea boat. the inspecting commander of the district of the coast-guard." and. iu THE GREAT EXHIBITION wreck. and which. and. and to Mr. means of support in the water were shown such as belts. to be put round the body. to carry provisions for 100 persons seven days. E. twenty of the best pilots out of the Tyne were drowned. and mortar stations . Her sailing qualities were also tested with the most successful results indeed. besides recapitulating the peculiar features of several of them. and takes into fore and aft cells a large supply of air. the absence cause no difficulty. the boat flies open. the meritorious conduct of the coast-guard service ." and ladies'" Many other paletots. in December. with models illustrating their easy adaptation to the purposes of rafts. threaded like beads. by the upsetting of the life-boat. —A : . One day in November last it is highly improbable that such an accident should occur. The Northumberland Prize Life-boat. the result was a confirmation of the former numbers. Captain Charlwood. James Beechiug. the source of much gratification along the coast.126 anf]. her weight would By means of the raised air-cases placed at the extremes. Berthon. 1849. the introduction of two-and-a-quarter tons of water-ballast into her bottom when afloat. made so as to serve as supporting media in the case of shipwreck. without crowding the decks they are always ready for use. the life-boat. although. L. that when filled with water siie ends she would not go over. " frapped to under the davits . It will be recollected. to be inflated by the breath. it is said that if it were possible to throw her on her beam Such was her buoyancy. . ." (with air-tight gutta-percha cases. was adjudged the premium for the best model. Waterproof trunks. on casting off the gasketts. behaved and enough was seen to satisfy the officers and men who were in her that she would weather the most tempestuous sea. they might be worn as every-day clothes and included " yachting jackets. went out in her to the Goodwin. After a laborious examination of the several models. . the six boats that stood first on the list were. variety of buoyant articles of clothing were exhibited Life-Preserving Contrivances. of Great Yarmouth. their several points again examined. for the third time. of course. and suggestions for decreasing the number of wrecks. this prize boat made a trial trip out to the Goodwin Sands. from the form given to her. that in October. The report of the committee appointed to examine the models is a very important and interesting document. rocket. and in places such as Yarmouth. The Patent Collapsible Life-boat was exhibited by the Kev. of side air-cases for a length of ten feet araid-ships.

. by Hlling the spaces between the timl)ers and beneath the thwarts with a very light material. Copper was selected as the best conducting metal. easily propelled on the ice to the broken spot on wheels the iec-sledge two eauoes united by thwarts into a floating i)latform ropeHere. held together by the fibrous material. Sir IV. all the principal metallic masses employed in the construction of the Under such a system. Harris'. its mattresses. a discharge of lightning falling on a house or a ship. boats so buoyant that they become life-boats. Bhould the bottom be stove in. too. and with large bolts leading through the keels and keelson. The great principle iu its way to the earth or the sea. were exhibited practical models to illustrate the system of Conductors. . " permanently fixed and connected with bands of copper passing through the sides of the ship. the latter by au air-tight cylinder rendered a floaling-drag. would float as a raft. with mortars for The shot had attached to it a strong their piojection. anchor-like. which fly out on being disengaged from the gun when the line being pulled from the shore. the soles fastened to flat pieces of woo<l. each mast having its conductor. — . for saving life under peculiar The apjiaratus of the Royal llnnianc Society was exhil)ited including circumstances. invented by Sir W. were cxhiliitcd the life-boat and models of the National Institution for the I'rcscrvaiion There was also shown Light's invention for rendering shi[)s' of Jjife from Shipwreck. &c. and C'aulcber's cork-ribbed jacket. and at stem and stern . In the principal model was shown the line of conduction on the masts from the vaneto the keel at the sides. and. under the deck-beams. the implement fixed in the bottom. Another model proposed to project a small anchor to the wreck another or vice versa. drag.\hil)ite(l Carte's life-l)iioy (circular belts). whilst rowing a boat. capable of being inflated. In the American department were several without incunvenience. webfingcrcd and swininiing-hoots. . and the boat's crew had the means of warping themselves off. .OP for the decks of passcnjjor TIIF. 127 and a marine floating chair for three persons. were exhibited. but light line. Among the nautical inventions. buoyant contrivances. with air-tight barrels. and next were shown the life-boat and to propel a line without the use of gunpowder mortar apparatus of Captain ^lanb}'. or as nearly as may be and the conductor should be applied so that a discharge of lightning falling on the general mass cannot enter upon any circuit of which the conductor does not form a part. and pole-drag. covered with raw hides. WORLD'S INDUSTRY. constructed of wicker-work. and consisted of loose curved arms. to aid wrecks. the frame. to Ije worn. : . by other connections. S. India-nibljer cloaks.^ Lightning Conductors for Ships. applying such conductor. or other furniture. . showing the alternate jointing of the plates. and covering it with thin boards. and was in rods three-quarters of au inch in diameter . and including. finds hull. and in the other spindle to the step models were seen the plan and construction of the conducting plates." Since these conductors have been employed in our uavy. — . steamers There were likewise e. swimming-gloves. no damage from lightning has been recorded. their ice-boat. so that each may become a life-buoy. . The process can also be applied to any part of a ship. . is to place the ship or building in the same electrical condition it would assume supposing the whole were a solid mass of metal. Snow Harris. . and from its lightness the breaker ladder. for carrying a GOO-yard line from the shore to a wreck. Of the same class was the rocket-gun. without the possibility of danger. to which are attached flaps or leaves working by hinges. made of vulcanised India-rubber. or boat. and now employed to protect the ships of her Majesty's navy from lightning. the venerable patriarch of this family of humanities. Grapnel shots. when they become small buoys or boats.

have contributed a little rapid survey of colony. distracted with very little . material results of all men's industry. by whom such interesting productions The highly civilised man. aud perhaps the most powerful and lasting impression received by an attentive when looking through its I'ast collection of articles from every region on earth. irresistible arguments to the more refined. out of which the most advanced industry. their eminently useful produc- — — tions. already iu many respects. north. sometimes in their skilfulness. in their and their agriculture and they have made so much progress . differ as they may in other important points. manufactures. more especially the uncivilised from the civilised. and soon The most source. Both regions. have sent us more such . North America. for example. and it cannot but be useful to examine the several masses of products in detail. uncivilised people. has made a zealous response to the call from home. Guiana. — — — — — — — — — — — CONTRIBUTIONS. labour. offers some scanty memorials of deep interest from its aboriginal tribes. in its prodigious new wealth of products of art and industry. — EGYPT AND TUNIS AEAB's TENT ETC. and have sent us remarkable means of comparing the civilisation that — existed before the New World was revealed to Europe. in order to search out the The articles indicated in the causes of the obvious difference in their respective values. that purely aboriginal products ai'e comparatively few in those Ceylon and the Indian Archipelago countries . will subdue his own prejudices in regard to their incapacity. FOREIGN AND COLONIAL DEPARTMENTS— co/i<m«erf— ABORIGINAL STATES. these aboriginal productions suggest. — A . in their rude aptitude of purpose. their China and India have so much in common with us. without exceptiou. is fast assuming the great forms of our civilisation . come place practically to aid them to acquire the superior qualifications that shall rightfully them on his level. established some striking distinction in quality among them. was this that all men. nevertheless obey at least one law in common they all." instead of cultivating the best taste. however. at the multitudinous display of the relief. from all its quarters east. even whilst unity in one respect of effort was recognised .— 128 THE OKEAT EXHIBITION CHAPTER BBITISU GUIANA XVIII. to look with greater indulgence upon their struggling fellows. and Africa still more. rendered by science familiar with the works of are made. but one South American British civil discord. MALTESE GYPSUM CARVINGS PALM OIL. arts. but both possess some worthy of notice. with the improvement introduced by Christians at a frightful cost of human life. ETC. The judgment that man shall live by the sweat of his brow was here exemplified to the The first. CASSAVA BEEAD —-PLANTAIN MEAL JUICE OF THE COW TREE VARIOUS SIOUX SADDLE GUIANA POITEET PEIltlTITE CANOE — ORIGINAL UAMMOCK WOODS MODEL OF CARIB HOUSE NATIVE DWELLING IN GUIANA WESTERN AFRICA CALABASHES. — : full. nations have elaborated their gorgeous and graceful. its polished nations may in them trace their own perfection backward to Then. Central and South America could have presented most curious combinations of civilised and uncivilised manners as now existing. own although a consolatory experience also proves that the curse may largely bring out its The most careless glance. but in very different degrees of intensity. or the less civilised races Yet they illustrate the primitive elements. Turkey. the productions of those who are commonly called title of this chapter are substantially the inferior fruits of human Aborigines. and south. and Russia will bring from its remoter tribes only. west. visitor at tlie Exhibition. anything of a purely aboriginal character. although still too resplendent in " barbaiic gold.

129 these poor treasures of tlic primitive man's ingenuity. the feathers. and sometimes from the savage the aborigines whom. The survey of aboriginal jiroducts in the Exhibition may be British Guiana. was to be seen here. capacity for a safer and better condition of life is clearly established by tliese ])roductious of iinhistry exercised in every climate. as j\Ianchcstcr owes its ancient celebrity to the streams and coals of its neighbourhood. and consumers. is only the improvement of a talent he possessed at first. as being superior to the potato in nutritious (pxality. Other produce of less value are its plantains and various esculents. the cassava bread. rum. and over tlie bare step|)es of Tartary by the half-amphibious islander of the Pacific e([ually as by the Kaflir. the leaves. the seeds. called the melappee. civilisation has not yet discovered a better way to manage. the gums. the skins. tlic woven and textile pL-ints. one of the most accomiilishcd of modern travellers. by Negro and Esquimaux l)y tlie fjloomy American forests. of ingenuity. the shells. it is pressed in this tube. that a profit of iioO per acre may The graters used by the natives in preparing the cassava meal be gained by its culture. and so much more abundant than any meal known. The chief food of the natives. Tliese were the contributions obtained for our daily use by the combined labours of civilised and aborig'nal men. After the root is scraped. and more abundant ones than the purely al)origin"al jiroduets. They are the raw materials of commerce to an enormous amount in quantity and value. in considering these raw materials of the arts. which promote so largely the comfort and adornment of social life. The staple produce is sugar. Schomburgk. man finds a continual subject of attention. a very ingenious contrivance of the Indians. Facts eucoura<i. famous for this business. the more expert are they. to press the juice from the root. to whom an iron-bound coast and unnavigable mountain streams refuse the use of the simplest boat each. plaited of the stems of pole in the tube is used as a powerful lever. the drugs. as the collections from the colony were remarkably complete.OF THE "WORLD'S INDUSTRY. the woods. : — ids own nature and io mend his situation. the furs. as others are especially famous for the manufacture of hammocks the materials probably in both cases being abundant in their countries. the oils. which it is seriously proposed to export to England. and on this point it will be found that our interests as manufacturers and merchants. that art is natural to man. the roots. and weighed down by the Cdlalhea. says Sir R. however. coincide haiipily with our Exactly in proportion as the native collectors of nature's stores are duties as men. havinpc his peculiar occupation. to know how to obtain them in a ffcnuine condition . which is one of the most violent poisons before being pressed. The juice escajics through the plaited work. well treated and well instructed in the best ways of civilisation. The same satisfactory conclusion was sui)|)ortcd by analogous materials in the Exhibition. It is a portion of South America on the Atlantic. The several departments of each civilised nation in turn have received these contributions from the barbarian. and eoflee. Destined to cultivate A — . All this confirms the oft-rei)eatcd judgment. in return. with timber and other articles approved by the experience of the aborigines. and the more disposed to be vigilant and honest in their work. and the dried — — — — A . tiiat uuniorous jjortious of our race sliould be doomed by I'rovidcnc'o to |)orish at tlic apiiroacli of their more iustniotpd br('thron. conveniently begun with British Guiana. in latitude six degrees north of the equator. than by almost incessant warfare. and it is a countr}' admirably described by Sir Robert H. with some cotton. It is a capital point. The cassava bread is made in an clastic tube. will uiK|UPStionably tend to allay tlie melanolioly f'ocling too [jn^alciit aiiioii}^ us. within the burning' tropic and at tlie pole. and contains forty-eight and-a-half millions of acres of land. from the root are the manufacture of particular tribes. tlie dj'cs. Schomburgk. two persons sitting on it. and that the skill he acquires after nianv a-jes of practice. still in liis own liands.e a nobler and a wiser prosi)ect. and of labour.

130 meal THE GREAT EXHIBITION specimen of the machine. of extremely light draught. considering its dearness almost prohibits its proper application in our hospitals. also. upon arriving within the tropics. Schomburgk. In some instances the aborigines are proved to liave completely adopted our usages. the Warraus. There is also a vegetable medicines of the American forests. is one of the hundred India-rubber. to the bushel) as oiir own farmers' wheat. But the most valuable articles exhibited from Guiana were the woods. have so extensively adopted at sea. provided to put liquids in a sea-shell. A — . more primitive canoe very best for the purpose. the French West Indian Islands. as well as of the is baked in a pan in a few minutes. which the Indians use. they are certainly superior to oak and teak and the bright colours of the specimens strongly recommend them for furniIn regard to ship-building. which usually denotes a The mere savage is content with what nature has decided advance from savage life. and portable. a specimen of which was cxlnbited. within about seventy years. From Nova Scotia samples of wheat grown by Indians were sent of the same respectable weight (04 lb. Its convenient use in this last respect. by way ot it in the South Seas. Specimens were in the Exhibition. sent by a citizen of the United States. class of launches. can adopt our improvecivilised and aboriginal Western World. was in the Exhibition. the They made a durability and speed of which far surpassed any boats from Europe. it has spread. from those of Egypt to those of Peru. in common use by the natives. The Sioux saddle and hunter's belt. the elements of the potter's art. quickly constructed. is now acknowledged to be the lutionary wars. was exhibited also. and thence. For ship-building. sometimes used as a substitute for milk. These con- A — — . the Indian of Guiana mantifactures his buck-pots of clay. ments. Cook found Bougainville carried it to Mauritius. when the wicker and skin boat. it is a curious fact. is entitled to be accounted a work of " honest housewifery. made of the bark of a tree. of which specimens were exhibited. carrying from fifty to seventy men. Nor is it less interesting to learn that the sugar of Guiana. attested by Sir R. one tribe in particular. They possess. Oilman surely has ceased to be an uncivilised man. also. too. a gourd. has furnished the native people with one comfort from us. or he wished to surprise a neigldjour at In this collection. at seeing the small space of ground that keeps an Indian family. and of excellent cotton. new to us. should be enriched by well-authenticated examples such as these among aborigines. which we a distant stream. celebrated in the last revoThe timber they selected. was easily borne on the shoulders of the adventurous waterman. wrought by an Indian maiden. It is interesting to know that the Indians make their hammocks of extraordinarily strong textile materials. Mr. over the These aborigines. is perhaps more valuable as one of the numerous materials for The physic nut. then. is well known by the Indians. the mora tree. Anotlier new article of food was also exhibited the bread. Tao Nui. have been famous builders of canoes and corrials. who sent his contributions through his London agent. and our settlers calculate it may be made to plantain meal Well may Europeans be surprised. originally made known to us by native experience. we observed the original hammock. and the cane tliey cultivate is universally of the kind introduced by us from the French. species of Jesuits' bark. and this. that ture. 11 oz. carries ns back to the days of our most primitive forefathers. when obstacles impeded his navigation. In a new edition of Marryat's beautiful History of Porcelain. of far greater importance. and which in France is wisely used in crowded rooms." quite as much as the carpet wrought for our gracious queen by the three hundred English women. tlie catalogue of such utensils. from which it can be removed by day to purify the air. So the New Zealand chief. They now grow sugar for domestic use . as produce a gross return of £112 per acre' Humboldt says they are. still to be seen on the Wye and in Ireland. a part of an egg. The juice of the cow-tree. which they appreciate. well worth further study.

'' The same coTielusions may be drawn in favour of the capacity of the North American Indian to adopt our usage.OF Tire WORLD'S INDUSTRY. not for slaves. One article of export collected by the rudest people of ^Vest Africa is of great value. as fiunisliing. there was one of a native raft in the IJrazil department. and then we wonder This little Indian picture of civilised barbarism is a lesson that they flee to the bush. as a proof of the correctness of judgment in one of the earlier friciuls of negro emancipation. 131 tributions were. whatever may be the ease with Central America. Thomas Bentley. now that the Exhibition is broken up. the import of which has increased. from the model of the house of the once wild Carib. . are no longer subject to of the mountains. civil disturbance so continually. and they have one usage which should strongly recommend them. This good man became the partizan of Wcdgcwood. for instance. and so valuable in commerce. the neat table. ca. to siiow the profusion of And yet this is tlie race. although calabashes. the sugar-press. Tlie models of (luiana native dwellings. but for palm oil . AVestcru Africa offered articles so various in kind. worth more than £600. to more than . to which wc often refuse common justice. in the famous potteries. they irresistibly compel the admission. so that they have clearly arrived at a coiulition beyond that of nomadic life. . that poisons are familiar to the natives for the worst purposes. both raw and manufactured. were common. but for the eftbrts of such men as he. and now it is for Mr. a predecessor of Sharp. the tinderbox. From Western Africa . tlur neat mat.00() tons a year. and bold enough to maintain. whose very name has been forgotten in the long catalogue of the friends of that cause. when a merchant in that slave-trading port. Mr. The easy chair. Thomas Bcntley's palm oil that the very fleets are sent. and it lias an interesting history. and bark. as it furnishes a proof of their respect for honest dealing. also. the old man's modern bed.utns. might have been j)roduced with advantage. These Africans. some guarantee for their permanence in one place. t1ioroii<. The specimens of cotton. that trade alone does not solve the problem how men are to be civilised. the griud-stone. it may be returned to the broker. was sagacious enough to perceive. Dyes and medicines were abundant and it is to be noted with regret. would still be groaning with human victims. that some articles existed in Africa more suited to the conscience and commerce of Englishmen than negroes. to the beauty of which his excellent taste secured their most successful character. the cannibal of Columbus. that should be perpetuated by such a simple work being deposited in the British Museum. and Wilberforce. or vegetable vessels. f. the habits of the people are prepared for its adoption. were very interesting. in the abundance of tlieir domestic comforts. Other South American models were exhibited . but that their engineering wonders of that character. as far as we could find.000. under a little protection. varif)us musical instruments. He told his fellow-townsmen that they should send their ships. of the far more curious flying bridges which span the awful abysses Mexico and New Grenada. in particular. various cooking utensils. from this region. who is bound to get compensation from the original seller for the purchaser. were numerous. with every household convenience most minutely represented. from very old times. and Clarkson.lily aborifiinal " specimens of New Zealand woods. This is palm oil. Chili and Peru. are most active merchants . The pottery works were very vai'ious. This new African trade in a legitimate commodity is interesting. which. If a bale of goods is not found at its place of destination to answer the sample.ssava-pot.2(). even the grog-can and a hundred other articles were there. liowcvcr. since the abolition of the slave-trade. although none. the wax taper. flax and flax manufactures. of Liverpool. that when compared with the barbarism of the pcoi)le. The plant grows everywhere and if our best sort should be found worth substituting for the native vai'ieties. as well as the aboriginal hammock. thus making progress comforts which civilisation produces. so abundant. from a small amount.

Highest of all feature of Egypt. no doubt. therefore. Let us now take a survey of the contributions of Egypt and Tunis. a rhinoceros horn. in addition to tlieir intrinsic merit. there is every prospect And to this object. And it is satisfactory to find. had not a favourable inlluence regulations and police. and is on the borders of Nubia. in order to illustrate the question. and that vast numbers of experiments have been made in the vegetable world." as the term — . The Nile is the while the indigenous products have been much improved in quality. and that not long since. that the present pacha shows every disposition not only to promote and protect our passeuger traffic. the political condition of which bears most immediately on the communications between our vast Indian empire and the metropolis. thirdly. to the facilitation of the Overland traffic. were interesting from the imperishable halo of a land which has been the association that surrounds the land from which they came seat of four civilisations. the commerce. more than to any other inhabitant in Europe. corn. to the development of our commerce in Egypt . elephants' tusks. sections of ebony from Senaar. Egypt has become. of which the most valuable is gum.000 years . the agriculture. remarkable as it was in many respects. and that many plants have been successfully naturalised. The objects of the first. which is the highest point that can be reached by steamers from Cairo. rather frightened away than encouraged those who had objects of this description to sell from the interior of Africa . Egypt is the only country that still shows in its monuments a Pharaonic. which he established with absolute power. springs from the peculiarity of its physical geography. as — — a country of vast territorial wealth within a narrow space. and spread over the lapse of 4. once every winter. The real aboriginal products of both regions are well worth comparing together. but there can be no doubt of the extraordinary mental there can be no doubt that all the productions of Europe have activity of the individual been subjected to study that their application to European commerce has been tested that the climate and soil have been studied. occupation in Egypt similar to that which was attempted by France. great were the articles from the Belledes-Asoudin. . but to cultivate the most amicable relations with the government and inhabitants of this country. military possession of the key of the Mediterranean and Indian seas . sugar. There was a time. This. would so much tend as the establishment of a fair. unquestionably'. a Greek. but it is satisfactory to think that the most amicable No Englishman in his senses thinks of a military intercourse now reigns between them. In Egypt the extraordinary change that has been imprinted upon the administration. nothing of an extension of this portion of the trade. to the exclusion of any European power from British government limit themselves. begin with the upper country. . essentially differing from each other. a Roman. Upon this trade the genius of Mahomed the European Ali. secondly. while to the Englishman. and Indian corn . the former of which. and other objects from the " land of the blacks. It is true that Mahomed Ali sometimes misapplied his resources. In Upper Egypt itself.— 132 THE GREAT EXHIBITION were also sent the small leathern bottles of dye for the eyelids. bat. and forming the connecting link between the Red Sea and the IMediterrancan . as the system of the present pacha is less stringent. the principal objects of production are dates. distinct traces of four successive epochs of civilisation and an Arabic. the portion of the East. at Essowan. the first of which is the most striking feature of the Egyptian landscape. which along with other like usages have been cited to prove the assimilation of the negroes with ancient Egypt. when our relations with the government of that country were of the most hostile nature. means. for while Italy and Greece have been at particular periods more resplendent by cultivation of the arts. let us. and the — manners of the higher classes (for those of the great majority of the people remain untouched) has been efiected by the will of one man. since the development of steam navigation.

some of a Not only is the date an excellent fond for the Jight brown. that nature lias assigned to Egypt in the terriOf these the most important is certainly cotton. and has been the means of reclaiming from the Lake Marcotis a large tract of land. the latter from Ibrahim Pacha's refinery. in the season of plucking. for. the sun and the Nile have the largest share in the by her wheat. the incurable indolence of the people and their indisposition to labour. VOL. The tnie calling of Egypt is. that the nuts arc used both as camel fodder and as a combustible for the preparation of human food. cultivated by ]\Ir. moreover. as to tlie E^jyptiaii himself. which is grown in very large quantities is used as a substitute for tobacco on the low grounds of the Delta. prodnction. that Egypt can increase her wealth with certainty. that in wliieh nature herself — — It is . not manufactures. in our list of vegetable products. which are well suited to the climate. were specimens of opium and senna. gentleman has devoted many years to the horticulture and agriculture of the Egyptian climate. it is scarcely possible to over-rate the value of this tree. her cotton. tracts of land being devoted to this culture. but wo saw in this Exliii)ition illustrations of the variety of purposes to which they are applied here were the crates of the brancli of the palra . which show that the ease-loving countryman makes his own weight contribute to do the work. and her flax. to sow seed. but. diffusing It is also in the Eayoum (which is a district to the fragrance through the smiling land. Larking. and cleaned for the most part at Damietta and Bosetta. some heinj. her beans. tombak. and a coarser description of which is ill universal use in the Nile boats. . and the Belgian method of cultivating flax but the inveterate habits of indolence and pilfering in the natives have prevented the experiment from being so successful as could have been wished. for which there can be no doubt that both soil and climate are well adapted but the great proportion of the sugar used in Egypt is still imported from Eurojie. and. moreover. in the environs of Alexandria. common people of Egypt. unless we were much mistaken. used by servants while the masters dine. and that. culture and commerce. specimens of the cordage into which the palm fibres arc made. This remarkable man made great efforts to push the sugar cultivation in Egypt. not far from the sea. "We particularly remarked a specimen of Sea extension of its culture during lute years. extensive scale. upon a most earth cleansed and productive. where mills have been established on the American principle with great success. while he is The catalogue stated that the object of this machine was saved the trouble of walking. ~ M . On closer examination of tlic vases in which tliey arc kept. whole ably. has left the He has also been at pains to introduce. her barley. by diverting from the canal a portion of fresh water. In the Exhibition was to be seen one of those curious machines with which the Egyptians conduct their agricultural operations (marked 174 in the catalogue). omit the rose-water of the Fayoua. of a dark red. from the great torial division of labour. whatever the will of Ibrahiui Paeha may have been or whatever may be the natural capacities of Egypt. ^^\\\c\\ is so frequently mentioned in the songs of the Arab poets.()! rilK WOULD'S INDUSTRY. which would otherwise have been useless. and others of a cream colour. which. washing away from the alluvial soil the saline particles. wc see the varieties of their colour. and. unquestion. her sesame. by thousands of faithful roprescntations. "\\'licn wc add. Sugar-cane and sugar-loaves were also exhibited. that the truidv of the palra is used for timber. seem to be an invineil)lc obstacle to Egypt ever compctinij with Europe in price and quality as far as this article is concerned. Nor must we. n. her It is agrilinseed. it was the maehinc used for the double purpose of thrashing corn and cutting the straw the oxen performing a rotary motion Of other vegetable productions until all the straw be cut and the corn squeezed out. the British system of agriculture. . which and rice. 133 is jilmost as familiar to tho eye of the European. a tenacious hairy sort of fibre from aiul wliifh : the palm is used in cleansing the skin in baths. This ingenious Island cotton. the Hv-flappers of ]ialm leaves.

Cairo articles must be regarded under two aspects those which are indigenous. The mineral producfor the culture of olives had much fallen off under the Mamelukes. In no respect had the desire of Mahomed Ali to leave his impress upon his country been more successful than in his efforts to promote public instruction . that we need not up take the reader's time any further simply remarking. whose name is so associated with the expedition of St. tions of Egypt were very numerous. and if a railway. being still an appendage of the mosque. which by evaporation cools the water within. we see another mineral proThe duction. that while many of the imitations of European manufactures have not been successful as pecuniary speculations. but in the rear The collection of Tunisian productions which were sent for it was more extensive. on the Nile. were more remarkable as matters of curiosity than for their intrinsic value or importance. in There can be no doubt. If we descend the Nile to the entrance of Cairo. the bey's commissioner. but the high cantled saddle is the most interesting. Of the former. under the care of Sy Hamda Elmkadden. and out of which material the columns of the new mosque of Jlahomed AH. and are brought in such quantities by travellers to this country. the most magnificent of which. as for the excessive lowness of price. the saddle of Negm-Eddin. from the quarries to the south-east of Cairo. established at Fouah. . and a variety of singularlyfashioned garments. caps of various denominations calabash. that of Tunis caps. and other head-gear silk scarfs . from their peculiar quality of exuding the moisture." and other productions of typography. bears his name. the works themselves being remarkable. on the Nile. &c. not so much for their beauty of print and paper. As a native manufacture. that. of however rude and cheap construction. rugs. The articles of dress are so numerous. the padded one being most easy and convenient for riding. after six centuries. and those which have been introduced by the late pacha as subservient to his military and political system. large plantations of -. The Tunis court was the first on the right hand after passing through the iron gates at the south entrance. exhibition by the bey of Tunis. could be established to Beni Souef. The most striking features in the outward show were some carpets. majidia. were the slabs of Oriental alabaster. have been constructed. has been in operation for many years. and has been eminently prosperous. sake. and Moses Santillana. we may mention the saddles of crimson velvet. it might become an article of export of the greatest importance. orta. if the value the citadel of Cairo. in which they cannot compete with Europe. and the schools he established in Egypt will unquestionably do more for his reputation than the The printing-press at Boulak has been sufficiently wars in which he was engaged. in short. Louis to Damietta. kaleb-shed. we may also draw attention to the porous water-bottles made at Gheneh. — . — — . and of all shades and mixture of colour. however illustrative they may be of the superior mental activity of the family of the present pacha. for male and female. interpreter to his Excellency General Sidy Mahmoud Benyad. giving a good hold to the knee . in specimens of the petrified forest of a valley in Mount Mokattara. and we have had specimens of its work in an Egyptian edition of described by travellers the "Arabian Nights. which are in universal use in all parts of Egypt.134 THE GREAT EXHIBITIOX west of the Nile above Cairo) that are to be found the greatest quantity of olives. and blankets. for it is of the same form as that in which Saladin and the Paynim host used to receive the shock of the Frank crusader.vhich have been re-established by Ibrahim Pacha in various parts of Egypt. pro-commissary appointed for the occasion. in the desert. and the beauty of this mineral were better known in Europe. In front it was the width of a single division . of a mixed material of silk and worsted. in the Exhibition. The latter need not engage our attention. as they have no local peculiarity. having a mineral for its component. an endless stock of gentlemen's and ladies' "left-off-clothing" ^justsuch a stock as one might — . that. turbans.

' a lute and a timbrel. veritable "dips" of a dirty brown colour. Dragut. intended for the decoration of the interior of ^loorish rooms. and the British made a goodly show at the Great Industrial Gathering. dressed and undressed . leather water. on the little island in the thought of their ]\lediterranean. mostly of the rudest description. 135 expect to see in a native old clothes' shop at Algiers or at Cairo. we recalled to our mind recollections of the chivalrie band. In the inner room wcic others of similar dimonsions. The interesting and historical island of Malta the ancient Maltese contributions. green. — . and strewed about in all directions were skins of animals. was a perfect picture low. and of very jirindtive fashion . to gaping juveniles as they passed. Non aes sed . leather. containing some very splendid specimens of gold embroidered dresses and horse caparisons. some with Begia snud'. when pressed to commence the attack " i. saddle-bags. ineludini. and adapted for prompt removal. inii. in another various articles for domestic use.— OF THR WORLD'S INDUSTRY. and other articles Nor must we omit to mention some of vei'iu selected from the bey's private wardrobe. Iberia J the rock made fertile by the labour of man. and at last. and the courage of the a steeper rock. which last-named the good-natured Turk in charge very freely dispensed. squares of " household soap. the heroic knights of Jerusalem. divided in two. which supports and protects it till the design is completed. the Goths. and slippers of red. but all admirably calculated to alford an illustration of the munayc and convenances of the North African tribes.. were scattered about in admired disorder. lion. taking refuge. and at victorious and defeated another retiring to the convent and town of La Valette. through the favour of Charles V. which. dark.bags." some candles also. ornaments in gold and silver. and pottery. on which were inscribed the words. parasols. — — We . with wild gestures of welcome. the old Normans.ht form very serviceable [lacUs for a walking tour in Wales or Switzerland. claret-bottles filled. carrying on the erection of houses and churches by means of copper coins. must have a very light and rate and pleasing Preparatory to the process of graceful ett'ect when applied to the purposes intended. Then there were samples of seeds. in which saddles. clumsy arms. In strange contrast to this tatterdemalion lot stood two glass eases. tin. and yellow morocco. who fortified the rock and resisted the designs of the Turkish emperor Soliman and the words of Sinan. the devices elaboand the material being pierced through. There is a lingering tinge of romance about the island of so many possessors . the Romans. attracted the attention of the curious. successively driven from Palestine and Ilhodes. : . the conquered of the Greeks. carving. for all the troops in the world would fail in the attempt. boots. were displayed in another compartment. Their workmanship was of a bold character. In another we found musical instruments. wdien he surveyed the castle of St. the gypsum is inclosed in a wooden frame. which stood in the middle of the room. the Carthaginians. as also some very substantial saddle-bags of the same material. some with scented waters. pieces of matting. in which Turks and knights were alternately the latter at one time overjoyed and triumphant. and ornamented with leather patches. very curious models of arabesque carvings in gypsum. grand master. dismal a mere shelter for the mountain wanderer from the blast and the rain . Arms and guu-loeks. made of iron. fans. hut made of straw. Two hats of gigantic proportions. in rod morocco. in 1583. The shoes. — . the name of which they subsequently assumed.he eagle makes not his nest on the summit of To take it we must have the wings of the eagle. Angelo. and all sorts of odds and ends. the French. of satiron. leather bottles. with a back to it. leather mats. were the astonishment of all buhohlcrs. rose to our lips " Dost thou see that castle ?" he asks of the corsair. A tent made of camel's hair cloth. and we are in the midst of a siege." A few years later. of indigo. Villiers de I'lsle. and as we gazed on the products of the industry of its inhabitants. and glass jars full of sweetmeats. of clumsy make. and other articles for immediate use.

they Avere highly valuable. breast and head pins. and sufficiently indicated the talents of the manufacturers and the resources of the island. wheat and cinnamon. of Valetta. with a pedestal of i-ed Goza marble several rare figui-es. The to be . with the arms and emblems of the island in coral and lapis lazuli. Paul suffered shipwreck. a good takes the place of chivalry romance retires to its congenial woods and streams queen takes up her residence within view of the waters on which St. that by which the mine is drained. and as good specimens of Maltese ingenuity. MODEL OF A COLLIEEY FOUEDEIHIEE's SAFETY APPAEATUS— SUSPENSION BEIDGE OVEE THE BNIEPEE SALTEe's MODEL OF A BRIDGE AT SELBY STEPIIENSON's BRITANNIA BRIDGE EAILWAT BEIDGE OVEE THE WTE STEPHENSON'S UIGH LEVEL BEIDGE — OUSE-BURN VIADUCT shields' models FEOM new SOUTH WALES MODEL OF THE FALLS OF NIAGARA STANZAS BY — J. a material highly useful in many respects. The Exhibition aflbrded some striking and interesting examples of the advantages of such means of illustration. aniseed and sea-shells. brooches. Malta. with some table tops of a similar description . card cases. a vase. and third. we had bracelets. BUCKINGHAM. interesting objects in a pictorial point of view. . pedestals. as was shown by the specimens oiled and prepared for pavements. were exhibited by Messrs. lace. But perhaps the most important and certainly the most candlesticks. shirt studs. &e. can fail to be struck with the clearThus we had. in the Exhibition. the drip stone. THE GREAT EXHIBITION The knights of Malta disappear from the scene for ever. without the fear of sea sickness. S. that by which it is is raised. jugs. Models which was who have themselves found in the department of machinery. We would especially direct attention to the model of a colliery. or even than the machines themselves. In the lower part of the model \vas exhibited the state of the workings. commerce Years pass. first. we may say that it was Thousands of travellers joiu-neyed thither situated N. and many highly valuable illustrations of this important branch of industry were exhibited. ness of perception which is obtained of such works from this model. draught of air up one of the shafts. No one. which creates a ventilated. The gold and filagree-work of the Maltese has been long celebrated. was situated between India and Ceylon. — . next. were the vases. bouquet holders. In these productions the elaboration of the carvers had been well seconded by the efforts of the artist . and is necessarily followed by currents of air down the others.W. to make the description still more accurate. chatelaines. and pincushions. shawl pins. flowers. This latter" process is usually accomplished by a furnace. or. are still more instructive than drawings. and jewellery among the contributions of Malta. dishes.N. were silks. the shaft by which the coal shafts and the engines which work them. such as the mouths of the There was. MODELS. CHAPTER XIX. . plates. nations in the Crystal Palace.— — — — 136 fides. and Malta takes her place among the Besides many interesting specimens of ^laltese cottons. those parts of the works which are above ground exhibited. and some fine stalactites. of the Crystal Fountain. in Maltese stone. An inlaid marble table. even amongst those practically explored coal mines. first. the year of jubilee dawns upon the world. and carvings. and next to the Channel Islands. Besides these. Darmanni and Son.

sliowii upon whit'li tlir waptgons move. as this ventilation sometimes fails. and the white the open cuttings. In the coal fields of Northumberland and Durham (from which the model was sent) the average tliiekncss is twelve feet and. is a lantern surrounded with fine This wire gauze has tbe property of preventing wire gauze. "When this gas is mixed in a certain proif a a mixture highly explosive portion with atmospheric air. 1 and No. it parts with so much of its heat to the metal of the wire. is extremely important. inasmuch as upon its efficiency the safety of this class of industrial labourers mainly depends. each eul)ie yard weighing. luminous by intense heat. in wliicli tbe roal is br<)uj. at this rate. its total contents amount to not less than 10. descending at the shaft No. and such a gallery is conOthers tinued in a given direction for a certain distance. The partitions and other contrivances to regulate the ventilation of the works were represented by brickwork in this interesting model. from inspecting the model. a further security is afforded in the safety-lamp. is found to issue spontaneously from tbe coal in the mine. it loses the .obO. parallel The apparatus for tbe ventilation of the mine. in round numbers. in some measure. . Good ventilation The current of air kept continually flowing through the workings. The use of these square pillars is to support the — — . After the bed has been worked in this way by and rectangular galleries. 3. and throtif^h which it is elevated by the power of tbe stcani-cnf.000. a destructive catastrophe ensues. This method of working a coal mine is called technically the method of " pillar and stall. 2 in tbe model. as they arc sometimes called. Flame is nothing more or less than gas rendered the passage of flame through it. Coal mines. of which 1 . it would take above eiyht centuries to exhaust this single field Not the least remarkable circumstance suggested by this model. prevents this evil. conseiiucntly. that when it ha. ! 1. which would otherwise fall in.500. and. is the prodigious depth at which this subterranean industry is carried on. the depth of tbe workings is 1.000 acres.000 tons of coal. tbe workings being exhibited railways bciiif.3(iO cubic yards of coal. the square pillars of coal are removed one by one. in others it amounts to many feet. afterwards a series of similar excavations are made at right angles to these the result of which is. a space is excavated twelve feet high and four or five feet wide. jets of flame may be often produced." roof. in more or less quantity so much so. on the average. Tbe extent of tbe coal area in Northumberland and Durham is. The present annual consumption of coal is estimated at 10. each acre contains 19.000. as is well known. In some cases.000.000. as represented in the model. that there will remain square pillars of uncut coal. the black squares indicating the uncut pillars. The timber supports used for sustaining the roof of tbe workings were also shown. formed by the intersection of these rectangular galleries. The manner of working tbe beds migbt be collected. In passing through tbe wire gauze.800 perpendicular feet.lit to tbe bottom of the shaft. instead of glass or horn.OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. The gas. In some the thickness does not exceed eighteen inches.000 acres. which by artificial processes is extricated from coal for the purposes of illumination. including the waste . and it consequently follows that. as indicated in the model. as in the case of the chess-board. or coal fields. difler from one another in the thickness of tbe bed of coal and in the position in which it lies. conscqucntlv.OUO only have been worked. and rising at the shaft No. and the area of a single set of pits sometimes amounts to by ciittiufjs tliroiifjb it. — — . beds of iinworked coal were represented 137 l)y a black stratum. tlic . arc then excavated parallel to it. that by holding a candle against the walls of the workings.s issued from the meshes. which fills the workings flame or spark comes in contact with it. but. or one-third of a mile. one ton. which. only that the square pillars do not touch each other diagonally.'ino erected at the top.000. and the roof of tbe working is allowed to fall. and the plan of the bed will resemble a chess-board. is a safeguard against the evil . The coal itself is first cut in narrow galleries that is to say.

it is he only who has actually passed through the ordeal of descending and ascending a mine. wilfully cut. we may yet sit round our firesides in comfort. which lies embedded in this island to say nothing of the Irish and Scotch specimens. where there is an area of 36. If either of these break from any accidental circumstance. Mr. we find that out of 415 cases. emploj'ing 26. aud has been proved to afford an amount of safety to the miner. in fine. there are about 200 pits or diflerent collieries. as is unfortunately sometimes the case. supplied by the Butterly Company. and noticing the number of ividoics in those returns. consisting of seams of coal of great thickness. and thence called " steam coal.000 acres.000. the total thickness being about thirtySpecimens were sent from Barnsley. many thousands of the visitors to the Crystal Palace passed the model of this safety The national greatapparatus. of the total thickness of twenty feet. The miners place themselves in a basket. or raised from. and. it character of flame. 32. From a return of the number of deaths from accidents in mines. of the South Yorkshire. With such a stock. where 400 tons per day can be shipped by steampo\yer. the unfortunate men are dashed to pieces at the bottom of the shaft. and are lowered to. — sorts best adapted for steam navigation. where the exhilarating influences of the sunbeam so essential to health and life never penetrate. whilst reading the returns of the population of the mining districts of Cornwall. the self-acting springs or arms.000 acres of coal area.000 tons. ^¥hcre it is shipped.000 acres.000 pairs of hands the value of the This. attached to guide-rods or chains. consisting of the . ness of this country.000 square miles. but coufine our attention to the dangers attending the mode of ascending and descending mines. is only one coal at the port. the operation of exploring for these valuable products beneath the surface of the earth." as it is commonly called. from a bed ten feet thick. being about one-tenth of the entire area of the country. and is incapable of producing explosion. in a commercial point of view. their work by a rope or chain. is fraught with many and great dangers . and the prospects of those will probably supersede steam-power by the fears of the timid respecting the exhaustion of our coal mines may well be tranquillised. which electricity. that the total extent of coal area of the British Islands amounts to 12. — We — — . accompanied by models of the apparatus used for shipping the coals at Cardiff dock. The mere fact of working at great depths below the surface. forming improvements in mechanical science. of the many astounding examples which the Exhibition presented to tlie foreign visitor. It appears. their annual production. Atkinson sent specimens of coal from the Forest of Dean. It consists of a cage or basket. and the rope or chain holding tlic cage was shown as broken . specimens of the Derbyshire coal field. terrors of the fire-damp we shall not at present notice . Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire coal field. from a coal field presenting about 600. even if the miner were never subject to any other ills. of which there are twelve workable seams. struck with this fact a few days since. forming part seven feet. of the inexhaustible stock of this valuable mineral. which includes 650.138 THE GREAT EXHIBITION According to tlie returns. Under the most favourable circumstanstances. more especially of iron and coal. Doubtless Fourdrinier's Patent Safety Apparatus for ascendinff and descending Mines. however. whicli he has not hitherto enjoyed. appears that in the Newcastle and Durham coal field. per ton. "With a knowledge of our resources." There were also. is of itself suflicieutly The toilsome and wearying. or "cage. in 1818. The apparatus has been severely tested in several mines. eighty-nine were from breakage of ropes or chains. in a great degree arises from the immense mineral wealth it possesses. without being at all aware of its utility aud importance. represented by this model. being about 11*. that were particularlj' can form any adequate conception of the dangers of a miner's life. or are. aud was represented as carrying two tubs of coal down the sides of the shaft. There were samples from South "Wales.

Brunei's bridge over the \Vye. which. Nicholas the First may not know the fact but it is nevertheless a fact that in building the suspension-bridge over the Dnieper at KiefT. the ajiparatus instantaneously took effect. stopj)ed this weight of 50 cwt. the tighter do the wedges hold upon the guide-rods. by Mr. the eagc beeame iieeessarily lixcd and its descent arrested.. ment lias been introduced. James. which has found a voice even among the serfs of South llussia. in place of the crazy erection of boats hitherto employed. connecting the island of Anglesea with the main land. that no danger is to be the cage. feared from any recoil. wark. means a first-class nation now-a-days.L'l 2. with the same successful results. The models of the great Britannia Tubular-bridge. he is not only providing his subjects with a safe and commodious means of passage over the deep and rapid river. YignoUes. by wliieli the casualties arising from the rope being drawn over the ])ulley are cntirelj' prevented. James a diamond ring. levers 139 nltaclu'd to tlic toji of tlio cago. Salter's Model of the Great Opeiiini/ Bridt/e at Scihy. all the details were finished w ith such nicety. that they unhesitatingly committed themselves with a load of upwards Another arrangeof 40 cwt. and so satisfied were four of the gentlemen present of its efficient nature. tlie work represented being of so — . and On another occasion. instantaneously. that ijy Salter of the great opening bridge at Selby. gave an accurate idea of the stupendous works erected over the river Dnieper. as forming part of our great net-work of railways which are rajiidly intersecting the country. but are thrust on its attention by the irresistible force of that progressive feeling. and by a touch of their liands. and that of jMr." This model.097 separate pieces of metal. being 48 cwt. C. and themselves in addition. is only another instance of the march of mind. Durham containing two tubs loaded with coal. tubs and coal. the cage. even to the size — — : — — — ! — — of the bolts and chains.880 pieces of wood and 87.000. a quarter of a mile long. was safely arrested in its descent. and that the greater the weights which may be in the cage. when the rope was disengaged. and worked as a ship's carpenter iu i'lymouth dockyard these improvements come not out of a spirit of conciliation existing among tlie nobles of the imperial court. two of the workmen then placed themselves iu 15ut this was not all 1. at a cost of more than Considered as a work of great engineering skill. the first especially. was particularly worthy of notice. it will be sufficient to say that it was constructed on a scale of an eighth of an inch . and its condition when Peter the Great came to And England for information. of which this was a fac-simile. on the line of the Hull and Selby llailway. in the event of any accident taking place. The inventors of such an apparatus arc well deserving of a "civic crown. at the same the whole mass was firmly fixed to the guide-rods. It is now set up in the winter garden of St. the cage. It must be understood that this ap[)aratus is perfectly self-acting. SouthSuspension-Brid(je over the Dnieper. that a perfect bridge on a large scale might have been executed from it . is advancing the cause of science and liberty fill over the world. Only fancy the difterence between the state of Russia by no in the whole building. were liberated. It was designed by ]\lr. tiie whole weight of cage. colliery. with a total weight of 50 cwt. In an experiment made at Usworth Colliery.OF TlIK MOULD'S INDUSTUY. As to the model itself. of Broadwall. The Emperor of llussia was so jjlcased with the model. nmst have been precipitated to the bottom of the shaft.000 feet below. and is the counterpart of a similar model made for the emperor. it was the most perfect thing . that he gave Mr. after the rope or chain is broken. to its protectiny operations. and the supremacy of nineteenth century civilisation. but that he The suspension-bridge. said to be worth £200. and these Ijeiii^ wedged most seeurely upon the guide-rods. Amongst the interesting models exhibited.. by command of the Emperor of Russia. and that it consisted of 6. hut for the "safety" arrangement. and the stop is at the same time so complete. Petersburg. Tiic ai)i)aratus has thus no elianee of falling more than a few inches. were extremely interesting.

so as to allow the cast-iron sockets to descend and take a solid bearing on the square shoulders of the piles. and their tops surmounted with cap sills of large scantling. resting on a thin bed of sand. of Broadwall. fuliy to answer the purpose. To give additional stift'ness to the two centre piers. the tops of these braces were brought to their places at once. was a novelty in engineering. that is. although novel in itself. centre piles for a portion of their length. the tide rising nine feet at springs and four feet at neaps. at the point of crossing. The intermediate piers for the support of the superstructure are formed of open pile work. of 230 feet span each. for tlie sea-borne vessels trading to York. it required. was executed with very little dilficulty. was to a scale . In the model. was executed under their direction. and the bottom to extension. The river Oiise is at all times rapid. the contract for the iron woik being undertaken by the Butterfly Iron Company. when these had been raised to their proper position on the piers (at a height of 103 feet above high-water mark. The bridge was commeuced in the autumn of 1887. were engineers for the railway. seems to have been that of an extravagant trellis the principle of the trellis was of the same cliaracter as the Britannia tubes or any other beams or girders. Tlie two central portions of the second tube illustrated the transits of the tubes from the platforms on which they were built. Messrs. twenty-eight feet long respectively. the scaftblding was shown. and carried out with the usual spirit displayed by that firm. all the parts bore an exact proportion to things as they were. . and finished in the spring of 1840. and is found. forming the up and down lines . of 460 feet span . which obtained the sanction of the legislature in 1836. The Railway Bridge over the Wye. two land tubes. so that when the socket. on account of its large span.1 10 THE GREAT EXHIBITION novel a cliaracter. Walker and Burges. to their ultimate destination on the piers one tube was shown being floated to the basement of the piers. the top was subject to compression. the bridge. and secured to the cap sills. it was stipulated that the bridge at Selby should have an opening arch of forty-four feet span. and each tube was made of four difl'erent parts. These . namely. after This was efl'ected by rounding the years of experience. This bridge had two lines for the up and down trains. One span was 300 feet. resting on piles those under the west abutment being eighteen feet. stretching across the Straits . — . were let down to their bearings. the piles being driven fifteen feet into the solid clay. at Chepstow. beneath which is clay of a hard quality. and particularly so during the times of the frequent freshes or floods . therefore. a plan was resorted to ia the bracing. upon which the iron-work is bedded. The principle of construction adopted in spanning the 300 feet. The land abutments are constructed of brickwork and masonry. — . who have erected so many of the cast-iron bridges which are dotted about in different parts of the kingdom. in order to meet the requirements of the case. Stephenson's Britannia Bridge. and two centre tubes. and between which one of the lines ran these beams being formed of boiler-plate and riveted together. The river. at low water. and those under the opposite abutment. which resist tension.000 tons. By the act of parliament for the Hull and Selby Railway. that a bridge of peculiar construction should be resorted to. fourteen feet in depth. The total weight of the two tubes was about 11. by Brunei. and the others 100. therefore. with the braces attached. The span of 300 feet consisted of two huge trussed girders. and the other in the act of being raised by the hydraulic presses. The bridge consisted of two tubes. and the laud tubes having been built on scaflblding in the position they now occupy. to which were connected the long timber braces . one tube was shown complete. is about 200 feet in width and. which. It was composed entirely of wrought-iron.) they were joined together to form one. The bed of the river consists of silt. the bottom of each being composed of two simple wrought-iron beams. The model executed by James.

above and below. it is difficult to make out how it has been put together. where Mr. thus getting rid of much expense in the shape of The model consisted of three labour. The banks of the Tync. resting at the bottom on cross-timbers. to some extent. to resist and distribute the thrust properly. on cither side of the bridge. The iron-work required the adjustment of an immense to resist only the tension. There are 1. suitable for many other parts of the world abounds with valuable timber. suitable for bridges and similar works. there arc four arches to each span. properly strutted. and the rods. II. &c. but has no connexion with them . substitute for embankments in countries where labour is dear intended specially as a colonial — . VOL. the arches were of timber.. Green. and hardly any fastenings are to be seen . yet no joints. and were. bolts. and the strings of each arch consist of two wrought-iron rods. both in the railways of England and Ireland. in fact. OF THE WORLD'S INDL'STHY two girders were 141 sujjportcd at two points. the engineer has to economise to the utmost extent the use of this valuable material. The American engineers have long paid considerable attention to the best disposition of timbers in the and these have been construction of their bridges and extensive railway viaducts I^Ir." practicable. &c. the footpaths running between the two arches on each side this road. in fact. which stretched across the whole span. jdatform above. then scientifically strutted. New Zealand. which therefore. Shields' followed. so that the weif^ht. the 100 feet spans being erosscd simply by wrought-iron Ijeums. There were three double sets of horizontal timbers. the horizontal timbers. connected to the arches. &c. passing along the line. which form the bow. and also that of a "railway trestle frame. and framed into the vertical timbers at the top. are of cast-iron. on which three sets of rails are laid. properly notched. each of 13G feet span.. It was been built up to the required size. com])leting the whole. built up of layers or The arch having thus planks sufficiently thin to allow being bent to the required sweep. support a the arches of the abutments. the arches take the whole weight of both platforms. The principle of construction is the bow and string. was also exhibited in model. such as trains. keyed to Cast-iron columns. on which the arches rest . on the Newcastle and North Shields Railway . and in cases. for instance. Newcastle-on-Tyne. to dispense with it altogether. . are exceedingly steep. at Neweastlc-upon-Tync. where. 2 o . were exhibited in the — These engineering contrivances are especially suitable for New department. might be properly resolved or distributed over the tube by means of the tye-rods and stays . number of parts . 100 feet apart from each end. lines of vertical round timbers. which bear properly on the piers. in order to gain additional width of roadway a wooden The " railway trestle frame" was railing. both at Newcastle and Gateshead. Shields' Models of Bridges. and are connected by a viaduct. and to which the floor-boards were secured.. through the medium of bed-plates. six principal opciiings. Shields' model of a " lattice bridge.375 feet in length. from New South AValcs. and having two perforations to receive Between each pair of vertical timbers were two diagonal pieces.. two on each side . leaving the strings independent. the arches. to resist tension. was a model of the central arch of the Ousc-burn viaduct. was bound together by iron straps. Stephenson's High-level Bridge. who were contractors for the iron-work." were of the latter character. Amongst other objects of interest exhibited by B. are of wrought-iron. running at a height of 112 feet above high-water mark. of Ouse-burii Viaduct. which form the strings. nms along the strings. This tube also was raised at a considerable elevation above the bottom girders. and this tube resisted the compression. the cost of iron-work being very considerable. and they also support another ])latform below for a carriage-road. from a wronglitiron tube above. by Hawks and Co. South Wales. lattice bridge is of round timber. the upper ones supporting the joists These joists projected placed transversely. and also in the entire absence of iron fastenings.

. . Must have bent before the God of all. then o'erawes the aching sight. of water descending over the two falls is said to be equal to 1. The rising mist that veils thee. I gaze upon thy stream. Thy Thy The Saw reign is of the ancient days. is the thundering cataract's roar. biith was when the morning stars together sung for joy. as thine herald goes before And the music that proclaims thee. as its advancement and happiness have ever been the objects of his unwearied benevolence. pause. thy waves. of the world of floods. Among the various models found in several parts of the Great Exhibition. no armies bid thee stay . whose majesty and might. or summer's sultry beam. The various mills. with loud acclaim. which deservedly attracted a This model was transferred by Mr. The sublime and reverential — feelings the object itself inspires. thy sceptre from on high. ! O Infinite ! O God the green and virgin sod. Catlin. Thy diadem is an emerald green. But onward. Lake St. Hail! sovereign No fleets can stop thy progress. in every clime and zone. The humble homage that my soul in gratitude would pay To Thee whose shield has guarded me in all my wandering way. who has left scarcely any part of the civilised globe unvisited and who. and which is chiefly derived from the drainage of Lake Superior. but the peculiar mode of placing the rails and securing them to the timbers were the novel parts of the design. by night. Set round with waves of snow-white foam. in which From age to age in winter's By day. on beholding it for the first time. And whether on thy forest banks the Indian of the wood. O Supremely Great altar. The pomp of kings and emperors. this From primeval ! . extending to seventy-five acres. Lake of the Woods.715. Shields' economical method of laying the rails in New South Wales. collection of American Indian productions. being constructed to The amount the scale of ninety feet to an inch. purest hue. onward. and to a great extent in America. and spray of feathery dew AVhile tresses of the brightest pearls float o'er tliine ample sheet. sun. every object was very distinctly shown. And the rainbow lays its gorgeous gems in tribute at thy feet. Lake Huron. written on the spot. embraced an extent of country equal to nearly a square mile . A third model showed Mr. and. the red man's foe on his fatherland hath stood Who'er hath seen thine incense rise. then enraptures. Model of the Falls of Niagara. . First dazzles. without a frost. and the latter 163 feet). hotels. to worship and adore. residences. the moon. roads and Goat Island. onward. Accept then. In ceaseless sounds have still proclaimed the great Eternal's name. wherever he has turned his steps. Tlie framing was similar to that of the lattice bridge. was one of the Falls of Niagara. of the clearest. which is the same as that adopted in the north of England. has always made the existing condition of the human race the subject of his most eager enquiries. thy march still holds its way. Clair and Lake Erie. James Silk Buckingham. or heard thy torrent's roar.! — 142 THE GREAT EXHIBITION and timber plentiful. are finely set forth in the following stanzas. Grows dim beneath the splendour of thy glorious watery throne. Lake Michigan. by that intrepid traveller. And from that hour to this. since his days. and faithfully represented the " Horse shoe" and American Falls (the former descending 150 feet. from his large share of public attention. Or. and all the orbs that shine upon thee now the first wreath of glory that entwined thine infant brow.000 tons per minute.

For him. The piece of paper which is to frank them all the way to Liverpool. except as to its actual use. AVliile Heaven re-echoes back to Earth.ra'. popidarly known as the third class. not always without a dispute with the driver. GLEANINOS AND REMINISCENCES—CConiiVim/. and the names of the towns of departure and arrival printed Passengers by railway— and they are numbered. tickets !" the ordinary phrase and travellers by the second-class demeanour adopted towards the riders in parliamentary trains. To be sure. now-a-days. pass into the station.. if the aforesaid passenger be a lady and is altogether forgotten by the habitueS of railways.' ' CHAPTER XX. 143 the occnn be as naiij^Iit in the liollow of Uiiiie hand. and looked at every now and then. white. with certain cabalistic figures across its face. How few travellers by rail ever bethought themselves the little ticket before mentioned. and seed. . with herb. cared nothing about it. the universal wliole Proclaims thy glory. All have their tickets. heard a sharp click. liow that ticket was produced. Oh great Creator of the whole. if you please. or watch-fob. or far. by the noviciates in travelling experiences. Ireland.s rolling flood seem great to us who lowly bow. shown to weak.) THE BAILVVAT PRINTIXU TICKET CUEIOUS FACTS THE QTJEEn's DnAWIN(J-E0O>f WAUDIAN CASES rox's MAGNETISED BALANCE INDIA-BUBREB AIE OUN SMITH'S COMIC ELECTKIC TELEGRAPH FIEE-EXTINOCISHINO CEILING SPITALFIELDS' SILK TROPHY FUR AND FEATHER TROPHIES THE LADIEs' CARPET FACET'S OEREKT SELF-ACT/NO FIRE ALARUM AND BAILWAT WHISTLE GRAPHIC DELINEATION ITOET CARVINGS COLOSSAL PORPHTEY VASE MOMiENPOEOH's CANDELABRUM. — Ol- Till'. thy nuM'cy. by tens of thoutheieon sands step from tlieir cabs or omnibuses. the seas. coloured bhie. and receive." is tlie " Ticket. if the passenger happen to be a gentleman. or the open" cattle-trucks. or green. and all the tickets are alike in form and substauce. WOULIVS LXDUSTHY.soon as the passengers by that train are seated and ready to start is passed into a side -pocket. they saw the station clerk pass a piece of pasteboard into a sort of iron cylinder. Let us look to the ! The Railway Printing Ticket. as .— . or near. and. God rs Lovi. or carefully deposited in a purse or a glove. or nervously felt for. in thy balance grains of sand If Niafje. how passing great art Thou ! if For And ! : But though thy power be Still greater than the finite mind may scan. the woods. dependent man For him Thou cloth's! the fertile fields. by means of an official fillip. — — — — — — — — — — — is a railway ticket merely a square inch of cardboard. walk up to the counter. . the stars of Uie hrijjht firmament. as the case may be. dill'ering only in colour and numbering. and the next instant saw the ticket skimming across the counter towards tliem. Edinburgli. the lakes. and fruit. of course." is tlie style of that official to porter's manner to the first-class passengers and " Now. . acquired by long practice . — . the chorus. as the orbs in their fixed courses roil And from Creation's grateful voice the hymn ascends above. or elsewhere. supply his hourly need. on high. but of the ticket itself they knew nothing. greater is Around. is shown to the guard in waiting. till it is peremptorily called for at the end of the journey "Get your tickets ready!" "Your ticket. pay their money. in return. sir. then. ma'am. —"What a simple thing — ! .

made to correspond with the counterfoil in the book. and packs them as well. From them it went to two tellers. and these coins being mistaken . who locked each day's amount in his peculiar iron chests in the building till next morning. is punished for not having exercised proper vigilance. The weight of the silver coin so taken (at The the rate of 28 lb. Suppose the tickets or o-uards. and handed it to the fiual custody of the chief financial officer. on the contrary. numbers. 144. — . and a ticket is discovered with 750 marked on it. ranging between farthings and ten pound notes.— . in boxes. through some collusion with the money-takers In these cases. but only one piece of bad "-old. The consecutive numbering of the tickets changes the numbers from one to 9999 without is managed by an automatic wheel. the machine at present in use was invented. if the number of tickets exceeds the amount. it was borne off in a hackuey cab.000 was iu silver. no httle purloining by the officials themselves. To By it. previous to dating it he always in which they are kept. which will correspond with a number missing from the previous day's reckonin<T. there is little crime. who carried it to four collectors. them it was gathered by three or four money-porters. by having to pay the amount of It is interesting to know that all these mistakes the deficiency out of his own pocket. and if the chain iu the numbering of the latter be broken. say June 1st. which any attentiou on the part of the workman.500 to 3. Carpenter. or that the guard in attendance has neglected to collect it . when. When the tickets are collected at the end of the journey they are arranged numerically. in charge of a bank of England clerk and a baidc porter. and the poor fellow whose duty it is to take the passengers' tickets. and thus all chance of wrong-doing Where there is httle temptation. The reason for thus consecutively numbering the tickets is in order to avoid forgery and the purloining of the tickets from the cabinets As a clerk removes a ticket. then it is known that there is a ticket lost.000 in gold. a vast deal of small peddling. even now on some small branches the passenger-tickets were slips of paper torn from a cheque-book and given to the purchaser. Curious facts connected with the Exliibition. Contrary to the notices exhibited. and £90 of bad silver was taken. to be delivered up to the guard at the end of the This plan was soon found to be inconvenient as. Of the money received at the doors. but prints. : charo-ed with the task of counting it. £275. run from 1. although the tickets were iourney. The money was received in all forms. that nearly all the bad money was taken on the half-crown and five shilling days. per £100) would be thirty-five tons. The cash was received by eighteen money-takers on From the very heavy days six extra ones being employed during the busiest hours. and many mistakes were continually occurring. change was given. numbered consecutively from one to any determinate number. issued on. and tjiat was a half-sovereign. that he may know if any have been stolen. and its bulk 900 cubit feet an-ain — ! rapid flow of the coin into the hands of the money-takers prevented all examination of each piece as it was received. THE GREAT EXHIBITION In the infancy of railway travelUng— and antecedents of these interesting bits of paper. the money-takcirs are held responsible. and £81.500. The money taken at each station should correspond with the tickets collected at night . who verified the sums. looks at the preceding ticket to see if the numbers correspond. Occasionally foreigners gave Napoleons. now in use on several of the large railway lines. as has been before stated. The half-crown was the most usual bad coin but a much more noticeable fact is. and that the loss of tickets by machine or collusion is made next to impossible by the invention of this admirable which not only cuts millboards into the proper sizes for railway tickets. This machine is is'prevented. each holding £600. all the tickets are avoid all this. Mr. then it is certain that some individual must have taken a ride without paying for it. counts. then it is discovered at once that some person has travelled twice with the same ticket . pilfering are now rendered of very rare occurrence.

From being closed. and yearly cast forth delicious perfume from abundant flowers. never soiled by VOL. tastefully disposed. of so unprepossessing an appearance that one might naturally be at a loss to account for the reason why objects so uninteresting had been sent to the " World's Fair. of rich Brussels.ycopodia. in have recently introduced the newly imported and lovely Hoija bel. also. growing. Ward. combining lightness of appearance with splendour of efl'cet. Crowds of persons daily thronged to view this little bijou of a boudoir at a respectful distance. lent their aid to give a pleasing and lively effect to the picture. The furniture was of a very costly character. Wardian Cases. uiul liljorty of adiiiission into tlie bargain. The carpet. write with two beautiful Ward's cases before us. llaniburj^. which exhibit the most luxuriant foliage. (Jcrmany. 115 they reeeivcd iiiTictoen sliilliiift. Some years ago we remember to have seen the vessel about to start to survey the settlement of Adelaide. or Hoya carnosa. a little world of themselves. it having been first discovered by Mr. and shedding its foliage early. except Residing in the very centre of the metropolis. abundant flower. were often tendered and taken. on opening the door of the ease. under handsome glass shades. noble specimens of this beautiful tree . in some instances. Flowers.s out. in Australia. was a flowered pattern. which is also now in flower. and the hygrometric state of the atmosphere within varied according to circumstances. The monies of America. and in other eases in glass frames. were to be seen live plants. and the odoriferous Fraiicisea Hopeana is always ready to have five species of refresh us by its scent. and covered with light blue silk damask. and luxuriant appearance. The leaves of the Maraiiia bicolor. in which those who cultivate plants might observe many peculiarities. separated from it merely by a draped partition. This elegant little apartment was chiefly composed of rich tapestry. in a gilt frame and stand. TIIH WOJILD'S INDUSTRY. The Queen's Drawbuf-room at the Crystal Palace. the heat of the sun bestowed upon them a very high temperature at times. flowers and vegetable productions can scarcely be cultivated in London. and forms a stately tree. In the rear of the principal room was a smaller apartment. The sofa :ind chairs were carved and gilt." These contrivances are called Wardian cases. their verdant foliage. the interior being lined with pale blue and white silk. These eases formed.'a. however a cordon being drawn around it. fluted. Russell-square and Guildford-street exhibit. head in the heart of the City. in which was a handsome cheval glass. J. II. In London but very few plants will thrive. in Cheapside. With these exceptions.OK for sovereigns. In various parts of the Great Exhibition building. it is not so susceptible of those influences which The lime-tree will also partially flourish . in order that the emigrants might enjoy those delicious fruits which we have in such perfection in this country and now not a week passes but ships arrive bringing plants from the remotest habitable regions in these Wardian eases. and in the very centre injure other plants. and gave him ample means to exercise his observation The Oriental plane rears its and talent. guarded by a policeman. which gratify the eye by their luxuriant green. 2 P — — — — . of the bank two noble and ancient limes shade the parlour from the scorching sun of summer. The total number of visitors from the 1st of May to the 1 1th of October was 6. in a manner which interested the cultivator of plants.003. and I'Vaiicc. we now with the aid of a Ward's case.986. and also that b_v their aid the Londoner can succeed in growing a few flowers to cheer his habitation. and no less than fifteen or sixteen species of exotic ferns gladden the sight by their charming forms. and we were much delighted to see avo or three of these eases filled with small gooseberry and currant trees. In these cases we have at this moment the beautiful wax plant. but coming into leaf late. that by them plants can be transported to and from distant regions of the globe. We We . as it were. which before their introduction was never possessed. which have thus conferred upon us a power of procuring exotic vegetable productions.

Mr. R. and the application of which. Marshall has lately conferns and native orchids has become a trade in London. facility. are of surpassing beauty. By simply preventing the access of the Loudon smoke to injure the leaves. In one of the cases exhibited. wherein he grows many curious plants. precision. doubtless. and moved with great force and rapidity by the sudden contraction of a spring. which in the common air-gun are attended by no small amount of trouble. — — . 254. be much surprised when they are told that a small plant of the former fern. The invention was certainly a most ingenious application of the clastic force of vulcanised India-rubber. Among the telegraphs exhibited in that G. and some personal danger. to a vast variety of purposes.000 rth of the entire weight). composed of a number of vulcanised India-rubber rings. as by De Grave and Co. Various other chemical balances. portion of the middle gallery north of the British side of the nave. which shewed its power to be fully equal to the average shots of the ordinary air-gun. The great singularity of the new air-gun consisted in the entire absence of air-pump. previously extended by hand in a very simple and easy manner and the ball was propelled with a It had this advantage. with the y^^nrtli of a grain. which grows The sale of wild in the British isles. Our couutry friends will. Several balances of foreign make (Lumhe of Berlin) was also worthy of notice. capable. when loaded with 1000 grains. that of the bear was not mentioned. an article which possesses so many useful qualities. Among the newly invented articles which the Exhibition India-rubber Air-gun. which was appropriated to philosophical instruments. musical-instrument maker of Glossop. we may mention the new India-rubber air-gun which was exhibited in class eight. turns we believe. articles for scientific purposes of foreign make could not have had their prices affixed for the information of the apparatus-buying public iu England. was a specimen of the celebrated Irish fern growing in full health. reservoir. had a system of protection for inventions been assured at an : ( — — there were some which displayed a considerable amount of ingenuity. enabled inventors to bring before the public although they were not so numerous as they would have been. that its discharges were always uniform in strength. One of the most interesting objects in the department of philosophical instruments. and the miniature pond is overhung hy ferus. fetches from ten to thirty sliillings in London.146 THE GREAT EXHIBITION wet. by a piston acting within a cylinder. and bearing the catalogue number.-7pijth of a grain The most delicate balance previously in existence. Fox's Magnetised Balance. and valves.01. is now so general and progressive. and safety. It is to be regretted that these and various other seemed very carefully executed. or . we have this year succeeded in growing cucumbers iu the very centre of the metropolis. favourably known as the author of one or two important improvements in wind instruments. and especially one by Oertling (performing to the ToVoth of a grain. The air which expelled the ball was powerfully compressed at the moment of discharge. also. as was stated.. Smith's Comic Electric Telegraph. was Fox's magnetised balance. one was always sure to attract the attention of those who chose to pause to examine the numerous examples of the application of earlier period . structed a Wardian aquatic case. and several species oi Achemenes are rapidly growing to Many of our plants have display their brilliant colours in the latter part of summer. been in their present situation for ten years. It was the invention of Mr. and the lovely little Tunbridge Wells' filmy fern also luxuriating. Institute of France. will thrive well in that situation. doubtless. As an instance. of what may be — what was the extreme weight which it would weighing to the T-J. which. force quite equal to that exerted in the common air-gun. showing effected when the deleterious gases which emanate from the combustion of coal are prevented from exercising their baneful influence. and could be made witli great Specimens of flattened bullets were exhibited in the case. John Shaw.

there were also the signs . whose original drawings and suggestions were ably carried out and extended byMessrs. In this he has certainly succeeded but we are not at present |)rcparcd to say to what extent a coramunieatiou. Laugher. and that exhibitors in this class should unite in forming a great silken trophy emblematical of their trade. by this instrument. In addition to these novel signals. as manufacturers of the largest kind of silk goods. which reflected in certain angles the draped and curtain-like arrangement of the rich and gorgeous materials. rather of a retrograding character as regards this important branch of telegraphy. The telegraphic alphabet of Mr. Soho. used to call attention. George Wallis. to be fixed near the most combustible materials . The former exhibited by ^Messrs. Flre-exlingidshing Ceiling. &e. fixed at the top of the room this tank to be perforated with holes. which were rendered magnetic by induction. to the traiismissioa of signals between distant places. tabarets. As the inventor truly says. Spitaljields Silk Trophy. by means of armatures attached thereto. by touching the corresponding key in front of the figure. at any rate. Keith and Co. These signals were shown by the elevation of shutters above the face. to the height of upwards of fifty feet. — — — . but also the end of each word and sentence respectively properly indicated. Bergin. therefore. — — . undertook to provide sufficient materials to form a splendid type of the metropolitan sdk looms. either of the signals could be shown at the will of the manipulator. This was in every way an interesting object. \. the string would be burnt. The inventor proposes to have a large tank. containing water. the sides of the lower part being intersected with mirrors of immense dimensions. may be transmitted. It consisted of an elegant arrangement of silk brocades. to whom great merit was due for It was surmounted by fiags and the tasteful and elegant design presented to the public.. Smith was made up of combinations of lines and crosses. the superintendent of textile fabrics. for extinguishing fires in laundries. of Poland-street. This arrangement. like a shower bath . The action on the eyes and mouth of the comic face was produced by three bent iron bars within the figure. the whole producing an efl'ect at once grand and imposing. and to be fitted with a valve plug.. the refuge of the destitute and the oppressed of all nations. in ease of fire. was placed inside the figure. for it showed at one view the industrial products of the Spitalfields weavers. the inventor of this contrivance called a comic electric telegraph must have determined in his own mind to produce an instrument. and was. damasks. wholly did'ercnt from anything of the kind which had previously appeared. The trophy was erected under the superintendence of j\Ir. bell.. no doubt. and attracted cither of the features. the descendants of those poor French emigrants whom the revocation of the Edict of Nantes drove to our shores then. &e. the whole might be taken down and re-arranged at intervals with comparatively little trouble or expense. prove an amusing and instructive addition to the ornaments of the drawing-room. as it might be used to illustrate the principle of magnetic induction. for damasks. specially liable to such accidents. This automatic contrivance was exhibited by Mr. Surely. the centre banner being emblazoned with the royal arms and not the least merit of this elegant arrangement of rich materials was that.. in external appearance. by means of interior steps and ladders. and Co. which has been sadly neglected by most of the inventors of telegraphs. — A — . however. +. as now. the plug would rise. and a deluge of water would be showered down on the incipient conflagration. broeatelles. and other parts of a building. and Messrs. the instrument would. Nicolay. by which not only all the letters of the alphaljct were represented. It was intended at first that the silks of Spitalfields should be contributed by various manufacturers . Dyer. was found difficult to carry out. — . and the 2'lie Fur and Feather Trophies. As each of the liars were capable of being separately magnetised. the plug to be held down by a string. emblems.OF THE WORLD'S INbUSTIlY. 147 electricity.

no fewer than 194 accurately adjusted wheels to other apparatus fitted up on a new In the limited space within which the exemplifications were confined. with Mr. it was principle. heraldic emblems were The initials of the executants were ornamentally arranged. particularly in the present year. leaves and foliage. and was nine feet in diameter. This ingenious piece of mechanism was designed to assist students Facey's Orrery. were very attractive. when the ladies who had assembled to inspect the work unanimously pronounced it to be worthy of presentation Mr. " May it please your selected by the deputation to fill the office of spokeswoman Majesty On the part of the ladies of Great Britain. produced a most beautiful design. Adcock. the centre group representing the store from whence they had been This beautiful specimen of ladies' work was exhibited by Her Majesty. being a deputation from the lady executants. — — — — : — : — — . deputed to learn Her Majesty's pleasure on the subject. Papworth. to whom the The following address was read by Miss Lawrence. of a large pattern worked out in Berlin wool. It was thirty feet in length and twenty in breadth. that they are led to trust it is not unworthy of your It is hoped that it illustrates an elegant branch of Majesty's favourable notice. and on their completion the squares were reunited so as to complete the design. the chairman of the committee. originally designed and painted by the artist. The whole design was connected by wreaths or bands of form the external border. It was commenced with a wish that their skill should have been represented at the Industrial Exhibition of all Nations. by a hundred and fifty ladies of Great Britain. and that it develops a source of manufacture which may afford employment to many. if only for tlie extreme beauty and intrinsic But considered in another light. Marshall. as the rewards for the hunter's toil in deep. They were assisted in their labours by a small committee of gentlemen. the joint production of a number of our fair countrywomen. "Witten. the outer coverings of numerous varieties of animals. and was produced in the The pattern. Francis Fuller. It represented the principal bodies in the of astronomy. and showed all the planets and their attendant satellites revolving round To effect this in the machine. or along the ducts of labour banks of unknown and dangerous streams these trophies became significant. which consisted partly of geometrical and partly of floral forms. was following manner subdivided into detached squares. especially to those on whom the hand of adversity has been laid. so as to also introduced. distributed. Suspended from the walls might also be seen numerous specimens of magnificent furs. who. it was necessary to employ the sun in their proper order. and the result was that he had the honour of introducing the Misses Lawrence. solar system. The carpet was exhibited at the rooms of the Society of Arts. was [placed in the left-hand north gallery. Cubitt. and their initials form the border of the carpet. and viewed as the provalue of the articles themselves. British industry and taste. rugged forests." was graciously pleased to express her acceptance of the carpet. The Ladies' Carpet. was therefore to Her Majesty. which were worked by dift'erent ladies. and aflbrded a valuable testimony of the profitable employment of their leisure hours. who was carpet was presented. This praiseworthy specimen of needlework. to Her Majesty. Simpson. but the opinions expressed of their work have so far exceeded their expectations. and also her satisfaction The carpet consisted at the careful manner in which the ladies had executed the work. loyal feelings of gratitude for the noble patronage bestowed on British industry. In the pattern. and Fuller.148 latter THE GREAT EXHIBITION by Mr. we offer this specimen of a work of art fit for your Majesty's gracious Here followed the list of the subscribers and executants. The names of the ladies who have taken a part in the work will be found in the With deep and accompanying list. just above the crystal fountain. we humbly present for your gracious acceptance a specimen of the work that employs the leisure time of our countrywomen. Her Majesty acceptance. the architect.

which might be adjusted to suit any temperature by means of a small screw. in harmony with which the artist and the workman must tune their inspirations. liowcvcr. Who that remembers the costly engravings which illustrate such works as Stuart and Revett's " Athens. D. Lloyd Price. where it was tested by being placed in a room containing about 2. impossible to show cither the comparative sizes or flistances of the Iicavonly bodies. when once fixed. II. whilst a gentleman attended and gave a description of some particulars relating to them. By their judgment. however. we have little doubt. — — . happily. One of these instruments is sufiicieut for a whole building. The mechanism of the instrument consisted simply of a pulley and weight. Actual comparison furnished them with an unerring test of excellence. the " Illustrated London News" can fail to recognise the remarkable extension of the power of graphic delineation in this country during the last hundred years? Every draughtsman will at once acknowledge the impossibility of depicting rapidly and correctly an — . and was found sulKcicnt to raise the temperature so as to set the alarum in motion. he was led to the study of astronomy. The orrery. probably for the first time. is a working man. a sheet of paper was ignited. as standards whcrcwitii to compare others on which their faculties as judicious purchasers might be subsequently exercised. they entered on the task of selection in a serious spirit. so universal amongst us. It is not to be expected. which was detached by a helix. spontaneous combustion and other accidents by fire are likely to happen. the novelty of which consisted of an extremely delicate and sensitive expanding compound metallic segment. and it may be fixed in any convenient position for alarming tiie inmates or police in tiio event of an unusual increase of temperament in any part of the edifice. we understand. There. It is also applicable to the holds of vessels. 2 Q . by permission of the commissioners. The same principle of construction was applied to the steam-whistle invented by the exhibitor.000 cubic feet of air. 149 of course. and may be adapted to steam vessels. — — VOL. who." and the early publications of the Dilettanti Society and of the Society of Antiquaries and turns from them to that wonder of the nineteenth century. and would always remain like a sentinel ready charged. It is to the general public that the producer of every article of utility turns for encouragement and support and it is therefore in the hands of tiie great body of purchasers that the fate of artistic design as ajiplicd to manufactures lies. or railway carriages. who. whether good or bad. and a small lever. gave a general idea of the relative positions and revolutions of the planets and satellites. containing any number of rooms. including the small permanent voltaic battery and. giving instantaneous notice of the approach of the enemy. the whole being enclosed in a small case about 15 by IH inches.OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. that the ideas thus formed could be otherwise than crude and imperfect and it is fortunate that the power of graphic illustration which is now. should bring to their aid the materials requisite for fortifying their memories and reviving their original impressions. Facey. in long voyages. The inventor was a Mr. one of which was removed. and many a lesson on the combination of utility and beauty was doubtless there intuitively acquired. Avliere. The exhibitor deposited two of his instruments in the Exhibition. the key must be given. a watchmaker of Brceonshirc. the inventor states that it would not require to be touched for years. The machine being adjusted a few degrees above the temperature in the room. first turned their attention to their responsibilities in this matter on the occasion of their repeated visits to the galleries of the Crystal Palace. and this was the result of his labour and ingenuity. Sclf-arlini/ Fire Alarum and Jiailwaij ll'li'istlc. felt it necessary to do something to fill up the vacancy of his idle hours. Accordingly. by becoming a member of the Temperance Society. to Somerset House. Graphic Delineation. This was an invention by Mr. The forms of nuuiy of tiie objects displayed were thus imprinted on their imaginations. Many.

spear. and standing upon a stem reduced to the slenderness of a knitting-needle. A small cup of Hippopotamus ivory. The plethora of sketching. by MoUenborgh. containing a fuchsia and a lily of the valley. each of a difierent pattern. the property of the king of Sweden but it has since been presented by that monarch to the prince consort. — A : — A A : A . although perhaps not piu-ely artistic. The pillar of the cup was the enamel of the walrus-tooth. and yet so miraculously thin in texture as to be quite transparent. of ivory and walrus-tooth. taining white single hyacinth and jonquil. on an octagonal pillar. and other curious objects. however. many are there whose impressions of picturesque form are derived almost exclusively from these sources— the Protsean variety of which serves to demonstrate. and almost from day to day. as compared with the habit of our forefathers. We are not aware that this substance has hitherto been used for such purposes. curious and perfectly unique collection of ivory carvings was furnished by W. was manufactured at the porphyry works at Elfdahl. The following were among the most conspicuous An ivory vase. and forming a harlequin set. and sword. lessons of no slight importance. on either side of which was sitting a knight in full northern hunting costume. with its pendant flowers and leaves carved into a delicate and web-like tissue. it ministers and not to their amusement only since it largely to the amusement of the public How provides for those who are willing to use them. The specimens were as beautiful in design as they were exquisite in workmanship. shaped like a Grecian temple. The pillar of this vase was double spiral.150 THE GKEAT EXHIBITION unceasing variety of subjects without the constant exercise of a nice power of discrimination between those peculiarities of form which confer either beauty or deformity on each different object. but. It seemed as if a breath would dissolve them. — . it by no means implies the absence While the of that balance of judgment which should exist in every well-regulated mind. &c. D. Nothing could exceed the delicacy and grace of these specimens.D. Cloumel. M. which is the great characteristic of the present age. These. that. thin as beater's gold. We had a cup covered with intricate tracery. with some carriages. there was an addition never seen on . with dog. may be considered to amount almost to a mania. as it is generally considered as valueless to the turner. which showed its great strength in being able to support the cup without losing its perpendicularity. perforated. when treated by the artist's mind and touched by his skill. It was. conIt was the best thing in the case. The flowers in this and the preceding were accurately copied from nature. Hemphill. a spinning-wheel. On the upper part of the object. the outside perforated. vase of ivory on a walrus-tooth pillar. the smoke of which ascended as incense from the altar. stood beside. match-holder of African black-wood and ivory. ornamented in the Elizabethan style. almost every diversity of style may be alike invested with the aspect of grace and beauty. The colossal Porphyry Vase graced the avenue of the eastern or foreign side of the Crystal Palace. in which was to be placed the lighted pastile. A large and magnificent Candelabrum. and standing on a fluted pillar of walrus tooth. A hyacinth stalk. so filmy were the ivory leaves. gun. formed the principal attractions of the closing days of the Exhibition at least as far as the foreign half of the building was concerned. while it indicates the excitable temperament of a public ever craving after fresh food for imagination. A vase of Hippopotamus ivory.. that appeared absolutely evanescent. together with a table with inlaid top composed of different descriptions of Swedish stones. unceasing swarm of modern periodical publications accumulates from week to week. It consisted of a stem made to imitate that of a tree. It. One dozen dessert knife-handles of African ivory. A crochet needle. abundant material for the study of the artist. pastile burner. The altar was hollow on being raised from its plinth a little silver dish appeared. left by the laborious graver of the artist. exhibited great originality. when exhibited.

thus gain considerable consequence to its progress. we would refer to Mrs. So seductive is this plan. tlic cfl'ect was decidedly good. we would recommend an attentive study of Mr. CHEMICALS ACKEEMANN AND CO. IXTUODUCTOEY EEMAUKS MILLEE KOWXKT . at least in Eiij^laiul slanilinj. as may be seen by any list proreferred to has been considerably augmented curable at artists' warehouses. It may be questioned whether the performance of ancient pictures is not attributable to the elaborate inlight of their painters into the nature of the pigments they made use of. fallen into it. and he prepares most of his media now himself. . although it is . . Sang. amongst these.ath. prefer purchasing them from the colourmen ready for use. above all. adds much information invaluable to artists. This practice has eoiitiuued within comparatively a few years of our own time. and hence that uurivalkd brilliancy and transparency of tints as exemplified in all those of his works painted w ithin the last six years. but tlicy. its durability or fugaeiousness. and now.. to the simple manipulation of their works.OF TTIE WORLD'S INDUSTllY. with groups of figures variously employed. But notwitha candlpstiok t)nforo. ARTISTS' IMPLEMENTS. denied to the moderns. Tlie whole was formed in chiselled silver. we learn that artists were invariably in the habit of mixing their own colours and making their own brushes. when he left Rome for England. thej' amount to an aggregate almost suilicicnt to deter the beginner from entering the lists of art. 151 namely. For information with reference to the former fact. some advantage over the old method although that knowledge of the properties of each colour. of our artists who now grind or temper their colours.TID CO. COMPOSITION FOR IVORY SIB W. QHUNDY. and deserves to be extensively known. have. which was contributed to our art literature in ISli.\. L'pon matters of detail it must be obvious we should be necessarily terse. to a profound chemienJ research into the capacities of all colours for good or ill. who. and displayed considerable taste in execution. and that of many of his ]\Iuuich brethren in art. on the contrarj'. &c. 11EEVE3 AXD SON WAX COLOritS BLACK LEAD PENCILS GEIIMAN PENCILS GKEEN AND PAIIEY COOK UARVEY WATSON CHEAP FRAMES GEAR. It is well known that Mr. To those who would wish to make themselves conversant with the several names and the properties of pigments. a iiaintinp. the anomaly of sneli an addition. that even the artists of Italy. in most cases. There are but few. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — the earliest history of painting. partook of the system generally adopted here. upon their arrival in England. with which the masters of old were necessarily acquainted. the frame hcing formed of the foliage of the tree hciu. if any. This facility he found to liis cost not al\i ays advisable m ith rcgai-d to every colour . of Holland. From . it must be admitted. and. IMerrifield's elegant translation of Ceunino Cenniui's Treatise on Painting. The picture represented tlic interior of a Swedish dwelling-house. not to say genius in design. and the few colours actually It is obvious that the number of colours since the time enlisted into their service. on glass. is by this course. NEWTON MINIATTTEES WINSOR AND NEWTON. KEARNEY— EOBERSOK AND CO. CHAPTER XXI. and he had to fall back uj)on the practice of his native country. and it may be one of The artists. Field's Chrnmatopouniphij. This practice forms a new era in art.

for placing the colour on the canvas or panel. The brushes in this case appeared it the first necessary proofs of superiority. at the same time. though purer than state." and the presence of a medium which belongs less to the element of water. having had a long practical experience in this branch of trade. but all have proved unfit Cumberland lead was the only black-lead that in its nati\e for the use of the artist. contributed a case of some importance to artists. or of oil. in the surge of the sea. that. These exhibitors savour a good deal of the fashion Their dividing of the time. and a correct probationary course of study. to confine onrselves to generalities where the snbjoct is so and tempting. should have brought replete . in collapsible tubes. from California. It is well known. No. that no other yet found could be thus made rise of in its natural That from the Balearic Islands is "cindery. is too soft and flaky. that termed Mexican is really produced from mines in Bohemia. Most of the pictures themselves. therefore. These consisted of specimens of paintings in " silica colours" and " glass of Long Acre. Reeves and Sons. and will be found of much service. therefore. and their desire to supply tlie artist with a cheap. Miller. It is then with "Artists' Implements" of our own period with which we have to deal. Naples yellow into tints is. sliowed us several continbutions from Mr. of Cheapside. very light and convenient. Rowney and Co. without the aid of the brush. indeed. Messrs. 1. and a newly-invented oil sketch-book.. inasmuch as it contained the proofs of an efficient substitute for the far-famed black-lead mine of Cumberland. absence of grit. As a work of art. resinous compounds." were distinguished for considerable ability in handling. of Long-acre.. being a successful attempt to give to that fabric the surface of fine panel. 152 diificultj at THE GREAT EXHIBITION the same time. state could be cut into slices. is a neat adaptation of the common ti'ow el-handle. which are impervious to damp. and elsewhere. and. Corbould's " Britons deploring the Departure of the Romans. is entitled to praise. we object not to the use of any extraneous aid we have to deal with it as an evidence of the powers of a particular and express fact. and thus be inserted into the channels of the cedar with — . and which enables the sketcher to carry two wet paintings The prepared canvas in the same case was worthy of remark. however. In that of Mr. and gave us an almost bewildering classification of colours. we believe." that from Ceylon. which was indicative of a sterling respectability without meretricious allurement. and the small portion of iron and earthy matter. adapted to many decorations Roberson and Co. of Rathbone-place. that which appeals to us as possessing extraordinary claims upon attention. and. in this respect. an indication of " body." but which appeared to exemplify no one particular virtue unattainable by other pigments. Miller. have desired that. admirably made. Other varieties. where boldness of impasto is required. H. and we could. and pencils. in the excess of its carbon." we fancy we detected amidst its " trick. this lead of Cumberland was unsurpassable that no other could compare with it in quality of colour. have been tried.. stands almost alone. for all purposes having reference to art. which is now thoroughly exhausted. a valuable exception. from Sicily. and on the shore. admirably adapted for sketching from nature. nor was any so easy to erase. and as they were represented at the Exhibition of which we have to write. executed with his Venetian pastils. Mr. T. for the sake of art. The palette-knife. than to that of gums." more particularly in the orange mantle. and. from Davis' Straits'. a good article. and therefore we plunge at once in medias res. showed a very good selection of canvass painting-brushes. and is also friable and earthy. Brompton. more particularly that of the " Genius of Peace. hitherto beyond the reach of ordinary painting. Kearney. There were several specimens of water-colours. which requires an intimate knowledge of the wants and caprices of the artist. medium. from its without injury. gave examples of crayon painting. any plumbago known. in the Fine Art Court. W.

possess great volume and transparency and. and even when dry. a chateau shattered and unroofed in a night. and ready erasure. such drawings. although in a very op|)osite category. l)ut nevertheless truc^fraiuls upon artists. by means of }. One of these is the more particularly worth mentioning. and the mass solidify when cold. until the somewhat recent discovery by Mr." These dilfcreiit leads." a very strong term. — — VOL. some or all of the varieties of the leads before mentioned bciiip. Thus the artist has been left to choose between the evils of a native and a spurious lead. It must be in every father's experience in that of every director of youth that there is a particular period in a boy's life when the yearning for a " box of paints" becomes positively painful. The allusion to a temporary false step in the onward progress of chemical research in art naturally. attracted by the tempting treat. It has given to this delightful department of art facilities of unapproachable character. . To jiaint from summer nature in the open air was to look tlirough a swarm and the head of the luckless draughtsman became like a hive in the midst of it. ^"ery many have been the attempts to give body to the colours used with water. We allude to the use of honey for the purposes above stated. It would seem that these pencils are especially made for Messrs. freedom in workiTi.. or give to that of lovely woman all the appearance of being ravaged by smallpox. Cumberland lead possessed in an eminent degree beyond all other leads known. if the brush was too fully charged with it. even by the intelligent and discerning.ums and resinous matters. those parts of the drawing to which it was applied would not. directs our attention to the subject of "frauds. they cannot be converted substitutes for The — — . Another important evidence of successful trade enterprise in aid of art is to be found n the water-colours prepared with wax.round with substances with which they will bake to the rccjuircd hardness. are either kneaded in a plastie state and foreed into the channels of the cedar wood. II. the advantages of smaller space. and a variety of media have been used for this purpose. The introduction of a medium of the purest wax into the manufacture of water-colours was a stage in the art of water-colour painting deserving of honotu'abic mention. became " tacky " again in the folio or elsewhere. into flint by hot temperatures. This medium certainly had the desired result of keeping the colour with which it was mixed in a moist state indeed. A drawing finished with these colours could not be left a moment with safety. Reeves and Sons. and that they are unquestionably what they affect to be. and the effects which followed a too confiding credulity. its especial and valual)le qualities when pure have in the same ratio been deteriorated and destroyed. pilferings. this boinjj. and tended to rank it very close to that of oil. as showitig the avidity with which anything new is seized upon. Brockedon of a process by which lead is made perfect. . or in a warm room. . which it surpasses in its powers of drying. as was shown in this case. unless in liot weather. or more frequently combined and f. but its uncertain temper and occasional grit properties common to all leads in a natural state gave rise to its amalgamation with other substances which have been enumerated and though some of the qualities in which Cumberland lead failiul have been obtained with varying success by these amalgamations. and stuck to their unctuous eonipanioiis in the most sweet but destructive union. intense colour. moreover.OF THK WOUI. alone a iTmarkable test of its superior fitness Cumberland lead are manifold. Lustre. worked into pencils variously desii^nated " prepared. aud a litter of pigs and a cow or two carried away in a Nor was the artist himself exempt from the annoyance of their perseverance and fiy. so often the fate of the ordinary water-colour. piMicils . It was no unusual thing to find a flock of sheep disappear from a common." or "ooiiiiiositioii. if exposed to a humid atmosphere. or with others which will fuse.i. and case of carriage. and tattoo the human face divine. The flies. 2 R . 153 as a native lead." "purified. would moisten tlie choicest parts with their probosci. They dissolve with ease. dry for some time.D'S LXDUSTUY.

tion. or his senior partner Genius. led to the rejection of the sulphuret and the emplovmeut of sulphur only. a serious evil. and former. however. any Then. and inserted in the cedars. after drying. are liable A ready and to be affected if they come in contact with the lead of sulphured pencils. . But. It is not generally known that lead dust. and plate upturned. but possesses. The profits upon art appurtenances and the thus adding to positive extortion. put under a press. ! We — — ." and now comes the All the efforts of the tyro to imitate the flat tint of its sky or the rich Time and perseverance but add to the vexaimpasto of the foreground are of no avail.154 THE GREAT EXHIBITION guinea obtained. affirm that such a course would not tend to vitiate taste aud injure an otherwise correct ear? shall add a few more remarks. His colours are poor. It is then. and subjected to the called Mexican degree of heat required to semifuse the combining ingredients. whilst hot. rudely repulsed by the sordid and fee-seeking. or. the intimidation to are large and ample modest merit. ready to be cut into slices. who do not hesitate to set a girl down to a piano " of any sort. it will exhibit the writing in sulphuret of lead. Brockedon. the harder the composition. thin. says the advocate for cupidity. a sulphate will be formed . so far as If the place where the writing was be wetted with with such composition is practicable. Tliere it lies upon the counter. The prize secured and borne homeward. in a greater degree than the The sulphur is readily set free by bodies which attract it. the next fancy-stationer's is resorted to for the much-coveted box. an alkaline liquor. aceorditig to the amount of difficulty which surrounds its possession. When ground with the lead the compound is put into an iron pot. and if. nature. or pure sulphur. To an artist it may be very injurious as regards the purity and security of his productions. it be again wetted with This is obviously a most acetate of lead. The impossibility of rubbing out a composition when sulphuret of antimony is used. would never stoop to cheat. if such be the case. and the greater the proportion of generally that this ingredient. charge as for the best? But it is not the fact. dangerous property for persons who may require to make notes not intended to remain or be again producible. who is impressed with the divine gift of the appreciation of sweet and harmonious sounds. This makes a better composition in the quality of rubbing out ." but will any rational person. with its lid slightly and mysteriously raised. and thus proessay. He is. The acrid qualities of the colours either penetrate through the paper. ignorant of this fact. or frame. who sell him a clumsy and useless key. their crude and earthy particles are floated about for an instant on the Here is a young and ardent lover of surface. A good specimen of water-colour has been "lent to copy. for want of sufficient grinding. displaying just enough of its contents to increase a desire of ownership. not the shadow of excuse for this abrupt rebuff. partly borrowed from an article by jVIr. is as cruel as it is dishonest. upon the black-lead pencil. memoranda made with this composition can be reproduced although rubbed out. weak. . and There exists falsely deny that either Talent. simple experiment will place our readers in possession of au infallible test. for many of the colours which have metallic bases. Young and confiding. or inferior plumbago. paper ready. are within. It is true that there are professors (save the mark it is a correct one) of music. the attractive colours are rubbed one by one in neat array upon the first A delf. and the next left in spots and patches. treating these ingredients as before. shamefully surrounded in his first encounter by disheartening difficulties which are the more serious At the very threshold of the temple of art he is because their cause is not understood. and kept there until it is cold when it is turned out as a block. He throws aside his attempt and tries again. the shop which boasts of being "established" at a period when his father was a boy. is combined with sulphuret of antimony. why description of colours will do for a boy to begin with. and washy. a more important auxiliary to art than would at the first thought be supposed. stimulated by a noble mind and an intellect delighting in invention.

Portman-plaee. They are then laid in similar troughs or cbannels on iron plates. which contrasted strangely with the cheap gold frames around. formed by the action of tiic snli)liur on the metal. corresijondin}. straight until they are thoroughly dried. the seats of learning? E. acquire a taste for. and a glass which fuses at a moderate temperature. iu the clenieutary studies J. the more as they are. in after life. and sit iu learned conclave at committees of taste upon the It would tend greatly to merits of the rival works of the greatest men of their day. silver surface ii few hours. are. Draw some lines with the suspected pencil — . moist or dry paper. The same pencil. sculpture. E. Green and Fahey. it will not be long ere greater activity be given to the hitherto much wanted. which have recently been imported in large quantities. and put in a mutiie or furnace. he made himself an etficient easel . or the condition of the atmosphere. and are then placed in the channels cut into the wood. soapy touch. and architecture. of Oxford. exhibited prepared panel for amateur painting. thus forming the material into scpiarc threads of the required sizes. praise for this attempt to give facilities for obtaining material to the young beginner. under a powerful press this composition is forced through holes in the bottom of the vessel. This is a judicious arrangement of materials. artists . Harvey. bear moderate pressure. with ornamental exteriors. may yet n)ore readily be known. All these pencils. if these lines contain sul|)lnir. It should be borne in niiiul. at our universities. illustrative of perspective. of Piccadilly. showed an easel for artists sketching out of doors. whether appears to be the same at all times. rather than the otispriug of innate The sister arts have their ju-oiessorships why. favourite cat. that. yet without a greasy. These are laid in convenient lengths in wooden troughs. and their marks cannot be entirely erased. Mr. We should not the youth of England. . Cook. Watson. and while a picture shall appear' surpassingly beautiful iu one frame. and glued there . ou smooth or rou^h. rescue them from egg-throwiuij and chicken-hazard. hard or soft. and one containing everything required. Cook is deserving of mueli requires but a day or two to be ready for the ai-tist. The varieties of German pencils. by partly pulling out a drawer from a set. both to master and pupil. however. trade of which Mr. which art'ccts it materially. which of art. which will be found of service. however. Why but are aware how much their productions depend upon th. in their more docile years. then. that he obtained his first brushes by taking the hair off the tail of a F. and then put into a vessel like that used for forming maccaroni. of Charlotte-street. who It is related of Wilkie. that uo pencil This arises from the nature of the paper. too often the resource of those who have nothing to do. Harvey is a member. The softer or darker degrees of lead arc weaker.e frame by which they are surrounded. made of clay mixed with Bolicmian lead. and other low and frivolous pursuits. have a lustrous aiul intense black colour.Ill' J III: WORLD'S INDUSTRY fact is of consideration 155 from so deceitful an on a sheet of paper. subjected to a degree of heat sutfieient to render them liard and insoluble. It should work freely be free from grit. by the appointment of professorships ot painting. of Greenock. which keep them teet that portion of them with whom the instrument. is too often cramped for the want of the necessary funds. it shall seem poor and ill-eouditioned in another. the degrees of hardness depend upon the proportion of the ingredients. should painting be driven from vice. and of Sir Benjamin' West. F. sinuotli. will mark as if four diiyerent pencils had been used. trust. to become patrons. exhibited folding drawing models iu three series. and yield more readily than the harder varieties. and the principles of light and shade. scut some cxcelicut specimens of There are few gilding. dark lines will be found on A f^ood biuck-lcad pencil the spoon. and a love of art. and its marks be easily erased. are harsh in use. these materials are ground in water together. and dried slowly to a stiff plastic state. iti these lines in contact witlx any hrifjlit. it appears. and place :i spoon fcir instance.

Grundy. Tlie new method of mounting water-colour and other drawings. a somewhat dark place. Class 17. to his brother. covered with gold (and that " gold" too often of a spurious Dutch character). Those for drawings were exquisitely beautiful . It is well known in the profession that these exhibitors are essentially practical men. appear brilliant and clear upon it . was an error of judgment on the part of the commissioners. The frames were altogether lighter than usual. in Class 26. The seams." was an exceedingly interesting case from the firm of Messrs. peers through in unutterable poverty of aspect upon the slightest contact or friction. Grundy . who contributed several miniature paintings of his own. while they were likewise kept perfectly Hat. informs us that it can be manufactured of any requisite size without a join . it will be found deserving at least of the attention of the artist. took up less space upon the walls. however. J. amongst the " Chemicals. as ivory. and did not touch the glass. the colours. while prints appear to be very considerably enhanced in value by such means. 121. who is likewise an artist." obviously intended to hide it. la No. are. Gear exhibited a composition to supersede ivory for large water-colour paintings. that the " cheap" frames. to our eye. and the lighter descriptions of oil-paintings. and had a charming appearance when relieved by a buff or scarlet ground. was a selection of fancy stationery from Amongst it was a the old-established house of Ackermann and Co. colour-box. boudoir. intended to display. Mr. No. This and similar inventions to supersede ivory. of Mancliester. drawings. apply to Sir W. in defiance of the thick and heavy " handling. we believe. Newton. and barely. of llegent-street. without cutting their edges. while the warmth of a room creates gaping crevices at each juncture. At a time when the application of decoration upon the true principles of design is being attempted. and more particularly in that of " The Homage. &c. without the brittleuess of other We have no substitutes. which. he adds. The inventor. unfortunately selected for the purpose. the card-board. denied us all opportunity of doing more than quote its discoverer's book.. of Rathbone-place. by rotatory motion and fixed vertical saws. of the Strand. no longer of importance. or mounting. but once. which it seems utterly impossible to account for. Water-colour drawings. The exclusion of the painter's art from participation in the scheme of the Great Exhibition. ivere apparent. which meet The yellow preparation of their us at every turn. however praiseworthy. under the auspices of government com- . which once could only be obtained of a limited size.136 THE GREAT EXHIBITION It may here be remarked. In Class 2. &c. now so much in vogue. line engravings.xhioited. therefore. to the best advantage. This observation will. to exemplify a power he possesses in secret of "joining ivory together without the seam becoming apparent. other means of judging of its merits than by the single sample shown in the Exhibition. and other works of art. upon which they had been so unceremoniously placed. 1. groundwork. and cracks and shrivels the composition ornaments as though they consciously shrunk from contact with the green wood and its shabby disgmse. are the dearest the artist can purchase. is due to Mr. and adapting them for t'ue tasteful embellishment of the drawing-room. where this is the object. as it is capable of being used in every respect as ivory. Winsor and Newton. and. and by a simple contrivance the works were sunk or inlaid in the matte. being completely covered with a drawing of but average talent. owes its origin . wliich preserved them from injury." These specimens were. fitted up with every requisite the amateur might desire the whole arranged with great elegance and taste. can now be cut into sheets of almost any extent. instead of above. are surprisingly benefited by this ornamentation. e." where a join ran the full length and breadth of the picture.. W. and the advantage of placing them beneath. and have very extensive chemical works for artists' colours in the neighbourhood of Kentish Town. some very beautiful specimens of frames.

Paul's Cathedral and the hall of Greenwich Hospital. by devoting their pencils to a miserable copy ism of the Thus. received a commission from the state to paint the interior of St. degenerating at once into the still' and inanimate mannerism of the twelfth — — ! — for such a state of things. The assiduity and interest with which the thousands who thronged to the J'lxhibition in Hyde-park examined the miscellaneous contributions of sculpture from all nations. There is no hope of remedy We . that we arc inclined to look for good practical results even from this scrambling course of self-education. what have we done towards the formation of a school of The answer to these art ? what definite purpose or rules of taste \\a. all come in for a share of the inii)r()\ed taste of an ai. but also in the more hunihlc abodes of the middle classes (tliroiij!. it seemed an act of fatuity. and although the impromptu criticisms of the multitiule by no means evinced an advanced taste. yet we feel so much confidence in the ultimate triumph of truth. by millions who never saw a work of sculpture before. revived art in Italy arrived at its highest point of excellence and power under a Rairaelle. which iu art is beauty. amid a sort of wilderness of wild flowers. of sculpture of various nations. and although many of the specimens there presented to them fell far short of the standard of excellence. and glitter. inaugurated by the learned and admirable discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds. who founded a school which. and wild confusion. and a Parmegiano. after various unconcerted efforts. has had in this country. starting in rivalry to La Guerre. in 1336.h the oi)eratiou of schools of design) at a time when furniture. we find art. . in about the same period. and Pall jMall. It is scarcely more than a centmy and-a-half that art has held any position amongst us since Sir James Thoruhill. and where now a portion of our exhibitants seem to seek for unity of purpose. and fostered by much indiscriminatiug patronage. be interesting and instructive. in which he was assisted by a German named Andre. we can hardly ventui'c to say the schools. not only in the palaces of the jiatioti and tlic liouses of tlie great. having never once attempted a flight of the highest ambition. dress. and which he contracted to do at the rate of £2 per square yard It is not a century since the first attempt to establish an academy of art was made. and in the course of that period. how much more useful to them would be some notion of the principles and practice of painting. Suttblk-street. as well as the most abundant and varied examples both of composition and colouring. but in wholesome exposure in must meet extravagance with extravagance the broad daylight of public scrutiny. must assure ns that the masses are susceptible of enjoynient from the contcmi)lation of works of fine art. and utensils for tiic table. to have excluded from the lists that very branch of art which affords the highest resources for decoration. and native aflectation being confronted by conceits from abroad (where there is much of the same error to complain of). when preparing a C'rancl Exposition of the \\'orl. survived some time after him in England. 2 s and thirteenth centuries. RafTaclIc in 1 j20). OF THE WORLD'S 1NJ)USTUY. 157 — mittees.. would not a similar comparison of The importance of such a comparison works of painting be at least equally so? to English art it would be impossible to over-rate.'e amliitioiis in art. And if good so result from observations on sculpture obtained in this way. whilst in little more than two centuries (Giotto died poorest mediaeval models. involving both composition and colouring an art much more intimately and generally applicable to the purposes and requirements of social life and if a comparison by the mure critical ])ortion of the community of the works. shame and mutual ridicule may correct much whilst VOL. . since its revival. when we reflect upon the comparatively short and chequered career which art.\e we arrived at ? questions must be given by a silent and significant pointing to the walls of the various exhibition rooms in Trafalgar-square. where all has long been caprice. the favourite decorator of the mansions of the nobility of that day. II.s of Industry of all Nations. in the persons of a Giulio Romano. a Garofalo.

and engravings. and which rendered this department. But still the general object of the rule was effected. without much trouble. Indeed. eggshells carved and engraved with fancy views. and the men of taste of all Europe. and from Munich — — : . being excluded under its ordinarj. But it is not only to an exhibition of modern art of all nations that we should have The vast avenues of the Crystal looked as the means of educating the public taste. an exhibition of the highest interest and utility. arranged in order of schools. from Milan. fresco. Palace. we are convinced. upon glass from Berlin and other parts of Germany . and fancy stationery houses and gardens. Avould liave afforded an admirable oi)portunity for forming an exhibition of bygoue art. and how their example was followed by wealthy public companies." the very existence of such a compartment was a mockery when coupled with the announcement that— Oil paintings and watercolour paintings. true that this regulation was not very clearly worded. have been prepared for the purpose. see the shifts which poor Art. from France. card models of wax flowers. managed to represent itself in the Great Congress of Industry. opportunity. which. has never yet been carried into cft'ect. had the opportunity been afforded." had been declared inadmissible in their general sense that is.158 THE GREAT EXHIBITION the strong arm of criticism and the loud voice of popular condemnation will do the rest.forms. each anxious to contribute their or his mite to the general splendour. a positive blot upon the otherwise And it was really curious to fair face of the Great Industrial Exhibition of all Nations. would have thanked them for helping to make up a show of precious worth and enduring interest. and the men of art. than a " jewelled hawk" or a necklace once the property of the poor King of Kandy . it was denied us Palace was named the " Fine Arts Court. from Vienna. seeing the alacrity with which foreign potentates. to enhance the attraction of the Exhibition. from the nature of circumstances. upon porcelain. including brickcoloured and by no means delicately treated nymphs of heavy proportions. we cannot entertain a doubt. the recollection of which would have served to light their paths during a life of toil and study in the pursuit of excellence and beauty in art. and engraving. and our own most gracious sovereign and her consort freely sent in the costliest articles of jewellery and vertu in their possession. except as illustrations or examples of materials and processes employed. and the Fine Arts' Court was crowded with very ordinary terra cotta casts. and for which the spacious resources of the World's Fair in Hyde-park afforded the first. and what inconsistencies and waste Although " oil painting and water-colour painting. several publishing houses who managed to gain admission for a vai'iety of engravings and water-coloured drawings. frescoes. we coidd mention as all ill-advised and purposeless laws generally may be. upon tin from Wirtemburg . drawings. neither were portrait busts It is to be admitted . but who. which might. wax models. such an exhibition. It is useless to enlarge upon the practical advantages and the intellectual charm of and although a department in the Crystal such an exhibition . and every conceivable absurd toy which could enter into the conception of a boarding-school miss. dolls dressed in court and other costume. — — . and no single artist was allowed to exhibit more than three works. were not to be admitted. Then we had mosaics from Rome not a few. upon plate-iron from Thuringia. would have been far more proud to have shown a Raffaelle or a Rembrandt. models in paper. in their best and noblest performances the pictorial genius of Europe manifested itself abundantly on all sides in almost every conceivable material but the prohibited canvass. and the public the more intellectual portion of it would have been much more obliged to them for such contributions. as far as it went. and beautiful of their kind . we trust not Of the forthcoming of the necessary materials for furnishing the last. from Dresden. drawing. uicknackeries in colour-printing. models in willow-wood. of space this led to. and that it might have been evaded. by noblemen and private gentlemen.

was also admitted. and in their process of working had something in couimon with poker drawings. and accordingly we found whole shop-loads of them in various styles in difl'ercnt parts of the building." "The Marriage of her iMajesty. As to the prohibition of engravings. The latter productions were somewhat similar in appearance to old sci)ia drawings. John the Baptist. Haslcni and Mr. as. though of this there is some doubt. [Marshall and Mr. according to the shade required. here and there. two of Concannon's new method of aerial tinting by calcined colours.OF THE WOULD'S INIjUSTUY. . by the Rev. going below where the burning extends for the absolute lights whereas " poker drawings" are burnt on the surface of white wood. that the former were cut from the surface of hard and white wood." &c. Essex showed " aa extensive collection of enamel paintings." small picture ("the Origin of the Quarrel of the Guelphs and the Ghibellines"). and that amateurs might all be artists. the lights being left and the shades burnt in." or charred wood engraving. and some other gaudier displays of colours. not as a specimen of art. Besides this. ]\Ltchell. Bone had some enamel pictures in gold many of them royal portraits. J. and which were entitled to rank in a higher category than the contrivances named at the close of the i)reecding paragraph. W. which. Beneath these." copies from works in royal and noble collections. by the way. we were startled. executed upon wood covered with mortar. One of Mr. and some designs in the crayons and chalks of some other manufacturer. and some specimens of the art of "xulopyrography. and Mr. was long supposed to liave been the inventor of the last-named process. only left upon the mind of the spectator a feeling of disappointment and iiritation." upon wood. but of Rowney's silica colours. The other specimen by this exhibitor was taken from Uwin's "Chapeau de Brigand" (in the Vernon collection. Rowney. and other implements necessary for using them and so complete and instructive was this exposition of art requirements considered by ]\lr." after Spagnoletti. "The Homage at tlio Coronation. palettes. hut their reception in his case may. Ijc explained h}' the announcement that the ivory in these works was "joined together by a process of liis own invention. . 11. in human hair. others copies from old masters. we had one or two other specimens of a like kind. others loose. Mitchell's specimens was taken from a rare mczzotinto engraving by Prince Rupert. were ranged the brushes. In addition. one of the exhibitors. for instance. " a process intended as a substitntc for the (|)rohil)itccl) fresco-painting." Sir ^^ illi:ini Newton was allowed wall-room fur several pictures upon ivory. wc had a loi) collection of " stercochromic" pictures.'liristening of the Prince of Wales. and exhibited for a like purpose . by F. which had been previously completely charred over. or engravings. in crajjc. whilst High Art was rigorously excluded. in which it was painted." the " (. who." Mr." in the midst of his compartment. it was imi)ossible to carry it out. Pickersgill. with some wonderful imitations of engravings. Jn Mr. A. the most important of which was after llafi'aelle's cartoon of " St.R. wc think. T.A. whose name we have forgotten. we may refer to some "poker drawings. if they pleased to lay in a stock of the necessary materials. three or more of his works in this line. The diti'crence between charred wood carvings. exhibited by Lieutenant C. the lights and shadows being cfl'ected by scraping gradually away the black surface to the necessary depth. that he placed a little plaster group. C.. The subject was "The Execution of St. as soon as the first impulse of curiosity was over. and pen and ink drawings. Ackermann's department we were agreeably struck with a very elegant colour-box. it being probable that he learnt the art from Colonel Louis ^'on Siegan. Lieutenant Marshall exhibited. Paul Preaching. entitled " Letting the Cat out of the Bag. Whilst upon the subject of simulative processes. as much as to say that the mysteries of the craft existed no longer. representing. and the said " pokev drawings" was. perhaps. &c. Little Art was greatly favoured. — : : A . made of papier mache. Calvert. some framed. In short. in silk. rainbow or prism fashion.

tlie appearance of a numerous list of exhibitors from any one country might have been reasonably taken as a gratifying evidence of the interest and activity awakened there by the invitation to co-operate in a display of the works of universal industry. and corresponded with its subdivision among more or less numerous hands in comparison with its total extent. Such a condition of the manufacture may be best adapted to tlie supply of the particular demand for which it exists. furnished a proportion amounting to not less than forty-five per cent. Sweden and Norway in nearl}' the same proportion. of one kind of manufactured article. and of an active desire to share in its honours. indications of the peculiar condition and habits of the people whence they came. ZoUverein States of Germany furnished about eight per cent. The above CHAPTER CUTLERY—J'i-om llie XXII. whose of the entire sum. VARIOUS CONTRIBUTIONS ENGLAKD rRANCE BELGIUM THE ZOLLVEEEIN AUSTEIA RrSSIA SWITZERLAND SUPERIORITY OF ENGLAND— SHEFPIELD CUTLERY INDIAN TOOLS SPAIN PORTUGAL TURKEY EGYPT TUNIS CHINA AMERICA. even apart from such considerations. as regards the late Exhbition. In England. as well as of their natural or acquired advantages. The second place was occupied by Austria. interesting in more than one point of view. though some of these national collections. together with abundant facilities A We . we found by the catalogue.160 THE GREAT EXHIBITION flying notes. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — It appeared. that there were. In Austria.. however confined to few individuals. The characteristics of the different national collections were. Juries' Report. and we might. however. of their social and industrial wants and aiius. as was to be expected. as future unimportant in themselves. of the whole list: and among these were to be found many contributors. It is probable that. they might have shown the character and nature of the manufacture as carried on in these different states. perhaps venture to infer that the high number of these. that the collections specified as assignable to each exhibitor consisted. or of the value of their contributions. very unequally. that its share in the total display of these articles was much larger than the above numbers would imply. scarcely any of more than two or three. for the most part. as compared with some departments where they were individually more comprehensive. After her the exhibitors constituted twenty-seven per cent. and. according to the information laid before the jury. The United Kingdom. among twenty-two of the geographical divisions contained in the official catalogue. on so extensive and varied a scale. altogether.. in various instances. in some degree. therefore. detected. thougli da}'. distributed. about 368 exhibitors in this class. may be interesting some affording a notion of the position held by the Fine Arts in the Great Exhibition of Industry of All Nations of 1851. the close proximity of coal and iron. contained obieets well worthy of attention. But this is not to be considered as a disparagement to their contributions. These results must not be taken as any certain indication of the comparative proficiency of the respective countries in the production of commodities of this kind. for instance. France about three per cent. very small number of exhibitors from the remaining countries completed the list. arose from a verydifferent distributiou of capital among their separate establishments in this branch of industry.

of her contributions. In France. we found that articles in the class of cutlery and edge-tools had been sent from a great variety of places. The authority of (Chaucer assures us that. some formidable rivals. though the general statement must now admit of moditication. and Limerick.. in a marked manner. But in other countries. the simplest wants of a primitive provincial population. From the Zollverein states. where the occupation of the population is an incessant war upon the forest. while in the United States and Canada. From Austria. Sheffield.s description. In England. could compare with Sheffield its most ancient home. within their respective sphere. sickles. and her ancient practice of forging them for the supply of all markets. it was observed that the coUeetiou consisted cliieHy of scythes. to the production of those particular articles more especially called for by their individual position or exigencies. from Glasgow aud Edinburgh. as well as c. gave. VOL. which were formerly in great part derived from importation. at an early epoch. and the simpler implements of husbandry. which comprised specimens of almost every coueeivable article of thi. she retained to a very remarkable degree in the late exhibition . One of the chief objects of the German Customs' Union. it is evident that the energies of their artizans have been directed. which for extent. the traditional manufacture of fine watch-work renders delicate files a matter of primary necessity. has been to encourage the supply from their own workshops of those commodities of general and ordinary use. Clonmel. to this branch of \ts manufactures. We here found every article. Birmingham. iu the foui'tecntli century. and from the finest saw or file to the most ordinary chisel displayed with various degrees of merit. but with a large proportion of the highest. and. from the most exquisite razor down to the plainest pocket-knife. IGl for converting the latter iuto steel. accordingly. in Ireland. the long-established trade of this country in steel goods of every description. a council medal. Still. then. together with some few objects of the plainer kind for certain foreign markets. The Belgian collection was distinguished by " spiral cutters" of superior quality. in certain branches of the manufacture. productions. aud a few other towns of less note. for one remarkable object. II. we of course found a very miscellaneous but it displayed. the manufacture of axes and woodmen's implements assumes an importance which has raised them to the highest perfection. by a natural consequence. were shown in the great variety.\ccllence. In Switzerland. the blades of 'J'olcdo and Damascus were scarcely more valued than the more homely cutlery of England. but chiefly from the former. a predominance of these among the better articles in that department. and it would be untrue and unfair to make it without adding. Messrs. remarkable energy and injportanoe. First. Warrington. it is true. Among these seats of the manufacture there Mas none.es.OK THE WOULIJ'S INJ)US1KY. the " Shcflield whittle" was an article of choice estimation. the jury had no hesitation in pronouncing. as might naturally be expected. From this collection. the jury thought themselves justified in awarding. 2 T . in Scotland. advisable to add some more precise notices of the peculiar contents of each national collection . therefore. Stourbridge. aud excellence of collection. and there was. we found a mixed collection of that character. and for this purpose it will be most convenient to take the two great divisions iu the order adopted in the official catalogue. This pre-eminence. with respect to the United Kingdom. where the mines and manufactures are in the immediate neighbourhood of a large agricultural and pastoral population. indicating on the one collection hand the highest scale of social civilization and of manufacturing skill in certain spheres and localities. where the manufacture lias been of more recent growth. fur instance. and from Cork. — — . variety. and. from Loudon. required in the finishing of the woollen fabrics for which that country has long been famous. Its steel wares had a wide-spread reputation even in the middle a. on the other. that she had. and which renBut it appears dered this class the most perfect part of the transatlantic exhibition.

Durham. on a more limited scale than that from Sheffield . hard and soft. and sparingly from scythes and files from Stourbridge and Wai-rington . though it has been established also. Mr. combined with the utmost strength and efficiency of material. far surpassed any other objects of the same class. the latter for the finer operations of the watchmaker whicii. almost every variety of displayed the choicest proexcellence. . Turton and Sons. distinction. and INIessrs. and comprising. . of the large size of five feet diameter. and of cast steel and iron. as heretofore. in the same article. a and of such signal beauty and perfection. in some other quarters. There were two other contributions to which the jury would have felt themselves upon to award a similar honour. if they had been at liberty to regard singular excellence of workmanship and quality as of itself a sufficient title. the silk and some other trades from London to called — — — — . which were manufactured with much skill. would have been considered by his colleagues deserving of a prize medal. among an assortment of edge-tools of great excellence. Stubbs. The attention of the jury was particularly called to one novelty exhibited by Messrs. of Sheffield. The contribution from London was. which latter place Scotland furnished the beautiful collection of watch-files by Messrs. however. On the whole. Among the exhibitors from London. Manufacturing tools were suppUed largely from Birmingham. having carefully examined these specimens. but there were a few articles contributed by individual manufacturers from other places.ange of circumstances which has extent. Messrs. to a Inuitcd The same gradual ch.163 THE GKEAT EXHIBITION Spear and Jacksou exhibited. it appeared that the British manufacture of cutlery remains still. The finer descriptions of cutlery were nearly confined. The mere excellence of its quality and workmanship. the methods of cementing which have been long known and practised. the one for large dimensions. of course. Blake and Parkin. of Sheffield. and they therefore considered them justly entitled to the highest mark of cast-steel circular saw. were still of considerable excellence. each displayed a complete assortment of files of various sizes the former for ordinary manufacturing purposes. would not. already mentioned. in a great degree. and there were some also furnished from Ireland and Scotland. They would have deserved the highest assignable reward in respect of these points of merit. from the information they received. if his consent to act as a juior had not disqualified him from accepting it. though not equal to the best from the chief seats of the manufacture. others limited. that mechanical ingenuity of a novel and special character had been employed by these manufacturers for the production of such articles. of Warrington. but of marked merit throughout ductions in the most finished cutlery. were awarded to them in common with a number of associates not wnworthy of their company. have enabled them to distinguish it by a council medal. and the finest mechanical tools. and the other for minute delicacy. consisting of the union of two qualities of cast steel. if they had not been able to satisfy themselves that its merit was the result of a new and peculiar process of manufacture. It will be found that the list of these contains a series of names of which many are of high note in the estimation of the public. mainly seated at Sheffield. of Oxford-street. and contained articles of high merit in this class. to the Sheffield and London departments . Stubbs. and whose contributions some extensive. iu England. whose names may be found in the award list. that it stood far above comparison with any other in the building. but it consisted of that superior order of cutlery for which the metropolis has a long-established reputation. which. however. operated to transfer. iu a high degree. without which they could not liave been carried to equal perfection. they saw no reason to doubt that the process was peculiar to the exhibitors but they could not satisfy themselves that it involved any clear advantage over the combinations of cast and bar steel. the jury declared. But they entertained no doubt. Prize medals.

and Tunis. China. The greater portion appeared to be supplied from Paris but tb. naturally suggested by the position and relations of its different members. and in some instances of superior quality. properly so called. however. consisting entirely of axes and tools. taste. and of so limited an application. 5. whose productions come next under notice. that they can scarcely be considered as ijriugIt is not so with the ing into play any principle of general competition or comparison. Articles of this kind. Kussia. not newly-peopled. 8. of a peculiar and distinctive character. with various degrees of excellence. They will be found to extend. Extending our survey beyond the limits of the United Kingdom. In this division there were some from the vast territories of the East India Company. there were contributions from dependencies highest importance. Spain and Portugal. France. From France there was an extensive assortment. still retains its footing there. chiefly directed to the production of the liigher order of On the other hand. 6. exhibitors might have been classed under certain great subdivisions. 1. and proving the skill and power of her artisans to supply those particular articles to which her physical exigencies give the On the other hand. . a manufacture of this kind could have attained any considerable growth or perfection. also. and which present such rare examples of ingenuity. and sustains its reputation. Belgium. The United States of America. the former especially of excellent quality. though the greater progress and development of some few have enabled them to meet their peculiar local exigencies with considerable success. 163 the provinces. it was found iliat these presented aspects so very different. We . and having their own established and highest order of manual dexterity.erc were a few exhibitors also from communities. : . which and a small contribution from Jersey. of cutlery made of Nova Scotia the uses of that country Both were creditalilc to these colonies steel. which are to be considered in a very dill'ercnt light. 3. by the missionary station at (juathcndal. 7. that certain distinctions were indispensable. WORLD'S INDUSTRY. to complete the distribution over the remainder of tiie world. and necessary to the clearness and convenience of the survey.— — OF TIIK. while from Canada (West) there was a larger assortment. Sweden. 4. its foreign some. found in this category a small contribution from the Cape of Good Hope. and Norway. 9. in Bengal. and to include Looking first to Europe. such as tools and mechanical implements. but ancient . foreign neighbours of Great Britain. are of so peculiar a nature. Austria and the southern states of Germany. through all the class of commodities which proceed from the workshops of the United Kingdom. has had the effect of withdrawing much of tliis IjiMiich of industry from the capital tliough a portion. from INIoorshedabad. It is not to be expected that in infant communities. articles. which in general character was very good. Egypt. pursuits. with reference to a proper estimate of their position as exhibitors. Denmark. variously advanced in characteristic industrial civilisation. the manufacture of the coarser goods. I. and skill. a set of the implements cm[)loyed by the native artificers in carving the beautiful ivory articles which have so long been admired in the western world. is now extensively shared by several localities which afford the requisite facilities for its successful prosecution. and among them were found. The Indian department well deserved notice contained various Hindoo and Malay tools for the use of carpenters and workers in metals. ranging from the finest ornamental cutlery down to the rudest and cheapest articles for domestic use. consisting of various forms of knives adapted to and from Nova Scotia another. though manufactured in Shefiicld. Thus the several national departments contained in the total list might have been advantageously connected as follows 2. and Switzerland. such as most of the colonies. often of the . Turkey. The ZoUverein and northern states. and where the various other forms of industry which surround it create a continued demand for its productions. from its provinces to its dependencies.

164 THE GKEAT EXHIBITION the provinces from Moulias (an ancient seat of this manufacture). From Switzerland. and. and which has been long successfully pursued in that country. and mounted with much costly ornament. . from the southern provinces of Austria. very difficult to forge. we may mention particularly the samples of " web-saws. well finished (especially From Austria the in the Saxon portion). and was stated to be exhibited. also of considerable merit as to workmanship. and tableknives. or about one halfpenny In France. after a careful trial. The articles were very deficient in merit of any other kind. said to other grounds. 2. and are therefore in general use among the poorer classes. scissors. and from places in the districts bordering on the Rhine. Belgium. as the jury had the means of giving to this point. with such materials. to a collection of articles. to be not quite perfect as to the quality of the steel. and of hunting-knives. On the other hand. but of metal so soft and inferior. and Switzerland. but the assortments of files and other such objects from Austria were indifferent. Of the sub-divisiou of states. at least. indeed. many of them not even being of steel. principally of the table kind. as a curious price. peculiar uses for which the production is designed. and assortments of files. pen-knives. worked thin. rough turned cylindrical handle of wood. to a considerable extent. and of small files The former were of fair quality. be in very universal use amongst the peasantry of France. from St. "ledger blades. Wurtemberg. and with a concave surface. many of which were very highly finished and elaborately ornamented. superior to anything of the same description Belgium supplied cutlery. in a great measure. which. though found. though they could uot be pronounced equal to the best English. however. exhibited specimens of general knife cutlery. they concluded that the price was uot below what goods of the same quality might be produced for in other countries. the articles consisted mainly of razors. one description of article deserving of notice. was well finished. and not. showing high proficiency in this branch of the manufacture. example of the modification which all tests of merit must undergo when judged by the We allude to assortments of sc\ thes. folding into an equally other purposes. which we have placed next in order. apparently. the best specimens were those of razors. however. and Saxony. very low in There was here." and "spiral cutters. and seems likely to continue to do so. The cutlery. It is obvious that. we found that the two latter. improvement was. of the jury was called. After such consideration. their utility must be very limited . chiefly the produce of Styria. the manufacture of cutlery and edge-tools has greatly improved. These remarks apply in a great measure to the tools and implements in this department. in the French department. together with files. Etienne. but they are sold for five centimes. contained in the English collection. files. In cutlery. as examples of remarkable cheapness. of the most delicate workmanship. and therefore requiring much skill in the workmanship. which they would uot have deemed worthy of mention on any These were a certain description of extremely rude pocket-knife. each. the cutlery from that country was of a very ordinary description. the same Including therein Austria. but the metal was somewhat The same must be said of the scythes and soft. the latter adapted to the use of the watchmaker. as an example of cheapness. There were some from Wurtemberg of fair quality . and unequal to the workmanship. These last articles are portions of the scythes. and well suited to the trade for Avhich they were The attention designed. display was not of so high a class . oliservcd. and were of a high degree of merit." which were of the very highest class." machinery used in the dressing of cloth. and dis- — Among the tools and implements were to be found a very excellent circular saw. were of very good quality. that they would not have been considered worthy of any notice were plaj-ed great skill as well as superior quality. for cutting their provisions and They are formed of a rough blade of soft iron.

muehj though highly finished." which is of such quality as to suffice for the purpose to which it was here applied. The former commodities were not good of their kiiul. From Spain and Portugal bited only an assortment of files . he beats it out in a few moments to its orij^inal form . 2 u vol. whicli could not be ranked very high. The in Northern Germany. Mecklenburg some razors. 6." designed for fishing by the natives in the South American rivers. thoii. 5. who mow all crops. becomes an csseutinl property. Sweden. and whenever the hlade has so far lost its shape as to need renewal. spring-knives. to satisfy themselves entirely as to the real quality of the metal. assisted by the judgment of Mr. chiefly from Sohngcn in AVest Prussia. Ragg. from Plaecnzia. which deserved notice as of superior manufacture.h it its work Ijctter where niiinipeded. woidd l)e lial)le to constant injury. and made to fit within each other they The collections : of manufacture. vcrj' of repair. as the raw material of the finest steel and of the most finished cutlery. and ada|)ted for their markets. The collection consisted of some From Denmark there razors.. though There was an assortment of there were certain " web-saws" which evinced higher skill. whether of {rraiu or other kiiuls. but there were also certain "spear knives. together witii a small collection of tools. in most cases considered wholly inconsistent with excellence in this branch of manufacture. and those from IMecklenburg apparently very high in price." consisting of pruning-knives and seissors^ probably adapted to the vine cultivation. and difficult the best. there was a eoilcction of articles of almost every description. and other cutlery tools of an ordinary kind. but of no apparent utility. 3.e. large proportion to the extent of the contributions. and Norway were small. under such eireiinistan<-es . although the material from which they were said to be manufactured had been examined by j\Ir. by him to be 4. a set of files. with a fine cfl(. it 1C5 not that tlicy arc so made purposely to suit llic particular liahits of an agricultural population. from Denmark. b\it the jury were unable. was one singular article. scissors. and some scythes of the same kind as those whose peculiarities were The Russian implements of this description were described in the Austrian department. The former exhithe contributions were very small. after much attention to the point. A scythe of hard steel. indicating establishments on a very limited scale . steel. From the States of the Zollvcrein. of very fair quality .OF THE -WORLD'S INDUSTRY. some "agricultural implements. and from Hamburg and Mcekleuburg-Sehwerin. Of the three contributions from Russia. it docs not appear that the manufacture itself has made any great advance. Of the cutlery from the ZoUverein. and to save the manufacturer the cost and labour of the converting process. consisting of table and pocket knives in considerable variety . and although Sweden has long produced the most valuable iron. Among the tools the same character prevailed as in the cutlery. in stones. u. the other two were from imperial establishments. an experienced workman. The former contributed a varied assortment of cutlery of all kinds. hollowed. and contained little From the two latter countries the number of exhibitors bore a that required notice. and was pronounced niii^ht perform diiilcult . llcnry.. one only was from a private individual. and of fair quality . were curious. close to the surface of a soil fjencrally ahouiuliiip. Tlie lahourer carries with him a small hammer. ship of these scissors appeared to be fair. and two latter States eontril)utcd only on a limited scale Hamburg also. hence the softness of the metal. was of an ordinary description. whereas these Tyrolesc or Styriaii scythes yield at onec to the l)lows which they receive upon their ed^^e. thereby enabling him to produce such goods at The workmana price much lower than woidd be profitable with the ordinary methods. the latter. the latter some tools. but of little merit as manufactured goods. of fair quality. worthy of attention as being manufactured in great numbers from an ore producing a " natural steel.

They were admirably finished. They were well finished. and it cannot. were excellent. no doubt. The knives had blades of Damascus steel . appeared roughest workmanship. 2i-in. the scissors were of a singular form. such as scythes and axes. From China there were only a very few articles instrument. be ill-adapted to its object. to whicli nothing of the kind could be superior. they have left nothing unmentioned of any note or merit. therefore. if not. a collection which. but mainly of assortments of the larger edge-tools and implements. With respect to the other articles. and other objects of that natui'c. The former were finished with great care. they were. and even the surface of the metal displayed none of the finish which was so diligentl}^ bestowed on many Chinese productious . and was used as a razor for shaving a part of the head. It consisted of a few articles of the finer cutlery. and well deserved notice. but one of them was a singular 8. One or two articles contained in the list furnished by the Egyptian government. thick. were so made for any special purpose. in its own neighbourhood. and must have required much skill aud great labour in their fabrication. . which. . Lastly. . rendering their cost high . however. the trade which was to supply it. but well made. The jury believe. the opposite hemisphere supplied. and their temper was wanting in the hardness proper to the best cutlery. surpassed its appearance. and a few pairs of Tunisian scissors of the Turkey. and decorated with much costly ornament. It was a small blade of a triangular form. perhaps. they involve considerable waste of toil and skill. and Tunis. witli articles of greater interest. the case was different. Of tlie three States in the next division. according to general practice among the Chinese. though few in number. and the same might be said of the scythes. There was a set of joiner's tools. and at the same time displayed all those more valuable qualities which are the necessary conditions aud evidence of perfection in such commodities. wide. the two latter were only slender contributors in this class. and was strongly characteristic of the natural and social exigencies of the people from whom it came. Good as tliese productions were. 9. They were so fashioned that each blade was half of a hollow cone. constituted the entire collections. and the two therefore produced an entire cone when closed. It was evident that the great prevailing want of the population had created and encouraged to perfection. though not very extensive^ contained some signal proofs of proficiency in such manufactures. which were of the best quality. Ij-in. and j-in. from the United States of America. that in the above general survey of the contributions presented by this class of the Exhibition. such as scissors and hunting-knives. but It was not stated that they it did not appear that they possessed any superior utility. of a very rude description. as characteristic of the people from whose workshops it proceeded. aud should be noticed. The sides of each of these halves formed the cutting edges. however. It is not easy for us to comprehend how the operation can be successfully performed with such an implement but it is said to be in common use among the natives. long. to European eyes. folding upon a slender wooden cylindrical handle. few in number. and to effect its purpose in their hands with the utmost nicety and dispatch. Egypt. surpassed by the axes. The workmanship was. and. Turkey. but the jury could not pronounce them to be of tlie first degree of excellence in workmanship. and its quality.166 'I'HE GREAT EXHIBn'IOX 7. but the edge it carried was certainly good.

vras trated in the (ircat Industrial Exhibition of ISoi. formed of the union of those two metals. the enormous cannon exhibited by the Low ^loor ironworks. and. stoves. The wire was next seen cut into the required lengths. etc. In order to produce the head. now very general. next to these there was a block of brass. exhibiting in the north transept gallery and it was a matter of regret that in the machinery department none of the mechanism by which pins are made was exhilnted. SHEFFIELD MAN"tuopuy oas bubneiis. an operation which adds greatly to their finished appearance. o'FAOTniEs limits assigned to tlic display of articles of EDDFLSTOX AND WILLIAMS — KinilV. and the end of the wire projecting beyond the length of the mould. Beard. Eddelston and Williams. Even during the last ^twenty years the improvements have been very considerable.S. XXIII. for the present we shall commence with the apparently insignificant article of " pins.. ETC. Eddelston and Co. — nniLLiANT ELECTnO-PLATINQ — METALLIC PENS — HUTTONS. OOODMAN. — Eddelston and Williams. in the form of " pin blanks" afterwards "pointed" and "headed" and finally. and shaped into the form required for the head. in the description of the various modes of manufacture. exhibited a series of examples. as "ex pede Ilerculem" is our motto. the silvered or finished pin. 167 CHAPTER P1X. Kirby. and fastened to it The iueonvenienee which resulted from the heads becoming by blows of the hammer. The heads arc afterwards burnished. These blocks were then shown cut into smaller flat strips then partially drawn and finally drawn out into different thicknesses of wire. out of one solid piece of wire. Taylor and Co. In the Birmingham compartment there were but two Messrs. and Co. cinbraeing the .limited. and Mr. Previously to that time the head of the pin consisted of a spiral ring of wire. and was patented bv them. had we time for entering minutely into the subject. when wooden skewers formed an indispensable adjunct to her Majesty's toilet table. The wire thus cut passes into a mould of the exact length of the pin. Goodman IMcssrs. •we cannot avoid being struck with the immense advance which must have been made since the time of Queen Elizabeth. By means of this instrument or machine the pin was formed. We first saw a small ij'ock of copper and one of spelter. . Messrs. IlEAUD AM) CO. and the no less various uses of the numerous articles that were ranged under the title of this chapter? We shall briefly notice a few of the most serviceable appliances to the requirements of civilised man. The solid-headed pin was invented by Messrs. loose led to the adoption of a plan. but the patent has now expired. HARDWARE. about twenty years since. The finished pins we observed were most . The number of exhibitors of pins vcrj.n. were also shov. to the monster engine of destruction. complete with the head and shaft.— UF TllK WOIILD'S INDUSTllY. for making pins with solid heads. etc. — — — — hardware were necessarily occupied by an most minute as well as the most gii^antic of mannfaetmvd articles iVoni the delicately formed tiny ribbon pin. : — — — . instead of by the old process of the wire heads. is by a sharp blow flattened. A pair of dies and a punch. placed upon the shank or shaft of the pin. What wonders might there not be revealed. — spniNo knives." as illusextensive The and miscellaneous collection. After examining the finish and form of the pins in the coUeetiou of Messrs. the shaft of the pin is cut a trifle longer than the finished pin is required to be made. showing the various processes which a pin undergoes in its proifress towards completion. to the ponderous and unwieldy anchor from the commonest implement of domestic utility. used in forming the head of the pin.

with a hole iu the centre and secured Samples of iron wire in hanks with a coating of copper. of M^rouvel.000 weigh only one pound. and ^Ir. of which some tons weight are annually made by Messrs." and with various In the other decorations produced in steel beads. sented by M. Some idea may be formed from these figures. and Co." and " milliners' " pins. Eddelston they are formed. cimens. which. were also shown in The smoothness of the wire. have since constructed a machine. Chambers and j\Ir. they would be 787. more than three times that which could be produced by the same number of workmen only a few years since. case itself were shown the pins in various stages of progress. of Cologne. Upwards of 150 tons weight of copper and spelter are annually worked up into pins by this one Birmingham house alone. in this branch of manufacture. or about 100 to each inhabitant of the globe. that although so vastly superior to the old-fashioned pin. as showing what minute specimens may be produced by They are made of much finer wire than the ordinary pin. of Birming- ham. highly approved of by the fair sex. by which they are enabled to stick the pins upon the papers upon which they are sold. they are produced at a considerably less price. and M. half an inch in length. M. in consequence of the great perfection of the machinery employed. machines have recently been constructed by the firm. or sufficient to extend upwards of thirty times round the globe. fact. Goodman. France. also exhibited a variety of pins. logists was worthy of attention. of Redditch. used for sticking pins in circular tablets. each of which is capable of pointing pins at the rate of upwards These and various other improvements in the process of of six hundred per minute. were well-finished speIn the machinery department was shown an ingenious and interesting machine. Eddelston. In connection with the manufacture of the solid-headed pins it is a curious surprising. and its fineness and elasticity. If placed in a straight line. Struntz. the back of which was ornamented with the words " Peace and Industry. or more than three times the distance of the moon from the earth. it would produce the enormous number of 100. in conscquence of the improved machineiy. may add that Messrs. and ribbon pin. made an interesting display of pins in their stand . The collection of insect pins used by entomoof which 300. of Vienna. and a large assortment of " toilet. Beard.168 tastefully THE GREAT EXHIBITION arranged around a centre. lies. Eddelston and Co. vmanswerable than that of "What becomes of all the pins made?" Messrs." " ribbon. were also shown in to the shaft. Were the whole of the metal which is worked up during the year." "jet. are certainly most their case. Yantillard. converted into ribbon-pins. closely imitating the heads of pins. Birmingham. The pin manufacture of Austria was reprethe neighbourhood of the finished article.000. vary in length from two to three inches to a size considerably smaller than the tiny Some smooth elastic hair pins. James.000. by Mr.500 miles in length. and which performs its work with marvellous rapidity and accuracy. we can scarcely conceive any q. of three inclies in lengths to the smallest ribbon pin used by the ribbon manufacturers. iu the ZoUverein division. and the number of pins made by them is.uestion more completely formed from it. tinned by a process recently patented both in France and England. Reineker.800. cast in the same mode as shot. so far as we were enabled to judge of them in the case. a large number of the pins manufactured being sold at not more than twopence per pound over the cost of the metal of which Upwards of 200 hands are constantly employed by Messrs. from tlie large blanket-pin." " hatters'. in this one manufactory. Mr. Kirby. In addition to the improvements made in the heads. of Bardesley Works. enable the makers to sell the great majority of the pins at the merest trifle manufacture over and above the cost of the raw metal . and the aid of machinery. We : . but of the astonishing consumption of the articles Indeed. being of all sizes. not only of the extraordinary malleability of the metal. showed some specimens of iron pins. showed several varieties of pins some with composition metal heads.

a group of surgeon's scissors. covered up. in the centre was wrought out with the file the Prince of AV'ales's feathers. Turner and Co. cooking and gas. the whole cased with iron an open fire warms the fire-bricks. a small lever and simple valve. Among with the file. rose. and in a piston-rod. One pair represented. illustrated steel manufacture from Swedish bar-iron."*' retincd state of the metal in the varieties of "cemented blister. ornamented with etching.'. and the core within of steel. Among the gas-burners exhibited was the self-regulating apparatus." " double-refined east/' " double-shear. sent a saucepan with a false bottom. Another striking feature was the variety of stoves . and distorted for difficult operations a sportsman's knife. smoke-curing. in chasing. the finest and largest piece of steel in the J'^xhibition... &c. the operation was performed by forty work-people. who had great faith in a new name. 2 X : — : . One exhibitor. made of fire-clay in pieces. intended for one of a pair of [lislon-rods for a marine engine. and the bow was the shamrock. containing eighty blades.. each charged twice with 8()lb. with fifty-one blades and other instruments. upon which.. of every size and pattern. angular. the upper one surmounted by a thistle all the ornamental work was wrought with the tile. castiiif. Another assortment. that the exact amount of gas required to keep up uniformity of flame is preserved. were illustrated by spoeinicns in the Exhibition. displayed a pair of Albert venison-carvers. and tempering. On each side of this appeared another pair. Johnson. who introduced into the centre of the burner a vertical compound rod of about a quarter of an inch in diameter. register aud air. some portions This object was by far the most expensive pair of scissors of the surface being chased. It contained 230 pairs of scissors. and other instruments . grouped and mounted upon a white ground. The same firm contributed a steel ingot. (to the extent of many Sheffield Manufactures. and scrollwork— all wrought out ." the latter rewarded by a medal from the Society of Arts. curved. Cainmell and Co. 169 Tlie conversion of iron into steel. weight of steel. potatoes being placed. ." and their "continuous tooth concave and convex file. the bruising of the serpent's head.) la the principal manufacture of Sheffield and the several processes of ccnicntatiou. in its ten stages.. ibrwardc^d ijy Turton and Sou. weighing IG cwt. thousiind tons annually. OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTllY. in connection with the bottom of the rod. weighing upwards of 1 ton cwt. IMessrs. are acted upon so delicately. size. It consisted of the contents of 48 crucibles. By the expansion and contraction of this rod. of the Cyclo|)s Works. AVc must not. the cylindrical case being of brass. and the pouring of the melted liquid steel into the mould was aeeomplished by three men in eight minutes. by ]\Ir. twenty-two inches long. nearly the same ever produced in Sheflfield. through which are air-keys. which was arranged in a case in the western nave of the building. The careful finish of their work was also shown in their springs for railway carriages. the most striking specimens was a pair of 16-inch fancy nail-scissors. Dr. the passages between which arc connected VOL. the bows and shanks representing in outline two crowns . yet so small that they did not weigh half a grain. — — !• : Next was illustrated the scissors' manufacture. shearing. and a case containing twelve perfect pairs of scissors. from the imported iron up to the mo. the centre object being a pair of huge scissors." Their display of tools included their "curvilinear tanged file. omit to record a brilliant trophy of Sheffield cutlery. and thistle. Tlius Messrs. exhibited progressive specimens. however. Aruott's stoves and ventilating apparatus were exhibited with Pcirce's pyropneumatic stove. and set upon the fire. II." or " clastic sjiring. steam was generated. tilting. and thus the potatoes were cooked in the water they contained a contrivance called the Anhydrohepsctereoii. and scarcely less beautiful or costly. which is surrounded by the flame. blistcrin. with stag antlers and the Prince of AVales's sailor's knife. also one three-quarters of an inch long. heat-reflecting. PidJcll.

in a letter to the Times. Newall . patented a machine for making them London. but not The steel dies in which the silver mountings are struck. in fine. 4«. the two metals united form an ingot. Large black and red pens were made of steel early iu the present cenbut the extensive introduction of steel poiis dates from 1828. G. school. Gray also exhibited an ingot of copper. that the old and substantial method of plating on the ingot by fire is still employed in that town. within it is the gas fire. — — . . Gillott. Creswick. and rolled between metal cyhuders to the required thickness. which is subjected to rolling and hammering into form which test the electro process Billiter-square. ingots of copper and white metal after the silver plate has been united to them by an elevation of temperature only and a sheet of plated metal. when Mr. aud does not at all apply to plated manufacture. our ancestors. encaustic tiles. till both bodies are in a molten state. The plate of silver is tied upon its polished surface with wire. so far as manipulatiou and annealing is concerned. exhibited a series of articles illustrative of this mencing from the ingot and termiuatins in the finished ai'ticle. ] 70 THE GREAT EXHIBITION with a pipe leading to the external air. method of plating. Ilenn and Bradley flat chains with wooden keys. previous to this distinct branch of business. put into cast-iron boxes and softened by heat. were also shown . : . and the combined metals are then heated in a furnace. The ingot is — never subjects articles to. tlie mass thus becomes red hot. of Sheffield. candeentirely used in articles for the Loudon trade and in many cases such goods (made by the first class of the Sheffield manufaclabra. Slieffield Plating. into strips. together with the yet soldered. Edge. ]\Ir. the table-dish was exhibited iu its finished state. J. as well as a specimen of a salver likewise produced by this manufacturer. tea-sets. Perry. as well as for the heaviest railway purposes. or. is cut stages of the manufacture. so as to impart to it the necessary roughness and rigidity. and of Messrs. marble and alabaster that seven of these grates and six fenders had been designed by pupils of the government The fire-irons and fenders were also of corresponding elegance. 150 tons of steel are stated to be now annually made into pens and. being a Mr. for pianofortes. with a — . gold medallions and and we learn from Mr. Edwards's patent Atmopyre was shown it consists of a porcelain cliambcr . with the silver mountings laid upon it.. [id. rolled from a plated ingot. with the plate of silver tied upon it with wire . 500 hands are daily employed. wliich escapes through minute perforations . for collieries. A. The steel is then passed to a woman. &c. and us. After this process. Hunt's excellent Hand-Book. a " solid gas fire" cooking stove. comcomposed of copper alloyed with other metal. of turers) have stood the wear of from twenty to thirty years' use. and is almost such as dishes and covers. supplied a good assortment of their crown-tapered screws. mountings produced by them. John Gray. Several gas meters were also shown here. of of Birmingham. A steel pen is as great a wonder of the present day as a pin was to Metallic Pens. states. the first gross of three-slit pens was sold wholesale at the cheapest pens are now sold at twopence the gross. Mr. scrollwork. Soldering the silver upon any baser metal is only practised in making cutlery. . . process. and thus become most efteetually united. Here is an outline of the several The rolled sheet steel beiug received from Sheffield. who. as they are all coated after the goods are finished. tury and 1830. the gross. by ilr. added to their flexibility " by apertures between the shoulder and the point. of the most delicate structure. made from the rolled metal." About the vears 1820 and 1821. in one Birmingham establishment. in the words of the patentee. when Mr. A table-dish. and the price 71. the gross Nearly rises with the elasticity and finisli of the pen up to 3s. and a supply of fresh air is obtained from without. Tlie stovegrates tastefully displayed painted china and ormolu. There were several specimens of patent wire ropes exhibited by ]\Iessrs. when the warmed air rises into the apartments. . was the next in the series. Although the electro-plating process is extensively applied.

that they had it all cut off for them by the rabble. and in Hinckes and Co. was the not unbecoming garb of a gentleman. a hundred years ago. besought royalty to pity their They represented that the old button was very handsome. evaporated by heat. some tipped with iridium and osmium. the girl holding the pen with 'flic pens arc then slit with a tool very nippers for a moment on a revolving " bob. sands were reduced to poverty by the introduction of the new one . turned over a fire.^ them in a tin cylinder. Some manufacturer fault of the Birinvented or introduced a cheap .'s ease was a series of nut-shells.. but the Duke of Clarence. at right angles to each other. several of the ministers. Then came a very large button. and a good liand will cut 28.— OF THE WOHLD'S LNDUSTUY. going in their own natural hair. who went up to petition the throne. Armed with sets of beautiful bright buttons. or rather over each other. Tbe experiment was successful a reaction took jilace. which. and they therefore entreated the king (George IV. accepted the proH'cred buttons. cuts out at a single blow the future pen. and promised to wear them. varnisheil with lac dissolved in nnptha. : — . In an adjoining case.. of the waistcoat size. At the end of twenty-five years. the senii-pous arc tlicn softened by beat. Giland lastly. Buttons. were shown silver and gold pens. which made the great "hit" in the trade. In a glass ease. a gross. the discomfited makers forced their way to the foot of the throne. which makes tiiein very brittle bnt they are cleansed and restored to elasticity by placin. lott's specimens ranged from a monster pen.'}27 of the tiny ones the colouring of the metal was very rich. Agaiu we all came out glittering . too. of It was the size of half-a crown. which it req\iircd a microscope properly to appreciate.000 per day of ten hours. . and. article. against the but. or Florentine button its glories by means of a deputation which the trade despatched to London. Perry great finish. the hardest of known metals. a gross. The pens are a^ain heated. many members of the nobility.) to encourage the metal button trade by wearing that The same appeal was made to other influential persons and not only the king. in cans placed in a frame which revolves by steam. the Lord Mayor. 6rf. with ornamental devices on it. each containing an incredible number of infinitesimal pens of ilessrs. and other notables. also exhibited some fine specimens. Each pen is then ground at the back. and measuring one yard in length. in two ways. by Wiley and Co. so scanpractice of wearing one's own hair dalised the mob by their inconsistency. 171 hand-press. and that thoumisfortunes. " To midnight dances and . Messrs. like a coffee-roaster. l)y a die worked l)y the foot— are stamped with the maker's name. the gilt and plated button. weighing five pounds. and which is still manufactured at Is. the whole history of the manufacture was wonderfully told. as we well remember. went aside for a few seasons.?. the monster containing metal enough to make 1. Gd. Tliey are next examined and sorted . and then liy a niacbine pressed into a cylindricnl form. the public show. This button became immediately fashionable. and the dark button. turned by a handle. We — . with its seemly array of glittering brass buttons.01)2. and continued so Everybody must remember the days when the blue coat. it was pushed from its popularity by the but some years ago a dashing attempt was made to revive covered. the pens are next scoured with sawdust. The central hole and side slits are cut by another press. do not learn that they committed a similar inadventure to that of the poor wigmakers. The oldest of the Birmingham buttons seem to have been a plain flat button. tendering their article. some years previously." nicely fitted into a hand-press. but this was dear. was sold at '1. introduced between 1797 and 1800. for a quarter of a century." Rut the triumph was not long and that it was not longer was the mingham people themselves. and then thrown into oil. to a Lillip\itian weighing four grains.

000 people in Birming- A ham alone. The former are made of sheet glass. a disc of metal. and heated over an oven until the horn is as soft as wax. and cut into halves." the metal article is out of date. by people left off ordering brass buttons. and the edges are ground on a wheel. where the under surface is stamped with the maker's name. that "You ought to have seen Joe Munden. Munden. witness. and the sympathies But the charm would not work of the press were invoked by the metal buttonist. and who. the round and the knob-shaped. and fifth. which. third. The blanks are placed in vats containing a strong dye. green. must not forget glass buttons.. a somefourth. and which are also much in demand for exportation to the African chiefs. then " blanks" are punched out. they looked shabby in a fortniglit. except that the rough edges require paring. fitting close to the lower mould. twice. worked by steam. There are still many other kinds of buttons to be noted. second. — . which gives the shape to the button . a disc of metal. This discovery perhaps it is refining too much to suppose that it was introduced by a friend to the Florentine button fatally and finally damaged the metallic cause. and submitted to its action. made from the hoofs of horned cattle those of horses are not The hoofs are boiled until soft. casting discredit upon the whole manufacture and by ]840 the trade was again ruined. second attempt at obtaining illustrious intervention was made Prince Albert was assailed by a deputation." It made the buttons look remarkably brilliant for a very little while. in a character like this. a disc of coarse black what smaller disc of brown pasteboard or wadding linen or calico . and the shank is next fixed in. is superintendence brought under a press. the buttons are complete. dozen moulds are put into an iron box. and it derives its name from the Florentine cloth first. was an actor. which is cut by hand into small squares. of various colours. the cover of Florentine with which it is covered. We . then run over and polish the buttons. and form a shank of the button." Except the buttons required for the military and naval services. is sure to growl out the unreasonable intimation. Brushes. sir. so that the cloth or calico above may slightly protrude. I'oung girls cut the various discs with a punching machine. and you never see a gilt button now except upon the terribly high-collared coat of some terribly devoted adherent to old fashions. or black. even before the retailers could sell them and if placed in all their brightness on a new coat. sir. and for " Jeames. The shank is then fastened it is joined to a round piece of zinc. if he speaks to you.e buttons. the corners of which are rounded with scissors. which has been compared to a dice-box. The button is then placed are : Horn buttons available for the purpose. The pearl button gives employment to 3. from which an inner circle has been punched out. 172 THE GREAT EXHIBITION gilding i[. with which it was lately the pleasure of admiring mothers to sprinkle their little boys very profusely. and The Florentine or covered button was first covered buttons have it all their own way. the . in a mould. and they are ready for the sorter. with a touch. who have the true barbarian love of glitter. and then an upper mould with the pattern for the top of the button is pressed down. who may be observed nestling in the corner of the stage box on first nights. It is composed of five pieces cloth or silk . There are two sorts. The moulds having been placed in the press. There were numerous beautiful specimens of these buttons in the cases to which we shall presently refer. and coated with lead. The trade called it French gildings the woikuicn " ship-dash. and the last operation is to place the five pieces in regular order in a small machine constructed to hold them an arrangement carried out by a number of little children under a woman's and then this machine. but they tarnished almost immediately. fastens the whole bottom together with a neatness and a completeness to which any one who will examine his coat-button can be method of jiamed it — — : A : : . red. introduced into Birmingham in 1820.

consisting of gold plated Mr. with sporting subjects. There was a good St. and stone buttons are imported from Bohemia. about a dozen only. exhibited some horn buttons of considerable merit. Ashton not only showed a handsome assortment of all kinds. and shanked and finished in Birmingham. but they introduced a series designed to illustrate their manufacture a course which was very much in conformity with the spirit of the Exhibition. and other designs for ornamental buttons. crests. of course be. were very cleverly designed. i)y means of a chemical process. representing the neck-and-neck end of a race. and indeed a veiy rich multiplicity of devices. Elliott exhibited some with metallic rims an arrangement which conveyed the desirable idea of exceeding care in the finish. Inman had also some bold and well-executed buttons. a capital Messrs. as the iron and brass buttons with four holes. and among them some of the black pearl. 2 Y rod of f^lass — A : — . Agate. A case contributed by ]\[cssrs. Messrs. in which tlie shank has previously been fitted. military and naval buttons. George and the dragon. AVe have spoken of the manufacture of pearl buttons.— OF size of tlie button. and Messrs. showed velvet buttons. Some of their cut-glass buttons in metal were effective. above described. are made at a latlie. Mr. with appropriate ornaments. and from the Sooloo Isles. in order to smooth the edges of the holes. were specimens of the mother-o'-pearl button. showed the dies by which the metal buttons were stamped. The knob Ijuttniis arc made in a mould a long being softened in a furnace and clas|)ed in tlie mould. with other varieties of amusements. aud Messrs. Having been cleaned. and Mr. Neal and Tonks . some of them ticable. and one which we could wish had been adopted wherever it was conveniently prac]\Iessrs. exhibited metal buttons of fine finish. and the bone buttons arc chiefly made by the horn button makers. Having thus enumerated the principal forms of buttons. for coat-liuks. Ashtou." being very characteristic. Pigott'a bronzed buttons. we think. Messrs. The steel buttons arc made by the steel toy manufacturers. as made for a " curling club. and others for the servants of the London Docks. rendered concave by another. Kuowles. steel buttons for ladies' dresses. aud some boldly embossed naval buttons. Messrs. the buttons receive a white coating. among lion. The general characteristics of the specimens of button manufacture must. honoured with the episcopal Insignia. There were several other kinds of buttons. In a ease exhibited by Mr. and pierced by a tbird. Hammond bad some particularly bold aud wcU-cxecutcd device-buttons a set which we noticed. Messrs. were among the best we have ever seen: and Messrs. used for trowsers. wooden buttons and boue buttons for under clothing. Banks's buttons. Ingram illustrated very fully the horn button in its history and varieties. Smith. and then a hand-piercer is introduced from the opposite side to that which receives the blow. Tnigg had some very handsome specimens of the "Jcamcs" button. many choice and beautiful articles in hardware. Some of the prettiest cut-glass buttons in the Exhibition were those of Messrs. we will pass in review some of the specimens exhibited. : 173 aud soklcrod to it. especially of the Florentine class. The wood buttons arc made by wood turners. the hunter clearing a hedge. The former are punclicd by one press. showed us a very brilliant assortment. enamels. very small but pretty contrib\ition was made by Mr. buildings. a die sinker. TIIK WORLD'S INDUSTUY. Chatwin's ease contained as highly-finished specimens as any assortment around them. Nash. Allen and ^loore. and 'Wright. which were brought from the Gulf of Persia. VOL. cornelian. the sportsman bringing down his partridge. II. The sporting buttons. In connexion with Mr. ^Messrs. we observed some large and fine specimens of the shells used in the manufacture of pearl-buttons. Heeley also had some metal articles amid their beautiful hardware. Brissrabb. \Yells and enamelled buttons there were. 'i'lie black glass buttons. Kemp. which we marked as very rich in their cfl'ect.

who gives us an authentic account of soap. — — — — — — — — — of the manufacture of soap. who. with the hard and soft varieties of soap . as finish CHAPTER XXIV. where the men were more in the habit of From the description of using it than the women. in runuiug an honourable race with their rivals. but upon the feeling of the beauty. which has One of the most ancient descriptions of been i-endered soap. that the Hebrew word borith. It served to colour the hair yellow. indeed. aiEABO. bathing and washing is to be found in Homer's narrative of the preparations made by Lifethe mother of the lovely Nausicaa. we may declare with positive certainty. and welfare attendant upon cleanliness . than in others . for the washing expedition to the river. rather means alkali. who concealed a want of cleanliness in their clothes and persons under a profusion of costly scents and essences. nor depend upon fashion. GEBEE MODERN IIISTOET Or VARIETY OP SUBSTANCES EMPLOYED DIFFERENT MODES OF MANUFACTURE ITS PROPERTIES AND ACTION NUMBER OF EXHIBITORS EXTENSIVE USE IN GREAT BRITAIN EXCISE DUTY. The term soap occurs repeatedly in the Old Testament. In some of the cases there was more regards the designs of ornament. of two countries of an equal amount of population. but soap formed no part of the inventory. regard it as joke or earnest. were more luxurious than we are in eating and drinking. as well as the wonderful relation which it bears with regard to the most important links in the chain of chemical industry. similar. but states that it was particularly well prepared in Germany. A distinguished chemist of the present day says " The quantity of soap consumed by a nation would be no inaccurate measure whereby to estimate its wealth and capital : The magnitude — civilisation. No mention of soap is to be found in the works of authors prior to the Christian era. is not often sufficiently estimated. tlie coutributions having been chiefly sent by first-rate producers. but how great is the difference between their days and our own. the best materials being goats'-tallow and beech-ash. in apparel and horses . softening oil in golden vessels for anointing the The Homeric skin. He states that it is made from tallow and lie was also acquainted ashes. The button manufacture of England was obviously and decidedly creditable to the country. and the enormous embarked in it. but. that the wealthiest and most highly civilised is that which consumes the greatest weight of soap. are carefully enumerated . The rich in the middle ages. Political economists. sustaining meats and refreshing wines. when a want of cleanliuess is equivalent to insupportable misery and misfortune !" It is interesting to cast a glance upon the early history of this important branch of trade. comfort. Phny is the first writer virgins were ignorant of this invaluable oleo-alkaline compound. whether we not the less true that. ITS COMMEBCIAL IMPOKTANCE TEST OF CIVILIZATION EAELT UISTORT OF UOMERIC TIEGINS PlilNT. which left little room for diversity. The consumption does not subserve sensual gratification. in his Treatise on Soap. . all attained the point of excellence. will not give it is it this rank. the importance of the trade. SOAP. artistic taste. and a regard to this feeling is coincident with wealth and civilisation. but the learned Beckmann has proved.— 174 THE GREAT EXHIBITION to a great extent. but the mechanical of the whole array defied censure. he calls it a Gallic invention..

step by step. however. on the other hand. The increase in the consumption of this article has led. but it is certain that the boiling of soap flourished iu the seventeenth century. the development of the manufacture of soda has proved a most powerful stimulus to that of soap. previous to the conversion of chloride of sodium into carbonate of soda. The manufacture of soap has. for the convenience of ])assengers and their own profit. and the images of the gods in the temples. It would be a difficult matter to trace the onward progress of soap-making. and it is a curious fact. and at a later period. As soon.ent. although they explain the nature of saponification. : . and we find express mention of the employment of a lye made with the ashes of plants (potashes). James Muspratt. that the soap-manufacture has attained that extraordinary development which distinguishes this branch of trade various circumstances have contributed to produce it. and served ciiieliy as a liair-dyc. and were required to exercise their trade outside the town. and likewise as a remedial aj. hereafter to be described. it does not appear very clear how the tax was collected. undoubtedly. orders came in so rapidly. the ancients availed themselves of solutions of soda and ])otash. than did all those of Great Britain. in cleansing oil and wine jars. the Emperor ^'cspasian may be said to have originated the soap duty. The valuable researches of Chevreul. which continue in use for washing in the present day. 175 Pliny. and on a large scale. who was the first in England as could not have been anticipated. It docs not seciu that it was used for the jmrposcs for which it is now almost exclusively employed. was putrid urine. and plants witli saponaceous juices (s/ruthium). The fullers were literally and metaphorically in bad odour. been a powerful stimulus to the preparation of soda and of the important secondarj' product. had his soda discharged red-hot into iron carts. or in unfrequented streets. The method of strengthening the lye by means of quic'k-lime was known. The agent most commonly used for washing garments. which was used by the scourers for washing clothes. Regarding urine in the light of soap. in the second century of the Christian era. in the time of I'aulus yEgineta. every improvement in Leblane's process was followed by an extension of the soap-trade . frequently by the Arab writers but although undoubtedly used for washing. as JJeekmann remarks. that the single seaport of Liverpool. which are so intimately allied with almost all l)rauehes of chemical trades. when freed from its dependence on the uncertain and limited supply of barilla and kelp. it is evident that lie really means soap. From that period. Thus soap occupies one of the most important pages iu the history of applied chemistry. soap is mentioned by Geber. a constant race was kept up between soap-makiu"' and the artificial production of soda . but they were permitted to place tubs at the corners of the streets. After Pliny. have contributed less to the advance of the soap manufacture than to that of candlemaking. and thus conveyed to the soap-manufactories. Besides several kinds of fuUers'-carth. as we possess extensive directions of that date for its preparation. made such strides ]Mr. that ilr. it is spokeu of chiefly as a remedial agent for external application. exports annually more soap at present. to carry out successfully. to the discovery of new . as this source of revenue was not lost sight of by him. Strabo speaks of an alkaline water (soda) in Armenia. as he had elfected this. informs us that he was compelled to give away soda i)v tons to the soap-boilers. hypochlorite of lime (bleaching powder). to satisfy the demand. however. Leblane's method of preparing soda from chloride of sodium (sea-salt). agent. which is still employed in the cloth districts for washing wool. and when the soap-boilers discovered how much time and money thev saved by using artificial soda. which.OF THE WOItLD'S INDUSTRY. though. . On the other hand. altlionj^li the purpose for wliicli it was employed creates some dillioiilty and it would ajipear that the soap of the ancients contained some eolourinj. It is only iu the most modern times. moreover. before he succeeded in convincing them of the extraordinary advantages to be derived from the adoption of this material. Muspi'att.

When this separation has been effected. boiled with this base. and on the other a neutral body. which may be isolated by mechanical or chemical processes. is well illustrated by the deportment of olein with oxide of lead (litharge). linseed oil. Thus. Similar soaps are formed by the remainder of the fatty acids . Before we proceed to the examination of the separate specimens of the soaps which were exhibited. palmitiu. Although physically and chemically olive oil. but being soluble in water. and cocin are all compounds of certain fatty acids. and the water retains the potash or soda in solution. that of cocoa-nut oil. the majority arc mixtures in varying proportions of different chemical bodies. If olein is boiled with a solution of potash or soda. and in many parts of the coast. thus denominated by the chemists. has entirely suspended it. Neither widely distinguished from one another. or rather compound ethers. with carbonic acid. It remains dissolved in the water employed. which is done by mixing them with quicklime and water the quick-lime combines with the carbonic acid. Almost simultaneous with the employment of soda. are what we call. soaps. forms glycerin (liydrated oxide of glyceryl). margarin. palm oil. and the oxide of glyceryl. lard. for example. stearic and margaric acids. Potash and soda. as well as the mark of civilisation. they remain dissolved together with the glycerin. The statistics respecting the imports into the United Kingdom and France. one of which is fluid at the common temperature it is termed The preponderance of one or the other of olein . the two substances differing in their relative proportion according to the source from which the fat is obtained. that of the pig (lard) and of olive oil. yet the operation is tedious. separating in combination with water. of these substances is a pure chemical compound. The oleates of potash or soda. the isolated substances. olein. the solid fat from sheep (tallow) contains chiefly stearin. Palmitate of soda. they are broken up in a similar manner. . The changes which all these substances undergo. The body these proximate constituents determines the state of aggregation of the fat. demonstrate the increasing consumption of these oils. cocin. when submitted to the action of powerful When bases. chiefly margarin. become the means. when separated from the water by processes immediately to be discussed. are combinations of the alkaline bases. solid fat of palm oil is palmitin . contaminated still with such impurities as the alkalies contained (sulphates — . a substance having a certain analogy with the group of bodies termed alcohols. as they occur in commerce. cocoa-nut oil. oleates of potash or soda are obtained . a few words may be said respecting the materials employed in their manufacture. and is called stearin. yielding on the one hand an acid. They are. forming an insoluble soap. and may be viewed as substances resembling neutral salts. which are the proximate principles of the fatty or oily bodies. exhibit one common chemical character . the other is solid. and thus it has materials for its productiou. alkalies.] 76 THE GREAT EXHIBITION It has opened new channels to commerce. forming an insoluble carbonate of lime (chalk). obtained by boiling palm oil with soda. on the one hand. and on the other. margarin . called oleate of oxide of lead (diachylon plaster) . All fats may be resolved into two proximate fatty substances. fats and oils present numerous analogies. The development of the trade in palm oil has contributed largely to the abolition of the iniquitous slave-trade on the west coast of Africa. when exposed to the influence ot powerful decomposing agents. likewise forms a chief ingredient of many soaps. usually designated stearine is generally a mixture of the stearin of the chemist and an analogous body. and common resin. in common life. especially tallow. the olein is decomposed into oleic acid and oxide of glyceryl. fatty and resinous substances derived from the organism of animals and plants. and though by long boiling they could decompose (saponify) fats. It is better to deprive the alkalies of their carbonic acid. with oxide of glyceryl. though again differing much from one anothei'. fish oil. and the saponification generally incomplete. the oils of the cocoa-nut and the palm have been introduced into the manufacture of soap. the Stearin. The former combines with the base.

Ure. being of proportionally less value. however. generally adding common salt to set the soap at liberty. distillaliou of natural turpentines. !Sa[)onitication soon occurs. under the title of Recherches Chlmiques sitr Ivs Corps Gras d'Ori(/ini' Animuk. thus giving a larger yield. The cliaracter of soap is not only atl'ected by the nature of tiie acids which it contains. Thus. alkalies. when it separates from the excess of lye." this property is of great use to the of many neutral salts. this difficulty is then overcome. oleic.l)'S INDUSTllY. The greater part of our knowledge concerning the chemical constitution of fats. There are two processes chiefly employed in the preparation of soaps. Its property of dissolving in salt water renders it peculiarly adapted to the formation of a marine soap. prosecuted with wonderful acuteness and perseverance. nut oil is. (Common resin (colothe residue of tin. 177 and a minute quantity of caustic-lime. a compound is readily obtained. margai'ic. palmitic. as it is very difficult to obtain an exact neutraliiiation of the fat or alkali. however. of water. One remarkable property of cocoa-nut od soap is. they crystallize out. and these generally contain less than fifty per cent. 2 z . VOL. which. as it is more generally employed together with other fats. and concentrated by evaporation. whereas twenty-Hve per cent. but also by that of the alkali which has served for its ])reparation the soaps containing potash are generally soft and pasty those prepared with soda are hard and solid. A . and then stirred with the melted fat. unfortunately. particularly when concentrated soap-boiler. may be quoted an analysis of Dr. arc all readily soluble in alcohol and hot water. and separately heated. As the chloride of sodium and sulphate of soda. who employs it for the separation of the soaj) fiom its solution in water. in boilers capable of holding many tons. but.dled the larye-boUer jjrocess. . when it is boiled with soda. This compound exists in considerable (juantity in yellow soap. II. of course. however. the most simple of which is that called the cold process. that of solidifying with a much larger quantity of water than most other soaps. The com|)ounds of stearic. As an instance. A quantity of weak and soda-lye is put into the iron or copper boiler. pinic. together with a lilte sylvie and colophonic acids. . for example). The ordinary method is c. and the changes which accompany their decomposition under the influence of alkalies. and raised to the boiling point poiij') is . but. especially on allowing the lye to stand for some days. . generally the fat .UK THE and chlorides. which commercial soda contains. For the purpose of making soap in this manner. the soap solidifies. who found a Jjondon cocoa-nut oil soap to contain seventy-hve per cent. and gives to it its distinctive character. and it is usually conducted on a very large scale. with potash and soda. are insoluble in a solution in the preparation of " transparent soaps. It is very evident that soap made in this manner must contain the glycerin. and the same plan of se])aration does not succeed with it . a work which will ever remain a model of philosophical inquiry. and the strength of the lye having been previously ascertained by taking its specific gravity. soluble in a very strong brine. a certain portion is weighed or measured. or the small-Ooiter process. eocinic. on evaporation. the alkaline lye is prepared from the purest commercial soda. is due to the masterly researches of Chevreul. a |)inatc of soda is ehielly produced. moreover. of nater is a large quantity for any but potash soaps to contain. As soaps are likewise insoluble in strong alkaline lyes. thus leaving it much purer. the same end is sometimes attained by boiling down the soap to a The soa[) made with cocoacertain consistence. this prevents such soai) from giving so good a lather as those prepared by the more usual method. when they were published in Paris ill a collected form. but more so in the hence its application I'ormer. Wt)ia. weighed quantity of fat is melted. are neaily insoluble in a strong alkaline solution. This property is. leaves the soap in a translucent state Soaps. often turned to proiitable account by the soap-maker. carbonated or not. one or the other is often in excess. and sylvie acids. from 1813 to 1823. and on cooling. and consists principally of W hen rosin is boiled with pinic acid. but of course no glycerin.

it is necessary to add a solution of common salt to eli'ect this object each time the exhausted lye is pumped ofl'. Now the soap-boiler may wish to prepare either white or mottled soap. and the soap is brought to strength by boiling down. from its containing a less proportion of water. on the vessel. and by trickling ofl' the excess of lye through the mass. some time. be the sole modus operandi of soap. that it is much more scientific . the " nigre" is left in the soap. the valuable properties of which. and hence the question arises. After repeated boilings and pumpiiigs. but also destructive of the articles washed. The detergent property of soap is usually considered to be dependent entirely on the quantity of alkali which it contains. except that the operation of fitting is This " nigre" consists chiefly of sulphide dispensed with. when the black impurities ("nigre") fall to the bottom.178 the whole of the fat THE GREAT EXHIBITION The ebuUitioti is then carried on for is generally added at one time. soap is a sort of magazme of alkali. : : : . and in this case the is made. rid of in the lyes at each pumping . the soap has to be much more concentrated . but as it cools. and especially of some colours of dyed goods. and allowed to cool. and more particularly with certain fatty bodies. and allowed to settle. to facilitate the removal of the soap. notwithstanding the employment of comparatively impure materials. of iron. without being deprived of their capability of entering into combination with various impurities. and when the lye has become exhausted of its alkali. By combining with fatty acids. with the cold process. it is pumped away. know that certain mineral salts exert a solvent power upon substances which are entirely insoluble in water thus it is well known that borax causes shell-lac to dissolve with great facility. boiled with a certain quantity of water or weak lye. the alkalies are rendered essentially milder in their action. as an excess of alkali may be employed to ensure complete saponification. These frames are composed of a number of separate planks. and a very pure chemical compound is obtained. If the soda-ash employed does not contain sufficient saliue impurities to tlu'ow up the soap. produced by the action of the iye. giving rise on the one hand to acid soaps. especially those derived from perspiration others become acid when exposed on a large surface to the action of the air. however. the metallic compounds separate into nodules. Several constituents of this very indefinite admixtui-e of many substances are of an essentially acid character. According to this view. in a great We measure. It is evident. sapouification is completed. in consequence of a sort of spontaneous saponification. and. the soap is " fitted. in comparing this value. which it gives up in the exact quantity required at any moment when it is rubbed with water. without doubt." that is. The most common explanation of the washing power of soap is founded upon Chevreul's observation. If a white or curd soap is required. a qnantity of sulphate of iron (green copperas) is added mottling is produced jointly by the sulphide of iron (the black portion) and a true iron In order that the metallic compound may not fall to the bottom soap (the red portion). that soaps are decomposed by large quantities of water. of the alkali. which produce the appearance called mottling. This actior^ cannot. from its power of dissolving substances which are insoluble in water. The mottled soap is prepared in a similar manner. on the other. when removed from the boiler it is of one uniform slate tint. and the chemist will at ouce call to mind the remarkable solvent pro. The combination of the alkali with some part of the dirt cannot be denied. (as in Jitihiff). not only to the hands of the person using it. with the perfect certainty that it can be got the glycerin is also removed. liberatmg a quantity of free alkali which remains in solution. which always contains a minute quantity of In Marseilles and other countries where olive-oil-soap sulphate of sodium. which is injurious. arise. why pure alkali An objection to this is the caustic character should not be employed in preference. and the soap is then removed to the frames. the and a fresh portion of lye is added. they take up certain Hence mottled soap is of more forms. with the impurities contained in the fat.

7J. has.'' . and of their general claims to prize medals and honourable mention.855.996.308 18. cliolestcrin. 6d. exported to foreign parts. dd. Many of these In no country in the received prize medals. and thus prevented from again — soiling them.9.383 lbs. which forms the subject of our lucubrations. soap doubtless also produces a water. from the outset.34-2 This leaves the net revenue derived from the soap-duty at 0*. which arc carried away by tlie frictional action of the suds when forced into and out of the minute interstices of the substances sidyectcd to tlie operation of washing. but in Great Britain alone the production amounted.. and indulge in a brief consideration of the original producers master minds which from time to time have appeared among us. in which there are 329 makers. were used by manufacturers. alter deducting the drawback and the remission to manufacturers. ETC.. 22. when treating on the subject of " perfumery. were consumed in 1850 for domestic besides that manufactured in use in Great Britain (making 8 lbs. STEAM-EXGINE INTESTED BY WATT ITS OllE. in round numbers. — . so as to enable it to form a lather or froth. there are no ready means of ascertaining the quantity which is there manufactured . in a former chapter.€1. The total quantity Of this quantity consumed in Great liritaiu. soaps. the cohesion of water.119. it appears that 168.858. mechanical ell'ect. in our present chapter.-' 10s. Ireland not being subject to a duty on soap.82(i lbs. JAMES WATT HIS EADLY LIFE TAEIOtTS CLAIMS TO THE DISCOTEET OF THE rOWER OF STEAM FIRST EEAt."j0. or. been to give our readers as much variety as possible. ETC. lid. ^1. give a few brief sketches of the of mankind.299. the drawback on it being ±82. is soluble in In addition to these two modes of operation. and have ditl'used far and wide their light and their intelligence to the improvement of science and the benefit We shall.115 tons. wliich. therefore. of which there arc no returns. and not a few obtained honourable mention.193 lbs. — — — — — — — — — — — — — As our object in describing the contents of the vast Emporium of Industry and Art. therefore.OF THE WOULD'S INDUSTRY. we have ali'eady spoken. each person) Of the dift'erent varieties of toilet and scented Ireland. Deducting the quantity exported. 1 oz. amounting to . on which the duty. and Of this quantity 12. Srf. There were in the great Exhibition sixty-two exhibitors of soap.23.410.333 lbs. IT!) bile is essenperty possessed by a soapy compound ready formed in the animal organism Uully ii conibiiiatiou of an alkali witli fatty acids ({^lynocliolic and taiirocliolic). is most valuable in the removal of solid insoluble particles of dirt. CHAPTER XXV. to 20i.. were yielded an excise duty of .V^T SUPEIUOBlTr OVEK FORMER INTEXTIONS VEBSATILITl' OF UlS GENIUS HIS NUMEROUS IMl'ORTANT DISCOVERIES STATUE STEREOTYPE CHECKHIS WONDERFUL INGENUITY IX WESTMIXSTEIl ABBEY JACOB PERKINS STEAM-GUN JOSIAH WEDGWOOD ELEGANT PLATE TUE PERPETUAL MOTION— BATHOMETER POTTERY BAEBERIM VASE. like fats. things produced. The property which it has of incrcasinj. we will now pause awhile in our dissertation on those. world is the manufacture of so. and that used by manufacturers.t97..581 10*. was remitted. amounted to 191.ip carried on to so large an extent as in the United Kingdom. and are kept suspended by the froth. WORKING MEN".555. and it dissolves with f^rcat facility the neutral body.951 lbs. in the year 18.

and this turned his attention to the power of steam. The apparatus which he employed was a large cauldron of water attached to wheels connected with the sides of the vessel. and claims the discovery for Salomon de Caus. like planets. their they require no busts no empty gorgeous structures to tell that they have lived memory is in their works. with apartments in the building. and he was soon obliged to return to his native country. according to some at the rate of a league per hour . Salomon de Caus wrote a work entitled Les liaisons' des Forces Mouvantes. could give rise to motion. however. a countryman of his own. In this situation he remained till 1764. such is the Spanish claim to the discovery of the force of vapour. especially in referTill the age of sixteen he continued at the grammar-school. 120 years before the Christian era. and will also serve as an encouraging excitement to thousands of " working-men" of our own day. M. the immortal discoverer He was born in 1736. as illustrative of the progress of art culture. matism. Others. however. While in this capacity. One of Newcomen's steam-engines had been sent to hira from the Natural Philosophy class for the purpose of being repaired. to make embarkations even when there was a perfect calm. James Watt. in Zaeh's astronomical correspondence for 1826. which he carried into Barcelona. at Greenock. of which he was destined to make such splendid applications. they have conferred benefits upon their fellow men which remain after them . native town. prevented him from deriving any advantage from his situation.180 lives THE GREAT EXHIBITION of " working men. which has long been distinguished as a port of extensive commercial relations and for the elegance and substantiality of the works of its mechanics. &fc. A . interesting. This account is given by M. It is altogether. and he is said to have projected the canal which unites the Clyde and the Forth. proposed to the emperor Charles V. the delicacy of his health. and without sails and oars. In 1543. however. It has been usually admitted that the first individual who ascertained the fact that steam was capable of raising weights or water. Of the latter class was James Watt. of Alexandria. had given a different bent to his pursuits. termed the Caledonian Canal . and to receive his reward in fame and fortune for himself and his descendants. In June of the same year he is said to have made an experiment with a vessel of ^00 tons. and contributed new or improved principles of trust these notices will be importance to the manufacturing resources of the world. ence to navigation. when he married his cousin. again. a sea captain. was acquainted with the fact that steam. Gonzalez. from an attack of rheuinstrument maker. so improbable that little importance can be attached to it. being appointed philosophical instrument maker to that seminary. At the age of eighteen he was sent to London. being bound to a distinguished mathematical Here. where his father of the steam-engine. In this he states that if water be introduced into a copper globe. was a merchant and magistrate. any one of whom may possibly have it in his power to add his mite to the general store of valuable experiences. he was consulted with regard to the gi-eat canal which traverses Scotland from east to west. their memory is only found in their marble monuments. have succeeded in attaining a more permanent distinction. Hiero. in Scotland. denies the accuracy of this conclusion. He then established himself in the town as an engineer. Miss ^Miller. His grandfather and uncle both distinguished tliemThe subject of our memoir was educated in his selves as mathematicians and engineers. in the Annuaire for 1837. The celebrity of some men may be compared to a meteor which appears for a short time and then vanishes away. Blasco de Garay. occasioned by working one winter's day in the open air. under certain circumstances. An accidental circumstance. was the marquis of Worcester. few extracts in the words of the respective authors will enable the reader to draw his own inferences. In 1615. Arago. In 1757 he went to reside in the University of Glasgow. however. We — — . by their well-directed industry and ingenuity.. according to others at the rate of two leagues in three hours." who. have distinguished themselves above their fellows.

He observes. he states that he has discovered an adniirulile and very powerful method of raising water by the assistance of fire. captain Savery obtained a patent for an instrument in which the power of steam was applied to practical purposes. This. the atmosphere. In his sixty-eighth invention. upon being condensed. those which preceded it can only be considered as 3 a vol. vessel full of water rarefied by the action of fire. I have seen water run in a continuous manner. to the rules of statics. In H)(j:3. . the marquis of Worcester published his Century of Inventionn. It was in 1761. because they appear merely to demonstrate the force of steam. The water was placed in a boiler. i)itrn sphrvriim uctiviluth." lie took a cannon. . or vapour blow-pipe. and shut np the open end he then ke|)t up a constant fire around it. a patent was taken out for an improved engine on the same principle. has little connection with the subject.. whicli va])onr will depart after — the water shall have passed out with great force. as with those now in use. he observes "the force of the vapour (produced by the action of fire) whicli causes the water to rise is [iroduccd from the said water. one thing is certain. In 1768. that " water being evaporated by the force of fire. he comstruck with the defects of the machine. In 1698." Such is the English claim to the discovery of the steam-engine. the steam escaped by a tube at the upper part of the boiler into a large spherical vessel. a native of Blois. and thus they will be of great use to the human race. i^c. that they are strengthened by the force within them. It was. a vacuum was formed. so that at the instant when one of the two vessels is emptied. and But being well regulated according rather than be confined will burst a piece of cannon. which. The person who superintends this experiment has only two stop-cocks to open. ou tlic ajiplieation of lieat to the ghjbe tlie water will be driven uji the tube. that James Watt was employed to repair a model of one of He was these engines belonging to the Natural Philosophy class in (Jlasgow college.S1 with a lube passing vertically through the upper part of the ghibc. and in the course of twenty" Having a way to make my vessels so four hours tlie cannon burst with a great noise. to weight. pleted his first engine. A — . then they will carry tlieir burdens peaceably (like good horses) . in France. and that they arc filled in succession. The fire is kept in a constant degree of activity by the same person. difiered from that of Neweomeii by the condensation of the steam taking place in a second vessel. Denis Papin. of Rome. or its moving power the alphabet of the steam-engine. described the colijiyle. therefore. Branca. and set about improving it. The engine of \\ att was therefore a true steam-engine. where. for as the phiiosophers say. as from a fountain.D'S INDUSTUV. and (li])piiig under the surface of the water. its vapours require a much greater space (about 12. u. sir Samuel Morcland wrote his Elevations of U'aler by all kinds of Machines. and Savery." In 1690. and not by atmospheric pressuif the ascent of the piston was also produced by the power of the steam. ]. and by science reduced to measure. In 1703. tion of the steam-engine. first thought of placing a piston in a cylinder. and not the steam which was the moving power. filled it to three-fourths with water." This is the French claim to the invenIn \C>2'J. the " but my method has no limits if the vessel posaspiration acting only at certain distances sesses sufficient strength. the marquis of Worcester was quite familiar with them. a manuscript preserved in the British Museum. . to the height of forty feet. raised forty vessels of cold water. particularly for raising water. that if his predecessors were ignorant of the force of vapour and its moving power. WOltl. and to balance. Crawley. he has sufficient time for this during the intervals which remain after turning the stop-eoeks. It is unnecessary to enter into the question of the priority of the discovery of the steam-engine from the preceding details. liowever. In 1683. and acting upon it by the force of steam. which enabled the atmosphere to act. it is tilled with cold water during the time that the other begins to act.000 times) than the water previously occupied. in the names of i^'ewcomen.OK IHi. and this in succession. "Whatever opinion may be arrived at. so that the descent of the piston was ])roduced by the force of the steam. not by aspiration.

and when the vessel receives at the same time a jet of cold water. Roebuck suppUed Watt vv-ith the means of accomplishing this great woi-k. in Cornwall. Watt began to think of applying it to mills. of fuel necessary for producing a certain number of strokes of the piston was ascertained by Newcomeu's engine and by a new one of the same dimensions. and of the director of the mine. and what was once a sterile hill soon became a populous and fertile hamlet.182 THE GREAT EXHIBITION machines which produced certain effects by tlie atmosphere acting on a vacuum produced by the coudeusatiou of steam. Fortunately. The agreement was. Tiie second was invention of the condenser was then Watt's first great improvement. iron tube without cooling the walls of the tube . the steam which is passing to fill it is condensed. Dr. it may with justice be said that the country owes the present ditfusiou and importance of the steam-engiue. he ascertained that his own plan had been sold by one of his faithless workmen to Richards. the remaining part of the steam iu the pipe is removed into the vacuum caused by condensation. termed the counter. and thus the piston is allowed free play.000 per annum. The invention began gradually to be appreciated. might be in 1800. espeOne great cially iu Cornwall. the admission of steam above and below the piston according as it was to be depressed He surrounded the metal tubes with wood in order to keep iu the heat. The number of strokes were determined by means of a piece of clock-work. amounted to £2. this constituted the invention of the condenser. attached to the The instruengine. lieuce there was a loss of two-thirds of the fuel. and so arranged that every stroke advanced the hand one division. The manufactory of Soho speedily extended its limits. in 1776. named Richards. he learned that a manufacHe turer of Birmingham. While engaged with his models. This vessel. completes the revolution. procured a plan of it. which was worked by the piston. Roebuck. for which the new patent was obtained. eti'ected on the principle of the spinning-wheel. and in 1769 he obtained his first patent.\teud the utility of the discovery. but he found that the wood had less resistance to He then thought of passing the steam into au the sudden alternations of temperature. Dr. but funds were wanted to e.382. He or raised. therefore. free from air. met with a purchaser of his interests iu the patent in the person of Matthew Boltou. and communicating witli the water. and found that it was precisely his own . that one-third of the saving of fuel over the old engine should be the The saving was carefully ascertained in this way the quantity price of the new engine. This. proving that the saving of fuel by the new plan was equal to upwards of £7. encouragement to adopt the new eugine was the terms upou which it was supplied. had constructed what he was in search of. being equivalent to £2. he conceived. 'i'he firm obtained au extension of their To this period the engine had only been employed to raise water. To him. considering that the wood is a worse conductor of heat . Watt had remarked that two-thirds of the steam were condensed by the contact with cold water. who had procured : . which all those interested iu mining were requested to inspect. being opened at the moment when the tube is filled with steam. patent to 1800. who had exhausted his means. and Watt's engine very soon replaced that of Neweomen. draws the latter towards it. The firm of Watt and Bolton commenced their manufactory at Birmingham by constructing a steam-engiue. where the impulse which turns it one-half. but. a small air-pump was applied. of Birmingham. and was opened at the time for settling accounts iu presence of the agent of Watt and Bolton. To get rid of the water The iu the condenser. calculated with precision the quantity of fuel necessary for producing a certain portion of Such were the inventions steam and the volume of cold water required to condense it. ment was placed in a box supplied with two keys. 'J'o show the amount of saving it is only necessary to state that the sum which the firm derived from three engines iu one year at the Chace-water mine. He first attempted to substitute a wooden pipe for a tube of iron.382 per annum on each engine.

he was an aecom[)lishcd scholar. in 1808. was not eontent with directing its attention to one subject alone. and had an e. the days of these men are past. and at last espies an obscure tablet which tells that only a mere spot can be spared for the truly mighty dead. lie was not only a mechanic. Tins claim was at one time disjjutcd in favour of Professor Copland. and yet in a great measure selftaught. the hero of intellect. In 1817 lie visited Scotland for the last time. . Matthew Perkins. At the age of twelve he was put apprentice to a goldsmith of New buryport. the county of Essex a region of stubborn soil. in the heart of his family. or unfortunate foe. architecture. Watt. he was generally well-informed.Ol' THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. July'Jth. liowever. of the name of Davis. and Westminster Abbey can now boast of having deposited withiu its walls a marble statue of one who has conferred greater benefits on his country and ou the world than perhaps any individual commemorated by its It was too iicc'orclini. At Binnin^diam lie married the daughter of Mr. and here Jacob Perkins was born. Bolton to carry on the manufactory. and music. and impoverished our own people. who continued alonjf with the son of Mr. Tlie intellifjent and aspiriiij. made him one of their eight foreign associates. invented wjiat is termed the sun and planet motion. antiquities. which deluged foreign lands with the blood of our fellow-creatures. it was perhaps well. between whieli a sheet of moistened paper was passed and applied over a printed sheet. lie was elected a fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh. ])hyyics. his father. iu 177!). or a notice. A handsome statue of Watt was erected. aged eighty-four years. a copying-press. and the Institute of Paris. is valued above a hundred warriors. Possessing all these requisites. iu the history of battles of their having assisted in the premature death of some friend of freedom. lie received such education as the connnon schools of that day furnished. a manufaetui'cr in Scotland. 17GG. perhaps. this contrivance was very snceessful. and he therefore sought for a new plan. 183 a patent. and his ancestor was one of the first settlers of that town. beloved and respected by all. Our next "worthy" we select from our transatlantic brethren. he looks long iu vain for the monuments of those who have succeeded iu advancing the powers of the mind. expensive wars. in 1821. consisting of two cylinders. with whom. During his residence in (ilusgow his first wife died. he introduced into (ircat Britain the method of bleaching cotton by means of chlorine. The memory of Watt was left to be established in peaceful times. of Aberdeen but it was quickly set at rest on the side of Mr. 17H7. lie invented. monuments. and nothing more. Immersed iu it is remarkable that government never conferred any honour upon him. In March. and he died on the 25th of August. mind of \Vatt. Matthew Perkins removed to Kewburyport in early life. was a native of Ipswich. and Perkins. Jacob Perkins was descended from one of the oldest families of that ancient portion of the state of Massachusetts. ^Ir. but rich in its production of men. at — . it sought only to bestow rewards on those who were foremost in the fight. Glasgow has a similar tribute to Lis memoiy. in short. the heroes of the ])assions for Watt assisted iu superseding the barbarism of war. but those of Watt will endure for ever. and was succeeded by his son. and a splendid benefactor of his country. at Birmingham. 1819. His master died three years afterwards. he happily spent the evening of his days. lu 1800 he retired from the firm with a handsome fortune. In the course of two years afterwards his health broke down. \Vatt was one of the most extraordinary men of any age. What they were in 1770 may be guessed.'ly . save these heartless stones. ^laegrcgor. when a philosopher. The visitor to the ancient relies of Westuiiustcr Abbey may have noticed many a gorgeous monument in memory of individuals who have left no record behind them. lie late to elaim the inveution.vccllcnt acquaintance with chemistry. He was familiar with the modern languages. which had been discovered in France by Berthollct.

This was a profitable branch of business. Forty years ago. invented a machine which cut and headed nails at one operation. Perkins inveuted the stereotype check-plate. turned his attention to the manufacturing of them. as fire-engines. Perkins would have realised a great fortune from this invention. then in circulation. There was hardly any mechanical science in which Perkins did not exercise his inquiring and inventive spirit. which our grandmothers still hold iu fond remembrance and who wonders ? The young goldsmith gained great reputation for the skill and honesty with which he transformed the old Portuguese yoes. The town of Newburyport enjoyed the benefit of his skill in every way in which he could contribute to the public welfare or amusement. and your perpetual . stamped with the Indian and the Eagle. in several of which he made essential improvement's. his ingenuity was employed in constructing machinery for boring out old honeycombed cannon. and at the age of twenty-four. on the jNIerrimac. we remember. now to be seen only in collections of curiosities. and in perfecting the science of gunnery. counterfeiting was carried on with an audacity and a success which would seem incredible at the present time. are the work of his skill. and afterwards at Amesbury. He was a skilful pyrotechnist. to the serious detriment of trade.. into those showy ornaments for the — female bosom. and his skilful calculations detected the corner of the machine from which it proceeded. . whose inventive powers had begun to expand during his apprenticeship. was left with tlie management of tlie business. Nothing eould be done with strings. which no art of counterfeiting could match and a security was thus given to bank paper which it had never before known. however. The experiment seemed perfect. This was first put in operation at Newburyport. The ease with which the clumsy engravings of the bank bills of the day were imitated. and Perkins put his head-work upon other matters. till the revolutions of fashion drove shoe-buckles out of the market. hydraulic machines. was a temptation to every knave who could scratch copper. Certain weights moved the wheels. Under the old confederation. and the writer of this article has not forgotten the delight and amazement with which he learned from Jacob Perkins the mystery of compounding serpents and rockets. He next displayed his ingeimity in nail machinery. made a great gain from his loss. Perkins gave the machine an examination. a person named Redhcfler. looked up to him as a second Faust or Cornelius Agrippa . and the Newburyport fireworks of that day were thought to be unrivalled in the United States. &e." said he. One of the most important of his inventions was in the engraving of bank bills. He saw that a hidden power existed somewhere. " Pass a saw through that post. and the old Massachusetts cents. and counterfeits flooded the country. had his knowledge of the world and the tricks of trade been in any way equal to his mechanical skill. This was tlie age of gold beads. Shoe-buckles were another article in great vogue. where the manufacture of nails has been carried on for more than half a century. Machinery of all sorts was then in a very rude state. It was regarded as a great achievement to effect a rude copy of some imported machine. He was traversing the United States with a machine exhibiting his discovery. During the war of 1813. . for the machine continued to move without cessation and Redheffer was trumpeted to the world as the man who had solved the great problem. and his knowledge of the powers of mechanism enabled him to perceive at once that the visible appliances were inadequate to the results. the state of Massachusetts established a mint for striking copper coin but it was not so easy to find a mechanic equal to the task of making a dye. by which he could undersell the imported buckles. and he turned his attention to various other branches of mechanical arts. and a clever artizan was scarcely to be found. He discovered a new method of plating. and Perkins. 184 THE GREAT EXHIBITION fifteen. Perkins was but twenty-one years of age when he was employed by the government for this purpose. ceitain other weights restored the first. Others. and when they had run down. The boys. About this time. made pretensions to a discovery of the perpetual motion.

His business greatly improving. obtained the loan of specimens of sculpture.'nitcd States.OV THE WOJILU'S INDUSTUY. by which he demonstrated the compressibility of water. studies. where an indivichial was stationed to restore the weiglits at every revolution. suitable for imitation by the processes AN'edgwood had discovei-ed. he. He instituted a series of experiments. where his father carried on business as a potter. He never became rich." It 185 The impostor refused sufricicnt reason." This occupation he was compelled to relinquish in consequence of an incurable lameness in his right leg. He was. cameos. dissolution of partnership ensued. Wedgwood returned to Burslcm. an instrument for measuring the depth of the sea by the jjressure of the water. and. to put his machine to such a test. and took out a patent for it in 1810. He was born on the 12th of July. which was beginning to acquire importance in the United States. and commenced the manufacture of a cream-coloured ware called " Queen's" ware. After a short residence in Philadelphia. in conjunction with Mr. Perkins continued to reside in his birth-place till 1810. also imitative leaves. it therefore becomes the more necessary. His researches led to the invention of a new method of generating steam. motion will stop. and for a was afterwards discovered that a eord j)assed throuffh tliis post into The the eeUar. His attention was occupied by steam machinery. in fact. At a distance of thirty-five yards he shattered iron targets to pieces. that the taslv of S])eeifyinf. II. by Queen Charlotte. In connexion with this discovery. and seids. His luieommon mechanical genius was highly appreciated and his steam-gun was for some time the wonder of the British nietro])olis. to state a few facts connected with the life of this extraordinary man. appointed her potter. that at eleven years of age he worked in his elder brother's pottery as a " thrower. to look very strongly at the pecuniary value of the game. It attracted the notice of the British government in 1823. he removed to London. This gun was a very ingenious piece Perkins conof workmanship. medallions. and during this period his talent for the production of ornamental pottery first displayed itself. a problem which for centuries had baflled the ingenuity of natural philosophers. wheie his experiments with high-pressure steam and other exhibitions which he gave of his inventive powers. at once brought him into general notice. and subsequently to Philadelphia. To many artists this may be a name but little known . by suddenly letting a small quantity of water into a heated vessel. and descrihin. After a time he entered into partnership with a person named Harrison. in connection with a person named Wheildou. and Perkins made experiments with it before the Duke ol Wellington and a numerous party of officers. 1730. at Burslcm. whose name fully deserves to be recorded in the list of English worthies. when ho removed from Newburyport to Boston. He lacked one quality to secure success in the world financial thrift. and placed an inch apart from one another. caused by the small pox. vases. and could discharge about one thousand balls per minute. hibdurs. in a work of this description. lie discovered a method of softening and hardening steel at pleasure. He was. and sent his balls through eleven planks. trained in his VOL. too much in love with the excitement of the chase. The limited opportunities aflbrded him for acquiring education may be judged of by the statement of his biographer. tinued in London during the remainder of his life.^ them must be left to one more fully aecpiainted with the histoiy of the mechanical arts in the l. This gun he invented in the United States. shall close our present chapter with a short notice of Josiah Wedgwood. intaglios. Everybody but himself pro fited by his inventions. 3 11 . a man of taste and scientific attainments. by which the process of engraving on that metal was facilitated in a most essential degree. — We A . Perkins also invented the bathometer. His ingenious workmen. one inch thick each. at Stoke. and similar articles. and the pleometer. to measure a ship's rate of sailing. and iuf^enuity of Perkins were employed on so great a variety of subjects. in Staflbrdshire. he manufactured knife-handles in imitation of agate and tortoise-shell. Bcntley.

but he created a great trade in pottery. by which Wedgwood amassed an ample fortune. Amongst other artists employed by Wedgwood was Flaxman.. and Kent. In 1771 he removed to a village which he erected near Newcastle-under-Lyne. as well as in several places in Great Britain and Ireland. he withdrew from bidding. 1795. the celebrated Barberini vase (in the British Museum. which. His exertions were not merely confined to his own manufactory. and by his talent improved the national taste. when he had a sitter whose fame he deemed worthy to descend to posterity . 1763. it has been observed that Sir Joshua never tried any of his dangerous of colour. who assisted him in producing those beautiful sculptu^resque ornaments which he was the first in modern times to execute in pottery. completed a navigable communication between the potteries of Stafibrdshire and the shores of Devonshire. of the Trent and Mersey Canal. with a view to fixing the images produced by the camera. sometime since broken by a lunatic. who also investigated the subject. but now admirably restored). but were cheerfully given to the establishing of several On the 17th of July. which was reserved for Nicpce. nearly half a century later. Another important discovery made by him was that of painting on vases and other similar articles. but neither he nor Sir Humphrey Davy. and Wedgwood bid against the Duchess of Portland but on her promising to lend it to him to copy. 1766. lie cut the first clod for the formation useful measures. he died. Not only — A . was offered for sale. DorWedgwood was a Fellow of the Royal Society. which still exhibits all its original freshness and truth Indeed. — characteristically called Etruria. and of the Society of setshire. at the age of sixty-five. by the skill of Brindley. After a successful and honourable careei'. civilised Here his works became a point of attraction to all did he encourage artists . Wedgwood's success led to the establishment of improved potteries in various parts of the continent of Europe. he succeeded in producing the most delicate cameos. After numerous experiments upon various kinds of clay and colouring substances. lent by Sir William Hamilton. but the cost of producing them exceeded the amount of the sum thus obtained. and . experiments in art. without the glossy appearance of ordinary painting on porcelain or earthenware an art practised by the ancient Etruscans. and miniature pieces of sculpture in a substance so hard as to resist all ordinary causes of destruction or injury. at the price of eighteen hundred guineas. very fine portrait of this son of genius was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. and such a compliment he deservedly paid to the subject of this memoir. Wedgwood sold fifty copies of it at fifty guineas each . and the duchess became the purchaser. Antiquaries. but lost since the time of Pliny. on the 3rd of January. and had bestowed considerable attention on the science of the action of light. produced the most accurate and beautiful copies of vases from Herculaneum.186 THE GREAT EXHIBITION manufactory. About this time. medallions. were fortunate enough to discover any method of retaining these images a wonderful step in chemistry applied to the arts. Europe.

i. The procedure of the ancient Egyptians in embalming human remains and dead animals. TAXIDERMY. quotes a number of instances which support this view. but their methods fulfilled the object very imperfectly. Indeed Beckmann. in some measure resembles the manipulations of the taxidermist inasmuch as in both.3) addressed to Lollius.. and when the various museums of natural history were founded in Europe. In the same way were preserved two hippocentaurs (probably monstrous births). except the skin. still the circumstance that animals were frequently suspended in the temples. that we are almost tempted to refer the origin of museums of natural history to the temples of auticjuity. the parts peculiarly subject to decomposition are removed and replaced by more durable materials. ex quo Tempore ccrvinam pellem latravit in aula Militat in siivis catulus. however. by bringing forth a litter of thirty pigs. ETC. or rare natural specimens generally . a passage is has been generally construed into a knowledge of taxidermy among the ancients. lib. • met willi. Epist. It appears to have been the business of the priests to preserve rare animals. as well as tlie substance. In one of the epistles of Horace (Epist. This explanation assumes that the ancient-s decorated their halls in sucli manner like a modern hunting-box. — MALTESE COSTUMES — SPANISH BULL FIGHTS. to the obtaining The ancient Greeks of a natural representation of the aspect of the living animal." Many interpret pellis cervina as a stuffed stag. the taxidermist sacrifices all. was preserved by the priests and it remained in such excellent preservation. art of stufling animals is The generally supposed to be an invention of modern date. that it was said to have been in existence at Lavinium in the time of Varro. having been scut bj' the Indians to the Emperor Constantius. The ordinary proceeding consisted in immersion in melted wax or in honey . And although it cannot be positively* asserted. 187 CHAPTOR XXVI. endeavoured to preserve the form. But traces of the art are to be discovered in the earliest records of antiquity. Perhaps the best of the ancient methods for the preservation of animal substances consisted in placing them in a solution of common salt . in his History of Inventions. happened to die on the road.. . In this manner the sow. AND ETHNOGRAPHICAL MODELS. this necessarily disguised the shape. and barked at by the dog. 2. afforded a happy omen to ^Eneas. wliich . even though it remained unimpaired. and Romans. from the notices in the Greek and Latin authors. which. . though for very diflerent purposes. But whilst the Egyptian cmbalmer desired rather to preserve the substance of the body than its form. of the body. which. The passage is however. and this was so prevalent. and also an ape.ILSTICE IN INDIA — SILK FACTORY. placed in the hall. shows that they were not invariably preserved to have originated about the period . EGYPTIAN EMDALMEnS ITALIAN MUSEUMS — QUEERS AND KOMANS — THE CALEDONIAN BOAIl — ANCIENT TEMPLES — — ASlIStOLEAN MUSEUM BRITISII MUSEUM — ANCIENT AND MODEIIN TAXIDEUMT COMPARED — ELK FROM TURIN — THE DODO — BAKTLETT — HANCOCK — THE HOODED HAWK — THE COMBAT WITH THE QUARRY— THE TROPICAL OUOUP GORDON — LEADBEATER WILLIAMS AND OAUDINER — WURTEMBURG COLLECTION HERMANN PLOUClJUET — REYNAIID THE FOX — ETHNOGRAPHICAL MODELS — MEXICAN AND AMERICAN INDIANS — THE JAMMA BUNDI MODELS OF KI8UNA0HUR — HINDOOS — VARIOUS TRADES — TIIUOS —COURTS OF . which is still done. although the methods then employed differ much from those now practised. that methods resembling those used by the animal-stuffer were employed by the ancients . on the subject under review. 6.— — OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTHY. ETC. i. intelligible if we translate pellis ceriina as the mere skin of the stag. The words are " Venaticus.

It was a point of extreme interest. however carefully the drying was attended to. still it will not be inappropriate to introduce in this place the often-told. who is said to have possessed a valuable collection of living birds. These birds are reported to have given rise to the Leverian Museum. in which the majority of continental collections took their origin. the preservation of which was the main point. especially in birds . had evidently suffered by time or the ravages of insects. records of collections of objects of natural history relate to the second half of the sixteenth century and it appears from them that such museums existed chiefly in Italy. Nothing more dissimilar can be imagined for while the successfLd productions of modern times present nature to our eyes. specimens from which may yet be met with in the British Museum. and . which Pausanius saw in one of the temples of Greece. in the absence of the living bird. which were commenced by private individuals. though sportsmen had undoubtedly practised it much earlier. and show that the artist has closely studied her hidden secrets. and. These collections. in a rough inanner. and thus founded the Ashmolean museum and also to the collection of James Petiver. in relation to which the name of Francesco Calceolari deserves especial mention (Verona. This period gave birth to the collection of the Tradescants (father and son). owing to the stove used in the aviary having cracked. These all died in one night. . . on the death of this distinguished naturalist. It is only in the records of the The when the study of natural science was resuscitated. for the head of the celebrated Caledonian boar. to compare the admirable productions in taxidermy contributed to the Great Exhibition with the old specimens of the art of animal stuffing to be met witli here and there in the museums of natural history. became the nucleus of the British Museum. 1584). it is evident that these productions were of some The first . . if at all. from purely scientific motives. they then attempted to prevent the putrefaction of the remaining parts. But.* for the purpose of making effigies of callbirds. * Ahhough the foregoing sketch suffices to show that tlie art of taxidermy can only have been very gradually developed. practised during the middle ages for we rarely meet with a notice of natural objects being kept as curiosities in the treasuries of emperors. by Elias Ashmole. which was purchased in 1659. by exposing the bodies to a gradually increasing temperature. that passages are to be met with indicative of a knowledge of taxidermy. named Lever. which was much enriched by Sir Hans Sloane. in 1683. to the university of Oxford. but improbable. so much so. it kept pace with the growth and requirements of these institutions. The intensity of Mr. who presented it. while they imitated the note of the bird with their own period voice. the animals of the old stufiers resemble anything but that which they are intended to represent. and the vapours suft'ocating them. increased in number and importance in the seventeenth century. who invented animal stuffing for the occasion. or artificial contrivance. It is from this epoch. for the purpose of expelling all the water. and.188 in salt THE GREAT EXHIBITION Tlic ancients must consequently have possessed methods of preserving or honey. from the moment it became subservient to science. had lost the greater part of . anecdote of a rich gentleman of London. art of preserving animals appears to have bepu but little. The older taxidermists had evidently to direct their entire attention to overcoming the difficulties presented by the material. and he is said to have succeeded in this by tlie aid of a physician. animal substances in the dry state but they appear to have been ill-adapted to the purpose. Lever's grief at the loss of his favourites. At first they contented themselves with removing the intestines and the brain. and that imagination took its place and was allowed great latitude in the putting up of the stufl'ed effigies. that the living prototype would have recoiled in horror from the contemplation of its defunct representative. induced him to make an effort at preserving their dead bodies. its bristles. It would appear that the study of nature was not deemed to be essential. that the art of preserving skins must be dated . and princes. kings.

wliieh mould enabled him to construct a figure of a material resembling papier-mache. but which now. The pair of Impeyan Pheasants. formerly in the collection. and iu the Royal Gallery at Berlin. attention to other points of great importauce . tlie skeleton and skin of which are entire. from the moment of being freed from anxiety respecting the preservation of his subject. An iniprovcnicnt was next cHected by removing the large (icshy muscles. Bartlett exhibited an ingenious a bird which was once a ex. whom the following deserved especial notice. to be endowed with form and life-like attributes. preserved in the Belvedere at Vienna. are the data from which the figure has been compiled. and a close observation of nature. . J. feather by feather. is entirely extinct." were especially deserving of notice. he will surely fail to realize a satisfactory production. upon The number of British exhibitors was thirteen. Strickland. as far as these characteristics can be ascertained from the evidences which exist. all ])arts that rapidly nmlergo putrefaction being carefully reniovcil. and then covered. in the hands of the taxidermist. consisting now but of the head and one foot. At present. 189 an ephemeral character. in the North Transept. an artificial body has to be constructed. from the zoological museum at Turin. ance with our knowledge of the bird. which has yielded a series of uscfid preparations to the taxidermist. of Elias Ashmole. Bartlett's skill. the putreTiie opei-ator is consequently enabled to animals is prevented. tive. not only of a faithful and spirited adherence to life and nature.imple of the art in the constructed figure of the Dodo native of jSIauritius. and from that model forming a mould . and colour of the Dodo. as the marble under the chisel and mallet of the sculptor. and his practical acquaintance with the structure of birds. as they atlbrded a teini)tiiig prey to many descriptions of insects. the present instance the artist was completely successful. and of ]Mr. The process is of course very diff'erent from that of preserving a real animal. and by the aid of modern chemistry. 15y this means. 11. exhibited. the exhibitor of this specimen. A. " JleThe fleshy parts of the latter were very skillpose. Gray of the British ^Museum. the entire skeleton still reinaininG." . one of the most remarkable was an elk. whilst it reffeeted great credit on Mr. by the testimony of Mr. century . and some remains of a skeleton. entitled " Coui'tship. and all the anatomical details which arc externally traceable. It exhibited to perfection the art of representing the living animal. he strives to perfect The liis mode of representing nature. "represented with great accuracy the form. which were perhaps more attracinasmuch as they represented nature with a fidelity of which all could judge.." and the sleeping Ourang-outau. and unless. The works of art for. with such plumage as is most iu accordThis was very skilfully executed and the result. the skin alone is preserved . among this figure the skin is stretched. 3 c VOL. and thus completely alters the range of his art. A. — . a crude material. some beautiful examples. and. retaining all the fidelity of the original model. was that of modelling the animal in clay. There were other specimens exhibited by Mr. Among the many interesting specimens of stuffed animals which we noticed in the Great Exhibition. like him. D. Comba. as far as is known.OF THE WORLD'S INDUSTRY. proved that animal stuffing had been cultivated with un- faction of the stiiiled direct his — — equivocal success. Hancock. not only in its general form and character. already alluded to. Bartlett. he prepares his mind by anatomical studies. skin of the animal has now become. . and found there in considerable numbers at the beginning of the last The drawings of Savery. to many of the specimens the term might be well applied exhibited iu this department. dimensions. but The three illustrations of a skilful and harmonious combination of forms and colours. fully treated and the dried and shrivelled appearance which they so often assume was entirely avoided. but iu difliculty of effecting this is so great that in general it is scarcely attempted The process adopted by Sig. but marking also the fine and delicate uudulatious of the The flesli and muscles. of Newcastle.

Leadbeater exhibited contributed from Sardinia. so far as the careful preservation of it was concerned. if we again refer to the subject. which. with brilliant butterflies and beetles. It is : " Dulce est desipere in loco. exhibited by the playful imagination of Hermann Ploucquet who. besides an amusing display of numerous lively and spirited groups ot birds. looking lean and hungry. they deserved commendation but in respect to a delineation of the habits of the birds by appropriate scenery. Patrick. . however. the falcon has struck to the ground. A dog. or. in another group . he is the very image of The tropical group comprised cockatoos and parrots. the eye half-closed. also illustrated. what a contrast was here presented the blood-thirsty enemy standing on one foot. . brilliant assemblage of richly-plumaged birds which were most beautifully set up. Williams and Gardiner. who is struggling in vain against the attacks of his enemy whilst the eel. A . and the learned Dean of St. iu the North Transept. weasels. and universal best-companion it has been lectured on we may so . self-satisfied expression of the parrots was well brought out by comparison with the anxiety and trepidation of the Mate of the Dead Gull. prepared much in the same way as the elk J. exhibited by Dr. for a time. The third tableau exhibited the gorged falcon . disporting in a rich gluttony." indulge. the story of " Reynard the Fox. was the Hooded Hawk. combat with the Quarry. apparently of a class rather for the drawing-room than the cabinet Those denizens of the air were chiefly selected which were most disof the naturalist. in his immortal Gulliver. our calities. illustrating the ancient sport of falconry. and is in the falconer's fist. Gordon exhibited a representation of an owl " mobbed by small birds. at least to the more juvenile portion of our readers. it will." in which the action of the owl and of his tormentors was given with great liveliness and fidelity. perhaps. ! . of stuflfed animals from Wurtemburg. As. is quietly making his escape. would have been soon devoured by the heron. with the strap attached to his leg. which have hitherto held higher pretensions. however. and other animals. We " We shall not ask Jean Jacques Rousseau If birds confabulate] or no. tinguished for the brilliant colouring of their plumage and. stolid. They were. The first of the three objects. iu a variety of laughable situations. the of the heron is scarcely to be recognised in the drowsy figure other being drawn up under his breast. cats. The contrast between life and death was also well kept up. an instructive and curious collection of Indian gallinaceous birds . lizards. encouraged by the sage remark of our friend Horatius Flaccus. and other reptiles. T." people it was long a house-book. hares. from the designs of Kaulbach. but for the interposition of the hawk. was deserving of favourable notice. by which he is held on In the second group. a powerful heron. the subject was so popular in the Great Exhibition. has sanctioned the same idea we shall therefore without further preamble. C. The tropical vegetation.— 190 THE GREAT EXHIBITION of hawking. and an extensive collection of humming-birds." if ." a work which Carlyle says. Beevor of Newark." enough for us that from the days of wise iEsop to those of Fontenelle and Gay they have been supposed to do so . they fell short of the excellencies attainhave already in a former chapter briefly alluded to the collection able in this art. more mirthful propensities in an investigation of the " Comiterm them. " Among the in Germany is as popular as our " Jack the Giant-killer. heavy. with the restless gaze of the Lammergeyer of the Alps. be not altogether unacceptable. from various parts of the world was also exhibited by Messrs. the ruffled state of the feathers being exceedingly truthful. . and the scene in the tropics will go far towards raising the art of Taxidermy to a level with other arts. comprising about 300 or 400 varieties. by the display of a group of dead game.

pretends that he has been excommunicated. and to stretch the skin upon the model and it proved most successful. of whom four received prize medals. to the subsequent destruction of a part of his AVe read in our old English version of this tale how the fox was feathered brood. Ploucquet attracted by far the largest share of public attention.ed document from the king of beasts. a reluctant witness to his statement. which he accordingly does. and how Eruin. 191 in universities. and a close study of nature. There were twenty-six exhibitors of taxidermy. the action of the limbs and muscles were not minutely correct. In the opening. to get entirely out of the king's way." M. according to our sage chronicler.OF THE WORLD'S IXDUSTRY. we behold him inflicting signal punishment on Laprell. the hare. next summoned to tlic court of his royal master. " with spectacles on nose. taking wiser counsel. and that it is necessary he should go on a pilgrimage to Rome. and pretends he is acquainted with a hidden treasure. One of these dehntpiencics was which represented the fox as a jicnitent hermit with his rosary. and sends him ])ack "discomfited and The wrath of the lion may be easily imagined at the insult oftcred sorely wounded. tlie possession of which he can secure to his majesty. roijosiiif. . although. in an evil hour. more than a match for his subtle betrayer. quoted in imperial eouncil-halls. one. an attack of dogs upon a the other. Ploucquet's exhibition. however. pretending to introduce the unwary grimalkin into the priest's barn on a mouse-catching party. he passes the remainder of his days in jieaceful prosperity. The groups of M." We sliall proceed seriatim to describe the several points of actiou whicli our taxidermist laid before an admiring public. by an ingenious stratagem. on a couch. the rabbit. however. wild boar These e\dnced great spirit. before which. Accordingly. These inaccurcies. however. who naturally showed himself greatly incensed at Reynard's falsehood and duplicity. The fox. and. The process employed by M. in the last group. is easily imposed upon he therefore pardons the fox. . however. Ploucquet in preparing some of his smaller spccimetis. being mistaken for the fox. who. for having betrayed him to the king. iu the next group we behold him dragging on Kyward. and barely escapes with his life to tell his tale of grievance to the incensed king. Iksidcs this amusing episode of " the fox. finally contrives to get out of all his difficulties. the bear. he despatches Sir Tibert. defeats his enemy. and one obtained honourable mention. The king. was to mould the figure of the animal in plaster of Paris. and was tliumbcd to pieces on the bencli of the artizan. and. until at length lleynard. . and apparently i{. bring the otfender before his royal presence. scene we bchoki the liero of tlic jjiece at home in his castle of Malepardus. it lay on the toilets of priuees. Reynard.ainst him at told in the next group. After a variety of adventures. he is sorely beaten by the priest and his servants. A variety of simihar attempts and similar failures to secure the culprit are next recorded in this amusing tale. undertook to bring the false knave into the hall of justice. Ploucquet exhibited two large hunting scenes." was perusing a forj. however. imposing. he arrives at his own castle of Malepardus. such as form the subject of Snyder's pictures . who. a stag pulled down by hounds. were so few and so slight that they could not be considered to detract from the very great merit which belonged to the whole of M. decoys the poor cat into a trap where. resolves to go to court at once. blinded by his avarice. to his messenger. bothered out of his life. the cat. . nevertheless. .'norant of the heavy crimes that were tiie royal court of the lion. The wily fox is. We accordingly next behold him on his way to the eternal city with staff and beads. upon a credulous cock. to brou^lit au. devoutly meditating. in one or two instances.

some consisting of several . The figures of men and females and animals were about 300 in number. were also all deserving of equal praise. and the buildings of wood. possessed a very high interest.— 1\\e figures in the Indian Courts. or water-carrier. occupations. not so easily apprehended from any written description. The Aquador. 192 THE GREAT EXHIBITION ETHNOGKAPHICAL MODELS. manufactured iu Kisnaghur. rejoicing in triumph over the despair of a white victim. whilst moving about on his annual tour through his district. or else carved in wood. These models were confined to the Court of the Fine Arts. as conveying. soliciting a remission of part of the payments due from them. Some were indolently lying under the trees. with a truthfulness. entitled "a confessional. The figures were of plaster. more intent on the business of the day. These. and he was represented as sitting within it. the group of civilized Indians. and the group of three figures. the group of savage Indians. laden with produce. or Coolkurnees. — which was most remarkable. and some feeding an elephant . United Kingdom. less interest than the very diversified and most extensive series in the Indian Court. with the inhabitants engaged in their various pursuits. and displaying their characteristic customs in the several phases of civilized and savage life. and presented a lively representation of Indian life and character. the Indian. and habits of the natives of distant countries. however well illustrated by drawings. whilst others. The largest group. although in respect of the particular excellence which was there contemplated." as an instance displaying a rich vein of humour. and spirited figures. was contained in a model of the Jamma Bundi . apart from their excellence as works of art. which was contributed by Mr. of the East India Company's Civil Service. whom he had bound and was about to scalp. might be especially cited in illustration of this particular excellence. Several petitioners were congregated round the door of the tent. was represented inside a fortified wall which surrounded it.. surrounded by the Mauletdar and other revenue-officers. in his tattered garments. and also the American Indians habited in their proper costume. There were also to be seen the numerous shops and rows of houses in the village. and the Spanish Courts. were having their petitions written out by the village accountants. The double-poled tent of the collector was pitched at a short distance from the village . The best executed and most instructive models. which were contributed by several exhibitors. with numerous other examples which might be adduced. and painted to represent the natural colours of the various objects. but whose sufferings he was prolonging with savage cruelty. Under this title we shall describe a few collections of small figures illustrative of foreign costumes and manners. some were gazing at the performance of a snake-charmer. representing the various castes and professions of the Hindoos which collection comprised upwards of sixty illustrations. in the varied expressions and anatomical development of the different effigies. the fandango. lifelike. were either modelled in clay or plaster. The village near which the encampment was formed. The Fine Art Court contained a collection of very beautiful. modelled in wax. played by a male figure. through the eye. with the Maltese. India. with most surprising minuteness and artistic feeling. a national dance. illustrated by two Indian women dancing to the guitar. a vivid representation of the customs. Mansfield. the Ramendor. however. Those contained in the first-named department attracted by far the largest share of public attention . perhaps. both in the position and grouping. or the encampment of a government collector. called Mecos . they possessed. An Indian. They represented the natives of Mexico. or street -cobbler. and which was shown in sections. were those of clay.

though they were remarkable for the beauty and correctness of the modelling. \0L. and the strangling of travellers on horseback and on foot. and containing. and the Choiukeedar. . out of which might be especially noticed. forge. or village watchman. which were modelled in wax. Sjiabi. The other models contained in the Indian Court comprised thirty-five figures in wood from the Rajah of Joudpore . and represented the following incidents a traveller. These were only a few of the gi'oups of this most suggestive and well-executed collection. . were effigies of the Dawk-runner. it was said. the Bengal water-carrier. and the washerwoman or Dhobie. representing the inhabitants of Spain. and domiciled in a school of industry. 11. represented the principal sects in Cochin China and Tra- and weaving . The other exhibitor sent a model of one-half of the interior of the arena for bull-fights at Madrid. series of male and female figures. It is stated that some of these Thug murderers. Not far from Nasmyth's steam-hammer. that must have required all the patience of an Indian to perform. The mutilation of the bodies of the murdered. and anvil. made in wood. induced to sit down and staoke. The number of exhibitors from various countries was eleven.000 figures. or messenger who carries post-office parcels and closely watched by the unarmed policeman. were the Rro-jabassee. about 4. the Grand ^Master Lonzadari. the potter. and the weaver preparing his thread on his roiighly-tnadc loom. spinning. who stands behind him but in another group a horseman was successfully defending himself from an attack on the part of the Thugs. or bearer of the government mail-bags . of a native oil mill.OF THE WOKI.n'S INDUSTRY. the cotton-printer. which convey our correspondence with a celerity not dreamed of a few years since. They represented the Grand Master Valetta. a model of a European coui't of justice. when the fatal handkerchief is applied by a Thug. of Andalusia and Malaga but the examples were not numerous. Boileau. of these four received prize medals. excited the most painful interest. and also one of a native court models of a silk factory and an indigo factory. were illustrations of ploughing and harrowing with apparatus which no European could use. exhibiting the various incidents proper to the place. has his attention directed to the heavens. niaeliinery. Three exhibitors contributed models illustrative of the manners and dresses Two of these sent figures in painted terra-cotta. with the Master of the Order of ]\Ialta. in their proper costume. but only to order. and within a very short distance from the latest refinements in agricultural implements and machinery. after having been arrested and reclaimed. and the Dawkbiindii-hurdar. or Bheestee. there was to be seen a Hengal woman cleaning cotton with the strung-how. as representing trades. and rice-grinding. or armed watchman. were the models manufactured at Gokak. almost in closest jnxta-pnsition with splendid cotton-carding. : . and a knight. and their concealment in a well. Ma/la. and even now insignificant in comparison with the lightning speed of the electro-telegraph. the woman grinding meal. but had still a certain amount of excellence. E. exhibited by T. the Khamar. A vancore. but still most interesting. were the manufacturers of the carpets exhibited in the Indian tent. and another siiinning with the most primitive of apparatus. was represented with his simple bellows. and of a farm establishment. one of whom he had slain. 3 1) — — . The models illustrating the practices of the Thug murderers. liad not the same claims to merit as those before described. This collection comprised about forty illustrations. J. Less perfect in point of execution than the Kisnaghnr clay figures. figures 193 Ilnr. The figures from Malta. On a line with the locomotive engines. which it appears are not made as articles of export. were also represented. and one lionourable mention. or Bengal blacksmith.

and that implies in almost every manufacture science or art was involved as an element of progress. our own by hereditary and traditional right. not by a competition All European nations. In silversmith work we had introduced a large number of foreign workmen as modellers and designers. that if we were not beaten by Belgium. to offer a few of equal importance from the no less admirable " rapid transition. and from my personal conviction. without qualificatiou. we certainly were by that of many others France. before the Society of Arts. the raw material. that the nation which most cultivated them was in the ascendant. formerly our capital advantage over other nations. Were there any effects observed in the Exhibition from The official reserve. is. Though certainly very superior in our common cutlery. nevertheless. whilst our colours. and made available tc all by the improvements in locomotion industry must in future be supported. teaching how to use the alphabet of science in reading manufactures aright. which has deprived us of so much of our American trade in woollen manufactures. Belgium. but. as an inevitable law. ETC. in the present chapter. PAVOUEABLE EESULTS OF THE GEEAT EXHIBITION COMPAEISOII BEBR. ALLIANCE OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY. " is lecture of Dr. for Russia had risen to eminence iu this branch. taking place in industry. and the German woollens did not shame their birth-place." observes the learned doctor. and we now propose. Our manufacturers were justly astonished at seeing most of the foreign countries rapidly approaching and sometimes excelling us in manufactures. while each metropolis rejoices in an industrial university. — . I answer. but by a competition of intellect. need exist no longer. DAVY ON SCIENCE AND PATRONAGE QUOTATION FROM LORD BACON COMPETITION FUTURE PROGNOSTICS THE EXHIBITION A SCHOOL OF INDUSTRY. except of local advantages. Whewell. is gradually being equalised in price. necessarily this intellectual training of their industrial populations ? imposed upon me as the commissioner appointed to aid the juries. though generally as brilliant in themselves. and the only important discoveries in this manufacture were not those shown on the English side. our ancient prestige was left very doubtful. their governand every town has now its schools. — — — — — — — — — — — — — It was a wise and useful suggestion of Prince Albert's^ that our most eminent philosophers should be engaged to deliver a series of lectures on the subject of the Great have already given copious Industrial Exhibition. my own opinion and I am sure left with an unquestioned victory. The Wherever result of the Exhibition was one that England may well be startled at. have recognised this fact. did not appear to nearly so much advantage. their thinking men have proclaimed it. in the affirmative. LTON PLAYFAIR TWEEN ENGLISH AND CONTINENTAL MANUFACTURES OUE NATIONAL DEFICIENCIES CONINFINITY OF SCIENCE TEUE CAUSE OF BEITISH CLASSICAL LITEEATUEE SIDEEED SUPEEIOEITT SCIENCE THE NATURAL DESIEE OF THE HUMAN MIND OPINIONS OF EOTHEN CENTEAL COLLEGE OF AETS AND MANUFACTUEES IN PARIS INDUSTEIAL XTNITERSITT PROPOSED THE THREE LEAENED PEOFESSIONS INDUSTRY A PEOFESSION SIE H. In calico-printing and paper-staining our designs looked wonderfully French . we met with worthy competitors. extracts from the admirable Inaugural Discourse by Dr.— — lot THE GREAT EXHIBITION CHAPTER XXVII. found herself approached by competitors hitherto almost unknown . ETC. we saw. England. from a We A : . Lyon Playfair. we could not claim decided superiority in that applied to surgical instruments and were beaten in some kind of edge-tools. in ments have adopted it as a principle of state which are taught the scientific principles involved in manufactures.. — — . Neither our swords nor our guns were In our plate-glass. In flint-glass.

A thorough acquaintance with it was an absolute necessity It had a glorious literature. keep foreign designers in France at liberal salaries. it refused the lessons of defeat. If the main object of life were to fabricate literati. depend much upon foreign talent in art and foreign skill in execution but is all this not a suicidal policy." And why was that bewitching literature made the groundwork of our educational systems ? Does it not show that literature. All the visitors. highly esteemed and its language became the common medium for expression in all nations. one as fresh as to any one with pretensions to learning. in an advanced state of civilisation. but were manifestly surprised at the rapid advances making by many other nations. if we are compelled as a nation to acknowledge this truth. but chiefly rests in that education being utterly unsuited In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. character and energy will make them victories on another occasion. buy foreign science to aid them in their management. whichever might be the first of the cxhil)iting nations. I believe this is not tlic opinion of most candid and intelligent observers. classical learning to the wants of the age. and do. may have a standard excellence . the generals. In oartlicuwarc wc worn masters. that. competition in industry must. It is a grave matter for reflection. was the second. but for the nation. Let us hope After the battle of Salamis. though claiming for each other the first consideration as to generalship. . Our silversmiths and diamond setters may. . forgetting our defeats though I have much confidence that the truthfulness of our nation will save us from this peril. want of liarmony in thoir arranf^onicnt. which. unanimously and the world. ever since. whether the J'^xliibition did not show very clearly and distinctly that the rate of industrial advance of many European nations. was greater tlian our own. in our present apathy is our greatest danger ? " It is well to inquire in what we are so deficient. Do not let us nourisli our national vanity by fondly congratulating ourselves that. But our great danger is. be a competition of intellect. the Let us acknowledge our defeats when they are real. as we were successful we had little to fear. it docs not require much acumen to perceive that in a long race the fastest-sailing ships will win.USTUY. as Smith admitted that Themistocles deserved the second remarks. even of those who were obviously in our rear. that certainly our great rival. that. In hardware wc maintained our superiority. nourishing its national vanity. The Koman empire fell rapidly. The Exhibition will have produced infinite good. Our potteries may. as of old but in china and in jjorcclain our f^cncral excellence was stoutly denied. because. Its truths were eternal. 195 . and what is the reason of this Assuredly it does not consist in the absence of ptiblic philanthropy or want deficiency. as Bacon beautifully says. were agreed upon one point. who wisely buys the talent wherever he can get it. both foreign and British. like art. beyond all question. sends our capital abroad as a premium to that intellectual progress which. we should exult in our conquests. Our Manchester calico-printers may. in our national vanity. A . was. use foreign talent both in management and design. France. not for the individual manufacturer. after its revival. like " the breath and purer spirit of the earliest knowledge floating to us in tones made musical by Grecian flutes. of private zeal for education. and our English first general. has accepted this as a proof that Themistocles was. careless of the education of her sons. and if it were so. that in this there is no historical parallel. and do. The influence of capital may purchase you for a time foreign talent. which must have a termination. and construed them into victories. . when it grew on the rich soils of Rome and Greece. regarding which there were many opinions. as I believe it to liave been. and were received by us in their traditional mythology. even though they arc for a time behind. Our glass-works may. and do. although individual execUeiieies were very apparent. and that we are content to imitate where we cannot surpass. and do.OF THE WORLD'S INI. I would not dispute the wisdom of making classics .

are you their superiors? with physical science . Do You have a Newton. but presumptuously challenged Minerva to a trial of skill. whose precepts may still be attended to with Shall Englishmen slumber in that path which these great men have opened. and your sinews strengthened for a hard struggle of industry. and rise yet more glorious from their ashes. but a phoenix as before. " It is the glory of God to conceal a thing. are destroyed. they may come together. you will have no human standard of scientific knowledge. then. whence vegetables derive But in all this there is no their nutriment. Theories exist for a time. Do not regard as indifl'ercnt what is j'our true and greatest glory. and have breathed into them the breath of In the world there is a constant system of regeneration. a standard of excellence. are. The Exhibition is less a dwarf. but like the phoenix. of the valley. who in the end will win the race ? literature and art. and maketh their knowledge foolish. who is the glory. As this is so. and justly too. like the dry bones the groundwork of our education. If classical Classical literature and exact science. A — — — y 1 . " ' You have excelled all other people in the products of industry. therefore. Animals die. and thus death becomes the source of life. in trying to understand and apply to human uses His laws. in being. and by their decay pass into the atmosphere. take care that our excess of pride in the so-termed " practical " power of our population may not be punished as Arachne was of old. in what are you superior to Athens and Rome? Do you carry away from them the palm in literature and the fine arts? Do you not rather glory. Arachne was wonderfully skilled in needlework. literature be sufficient to construct your sj^inning. advantage. But why ? Because you have assisted industry by science. that God " turneth wise men backward. until earth passes away. from whom it emanates. Except in these respects. not only of your own country. but. as surely as He is infinite and man finite. however. your system of instruction is right. All ordinary powers decrease as you depart from the centre . for a dwarf on the shoulders of a giant sees farther than the giant. but of the human race. wholly antithetic. but the honour of kings to search out a matter. but if you are to be braced. in these respects. not neglect them. but that he has added the giant's height to his own. and this combination insured success. the same for wintry blasts as for gentle summer zephyrs. It is as infinite as the wisdom of God. when we do not teach them the Solace ourselves as nature of the prmciples involved in their successful prosecution? we will with vain thoughts of our gigantic position among nations Greece was higher than we are. What chance was there in such an unequal contest ? Minerva united science to her handicraft skill. These are your characteristics. Arachne was justly cast from her proud position among mortals by being changed into a spider. phoenix does not from its ashes produce an eagle. and where is she now ? It does not require a lofty stature to see the farnot that he thest . The great philosopher of scripture has said. incongruity. how can we as a nation expect to cany on those manufactui-es by our sons of industry. life.19G THE GREAT EXHIBITION They are not utterly dead. their imitators? Is it not demonstrated by the nature of your system of public education and by your In everything connected popular amusements? In what. with the experimental arts. The dry bones of dead literature may wify into new forms of literary life. while your With competitors eat that which forms the muscles and gives vigour to the sinews ? Science has not. You have a Bacon." The poet-prophet of the Bible has also told us.jennies and bleach your cottons. showed us many small states which had thus raised themselves on the shoulders of Let us science within the last few years. is it wise that you should devour poetry. but the power of knowledge augments the farther it is removed from the human God has given to man much mental gratification source from which it was transmitted." And. like such difi'ei'ent trainings. ever spinning the same web in the same way. while we are merely hovering about its skirts.

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