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Background Evolved Packet System Architecture LTE Radio Interface Radio Resource Management LTE-Advanced
3GPP Evolution – Background
Discussion started in Dec 2004 State of the art then: The combination of HSDPA and E-DCH provides very efficient packet data transmission capabilities, but UMTS should continue to be evolved to meet the ever increasing demand of new applications and user expectations. 10 years have passed since the initiation of the 3G programme and it is time to initiate a new programme to evolve 3G which will lead to a 4G technology. From the application/user perspectives, the UMTS evolution should target at significantly higher data rates and throughput, lower network latency, and support of always-on connectivity. From the operator perspectives an evolved UMTS will make business sense if it: perspectives,
Provide significantly improved power and bandwidth efficiencies Facilitate the convergence with other networks/technologies Reduce transport network cost Limit additional complexity
Evolved-UTRA is a packet only network - there is no support of circuit switched ( ) services (no MSC) Evolved-UTRA starts on a clean state - everything is up for discussion including the system architecture and the split of functionality between RAN and CN Led to 3GPP Study Item (Study Phase: 2005-4Q2006) „3G Long-term Evolution (LTE)” f new R di A 3G L t E l ti for Radio Access and “System Architecture Evolution” (SAE) for Evolved Network
UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 2
LTE Requirements and Performance Targets
High Peak Data Rates
100 Mbps DL (20 MHz, 2x2 MIMO) 50 Mbps UL (20 MHz, 1x2)
Improved Spectrum Efficiency
3-4x HSPA Rel’6 in DL* 2-3x HSPA Rel’6 in UL 1 bps/Hz broadcast
* Assumes 2x2 in DL for LTE, but 1x2 for HSPA Rel’6
Improved Cell Edge Rates Support Scalable BW
1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz 2 3x 2-3x HSPA Rel’6 in DL* Rel 6 DL 2-3x HSPA Rel’6 in UL Full broadband coverage
< 5ms user plane (UE to RAN edge) <100ms camped to active < 50ms dormant to active
Packet Domain Only ac et o a O ly
High VoIP capacity Simplified network architecture
Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim
2009 4 . 2. Jens Mückenheim Dec. or 4 Tx antennas in the DL and MU-MIMO in the UL Simplified network architecture Reduction in number of logical nodes → flatter architecture Clean separation of user and control plane UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Key Features of LTE to Meet Requirements Selection of OFDM for the air interface Less receiver complexity Robust to frequency selective fading and inter-symbol interference (ISI) Access to both time and frequency domain allows additional flexibility in scheduling (including interference coordination) Scalable OFDM makes it straightforward to extend to different g transmission bandwidths Integration of MIMO techniques Pilot structure to support 1.
concepts approved RAN 35 March 07 Stage 2 Technical Specs RAN 37 Sept 07 Stage 3 Technical SpecsSpecs L1 & L2 RAN 42 Dec 08 Test Specs Corrections Phase (2008 and beyond) LTE 2006 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 2007 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 2008 Q2 Q3 Q4 R7 HSPA+ RAN 34 Dec 06 NEW WI (64/16 QAM) RAN 35 Mar 07 WI Completion (inc 64QAM) RAN 36 Jun 07 WI Completion 16QAM UL RAN 37 Sept 07 WI Completion (performance) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 2009 5 . Jens Mückenheim Dec. MIMO) REVOLUTION towards LTE/SAE (OFDM based) Stage 2 (Principles) completed in March 07 Stage 3 (Specifications) completed in Dec 07 Test specifications completed in Dec 08 RAN 38 Dec 07 Stage Technical St g 3 T h i l Specs – L3 RAN 32 March 06 WI agreed.3GPP / LTE R7/R8 specifications timeline After Study Phase: Two Lines in 3GPP EVOLUTION of HSPA to HSPA+ (enhanced W-CDMA incl.
the radio access network as well as the core network LTE would not be backward compatible with UMTS/ HSPA ! RAN working groups would focus on the air interface and radio access network aspects System Architecture (SA) working groups would develop the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Note o te ote on terminology o ogy In the RAN working groups term Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) are used interchangeably. In the SA working groups the term System Architecture Evolution (SAE) was used to signify the broad framework for the architecture For some time the term LTE/SAE was used to describe the new evolved system. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 6 . but now this has become known as the Evolved Packet System (EPS) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Terminology: LTE + SAE = EPS From set of requirements it was clear that evolution work would be required for both.
some functions will disappear f ti ill di 4 layers into 2 layers Evolve GGSN integrated S-GW S GW Moving SGSN functionalities to S-GW. Jens Mückenheim Dec. RNC evolutions to RRM on a l ti t IP distributed network for enhancing mobility management.Network Simplification: From 3GPP to 3GPP LTE 3GPP architecture 4 functional entities on the control plane and user plane 3 standardized user plane & control plane interfaces Control plane p User plane Control plane p User plane GGSN MME MMF ASGW S-GW SGSN RNC NodeB eNodeB S-GW: S GW: Serving Gateway MME: Mobility Management Entity eNodeB: Evolved NodeB 3GPP LTE architecture 2 functional entities on the user plane: eNodeB and S-GW SGSN control plane functions S-GW & MME Less interfaces. 2009 7 . Part of RNC mobility function being moved to S-GW & eNodeB UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
Evolved UTRAN Architecture Key elements of network architecture No more RNC RNC layers/functionalities moves in eNB X2 interface for seamless mobility (i. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 8 . data/ context forwarding) and interference management Note: Standard only defines logical structure/ Nodes ! MME/S-GW MME/S-GW EP PC S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 E-UTRAN N eNB NB X2 eNB X2 X2 NB eNB EPC = Evolved Packet Core UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.e.
2G/3G and LTE NAS signaling g g Authentication Bearer management functions Serving Gateway Local mobility anchor for inter-eNB handovers Mobility anchor for inter-3GPP handovers Idle mode DL packet buffering Lawful interception Packet routing and forwarding PDN Gateway UE IP address allocation Mobility anchor between 3GPP and non-3GPP access Connectivity to Packet Data Network UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.EPS Architecture – Functional description of the Nodes eNodeB contains all radio access functions Admission Control Scheduling of UL & DL data Scheduling and transmission of paging and system broadcast IP header compression Outer ARQ (RLC) MME control plane functions Idle mode UE reachability Tracking area list management S-GW/P-GW selection Inter core network node signaling for mobility bw. 2009 9 . Jens Mückenheim Dec.
2009 MME 10 .EPS Architecture – Control Plane Layout over S1 NAS sub-layer performs: Authentication Security control Idle mode mobility handling Idle mode paging origination RRC sub layer performs: sub-layer Broadcasting Paging Connection Mgt Radio bearer control Mobility functions UE measurement reporting & control PDCP sub-layer performs: Integrity protection & ciphering UE UMTS Networks eNode-B Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
Jens Mückenheim Dec. MIMO) PDCP sub-layer performs: Header compression Ciphering S-Gateway RLC sub-layer performs: bl f Transferring upper layer PDUs In-sequence delivery of PDUs Error correction through ARQ Duplicate detection Flow control Segmentation/ Concatenation of SDUs MAC sub-layer performs: Scheduling Error correction through HARQ Priority handling across UEs & logical channels h l Multiplexing/de-multiplexing of RLC radio bearers into/from PhCHs on TrCHs UE UMTS Networks eNode-B Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.EPS Architecture – User Plane Layout over S1 Physical sub-layer performs: DL: ODFMA. UL: SC-FDMA FEC UL power control Multi-stream transmission & reception (i. 2009 MME 11 .e.
handles IP address allocation S3 interface connects MME directly to SGSN for signaling to support mobility across LTE and UTRAN/GERAN. Jens Mückenheim Dec. S4 allows direction of user plane between LTE and GERAN/ UTRAN (uses GTP) ( G ) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 2009 12 .EPS Architecture – Interworking for 3GPP and non-3GPP Access GERAN SGSN S3 non-3GPP Access UTRAN S1-MME MME S11 S4 E-UTRAN S1-U Serving GW S5 PDN GW Internet EPS Core Serving GW anchors mobility for intra-LTE handover between eNBs as well as mobility between 3GPP access systems → HSPA/EDGE uses EPS core for access to packet data networks PDN GW is the mobility anchor between 3GPP and non-3GPP access systems (SAE non 3GPP anchor function).
2009 13 . 16QAM. and 64QAM (optional for UE) QPSK 16QAM Rel-6 Turbo code: Coding rate of 1/3. Multi-user MIMO also supported. and a contention-free internal interleaver. and 64QAM UL modulations: QPSK.LTE Key Radio Features (Release 8) Multiple access scheme DL: OFDMA with CP UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP Adaptive modulation and coding DL modulations: QPSK. two 8-state constituent encoders. Implicit support for interference coordination Support for both FDD and TDD UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 16QAM. Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing techniques (2 or 4)x(2 or 4) downlink and uplink supported. ARQ within RLC sublayer and Hybrid ARQ within MAC sublayer. Jens Mückenheim Dec. supported Multi-layer transmission with up to four streams.
Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 14 .LTE Frequency Bands LTE will support all band classes currently specified for UMTS as well as additional bands UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
2009 15 .OFDM Basics – Overlapping Orthogonal OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple-Access FDM/ FDMA is nothing new: carriers are separated sufficiently in frequency so that there is minimal overlap to prevent cross-talk. Jens Mückenheim Dec. if specially designed → saved bandwidth ! OFDM saved bandwidth frequency UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. conventional FDM frequency f OFDM: still FDM but carriers can actually be orthogonal (no cross-talk) while actually overlapping.
7 0. e.6 0.9 1 time UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.3 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.g.2 0 -0. Jens Mückenheim Dec.6 0.4 -0.1 0.2 -0.2 4 5 6 7 8 9 x 10 freq 5 Time domain: simple gated sinusoid functions For orthogonality: each symbol has an integer number of cycles over the symbol time fundamental frequency f0 = 1/T Other sinusoids with fk = k • f0 T = symbol time 1 0.6 0.2 0 -0.8 0.2 0.6 -0.8 0.OFDM Basics – Waveforms Δf = 1/T Frequency domain: overlapping sinc functions Referred to as subcarriers Typically quite narrow e g 15 kHz narrow. 2009 16 . 1 0.8 -1 0 0.5 0.
OFDM Basics – The Full OFDM Transceiver
Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim
OFDM Basics – Cyclic Prefix
ISI (between OFDM symbols) eliminated almost completely by inserting a TG guard time TG
OFDM Symbol OFDM Symbol OFDM Symbol
y , y Within an OFDM symbol, the data symbols modulated onto the subcarriers are only orthogonal if there are an integer number of sinusoidal cycles within the receiver window
Filling the guard time with a cyclic prefix (CP) ensures orthogonality of g g y p ( ) g y subcarriers even in the presence of multipath elimination of same cell interference
CP Useful OFDM symbol time CP Useful OFDM symbol time CP Useful OFDM symbol time OFDM symbol
Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim
Dec. 2009 18
Comparison with CDMA – Principle
OFDM: particular modulation symbol is carried over a relatively long symbol time and narrow bandwidth LTE: 66.6 µsec symbol time and 15 kHz bandwidth For higher data rates send more symbols by using more sub-carriers → increases bandwidth occupancy CDMA: particular modulation symbol is carried over a relatively short symbol time and a wide bandwidth UMTS HSPA: 4.17 µsec symbol time and 3.84 Mhz bandwidth To get higher data rates use more sp ead g codes o g e ates o e spreading
symbol symbol symbol symbol
0 1 2 3 frequency frequency
Dec. 2009 19
Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mückenheim
symbol symbol symbol symbol
0 1 2 3
2009 20 .Comparison with CDMA – Time Domain Perspective Short symbol times in CDMA lead to ISI in the presence of multipath 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 CDMA symbols b l Multipath reflections from one symbol significantly overlap subsequent symbols → ISI b l Long symbol times in OFDM together with CP prevent ISI from multipath L b l i i h ih f li h CP CP CP 1 1 1 CP CP CP 2 2 2 Little to no overlap in symbols from multipath UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
2009 21 . experience both good and bad parts of the channel response in frequency domain In OFDM each symbol is carried by a subcarrier over a narrow part of y y p the band → can avoid send symbols where channel frequency response is poor based on frequency selective channel knowledge → frequency selective scheduling gain in OFDM systems UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Comparison with CDMA – Frequency Domain Perspective In CDMA each symbol is spread over a large bandwidth. hence it will y p g . Jens Mückenheim Dec.
and the OFDM symbol time should be much larger than CP length to avoid significant overhead from the CP On the other hand.OFDM Basics – Choosing the Symbol Time for LTE Two competing factors in determining the right OFDM symbol time: CP length should be longer than worst case multipath delay spread.7 µs ~66. the OFDM symbol time should be much smaller than the shortest expected coherence time of the channel to avoid channel variability p y within the symbol time LTE is designed to operate in delay spreads up to ~5μs and for speeds up to 350 km/h (1. 2009 22 . As such.6 μs(= 1/20 the worst case coherence time) Δf = 15 kHz ~4.7 µs CP UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.6GHz).2ms coherence time @ 2. the following was decided: CP length = 4. Jens Mückenheim Dec.7 μs OFDM symbol time = 66.
MHz MHz MHz 3 MHz. 2048 point FFT for 20 MHz) Influence of delay spread.6 µs) regardless of the operating bandwidth (1. 512 point FFT for 5 MHz.4 MHz. Doppler due to user mobility. etc. remain the same as the system bandwidth is changed robust design UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 5 MHz. 20 MHz) MHz MHz The total number of subcarriers is varied in order to operate in different bandwidths This is done by specifying different FFT sizes (i. 2009 23 . timing accuracy.e. 10 MHz. the subcarrier spacing stays fixed at 15 kHz (hence symbol time is fixed to 66. 15 MHz.Scalable OFDM for Different Operating Bandwidths With Scalable OFDM. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
LTE Downlink Frame Structure Subframe length relevant to the latency requirement Spectrum allocation Slot duration Sub-frame Sub frame duration Sub-carrier spacing Sampling S li frequency FFT size Number of sub-carriers OFDM symbols per slot CP length Short Long 1.84) 512 300 15.84) 1536 900 Sampling rates are multiples of UMTS chip rate.84) 128 75 3.21 s 5 21 μs x 1 16.84) 1024 600 23.5 kHz for MBMS) 1.84) 2048 1200 FFT size scales to support larger bandwidth Scalable OFDM 7 (short CP). 2009 24 . 6 (long CP) 4.36 MH 15 36 MHz (4 × 3.72 MH 30 72 MHz (8 × 3.04 MH 23 04 MHz (6 × 3.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 0.0 ms ( = 2 slots) 15 kHz (7. to ease implementation of dual mode UMTS/LTE terminals 30.69 μs x 6 5.92 1 92 MHz (1/2 × 3.67 μs UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.5 ms 15 MHz 20 MHz 1.68 MH 7 68 MHz (2 × 3. Jens Mückenheim Dec.84 MHz 256 150 7.
Multiple Antenna Techniques Supported in LTE Spatial Multiplexing (SM) SU-MIMO Multiple data streams sent to the same user ( (max. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 25 . 2 codewords) ) Significant throughput gains for UEs in high SINR conditions Spatial Di i i M lti l A S ti l Division Multiple Access (SDMA) MU-MIMO or Beamforming Different data streams sent to different users us g t e same time-frequency esou ces using the sa e t e eque cy resources Improves throughput even in low SINR conditions (cell-edge) Works even for single antenna mobiles Transmit diversity (TxDiv) Improves reliability on a single data stream Fall b k h F ll back scheme if channel conditions do h l diti d not allow SM Useful to improve reliability on common control channels UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
Jens Mückenheim Dec.MIMO Support is Different in Downlink and Uplink Downlink Supports SU-MIMO. 2009 26 . MU-MIMO. TxDiv Uplink Initial l I i i l release of LTE does only support MU-MIMO with a single transmit f d l MU MIMO i h i l i Desire to avoid multiple power amplifiers at UE antenna at the UE UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
etc. sample rates. FFT sizes. 2009 27 . CP length.5 ms) and subframe length (1 ms) is the same than LTE FDD with the same numerology (OFDM symbol times.LTE Duplexing Modes LTE supports both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) to provide flexible operation in a variety of spectrum allocations around the world. Unlike UMTS TDD there is a high commonality between LTE TDD & LTE FDD Slot length (0. TD-SCDMA) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec.) UL/ DL switching points designed to allow co coexistance with UMTS-TDD (TD-CDMA.
only the UE cannot transmit and receive at the same time Note. LTE supports also Half Duplex FDD (HD-FDD) TDD Half-Duplex (HD FDD) HD-FDD is like FDD. Jens Mückenheim Dec. HD-FDD leads to duplex desense in UE UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.LTE Half-Duplex FDD In addition to FDD & TDD. 2009 28 . half-duplex is enforced by the eNodeB scheduler Reasons for HD-FDD Handsets are cheaper. as no duplexer is required More commonality between TDD and HD-FDD than compared to full y p duplex FDD Certain FDD spectrum allocations have small duplex space. Note that the eNodeB can still transmit and receive at the same time to different UEs.
67 µs Different UEs are assigned different sets of subcarriers so that they remain orthogonal to each other (except MU-MIMO) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.LTE Downlink The LTE downlink uses scalable OFDMA Fixed subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz for unicast Symbol time fixed at T = 1/15 kHz = 66. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 29 .
Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 30 .Physical Channels to Support LTE Downlink Carries DL traffic DL resource allocation Time span of PDCCH eNode-B N d B HARQ feedback for DL CQI reporting UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
2009 31 . Transport and Physical Channels Downlink Logical channels Control Channels Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) Traffic Channels Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) Downlink Transport channels Broadcast Channel (BCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) Multicast Channel (MCH) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Mapping between DL Logical. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
52 μs timing advance resolution UE A UE B Node B UE C α β γ UE A Transmit Timing UE B Transmit Timing UE C Transmit Timing T it Ti i UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. SC-FDMA results in better PAPR Reduced PA back-off improved coverage SC-FDMA is still an orthogonal multiple access scheme l l h UEs are orthogonal in frequency Synchronous in the time domain y through the use of timing advance (TA) signaling Only need to be synchronous y y within a fraction of the CP length 0. 2009 32 .LTE Uplink Transmission Scheme (1/2) To facilitate efficient power amplifier design in the UE. 3GPP chose single carrier frequency domain multiple access (SC-FDMA) in favor of OFDMA for uplink multiple access access. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
this front end pre coder is referred to as either DFT-pre-coded OFDMA or DFT-spread OFDMA (DFTSOFDMA) Advantage is that numerology (subcarrier spacing. etc. 2009 33 . symbol times.) can be shared between uplink and downlink Can still allocate variable bandwidth in units of 12 sub-carriers Each modulation symbol sees a wider bandwidth UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.LTE Uplink Transmission Scheme (2/2) SC-FDMA SC FDMA implemented using an OFDMA front-end and a DFT pre-coder. FFT spacing times sizes. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
Physical Channels to Support LTE Uplink Carries UL Traffic Random access for initial access and UL timing alignment UL scheduling request for time synchronized IEs eNode-B UL scheduling grant HARQ feedback for UL UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 2009 34 . Jens Mückenheim Dec.
Mapping between UL Logical. Transport and Physical Channels Uplink Logical channels Control Channels Common Control Channel (CCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Traffic Channels Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Uplink Transport channels Uplink Shared Channel (UL SCH) (UL-SCH) Random Access Channel(s) (RACH) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 2009 35 . Jens Mückenheim Dec.
8 MBps 4 19. SCH UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.4 MBps 25.4 MBps 129.6 MBps 50 MBps 81.5 MBps 90 MBps 2 10. 1OFDM symbol for L1/L2.9 MBps 43. Jens Mückenheim Dec.6 81 6 MBps 163.2 43 2 MBps 86. 2009 36 .4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz 5.8 MBps 326.4 MBps assumptions: 64QAM.6 MBps 172.4 MBps 13. code rate =1. ignores subframes with P-BCH.5 MBps 22.Downlink Peak Rates # of parallel streams supported bandwidth 1 1.2 MBps 244.5 22 5 MBps 45 MBps 67.
9 MBps p 11.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz 2. ignores subframes with PRACH.Uplink Peak Rates Highest Modulation bandwidth 16 QAM 1.5 MBps 62.6 MBps 41.3 MBps p 41.4 MBps 17. takes into account highest prime factor restriction prime-factor UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. no SRS. 2PRBs reserved for PUCCH (1 for 1.9 MBps 6.9 MBps assumptions: code rate =1.5 MBps 27.5 MBps 55. Jens Mückenheim Dec.2 MBps 82. 2009 37 .3 MBps 64QAM 4.4MHz).3 MBps 10.
2009 38 . Jens Mückenheim Dec. e. there is no concept of an autonomous transmission.5ms Slot = 0. shared channel on both the uplink (UL-SCH) and the downlink (DL-SCH) Normally. all transmissions in both uplink and downlink must be explicitly scheduled Downlink Scheduling Frequ uency 14 OFDM symbols b l <=3 OFDM symbols for PDCCH UE A UE B UE C 12 subcarriers Slot = 0.g.5ms Time LTE allows "semi-persistent" (periodical) allocation of resources.Scheduling and Resource Allocation (1/2) LTE uses a scheduled. for VoIP UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
2009 39 . Jens Mückenheim Dec.Scheduling and Resource Allocation (2/2) Basic unit of allocation is called a Resource Block (RB) 12 subcarriers in frequency (= 180 kHz) 1 sub frame in time ( 1 ms.0 30 15 5.0 15 0 75 20.0 10 0 50 15.0 50 25 10.4 14 6 3. = 14 OFDM symbols) sub-frame (= Multiple resource blocks can be allocated to a user in a given subframe 12 sub-carriers (180 kHz) The total number of RBs available depends on the operating bandwidth Bandwidth (MHz) Number of available resource blocks UMTS Networks 1.0 20 0 100 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
g. e. for HO UE eNB 1 Random Access Preamble Random Access Response 2 3 Scheduled Transmission Contention Resolution 4 Contention based RA Non-Contention based RA UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Random-Access Procedure RACH only used for Random Access Preamble Response/ Data are sent over SCH Non-contention based RA to improve access time. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 40 .
saves BCH resources For search and measurement of inter-frequency neighboring cells only carrier frequency need to be indicated X2 interface used for handover preparation and forwarding of user data p p g Target eNB prepares handover by sending required information to UE transparently through source eNB as part of the Handover Request Acknowledge message g g New configuration information needed from system broadcast Accelerates handover as UE does not need to read BCH on target cell Buffered and new data is transferred from source to target eNB until path switch → prevents data loss UE uses contention-free random access to accelerate handover UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec. network decides when handover and to which cell Relies on UE to detect neighbor cells → no need to maintain and broadcast neighbor lists Allows "plug-and-play" capability. 2009 41 .LTE Handover (1/2) LTE uses UE assisted network controlled handover UE-assisted UE reports measurements.
) ~ 35 msec Synchronization (9. 2009 42 .LTE Handover (2/2) Characteristics No soft handover Handover latency (2. – 11. Jens Mückenheim Dec.) on RACH UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. – 11.) ~ 55 msec Handover Interruption (7.
Tracking Area BCCH TAI 2 BCCH TAI 1 BCCH TAI 1 BCCH TAI 1 BCCH TAI 1 BCCH TAI 1 BCCH TAI 2 BCCH TAI 2 BCCH TAI 2 BCCH TAI 2 BCCH TAI 2 BCCH TAI 3 BCCH TAI 3 BCCH TAI 3 BCCH TAI 3 Tracking Area 2 Tracking Area 1 Tracking Area 3 Tracking Area Identifier (TAI) sent over Broadcast Channel BCH Tracking A eas T acking Areas can be shared by multiple MMEs sha ed b m ltiple UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 43 .
2009 44 .EPS Bearer Service Architecture E-UTRAN EPC Internet UE eNB S-GW P-GW Peer Entity End-to-end Service EPS Bearer External Bearer Radio Bearer S1 Bearer S5/S8 Bearer Radio S1 S5/S8 Gi UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
no context in eNodeB (but EPS bearers are retained) UE controls mobility through cell selection UE specific paging DRX cycle controlled by upper layers UE acquires system information from BCH UE monitors paging channel to detect p g g incoming calls RRC connection and context in eNodeB Network controlled mobility Transfer of unicast and broadcast d t T f f i t d b d t data to and from UE UE monitors control channels associated with the shared data channels UE provides channel quality and feedback information Connected mode DRX can be configured by eNodeB according to UE activity level UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.LTE RRC States Establish RRC connection RRC_IDLE Release RRC connection RRC_Connected No RRC connection. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 45 .
Jens Mückenheim Dec. RRC_IDLE) UE performs cell selection and tracking area updates (TAU) Signaling connection established between UE and MME consists of two MME. 2009 46 . components RRC connection S1-MME connection UE location is known to accuracy of Cell-ID UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.EPS Connection Management States Signaling connection established ECM_IDLE Signaling connection released ECM_Connected No signaling connection between UE and core network (no S1 U/ S1-MME) S1-U/ S1 MME) No RRC connection (i.e.
2009 47 . Jens Mückenheim Dec.EPS Mobility Management States Attach EMM_Deregistered Detach EMM_Registered EMM context holds no valid location or routing information for UE UE is not reachable by MME as UE location is not known UE successfully registers with MME with Attach procedure or Tracking Area Update (TAU) UE location known within tracking area MME can page to UE UE always has at least one PDN connection UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
next slides) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 8) is stable ( ) Rel. 2009 48 . MIMO and HOM SAE/ EPS realizes a flatter IP-based network architecture with less complexity eNodeB. P-GW Some procedures/protocols are being re-used from UMTS Protocol stack Concept of Logical/ Transport/ Physical Channels Complexity is significantly reduced Reduced UE state space R d d Most transmission uses SCH LTE standard (Rel. 9: technical enhancements/ E-MBMS Rel. S-GW. 10: LTE-Advanced (cf.LTE – Summary LTE is a new air interface with no backward compatibility to WCDMA Combination of OFDM.
2009 49 .LTE-Advanced The evolution of LTE Corresponding to LTE Release 10 and beyond Motivation of LTE-Advanced IMT-Advanced standardisation process in ITU-R Additional IMT spectrum band identified in WRC07 Further evolution of LTE Release 8 and 9 to meet: Requirements for IMT-Advanced of ITU-R Future operator and end-user requirements ITU 2008 Circular Letter 2009 Proposals P l Evaluation 2010 Specification IMT-Advanced recommendation 3GPP 3GPP WS IMT-Advanced IMT Ad d Study Item phase Work Item phase First submission Final submission LTE release 10 (”LTE-Advanced”) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
2009 50 . Jens Mückenheim Dec.Evolution from IMT-2000 to IMT-Advanced IMT-Advanced will encompass the capabilities of previous systems New capabilities of IMT-Advanced High Mobility IMT-2000 Enhanced IMT-2000 New M bil N Mobile Access Enhancement t Enhancemen Low New Nomadic / Local Area Wireless Access 1 10 100 Peak useful data rate (Mbit/s) 1000 Interconnection Nomadic / Local Area Access Systems Digital Broadcast Systems • 5 0 UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
75 3 75 300 Mbps LTE-Advanced 1 Gbps IMT-Advanced 1 Gbps(*) 500 Mbps 30 15 15 6. 2009 51 . Jens Mückenheim Dec. 8 LTE DL Peak data rate UL DL UL 75 Mbps 15 3.System Performance Requirements Peak data rate 1 Gbps data rate will be achieved by 4-by-4 MIMO and transmission bandwidth wider than approximately 70 MHz Peak spectrum efficiency DL: Rel.75 6 75 Peak spectrum efficiency [bps/Hz] *“100 Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps for low mobility” is one of the key features as written in Circular Letter (CL) UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 8 LTE satisfies IMT-Advanced requirement UL: Need to double from Release 8 to satisfy IMT-Advanced requirement Rel.
8 LTE eNB to Rel. p y y Relaying Type 1 relays create a separate cell and appear as Rel. coverage. deployment flexibility g g p . 8 LTE UEs Coverage. spectrum flexibility rate Advanced MIMO techniques Extension to up to 8-layer transmission in downlink Introduction of single-user MIMO up to 4-layer transmission in uplink d f l l l k Peak data rate. g . Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 52 . cell-edge user throughput Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception (CoMP) CoMP transmission in downlink CoMP reception in uplink Cell-edge user throughput. cost effective deployment Further reduction of delay AS/NAS parallel processing for reduction of C-Plane delay C Plane UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Technical Outline to Achieve LTE-Advanced Requirements Support wider bandwidth Carrier aggregation to achieve wider bandwidth Support of spectrum aggregation Peak data rate. capacity.
100 MHz.g.. comprises multiple basic frequency blocks called component carriers (CCs) Each CC is backward compatible with Rel. (R l 8 LTE) CC.g. 8 LTE Carrier aggregation supports both contiguous and non-contiguous spectrums. and asymmetric bandwidth for FDD System bandwidth. Jens Mückenheim Dec..g. e.Carrier Aggregation Wider bandwidth transmission using carrier aggregation Entire system bandwidth up to. 20 MHz Frequency UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 2009 53 . e. e. 100 MHz UE capabilities • 100 MHz case 100-MHz • 40-MHz case • 20-MHz case (Rel..
Advanced MIMO Techniques Extension up to 8-stream transmission 8 stream for single-user (SU) MIMO in downlink improve downlink peak spectrum efficiency Higher-order MIMO up to 8 streams Max. 8 streams Enhanced multi-user (MU) MIMO in do downlink Enhanced MU-MIMO MU MIMO CSI feedback Introduction of single-user (SU)-MIMO up to 4-stream transmission in uplink Satisfy IMT requirement for uplink peak spectrum efficiency SU-MIMO up to 4 streams UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. 2009 Max. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 4 streams 54 .
2009 55 .g.. MMSEC) Multipoint reception UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.Coordinated Multipoint Transmission/ Reception (CoMP) Enhanced service provisioning. especially provisioning for cell-edge users CoMP transmission schemes in downlink Joint processing (JP) from multiple geographically separated points Coordinated scheduling/beamforming (CS/CB) between cell sites Similar for the uplink Dynamic coordination in uplink scheduling Joint reception at multiple sites Coordinated scheduling/beamforming Coherent combining or dynamic cell selection Joint transmission/dynamic cell selection Receiver signal p processing at g g central eNB (e. MRC. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
Relaying Type 1 relay Relay node (RN) creates a separate cell distinct from the donor cell UE receives/transmits control signals for scheduling and HARQ from/to RN RN appears as a Rel. 2009 56 . 8 LTE eNB to Rel. 8 LTE UEs Deploy cells in the areas where wired backhaul is not available or very expensive Higher node Cell ID #x Cell ID #y UE eNB RN UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
EASY-C Overview EASY C Project topics / objectives BMBF project 3 year project / start Q2/2007 Preparation of a new Standard: “LTE Advanced” Focus on improved spectral efficiency.de Project partners: UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel. fairness. and latency y Working groups WG1: Algorithms and Concepts WG2: Technology Test Beds WG3: Hardware Architecture Web page: http://www. cell border throughput. 2009 57 .easy-c. Jens Mückenheim Dec.
2009 58 .EASY-C Testbeds in Dresden and Berlin Dresden: testbed focussed on physical layer aspects Berlin: focus on new algorithms services algorithms. Jens Mückenheim Dec. and applications UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
912 “Feasibility study for evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) and Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN)” dU i lT t i l R di A N t k TR 25. Jens Mückenheim Dec. 2009 59 .OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access. October 2009 Standards TS 36. Nakamura (RAN chairman): “Proposal for Candidate Radio Interface Technologies for IMT-Advanced Based on LTE Release 10 and Beyond LTEAdvanced). Toskala (Ed.LTE References Literature: H. 1/2007. 12–24 T. Stage 2” TR 25.xxx series: RAN Aspects TS 36.814 “Physical layer aspect for evolved UTRA” TR 23. pp.” ITU-R WP 5D 3rd Workshop on IMT-Advanced.” Wiley 2009 E.814 “Further Advancements for E-UTRA . Nachrichtentechnische Zeitung.882 “3GPP System Architecture Evolution: Report on Technical Options and Conclusions Conclusions” TR 36.912 “Feasibility study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTEAdvanced)” TR 36.Physical Layer Aspects” UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.): “LTE for UMTS . Holma/ A. Overall description. HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband.” 2nd edition. Dahlman et al: “3G Evolution. Elsevier 2008 Special Issue on LTE/ WIMAX.300 “E-UTRAN.
2009 60 . Jens Mückenheim Dec.Abbreviations CP DFT DRX ECM EMM eNodeB/eNB EPC EPS E-UTRAN FDD FDM FFT HD-FDD HO HOM IFFT ISI LTE MIMO MME MU Cyclic Prefix Discrete Fourier Transformation Discontinuous Reception EPS Connection Management EPS Mobility Management Evolved NodeB Evolved Packet Core Evolved Packet System Frequency-Division Duplex Frequency-Division Multiplexing Fast Fourier Transformation Half-Duplex FDD Handover Higher Order Modulation Inverse FFT Inter-Symbol Interference Long Term Evolution Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Mobility Management Entity Multi-User OFDM OFDMA PDN P-GW RA RB RRC SAE SCH S-GW SC-FDMA SU TDD TA TAI TAU UE Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency-Division MultipleAccess Packet Data Network PDN Gateway Random Access Resource Block Radio Resource Control System Architecture Evolution Shared Channel Serving Gateway Single Carrier FDMA Single User Time-Division Duplex Timing Advance/ Tracking Area Tracking Area Indicator Tracking Area Update User Equipment UMTS Networks Andreas Mitschele-Thiel.
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