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The reason for proposing the alternate system to be more precise the solar system that we are using as
our proposed alternate energy system is that it is environment friendly. Moreover it is suited as far as
weather conditions of Pakistan are concerned. Cost wise our project don͛t have any running cost. The
project is also life long as we don͛t need to alterations in circuitry or mechanical design once we are
done with it.



3V MPPT Charger

3V Tilted Single Axis Solar Tracker

3V   ighting System


There are two types of solar tracker

1. Single axis solar tracker

2. ual axis solar tracker


This type is further divided into 3 more types

1.V orizontal single axis tracker

2.V Vertical single axis tracker
3.V Tilted single axis tracker.


orizontal single axis tracker is more suitable for tropical regions.


Vertical single axis tracker is suitable for higher latitude regions.


Tilted single axis tracker is suitable for the regions between tropical and higher latitude regions.

By using this type there is increase of 30% in output.


ual axis solar tracker has one type, that is :

1.V Tip-Tilt dual axis tracker.


This type of solar tracker can point at any location in the sky regardless of geographical location, but
at the expense of cost and complexity and with the increase of only 6% with respect to tilted single
axis .


The tracker we are using is tilted single axis tracker.


aV Tilted axis most suitable for Pakistan͛s geographic location.

aV cncrease in performance of dual axis doesn͛t justify its cost.



The final function of modern solar charge controllers is preventing reverse-current flow. At
night, when solar panels aren͛t generating electricity, electricity can actually flow backwards
from the batteries through the solar panels, draining the batteries. You͛ve worked hard all day
using solar power to charge the batteries; you don͛t want to waste all that power! The charge
controller can detect when no energy is coming from the solar panels and open the circuit,
disconnecting the solar panels from the batteries and stopping reverse current flow.

!  !  



Capable of taking a higher voltage and down converting it to a lower voltage. The main
difference between MPPT and other charger lies in the fact that the MPPT will continually track
the optimum voltage whereas other charger lacks this capability. Moreover the fficiency of
MPPT charger is 98%.MPPT charger reduces power loss.
MPPT charger works more efficiently in cloudy conditions.


There is no down converting to lower voltage. Panel nominal voltage must match battery
nominal voltage.The fficiency of PWM charger is 66-75%.



ct is basically a C-C buck convertor. ct Tracks maximum power point using an algorithm known
as perturb and observe technique.

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