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Fluid mechanics (mec207)
TOPIC : - Explain atleast ten applications of Pascal’s law SUBJECT:- FLUID MECHANICS SUBMITTED BY:- SHAILESH SINGH ROLL NO:- RC4911B44 SECTION:- RC4911 REG NO:- 10908518
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INDEX:01. NTRODUCTION 02. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE 03. DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS OF PASCAL’S LAWS . 04. REFERENCES
01 INTRODUCTION:We have seen that the pressure differences between two points in a liquid at rest depends only on the difference in vertical height between the points. The difference is in fact pgs., where p is the density of the liquid and z is the difference in vertical height. Suppose by some means the pressure at one point of the liquid is increased. The pressure at all other points of the liquid must also increase by the same amount because the pressure differences must be the same between two given points. This is the content of Pascal's law which may be stated as follows: If the pressure is a liquid is changed at a particular point, the change is transmitted to the entire liquid without being diminished in magnitude.
The formulas that relate to this are shown below: P1 = P2 (since the pressures are equal throughout). Since pressure equals force per unit area, then it follows that F1/A1 = F2/A2 It can be shown by substitution that the values shown above are correct, 1 pound / 1 square inches = 10 pounds / 10 square inches Because the volume of fluid pushed down on the left side equals the volume of fluid that is lifted up on the right side, the following formula is also true. V1 = V2 by substitution, A1 D1 = A2 D2 Where A = cross sectional area
D = the distance moved or A1/A2= D2/D1 This system can be thought of as a simple machine (lever), since force is multiplied. The mechanical advantage can be found by rearranging terms in the above equation to Mechanical Advantage (IMA) = D1/D2 = A2/A1 As an example:Suppose a flask fitted with a piston is fild with a liquid. Let an external force F be applied on the piston. If the cross- sectional area of the piston is A, the pressure just below the piston is increased by F/A. By pascal's law, the pressure at any point B will also increase by the same amount F/A. This is because the pressure at any point B below the piston.
02. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE
Pressure is transmitted undiminished in an enclosed static fluid.
Any externally applied pressure is transmitted to all parts of the enclosed fluid, making possible a large multiplication of force (hydraulic press principle). The pressure at the bottom of the jug is equal to the externally applied pressure on the top of the fluid plus the static fluid pressure from the weight of the liquid.
02. APPLICATIONS:Pascal's principle underlies the hydraulic press.Used in artesian wells, water towers, and dams. Pascal's burst barrel demonstration': a long and narrow vertical pipe is connected to the contents of a large, sealed barrel. Adding water to the pipe increases the pressure throughout the system. Adding a small amount of water to the pipe is enough to burst the barrel. Scuba divers must understand this principle. At a depth of 10 meters under water, pressure is twice the atmospheric pressure at sea level, and increases by about 100 kPa for each increase of 10 m depth. Atmospheric pressure diminishes with height, a fact first
verified on the Puy-de-Dôme and the Saint-Jacques Tower in Paris, on the instigation of Blasé Pascal himself.
(01)IN HYDRAULIC LIFT:A hydraulic lift is used to lift heavy loads. It consists of two pistons of varying cross-sectional area. The two pistons are connected to each other with a horizontal pipe. The container is filled with a liquid. The load to be lifted is placed on the piston of larger crosssectional area. Let a downward force f (say equal to 5 Kg) be applied on the smaller piston. The pressure where a is area of cross section of the smaller piston. As this pressure is transmitted equally to the large piston, the upward force acting on the loads is
Hydraulic press is used to compress soft materials like cotton, paper, and cloth. These soft materials are placed on the larger piston as shown. The foundation of modern hydraulics was established when Pascal discovered that pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions. This pressure acts at right angles to the containing surfaces. If some type of pressure gauge, with an exposed face, is placed beneath the surface of a liquid at a specific depth and pointed in
different directions, the pressure will read the same. Thus, we can say that pressure in a liquid is independent of direction. Pressure due to the weight of a liquid, at any level, depends on the depth of the fluid from the surface. If the exposed face of the pressure gauges are moved closer to the surface of the liquid, the indicated pressure will be less. When the depth is doubled, the indicated pressure is doubled. Thus the pressure in a liquid is directly proportional to the depth. Consider a container with vertical sides that is 1 foot long and 1 foot wide. Let it be filled with water foot deep, providing 1 cubic foot of water. 1 cubic foot of water weighs pounds. Using this information and equation, P = F/A,
(a) Automobile Hydraulic Lift:A hydraulic lift for automobiles is an example of a force multiplied by hydraulic press based on Pascal's principle. The fluid in the small cylinder must be moved much further than the distance the car is lifted. For example, if the lift cylinder were 25 cm in diameter and the small cylinder were 1.25 cm in diameter, then the ratio of the areas is 400, so the hydraulic press arrangement gives a multiplication of 400 times the force. To lift a 6000 newton car, you would have to exert only 6000 N/400 = 15 N on the fluid in the small cylinder to lift the car. However, to lift the car 10 cm, you would have to move the oil 400 x 10cm = 40 meters. This is practical by pumping oil into this small cylinder with a small
(02) HYDRAULIC PRESS:A hydraulic press is a machine using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force. It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever and was also known as a Bramah press after the inventor Joseph Bramah of England. He invented and was issued a patent on this press in 1795. As Bramah (who is also known for his development of the flush toilet) installed toilets, he studied the existing literature on the motion of fluids and put this knowledge into the development of the press.
The hydraulic press depends on Pascal's principle: -the pressure throughout a closed system is constant. One part of the system is a piston acting as a pump, with a mildest mechanical force acting on a small cross-sectional area; the other part is a piston with a larger area which generates a correspondingly large mechanical force. Only small-diameter tubing (which more easily resists pressure) is needed if the pump is separated from the press cylinder. Pascal's law: Pressure on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished and acts with equal force on equal areas and at 90 degrees to the container wall. A fluid, such as oil is displaced when either piston is pushed inward. The small piston, for a given distance of movement, displaces a smaller amount of volume than the large piston, which
is proportional to the ratio of areas of the heads of the pistons. Therefore, the small piston must be moved a large distance to get the large piston to move significantly. The distance the large piston will move is the distance that the small piston is moved divided by the ratio of the areas of the heads of the pistons. This is how energy in the form of work in this case, is conserved and the Law of Conservation of Energy is satisfied. Work is force times distance, and since the force is increased on the larger piston, the distance the force is applied over must be decreased. The pressurized fluid used, if not generated locally by a hand or mechanically-powered pump, can be obtained by opening a valve which is connected to a hydraulic accumulator or a continuouslyrunning pump whose pressure is regulated by a relief valve. When it is desired to generate more force than the available pressure would allow, or use smaller, higher-pressure cylinders to save size and weight, a hydraulic intensifier can be used to increase the pressure acting on the press cylinder. When the pressure on the press cylinder is released (the fluid returning to a reservoir), the force created in the press is reduced to a low value (which depends on the friction of the cylinder's seals. The main piston does not retract to its original position unless an additional mechanism is employed. In this machine, the Pascal's law is used to increase the small amount of pressure applied. This is done by the following set up: a hollow cylinder is fitted with two pistons at either of its ends, and filled with a proper liquid. When pressure is applied on the smaller piston, it is transmitted to the larger piston in proportion to the ratio of the surface areas of the two pistons. Since pressure in a fluid is transmitted equally in all directions, the small amount of pressure applied on the smaller piston is transmitted to the whole surface area of the larger piston equally. Thus, the applied Force is increased on the larger piston in direct proportion to the ratio of the surface area of the larger piston to the surface area of the smaller piston.
(03) The Hydraulic Lever
A cylinder and piston is a chamber of variable volume, a mechanism for transforming pressure to force. If A is the area of the cylinder, and p the pressure of the fluid in it, then F = pay
is the force on the piston. If the piston moves outwards a distance do, then the change in volume is do = A do.
The work done by the fluid in this displacement is dew = = p do. F do = pay do
If the movement is slow enough that inertia and viscosity forces are negligible, then hydrostatics will still be valid. A process for which this is true is called quasi-static. Now consider two cylinders, possibly of different areas A and A', connected with each other and filled with fluid. For simplicity, suppose that there are no gravitational forces. Then the pressure is the same, p, in both cylinders. If the fluid is incompressible, then do + do' = 0, so that
p do + p do'
F do + F' do'
This says the work done on one piston is equal to the work done by the other piston: the conservation of energy. The ratio of the forces on the pistons is
F' / F = A' / A,
the same as the ratio of the areas, and the ratios of the displacements do' / do = F / F' = A / A' is in the inverse ratio of the areas. This mechanism is the hydrostatic analogue of the lever, and is the basis of hydraulic activation.
(04) Hydraulic Brake
The word “hydraulics” generally refers to power produced by moving liquids. Modern hydraulics is defined as the use of confined liquid to transmit power, multiply force, or produce motion. Though hydraulic power in the form of water wheels and other simple devices has been in use for centuries, the principles of hydraulics weren’t formulated into scientific law until the 17th century. It was then that French philosopher Blasé Pascal discovered that liquids cannot be compressed. He discovered a law which states: Pressure applied on a confined fluid is transmitted in all directions with equal force on equal areas. To better understand Pascal’s Law, let’s use a bottle full of liquid as an example. Let’s say the bottle has a 1 square inch opening. If we were to apply 10 pounds of force on a cork at the opening, 10 pounds of force would be applied equally to all sides of the bottle. This is expressed as 10 psi or 10 pounds of force per square inch. 10 psi represents the fluid pressure of the system. Though impressive on paper, Pascal’s Law wasn’t put into practical
application until the Industrial Revolution when Joseph Brahma, a British mechanic, built a hydraulic press using pressure, force and confined fluid in a lever-like system. A closed hydraulic system such as the one diagrammed here provides a mechanical advantage similar to that of a simple lever. Bramah discovered that in a closed fluid system a small force exerted on a small cylinder could balance a large force on a large cylinder. For example, 1 pound of force applied to a 1 square inch cylinder can balance 100 pounds of force on a 100 square inch cylinder. This is how we can move a 100 pound weight using only 1 pound of force. The distance the 100 pounds will travel is inversely proportional to the distance the applied force travels. That means if we move a 1 square inch cylinder a distance of one inch, we only move the 100 square inch cylinder 1/100th of an inch. These types of brakes are very efficient and long lasting, as a fluid is used to transmit the pressure applied on the brakes to the wheels, and the elasticity of fluids doesn't get lost over time, thus these brakes are better than the common breaks used in vehicles
Hydraulic systems components:-
(a) Fluid: - can be almost any liquid. The most common hydraulic fluids contain specially compounded petroleum oils that lubricate and protect the system from corrosion. (b) Reservoir: - acts as a storehouse for the fluid and a heat dissipater. (c) Hydraulic pump:- converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy by forcing hydraulic fluid, under pressure, from the reservoir into the system. (c) Fluid lines:- transport the fluid to and from the pump through the hydraulic system. These lines can be rigid metal tubes, or flexible hose assemblies. Fluid lines can transport fluid under pressure or vacuum (suction). (d) Hydraulic valves:- control pressure, direction and flow rate of the hydraulic fluid. (e) Actuator:- converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy to do work. Actuators usually take the form of hydraulic cylinders. Hydraulic cylinders are used on agricultural, construction, and industrial equipment. While there are different kinds of pumps, actuators, valves, etc., the basic design of the hydraulic system is essentially the same for all machinery
(05) In pressure gauge:Illustrated is the open tube manometer being used to measure the pressure in a container filled with a gas. Since the liquid is at rest, then the pressure differential between points (1) and (2) is measured by the difference in elevation of the liquid levels. Since
the tube at (2) is open, then P2 = atmospheric pressure and we have: -P1 = Patm + ρ g(y2 - y1)
Since many types of pressure gauges have an 'open end', then we will have to add atmospheric pressure to the reading of the gauge in order to determine absolute pressure For instance, when your tire gauge reads " 32 lb/in2 " it is reading gauge pressure. This means the pressure inside is 32 lb/in2 greater than outside. Hence, the absolute pressure inside is: 14.7 lb/in2 + 32 lb//in2 = 46.7 lb/in2 .
(06) Hand Operated Hydraulic Jack:Note additions to simple hydraulic jack .which include simple lever increasing force on small piston and check valves and bleed valve allowing continuous pumping to raise the jack. Also opening the bleed valve lets the suspended weight of the load lower it. Example:-An operator makes one complete cycle per second interval using the hydraulic jack. Each complete cycle consists of
two pump cylinder strokes (intake and power). The pump cylinder has a 1-in diameter piston and the load cylinder has a 3.25-in diameter piston. If the average hand force is 25 lb during the power stroke. How much load can be lifted? How many cycles are required to lift the load 10-in assuming no oil leakage? The pump piston has a 2-in stroke. What is the output HP assuming 100% efficiency? What is the output HP assuming 80% efficiency? Solution:Frod = 8/2 ● Finput =
Pump cyl. Discharge pressure = rod force /Pistone area Frod/A pump= Pascal’s law gives Frod = pAload piston =
Since oil is incompressible, volume of oil ejected from pump = volume raising load
(07) Air to Hydraulic Pressure Booster:Pressure ratio of an air to hydraulic pressure booster is: Pressure ratio = output oil pressure / input air pressure = area of air piston / area of oil piston = also Pressure ratio = area of air piston / area of oil piston
Example:- The pressure booster of is used to drive a load F via a hydraulic cylinder. The following data are given: Inlet oil pressure (p1) = 100 psi Air piston area (A1) = 20 in2 Oil piston area (A2) = 1 in2 Load piston area (A3) = 25 in2 (diameter = 5.64 in)
(08) In water tower:A water tower or elevated water tower is a large elevated water storage container constructed to hold a water supply at a height sufficient to pressurize a water distribution system. Pressurization occurs through the elevation of water; for every 10.20 centimeters of elevation, it produces 1 kilopascal of pressure. 30 m of elevation produces roughly 300 kPa , which is enough pressure to operate and provide for most domestic water pressure and distribution system requirements. Many water towers were constructed during the Industrial Revolution some are now considered architectural landmarks and monuments, and may not be demolished. The height of the tower provides the hydrostatic pressure for the water supply system, and it may be supplemented with a pump. The volume of the reservoir and diameter of the piping provide and sustain flow rate. However, relying on a pump to provide pressure is expensive; to keep up with varying demand, the pump would have to be sized to meet peak demands. During periods of low demand, jockey pumps are used to meet these lower water flow requirements. The water tower reduces the need for electrical consumption of cycling pumps and thus the need for an expensive pump control system, as this system would have to be sized sufficiently to give the same pressure at high flow rates. Very high volumes and flow rates are needed when fighting fires. With a water tower present, pumps can be sized for average demand, not peak demand; the water tower can provide water pressure during the day and pumps will refill the water tower when demands are lower.
(09) In dam:Pascal’s law is use in dam to contains the water then use the some useful works.
(10) In pressure measuring instrument:In pressure measuring instruments as for example Piezometer, Utube Manometer etc to use the pascal’s law to measure the absolute pressure or gauge pressure.
04.REFRENCES:(01) Fluid machanics by Dr. R.K. Bansal (02http://www.2dix.com/doc-2010/www.2dix.com-doc.php (03)http://www.2dix.com/cari.php? search=Applications+of+pascal's+law&button=++Search+ +&radiobutton=PDF (04) http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
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