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- Philosophical Magazine Volume 21 Issue 172 1970 [Doi 10.1080%2F14786437008238472] Landauer, Rolf -- Electrical Resistance of Disordered One-dimensional Lattices
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Introduction

The "Nuclear Reactor Theory" course will be held in a modular way in the framework

of BNEN and the FP5-project ENEN. The course comprises three parts of reactor

theory and three laboratory sessions.

Time Schedule

18 19 20 22

Welcome TH-I-2 TH-I-4 TH-II-2 TH-II-4 TH-II-6

Administrative (WDH) (WDH) (JMND) (JMND) (JMND)

matter

TH-I-1 TH-I-3 TH-II-1 TH-II-3 TH-II-5 Free time

(WDH) (WDH) (JMND) (JMND) (JMND)

25 26 27

TH-III-1 TH-III-3 TH-III-5 Lab 1 Lab 3

(EM) (EM) (EM) (PB) (SC)

TH-III-2 TH-III-4 TH-III-6 Lab 2 Closing

(EM) (EM) (EM) (PB) session

Session 1

Interaction of Neutrons with Matter (LAM, chapter 2)

Different types of neutron cross sections, center of mass coordinates, transport

cross-section; the Doppler effect

Session 2

Mechanisms of fission, fission fuels, cross sections of fissionable nuclei, the

products of fission, energy release from fission, fuel burn up and fuel

consumption;

Nuclear Chain- Reacting Systems (LAM, chapter 4)

Multiplication factor, conversion and breeding

Diffusion of Neutrons (LAM, chapter 5, § 5-1 to 5-8)

Interaction rates and Neutron flux, Current Density, Continuity Equation,

Fick’s Law, Validity of Fick’s Law, Diffusion Equation, Boundary Conditions

for the Diffusion Equation.

This block effectively covers also the sections of DH § 3.I, 4.I, 4.IV E, 5.I.

Session 3

Elementrary solutions of the Diffusion Eq, General Diffusion problems,

Diffusion Length, Reciprocity Theorem;

Neutron Moderation without Absorption (LAM, chapter 6)

Energy loss in elastic collisions, Collision and Slowing Down Densities,

Moderation of Neutrons in Hydrogen, Lethargy, Moderation of Neutrons for

A>1, Nonmonoenergetic Sources, Fermi Age Theory, Solutions to the Age

Equation, Physical Significance of the Fermi Age, Validity of Age Theory.

This block effectively covers also the sections of DH 5.II A, 5.III, 5.IV A, 8.1

A,B1&2,C1, 8.III B1&2, 8.IV C

Session 4

Exercises

Session 1

different types of moderators, treatment of resonances, computation and

measurement of resonance escape

Session 2

Neutron spectra, interaction rates, reactor power, calculation of eta, diffusion

time, diffusion length, thermalisation time, measurement of some of those parameters.

Session 3

Infinite, homogeneous reactor, finite thermal reactor of different geometries,

critical equation with practical applications, optimum reactor shapes

Session 4

One group, two group

Session 5

Multiregion reactors, the group diffusion method (LAM, Chapter 10, continued)

multigroup, treatment of reflectors, measurement of critical reactor parameters

Control Rods (LAM, Chapter 14)

Control rod worth, one group theory, two group, central, excentric, ring of

rods

Session 6

Exercises

The Neutron Transport Equation (DH-4.II)

Common Simplifications of the Neutron TE (DH-4.IV.B)

The One-velocity Reciprocity Theorem (BG-2.7)

The P_1 Approximation in the Energy Dependent Model

(DH-4.IV.D, DH-8.III, DH-8.IV)

Numerical Methods for Solving the Diffusion Equations (DH-5.II.B)

Reactor Criticality Calculations (DH-5.IV)

The One-Velocity Case (JL-15, DH-5.V)

The Multigroup Case (JL-15, DH-7.V)

Introduction (DH-6.I)

The Point Kinetics Equations (DH-6.I, BG-9.6)

The In- hour Equation (DH-6.II, BG-9.2)

The Inverse Method (DH-6.II)

Approximate Solutions of the PK Equations (DH-6.II)

A/ Diffusion Theory

B/ The Concept of Probability of Escape (BG-2.8)

C/ The Amouyal- Benoist-Horowitz (ABH) Method

The Resonance Escape Probability (JL-11.3, DH-10.III)

Introduction

Fission Gas Poisoning (DH-15.I)

A/ The Xenon Effect

B/ The Samarium Effect

Exercises

The purpose of this laboratory session is the determination of the basic static reactor

parameters: the diffusion length, the diffusion coefficient and the Fermi-age of a

graphite moderator at the Sigma Pile. The obtained results will be discussed in view

of the applied methods. Meanwhile the students will be familiarized with the main

principles of slow neutron detection.

The purpose of this laboratory session is the determination of the axial fission-rate

distribution of a pure UO 2 critical configuration at the VENUS critical facility. From

this axial fission-rate distribution, the axial buckling of the core together with the

mean reflector savings can be determined. During the experiment, the correct settings

of the electronic measurement will be verified. The measured parameters results will

be compared with analytical calculations and hence the obtained results will be

discussed.

Subcritical approach of the BR1 reactor: the criticality of the reactor is determined by

estimating the critical height of the control rods by successive measurements and

verification of the estimated height and the actual critical height.

Period measurement and control rod worth: both positive and negative reactor periods

are evaluated and the reactivity worth of the control rods is calculated.

Reactor kinetics: the position of the control rods is subject to a specific profile, and

the corresponding reactor power is recorded and compared with the theoretical

calculation.

References

Reading, Massachusetts, 1972, referred to as LAM

James J. Duderstadt & Louis J. Hamilton, “Nuclear Reactor Physics”, Wiley, New

York, 1976, referred to as DH

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