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Furyal Mahmood

Chemistry R

Describing Chemical Reactions

• A chemical reaction is the process by which one of more substances


are changed into one of more different substances

• original substances reactants

• resulting substances products

• law of conservation of mass-- the total mass of reactants must equal


the total mass of products for any given chemical reaction

• A chemical equation represents, with symbols and formulas, the


identities and relative amounts of the reactants and products in a
chemical reaction

Indications of a Chemical Reaction

• To know a chemical reaction has taken place, one of more substances


have to change in identity

• Evolution of heat and light: heat and light is strong evidence that a
chemical reaction has taken place

• Some reactions release only heat or only light

• Production of a gas- the evolution of gas bubbles when two substances


are mixed

• Formation of a precipitate- substances that are dissolved in liquids

• Solids formed after a two substances are mixed

• Precipitate- a solid that results from the chemical reaction from a


solution

Characteristics of Chemical Equations

• Chemical equation summarize chemical change


• The equation must identify reactants and products

• The equation must contain the correct formulas for the reactants and
products

• The law of conservation of mass must be satisfied: atoms neither


created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions; the same
number of atoms of each element must appear on each side of a
correct chemical equation

• Coefficients added

• A coefficient is a small whole number that appears in front of a formula


in a chemical formula in a chemical equation

Word and Formula Equations

• A word equation is an equation in which the reactants and products in a


chemical reaction are represented by words

• A word equation has only qualitative meaning

• The arrow is read as react

• Replace the names of the reactants and products with symbols and
formulas

• A formula equation represents the reactants and products of a chemical


reaction by their symbols or formulas

• Consider law of conservation of mass

• Balancing an equation : the process of adjusting the relative amounts of


reactants and products represented in the equation

Additional Symbols Used in Chemical Equations

• Refer to table on page 246

• A reversible reaction: chemical reactionproducts re-form the original


reactants
Significance of a Chemical Equation

• The coefficients indicate relative amounts of reactants and products

• Chemical equation usually shows the smallest numbers of atoms,


molecules, or ions

• The relative masses of the reactants and products can be determined


from the reaction’s coefficients

• The reverse reaction  same relative amounts of substances as the


forward reaction

• There is no indication of whether a reaction will actually occur

• Chemical equations don’t explain the speed of a reaction or the


bonding in a reaction.