REYNALDO thirdy Morales III

Anatomy and Physiology function of body structures. I. Cell A. Basic components 1. H O = 60% TBW ECF 20% Ex. Interstitial (between cells) Intravscular (blood) dehydration ICF 60% Ex. Cytoplasm d. Golgi apparatus packaging of metabolize (waste) e. Lysosomes and perosomes Digestion of metabolize Large (phagocytosis) Small (penocytosis)



C. Transport system 1. Passive: /o energy a. Diffusion: high low b. Osmosis: low high c. Filtration: passing of solution semipermeable membrane Solution Solute (tinuturuan) Solvent (tumuturo)

2. Ions or electrolytes Magnesium activator of enzymes Iodine stimulator of thyroid hormones Lack: Goiter Calcium or Phosphate bone and teeth maintenance Lack: Osteoporosis - bone density Osteomalacia - bone maintenance Osteopenia - bone protein Iron adherence of O to Hgb Lack: anemia Sodium kidney; fluid retention hypernatremia Na blood dehydration Ion charged particles Cation (+) PO K Na Cl Anion (-) Abundant in the cell: 3. Carbohydrates - energy 4. Protein tissue growth or repair 5. Lipids fats (fluid retention; cell membrane) B. Basic parts 1. Cell membrane covering 2. Nucleus chromosomes 3. Cytoplasm ICF a. Mitochondria powerhouse of cell (aerobic endurance) b. Rhibosomes protein synthesis (anaerobic strenghtening) c. Endoplastic reticulum transport

diffusion lungs (O diffusion) osmosis between cells filtration kidney (glumelular filtration) 2. Active: energy a. Na-K pump (sodium potassium pump) Function: maintenance of negativity of positive membrane potential Mechanism: 3Na out Action: potential (positive) Depolarization influx of Na (negative) Repolarization outflux of K D. Homeostasis state of balance Hemostasis blood clothy 1. CV system maintain BP (baroceptors) 2. Resp. maintain O amount Ex. Hypoxia O hyperventilate 3. G.I. maintain nutrients 4. Renal fluid balance - Acid base balance 5. Endocrine maintain fluoride amount

Joints 1.brain 2) Spine or vertebral column spinal chord 3) Rias internal organ 4) Sternum . Musculoskeletal System A.II.Xiphoid process b. Appendicular Upper extremities: Arm Humerus Forarm Radius Ulna Longest in upper extremities -gallazi s fracture (foosh injury) -monteggia s fracture (nightstick injury) B. Diarthroidal movable (most common) 2.osteoclast 2.talos 3. Major Upper extremities: Shoulder Glenohoumeral Mc dislocated (glendid fossa: scapula) Elbow Ulnohumeral Wrist Radiocarpal Lower extremities: Hip Iliofemoral Pedia: congenital hip dislocation Tx: burlow s (dislocate).largets . Osteocytes bone cells b.Manubrium . Osteoclast bone resopting bone maintenance osteocytes Osteoporosis . crunal: calaneus) . Amphiarthroidal slightly (radio-ulna) c. Axial skeletal 1) Skull .most slender -calcemeus . Synarthroidal immobile (sutures) b. Bone cells a. ortolam s (revocatable) Wrist Hand Fingers Carpals Metacarpals Phallenges Knee Ankle Tibiofemoral Talocrunal (talo: talus. Osteoblast bone forming cells c.Anterior protection . Types: a.Dody .lateral -anterior Longest bone in body . Skeletal a. Parts Lower extremities: Hip or pelvis Ischium Illume Pubes Femur Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metacarpals phallenges Thigh Leg Ankle Foot Toes -Posterior (sit down) . Bones 206 1.

Contralaterals Ex.Clonus (compartments) . General organization 1.Brain and spinal chord Lesion: . Cerebellum balance and coordination Manifestations cerebellum lesion: Hypotonid no muscle tone Ataxia gait problem (balance) Nystagmus oscillation Dysmetraia no distance Dysartria articulation Dysdiadochokinesia rapid. Brain a. Muscle group Upper extremities: Shoulder Deltoids Site of injection: abductor lateral Shoulder Pectoralis major chest flexor Dx: mastectomy -simple: breast tissue -radical: pectoralis major Elbow flexor Bicepts brachii Elbow Tricepts brachii extensors Lower extremities: Hip extensors Glutesmaximus Site for injection Area: LUQ Hip flexors Knee extensors Knee flexor Ankle dorsi flexor Ankle platar flexor Abdominals Quadratriceps femoris Mamstrings Tibialis anterior Gastronemius III.Babinski sign . Muscle fibers I II Names: Slow twitch Flat twitch Mitocunteria Capillarity Myoglobin Function Endurance Strength postural muscle: abundant in M. Fiber? = slow 3. stroke 2. alternating movement Dyssynergia no sequencing Stewart holmes phenomenon no coordination Staggering gait putol (double tap) . Basic anatomy Fasciculation visible contraction Tx: EMG ventricular fibrillation: ECG Contractions: .Cranial nerve . CNS 1.Fibrillation .Twitch: quick .C.Spasticity . Muscles -620 1. Bell s palsy B. Peripheral nervous system . Nervous System A.Epsilateral Ex.Flaccidity .Fasciculations .Tremors: continuous .Tetanus: sustained 2.2 Anterior: frontal motor Superior: parietal sensory Lateral: temporal deafness Posterior: occipital blindness broca s aphasia effectiveness aphasia (frontal) wernick s aphasia receptive aphasia b.Spinal nerve Lesions: . Central nervous system . Cerebral cortex 1.

Left ventricle Inferior vena cava largest vein Aorta largest artery or blood vessel 3. Spinal accessories M: neck muscle (sternocleid omastoid) M: shoulder muscle 12. Chamber a. Basalganglia refinement of movement Movement disorder: tremors (parkingson s disease: rigidity e. Facial Sensory: anterior 2/3 of tongue Motor: facial muscle belly dalsy 8. Vestivulococulear balance Romberg s test 9.c. Semilunar valves (exit the heart) R: pulmonic before pulmonary artery L: aortic before aorta .8 3) Medulla 9. Ocullomotor eye muscle WHAT IF! Lesion CN3: exotropia banlag Lesion CN6: esotropia . Glossopharyngeal tongue S: post 1/3 of the tongue M: pharyne muscle Parotid gland salivary gland 10. Right atrium b.7. source of nutrients Fornds: choroid diexos (lateral ventricle) Absorb: arachnoid villi CSF in brain: hydromyalous CSF in spinal chord: hydromyelia Ear: otorrhea Nose: rhinorhea Taste: sweet (glucose). Spinal chord Visual deficit: Scotoma central blindness. Myocardium cardiac muscle (ischemia) c. Heart anatomy 1. Left atrium d.11. Endocardium . tunnel vision Cataraci opaque of cloudy vision 3. Abducens LRG. clear 14. Trigeminal Sensory: sense of face Masseter muscle for mastication (chewing) 6. Trochlear SO 5. blind spot Glaucoma peripheral blindness.12 . Hypoglossav: tongue muscle Evaluation: ask the patient to protrude the tongue 13.Respiratory center d.duling 4. Cardiovascular System A. the eye goes medally 7. Meninges covering of nervous system Duramater: outer (pachymenix) Arachnoid mater: 2nd archnoidilli Pia mater: inner (leptomeninges) Meningitis: most common postnatal infection IV.inner 2.6. 4 2) Pons 5. Brainstem 1) Midbrain 3. Vagus nerve S: parasymphathetic function M: pharynx muscle and larynx (hoarseness) 11. Diencephacon (thalamus) sensory Hypothalamus: functions 1) Temperature regulation . Ventricles CSF flow 2. Walls a. CSF Function: for protection.Heat production (cold) anterior 2) Satiety center medial 3) Hunger center lateral (anorema) f. if LRG is destroyed. Epicardium outer b. Atrial ventricular valve (AV valve) R: tricuspid L: bicuspid/ mitral b.10.Heat loss (warm) interior WHY!!!!? . Right ventricle c. Valves a.

ventricular failure 4. Heart physiology 1. Anatomy . beta and delta cells . ECG 6. Auscultation site Aortic Pulse .B.L chest 2nd ICS sterna border Tricuspid pulse -L 4th ICS sterna border Mitral pulse -L 5th midclavicular line Apical pulse. The adrenal Glands . Mineralocorticoids. ECG reading ST depression -myocardial ischemia (no oxygen) ST elevation .ventricular repolarization 3.Secretes Adrenergic Hormones: i.ventricular depolarization 5.Secretes three types of STERIOD hormones: i.L side of the heart 5. Blood supply R coronary artery.The endocrine system is composed of ductless glands that release their hormones directly into the bloodstream . QRS complex. The pancreas . Adrenal Cortex (outer) . Nor-epinephrine 2.The ALPHA cells secrete GLUCAGON .The pituitary gland controls most of the activities of the other endocrine glands 1. Adrenal Medulla (inner) .R side of the heart L coronary artery.myocardial imfarction Twave inversion .alpha. Glucocorticoids.This retroperitoneal organ has both endocrine and exocrine functions .R chest 2nd ICS sternal border Pulmonic Pulse .hyperkalemia QRS elevation .like Aldosterone iii.Located above the kidneys Composed of two parts: a.hypokalemia Peal T-wave . Eleptical activities (conduction) 60/100 SA node R atrium 40/60 AV node Between atira and ventricle Bundle of hiss Between ventricles Pukinje fibers Wall of ventricle V.The islets have three types of cells. P-WAVE atrial depolarization 234. estrogen and testosterone b. Sex Cortisol.ventricular hyperthrophy QRS depression .most audible Endocrine system A. 2.The endocrine function resides in the ISLETS of Langerhans .ischemia Flat T-wave . Epinephrine ii.The Hypothalamus cntrols most of the endocrinal activity of the pituitary gland . Heart sounds S1-lub-AV closure N S2-Dub-SL closure auscultation S3-ventricular gallop-blood rush AB S4-atrial gallop auscultation Sign of gurgitation .Essentially a part of the SYMPATHETIC autonomic system .The BETA cells secrete INSULIN . cortisone and corticosterone ii.The DELTA cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN 1.

Gastro-Intestinal System A. Prolactin iii. Hypothalamus . ADH/Vasopressin 3.Mechanical and chemical digestion (secretion of saliva by salivary glands) B. Gonands 2 types: a.Pyloric sphincter .Cardiac Sphincter muscle C.Secretes Anti-Diuretic Hormone or VASOPRESSIN that is stored also in the posterior pituitary gland 2.Forces food into the esophagus .Secretes RELEASING HORMONES for the pituitary gland . The Pituitary Gland .Anterioly bounded by lips . .Posteriorly bounded by the Oropharynx .Venous drainage in to portal vein .Four in number . Anterior Pituitary secretes the following hormones: i.The pharynx is the common passageway for both food and air .Is a gland located below the hypothalamus at the base of the brain .Produces the thyroid hormones: a. PARAthyroid glands . Posterior Pituitary stores and releases: i. Thyroid gland . TSH. Gonadotrophins.Secretes PARATHYROID hormone (PTH) that controls calcium and phosphorus levels VI.Contains two lobes connected by the isthmus .Is divided into two parts: a. Tri-iodothyronine or T3 b.This part of the DIENCEPHALON is located below the thalamus and is connected to the pituitary gland by a stalk C. OXYTOCIN ii. Physiology 1.Chief Cells .Fundus (top) body pylorus .Secretes OXYTOCIN that is stored in the Posterior pituitary gland .The testes contains Leydig cells that secrete Testosterone B. Pharynx & Esophagus .These two oval-shaped glands are found in the scrotum .Contracts when food enters.Mechanical and chemical digestion: Mixing food and acid and enzymes to create chyme . Mouth .Parietal Cells . Ovaries . Growth hormone ii. Stimulating hormones and trophic hormones . Stomach .The optic chiasm passes over this structure . Hypothalamus . MS b. Testes .ACTH.Located at the back of the thyroid glands .The Ovaries contains Granulosa and Theca cells which secrete ESTROGEN and Progesterone b.Located in the anterior neck lateral to the trachea .Blood supply : Celiac artery .3. Tetra-iodothyronine or thyroxine or T4 .The Parafollicular cells secrete CALCITONIN 4.LH and FSH iv.Goblet Cells .The esophagus is the passageway that connects mouth to the stomach .G Cells .Microscopically composed of thyroid follicles where the hormones are produced and stored .These two almond-shaped glands are found in the pelvic cavity attached to the uterus by the ovarian ligament .

Blood Supply: Cystic & hepatic artery H. Gallbladder .& caudate lobes .Appendix extends from the lower portion of the cecum and is a blind sac . lipase and amylase y Bicarbonate: help neutralize the acidity of the chime .D. Pancreas .Bile composition: water. Small intestine .Blood Supply: superior & inferior mesenteric arteries F. Large intestine: extends form terminal ileum to rectum .) .Storage facility for bile(50ml.Exocrine Function y Pancreatic enzymes: Trypsin.CCK stimulates contraction of Gall bladder . somatostatin . Hepatic Artery .Blood supply: Portal Vein.subdivided into segments .Blood Supply: Hepatic and cystic artery VII. glucagon. . bile salts (emulsify lipids).Most digestion and absorption takes place here via intestinal enzymes and exocrine secretions from the liver and pancreas (which enter the duodenum via ducts) E.Cystic Duct + Common hepatic duct Common Bile Duct duodenum I.Circular folds and villae to surface area .Duodenum jejunum Ileum . Biliary Ducts .Ducts of the Billiary tract very imp in proper functioning of GIS .H O and electrolytes are absorbed out of the chime y Absorbs 1. Abdomen .From Pyloris to Ileocecal Valve .Ascending colon.Rt. K & Cl .descending colon.Endocrine Functions y Production of Insulin. Liver .5 L of water per Day y Also absorbs Na.Roles of the liver: y Conjugation of billurubin y Synthesis and deactivation of clotting factors y Phagocytosis y Detoxification y Processes nutrients G.Sac like organ attached to Liver . transverse Colon . Lt. bile pigments] . sigmoid colon and the rectum .chyme generated ends up entering the colon .Located in the upper rt.Bile Calculli Left Right Hepatic duct Common hepatic duct .

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