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The demands for improved fuel economy, performance and emissions continue to
pose challenges for engine designers and the materials they choose. This is particularly
true for modern internal combustion engines, where the primary path to achieving
improved engine performance and emissions is to increase the Peak Firing Pressure in the
combustion chamber. The resulting increase in thermal and mechanical loading has
required a change from conventional aluminum alloy to new composite materials in order
to satisfy durability requirements without increasing the size or the weight of the engines.
With at least 75% higher tensile strength, 45% higher stiffness and approximately double
the fatigue strength of conventional grey cast iron, CGI satisfies durability requirements
and also provides the dimensional stability required to meet emissions legislation
throughout the life of the engine. Currently, there are no CGI diesel engines running on
the roads in North America. This is set to change considerably as new commercial
vehicle and pick-up SUV diesel engines are launched with CGI cylinder blocks in 2008
and 2009. These initial programs will provide over 2 million CGI diesel engines when
ramped to mature volume, potentially accounting for 10%–15% of the North American
passenger vehicle fleet within the next four years.

Key words: compacted graphite iron; modern diesel engine; performance; emission;
cylinder blocks and heads

Thermo-mechanical analysis
• Engine Specification
• Piston 2-D
• Modeling
• Hypermeshing
• Ansys Model
• Mechanical and thermal boundary Conditions
• Engine Pro Analyzer
Wearing Analysis
• Photograph
• Load and Speed boundary conditions

1. Introduction
One method utilized to promote energy savings in internal combustion engines is
to reduce the power loss caused by mechanical friction on lubricated surfaces of
engines. Most of the mechanical friction power loss in the internal combustion
engines occurs at the contact liner/piston rings and liner/skirt. Factors that affect
piston skirt lubrication characteristics are the piston design parameters (radial
clearance, roughness, skirt profile, etc.), the viscosity of oil as well as the operating
conditions (rotational speed, gas pressure, etc.) with coefficient of thermal expansion
aluminum alloy material of piston.

Name 1ZZ-FE
• Type Air-cooled, gasoline, 4-cycle
• Displacement(cc) 125 C.C.
• Arrangement & No. of Cylinders Single -cylinder, In-line
• Type of Combustion Chamber Cross-flow, pentroof
• Valve mechanism 2-valve, DOHC, chain drive
• Fuel system Multi-point injection
• Bore ´ Stroke(mm) 79.0 ´ 915
• Compression ratio 9;:1
• Valve head dia. Intake, 32mm ; Exhaust, 27.5mm
• Cylinder bore spacing 87.5mm
• Crankshaft pin-journal dia. 44.0mm
• Crankshaft main-journal dia. 48.0mm
• Connecting rod length 146.65mm
• Emission control system TWC, l-control
• Max. power(Kw/rpm) 89/5600
Max. torque(Nm/rpm) 165/4400
Dimensions(L ´ W ´ H mm) 639 ´ 565 ´ 62