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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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portability. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. and all visible code must also be readable. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. clear box and open box testing. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. 2. opaque-box. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Page 4 of 60 . functional. maintainability and usability. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. Types of Testing 2. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Unlike black box testing. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box".2. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. glass-box and clear-box. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. There are many approaches to software testing. and closed-box. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1.1. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. structural. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". With that in mind. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. stability.
It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. Unit Testing In computer programming. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. but it's still discouraged.) can use any test design methods.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. system testing. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. 2.3.4. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.3. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. 2. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design.3.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. In practice. etc.3.3. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. 2.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.1. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing).2.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate.3. 2. Page 5 of 60 .
4.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. for example. This is a mistake. Page 6 of 60 . i. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. in order to test the class. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. groups them in larger aggregates. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. By definition. assemblages (or groups of units). In addition. 2. across procedure calls or process activations. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. 2. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. These "design items".Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.1. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.e.4. As a result. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages.3.5. thus minimizing dependencies in the system.3. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. Therefore. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly.6. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. This results in loosely coupled code. it will not catch integration errors.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. 2. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class.
that while the average response time might be acceptable. response time. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. Usually. given as number of users vs.5. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. Various tools. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. Performance Testing In software engineering. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested.2. etc.. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. if it is made to respond faster. e. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. 2. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.5.g. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. In the diagnostic case.1. are available to perform such tests. It can compare two systems to find which performs better.e. Performance testing can serve different purposes. i. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. will result in the overall system running faster. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly.5. However. In performance testing.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script.
either pass/fail. network overhead. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’.3. etc. where they had found the system spent most of its time.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. Analyzing the results.6. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. 2. and even done in different parts of the country. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Performance testing can be performed across the web.5. often to a breaking point. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. router configuration. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). For example. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. in order to observe the results. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. deployment of server instrumentation. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. It can also be done in-house. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. 2. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). database access times.
A designers' primary function should be more than appearance.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. compromising usability and functionality.7. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. usability testing measures the usability of the object.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. to discover errors and areas of improvement.8. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. a document. or a device) for its intended purpose. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2.1. i.e. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". manipulating parts." Page 9 of 60 . or interpreting feedback. Downtime. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. a computer interface. performance testing. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. then developers should improve the design and test it again. During usability testing. Also see testing. Data theft. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. Stress testing a subset of load testing. bots.7. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. 2. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. Data corruption and application Defacement. software testing. including making things work with people. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. 2. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible.
and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. and what people like.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking.). developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. Page 10 of 60 . so that developers can see problem areas. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. "Do you understand this?".9. to which the system should conform. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. and pre. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. illustration quality. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. 2. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. 2. Instruction phrasing. Stability Testing In software testing. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. In the pharmaceutical field. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. software will not run etc. For example. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. Rather. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. and ask him or her to undertake this task. or realistic situation. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. it will work just the same in production. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. Users of the system will perform these tests which.11. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system.10. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. ideally. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. For example. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. paper prototypes. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. 2. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes.
In distributed systems. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. 2. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. This technique is known as black box testing. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. testing is usually required before release to the general public. 2. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. A beta release is very close to the final release.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment.14. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. Ideally. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. Beta Testing Many a time. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. Alfa Testing In software development. Page 11 of 60 . 2.12.13. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly.
According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. Regression testing takes. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. System testing takes. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. NY. Page 12 of 60 .). IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. 1990. As a rule. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing.16. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. as its input. 1990. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. As a rule. as its input. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. During this testing. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. 2. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. 2. NY. and as such.). New York. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. and as such. New York. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle.15.
and descriptions. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. Page 13 of 60 . database or other common repository. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. They may also be called a test script. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. Test Cases. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. (d) complex. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. A test case is usually a single step. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. test category. depth. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. along with various additional pieces of information. Suits. and its expected result. and (e) easy to evaluate. spreadsheet. test step or order of execution number. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. operating system and browser versions. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests.17. and regression testing. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. and descriptions of the following tests. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. related requirement(s). Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. (c) credible. 2. or even a test scenario. The optional fields are a test case ID. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. In a database system. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result.18. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. system. author.
defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. E. using formal methods. 2.g. combinatorial circuits. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property.1. abstract interpretation. Validation is the complementary aspect. Petri nets..e. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle.e. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. does the product conform to the specifications. abstraction refinement. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. and tracking them to closure. and abstractions of general software components. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i..20. 2. does the product do what the user really requires. or recording feedback from customers). 2. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). but not the same as session-based testing. digital circuits with internal memory. Page 14 of 60 . Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. symbolic state space enumeration. cryptographic protocols. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. testing. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. timed automata and hybrid automata.20. Defect Tracking In engineering. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. (by inspection. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction..19. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). processalgebraic methods.
and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. For this reason.21. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data.21.21. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. i. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. 2. For example. 2. then there are defects to correct. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. by crashing. such as relational databases. rather than a direct measure. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. or by failing in-built code assertions). Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing.1. If the program fails (for example. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior.2. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). • Database inputs are from tabular data. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. rather than behaving correctly. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . However. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. 2.e. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. the test data is preserved. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. so that if the computer fails dramatically. usually before applying it to the software. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. Thus. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio.. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality.
often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. or conforms to actual production data. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . software must validate all fields of every queue entry. not handling every possible binary value. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. However. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. without even crude validation. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. By using all of these techniques in combination. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. 2.3.21. Database fuzz is controversial. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database.21. 2. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. decode every possible binary value. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. 2. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. and then ignore impossible requests. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. and a general-purpose interface is available to users.21.4.5. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. required standards and processes (such as release processes. It provides a repeatable. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. integration.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3.unit. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. etc. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. Determine test approaches and methods . coverage analyzers. test environment. problem/bug tracking. 4. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. test cases.10. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. etc. set up logging and archiving processes. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. test tracking. set up test tracking processes. etc. change processes. and determine scope and limitations of tests. functional design.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . usability tests.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. reporting requirements. functional.1. software. communications. boundary value analyses. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. timelines. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. set priorities. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. etc. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. load.1. those responsible for tasks. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. system.
etc. Bug identifier (number. If a problem-tracking system is in place. it should encapsulate these processes. etc. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . platform. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. For this reason. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. objective. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. etc. ID.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. 'Released for Retest'. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. where the bug occurred Environment specifics.g. feature. and expected results. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. fixes should be re-tested. test conditions/setup.) Current bug status (e. test case name.) The application name or identifier and version The function. After the problem is resolved.. object. steps. get an idea of it's severity. 'New'. module. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. action. system. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. and reproduce it if necessary. or event and an expected response. input data requirements. screen.
the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Changing requirements . work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. effects on other projects. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. management must understand the resulting risks. mistakes will be made.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. For instance. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . or may understand and request them anyway . rescheduling of engineers. Time pressures . If there are many minor changes or any major changes. the result is bugs. etc. Windows-type interfaces. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. like anyone else. often requiring a lot of guesswork. client-server and distributed applications. In some fast-changing business environments.programmers.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. Egos . can make mistakes.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. In this case. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . data communications.redesign. Poorly documented code . known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. enormous relational databases. hardware requirements that may be affected.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). testers need to know when retesting is needed. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. the result is bugs. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. Programming errors . Software complexity .
understandable code. etc. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. Filters. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Includes a natural user interface. and server application's modules. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . Tag Libs. Software development tools . profiler. metrics. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. without implementing test clients. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. In fact. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. and other server technologies as well.). qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. etc. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. EJBs. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Test private and protected functions. tuning. GJTester Java unit. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. 5. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. Code Analyzer. scripting capabilities. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. it should be hard to read'). GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. RMI. Testing Tools and Software 5. Recorded GUI elements. scripting tools. Extensive documentation. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. class libraries.1.visual tools. Useful for testing CORBA. regression.2. compilers. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. Enables test case and test script development without programming. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. resulting in added bugs. Includes: Unit Tester.
Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. From Apache Software Foundation. a script editor/recorder.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. TEXT) or custom report generation. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck.Robot class. Contains Page 24 of 60 . For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. or from the command line. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. licensed under the BSD License. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. CSV.awt. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. predefined (XML. for which JUnit may be sufficient). Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Typically use within your IDE. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. LaTex. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Free . using Ant. JUnit . etc) through an in-container approach. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. HTML. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. It uses JUnit and extends it.
J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. compiler-style output.. configurable.. and dependencies for Java. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. Halstead Measures. components. JBrowser class browser. methods. Works with source or compiled files. Inc. control flow analysis and diagramming. tree node expanding. etc. and other IDE's. application. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). JCover test coverage analyzer. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. Fifty different audits and metrics. or via a Swing GUI.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. file. PerformaSure Low-overhead. classes. JEvolve. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. and C++ applications. Coverage difference comparison between runs. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. Shows all dependencies. for speed. View coverage data in XML. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. JBuilder. PDF. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . statements. Cyclomatic Number. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. or jar file. JMSAssert. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. highly scalable. JSynTest. virtual machines. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. Coverage API provided. source distribution. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. C. method. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. HTML. at all levels and between all levels. Gathers coverage measures of branches. class. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms.. button pushing. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. etc.). Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. . package. package and produces reports in multiple formats.e. etc. text typing.
Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. management. JProfiler freeware version available. Integrates with several Java IDE's. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. thread and event analysis. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. or are planning to add such capabilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. servlets. procedural. and network metrics. testability. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. thread debugger. coverage analysis. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. and applications. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. includes Java support. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. and clarity. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity.) Page 26 of 60 . Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. complexity. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. Check listed web sites for current information. stalls. written in Java. OptimizeIt Profiler. and size metrics related to reusability. or load testing of java applets. Has online advisor for quality improvement. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. Halstead Software Science metrics. maintainability. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. OS. and race conditions.
previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. such as internal and external links. Site Map. Excel. domain names. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. Runs as often as every hour. 3-click process. includes FTP link checking. employs a simple. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors.. Handles HTTP. multiple page list and site list capabilities. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. detects and reports redirected URL. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. For Windows. can be automatically scheduled. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. For Windows platforms. customizable reports. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. For Windows. CSV. several report formats available. For Windows. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. updates links to moved and renamed files. for Windows. used to test and validate critical website components. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. HTML. and FTP protocols. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. evaluation version available. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. Export to text. RTF. supports SSL websites.3. Page 27 of 60 . free trial period available. or as infrequent as once a week. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. free version or low-cost pro version. HTTPS. familiar interface for managing files. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. DNS servers and SSL certificates. fixes broken links with an easy.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5.
capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. For all UNIX flavors. Has not been updated in recent years. Windows. Available as source code. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. Not updated in recent years. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). capabilities include specified URL exclusions.5. Not updated in recent years. randomized order checking.'s link checker/site mapping tool.4. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. It helps users to create. Mac. relocations. released under IBM's Common Public License. Windows. for UNIX and PERL. and finding problem HTML areas. For Windows. ID/Password entries. reports URLs changed since last checked. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. results can be exported to database. formatting disorganized editing. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. page size analysis. Results stored in database.net. 5. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. doc-not-found. link checker. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. by Francois Pottier. but old versions still available as freeware. allowing for customizable queries and reports. support for all standard server-side image maps. Discontinued. 5.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. ability to check password-protected areas. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. originally by Dave Raggett. Available as source code or binaries.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. Handles one URL at a time. HTML syntax error checking. timeouts. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. Churchyard. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. 'what's new' reporting. configurable. organize and Page 28 of 60 . binary avaialable for Linux.0 or 3. unauthorized-access. test resumption at interruption point. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. site has much documentation and related info. For Windows.
with its HTML objects recognition. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. branching statements. Active-X controls. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. animated bitmaps. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. and other typical business web application features. and Runner executes the test case document. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. 90-day evaluation copy available. Maker creates test case documents. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. cookie testing and form submission. playback window/size can be different than in capture. can be inserted during a recording. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. form entry and submission. until recording capabilities are added. Fuzzy matching capabilities. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. C++ or C++/MFC. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. This includes web page navigation. such as bitmap or text matching. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. STC Master and STC Master Service. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. Flash. Handles Applets. scripts have to be developed manually. Free including source code. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). Page 30 of 60 . (300+ commands). validation of table contents. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. Includes an Intelligent. etc. but also adds mock objects. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. Special validation points. and a Data-Driven. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. LLC.
Mac.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. and browser checkup tool. Scheduled vulnerability scanning.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. firewalls. Inc. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. inside and outside the firewall. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . based on the SATAN model. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. data theft or system destruction. CVE standards support. remediation management of vulnerabilities. plug-in facility for third party apps. asset management. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. routers. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. Freeware. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. updated bi-monthly. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. websites. Runs on Macintosh. can audit UNIX. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. SANS/ISTS certified. network security scan. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. remote self scan and API facilities. real-time IDS event analysis.
track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. Learns about network as it scans. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Can scan a variety of operating systems. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. product runs on Windows. CVE compatible. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. Customizable reporting. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. by Renaud Deraison. reports specify severity levels of problems. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. Runs on many UNIX flavors. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. and a wide variety of other tests. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'.com for individual machines. Works with a variety of operating systems. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. denial-of-service checks. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. open-source remote network security auditing tool. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Nessus Security Scanner Free. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Single machine or full network scans. web server requests-per-second benchmark. Includes DoS testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. Updated regularly. Port scans. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities.
routers. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. DMZ and externally visible assets. software product. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. or managed service. etc. operating systems. Page 36 of 60 . remediation information. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. intrusion detection tools. hubs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. servers. scanners. intrusion detection resources. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. etc. Available as a hardware appliance. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. workstations. etc. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. organized by subject. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. desktops. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. and many other characteristics. printers. prepares remediation advice. routers. etc. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. firewalls. publications. what services (ports) they are offering. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. Provides flexible risk management reports. electronic law. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network.
to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. traffic analysis. not just for testing. WYSIWYG editor. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. for maintaining. combined utilities/tools. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. Similar managed service also available. (Includes various types of security tools.org. combining site content. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . site scores. works with a variety of web servers. Desktop product for multiple platforms. Includes link checker.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. and online service available. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. database servers. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. and site monitoring capabilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement.. promoting.. and Web Governance. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. server management and optimization tools. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. Accessibility. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. Inc. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. analyzing web sites. Information Assurance. FPT/publishing.) 5. Free and professional versions available. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. and OS's. Inc. Limitedcapability free version also available. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. service types. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions.7.
GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. click path analysis. visitor segmentation. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. restart apps and services. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. etc. real-time executive dash board. sends email notification if site is slow or down. and diagnostics. network management. and popup. page sizes. server. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. from AllScoop. page aborts. isolation. response times. applications. response errors. and repair. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. For Windows. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. and more. SMS.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. automatically reboot servers. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. for performance and availability monitoring. run scripts. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. restart services. net send. etc. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. Alerts via email. bandwidth usage. including server errors. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. capabilities include notifications via email. network errors. and network. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . Captures and monitors real user sessions. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. services. pagers. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. suited to large systems.
drag-and-drop. Database Backup. Provides complete software developers environment. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. load testing. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. template-based dynamically-created content. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. User Administration. etc. Dynamic Menu. Installer easily installs system on your server. Statistical Reports. verifying content and functional integrity. Message Board. Free for use on small sites. PHP-Code Insertion. site cleanup. Multilingualism. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. based on database-driven. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. HTML and GIF optimization. Works on multiple platforms. WYSIWYG editor. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. low cost for large sites. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. Search. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. such as option compatibilities on a single product. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. detecting. link verification. and a robust API. scheduler.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. All can be integrated without writing code. high-level functions save template coding time. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. and more. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data.com for web site updating. upload resuming. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. spatial relationships between products. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor).
Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. Page 41 of 60 . CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. anticipate capacity shortfalls. reuse and access. conversion services. security. management of workflow. based on native XML and XSL technologies. services for capturing. tracking of revisions. replication and administration. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. For Mac or Windows. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. workflow. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. publishing. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. personalization. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. Inc. where all content and content types are stored for management. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. documents.. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. For Windows. Mac. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. portals and scanned images. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. including creation. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. and archiving.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. and manage and report on service level agreements. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. index/search. deploying. production. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). content development. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. editing. and customizable workflow. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. staging. version control. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. isolate. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. Manages Web content. Enables services such as library services. digital assets.
for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. requires Windows and MSIE. HTML validation. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. metrics. e-mail submission of web content. Evaluation copy available. for customizable automated site mapping. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. logging. and platforms. For Windows. server failure detection. E-mail/pager notifications. standards-based environment. monitoring and recovery. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. OS's. Page 43 of 60 . allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. alerting. link checking. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. For Windows. content management and site visualization. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. Web based interface for load balancing administration. logging capabilities. management. UNIX. and publishing control tool. For MS and Netscape web servers. link analysis and quality control. works with many servers. number of pending requests.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. For Windows. real-time server monitoring of server response time. link problems. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. For Windows. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. network management. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. server management. etc. access control. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. monitoring. and e-mail notifications. version control. Interwoven Team Site Web development.
Link checker. For Windows. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. For Windows. For Windows and Unix. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. image tag checker. and static files.. Visual site structure editor. scheduled and on-demand reporting. and servers. logs. security. XML repositories. customizable reports. spell checker. provides notifications of problems. layout editor. For Windows. file edit merging. and maintenance. browser extensions. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. etc. thumbnail viewer. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. administration. publishing. Support for managing content stored in databases. file uploading. has updateable rulebase. global search-and-replace. API's. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. connections.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. etc. error info is linked to error in html. databases. Meta manager. Includes version control. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. Page 44 of 60 . From Talicom. Date stamper. HTML-to-Text converter. browser interface. Includes automated deployment. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. links. variable lock controls. comparison capabilitie. includes site management capabilities. and encryption capabilities. management. link checking. staging/publishing control. For Windows or Unix. Validates against various HTML versions. Server side compatible with many available web servers. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. graphics management. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. link checker. HTML PowerTools HTML validator.
Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. system resource usage. For Windows. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. Perl. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. and share with others. and system configuration information.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. upload to a bug tracking system. URL2image.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. analyzing and sharing of usability data. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. SiteTimer service . Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. For anyone interested in css. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. to which links it extracts. Consists of 3 components. system operations in 7 different categories. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . from TechSmith Corp. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. and compress the result into a very small file to replay.8. web standards and elastic design. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. examine server's HTTP headers. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. more. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. for automated recording. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. from how it breaks down the HTML. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. Free. can specify the screen width(s). The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders.
Installed Software and Installed XP Updates.). and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. services. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . manage and monitor throughput. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. and delay. and other versions available in multiple languages. etc. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. etc. for Windows. Network Adaptor Information. Free. XML. ports. etc. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. processes. memory details. more. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. environment settings. ODBC sources. and much more. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. data creation or capture and replay. Services information. processor information. loaded modules. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. set breakpoints. OS version.) in small text files. physical memory information. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. html. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks.NET event-based scripting subsystem. device drivers. Free. virtual memory settings. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. tune-up wizard. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. modules. component details. system file listings. mainboard. loss. Professional. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Sandra 'System ANalyser. drives. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Includes CPU. Provides performance enhancing tips.
Inc. compliance.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. testing. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". For Windows. delays. freeware. Can be used on user's workstations. any version. originally designed for testing networking protocols. robustness. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. with GUI. analogous to running an MRI scan. Free 90-day trial.E. security. Windows (on-demand). Macintosh. caching proxies. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. or source code. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. Page 47 of 60 . Enables enhancement of QA. and multipath effects. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. in most versions of every browser ever released. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. available as on-line service. packet losses. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. For Windows. filters. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. Can log captures to disk. It allows the user to peek inside I. and other quality factors. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell.com. binaries and source available. binaries. and XML switches. Linux. Linux RPMs. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. any operating system.
Freeware. mailboxes. Runs on Windows. For automated testing of Web. and generating test scripts. such as those produced by tcpdump. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. and segments sent and received. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. and as source code. retransmissions. or WinDump. For windows. window advertisements. freeware. and any network. round trip times. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. Available for various UNIX flavors. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. for Windows. can also programmatically fix most common errors found.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Works with all text-based IP protocols. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. Searchability. MITs. FTP. Runs on Windows platforms. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). bytes. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. etc. freeware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. client/server. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. snoop.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). and various graphs. Page 48 of 60 . throughput. Overall Site Quality. Ethernet. any message definitions. and mainframe applications. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. HP Net Metrix. Inc. etherpeek. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Can crawl a site and report errors. link validation. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. etc). Also available: MITS. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files.
What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. What's an 'inspection'? 10. Why does software have bugs? 6. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11.monitoring and improving the process. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What is verification and Validation? 8. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What is 'Software Testing'? 3. then D should happen').Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. What is 'good code'? 14. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is software 'quality'? 13. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. It is oriented to 'prevention'. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. 3. Testing FAQ 1. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should.) 2. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. It is oriented to 'detection'. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. and does C. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5.
and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. Studies were under way to determine which. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. government IT systems project. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. if any. portions of the project could be salvaged.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. According to the report. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. In early 2004. the worst power system failure in North American history. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. according to mid-2004 news reports. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool.S. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. A major U. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug.S. According to news reports in April of 2004.
January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. effects on other projects. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. Programming errors . was delivered late. or may understand and request them anyway .the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. enormous relational databases. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord.S. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. Multi-tiered applications. public school district with 100.S. etc. futures exchange. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.000 customers. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers.S. In early 2000. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. problems included 10. 4. preventing problems is lowvisibility. rescheduling of engineers.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . the district's CIO was fired. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. like anyone else. hardware requirements that may be affected.programmers. 5. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70.redesign. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. client-server and distributed applications.000+ students. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. Among other tasks. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. can make mistakes.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. and didn't work. data communications. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. Software complexity .
the result is bugs.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. class libraries. the result is bugs. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. step-at-a-time process. In some fast-changing business environments. 6. resulting in added bugs. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. Poorly documented code . A lot will depend on team leads or managers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. with a goal of clear. feedback to developers. etc. complete. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . Software development tools . In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. mistakes will be made. depending on the type of customers and projects. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. In fact. maintainable code. scripting tools. For small groups or projects. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. egos . understandable. compilers. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. it should be hard to read'). Where the risk is lower. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. In this case. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. managers. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. often requiring a lot of guesswork. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. Time pressures . management must understand the resulting risks.visual tools. and testers.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. developers.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented.
not to fix anything. Little or no preparation is usually required. and a recorder to take notes. code. issues lists.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. requirements. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. reader. and inspection meetings. • • Page 54 of 60 . walkthroughs. branches. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. paths. individual applications. 10. and specifications. conditions. This can be done with checklists. Integration testing . The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. Incremental integration testing . plans. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. 8. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. or that test drivers be developed as needed. The 'parts' can be code modules. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code.the most 'micro' scale of testing. client and server applications on a network. done by programmers or by testers. (b) design inspections and code inspections. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. 7.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. Unit testing . What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. to test particular functions or code modules. most problems will be found during this preparation. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. 9. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. White box testing . The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes.
similar to system testing.) System testing . etc. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. etc. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Acceptance testing . video recording of user sessions.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. the 'macro' end of the test scale. may require sophisticated testing techniques.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. or systems if appropriate. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Clearly this is subjective.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. and other techniques can be used. using network communications. willful damage.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. Install/uninstall testing . or upgrade install/uninstall processes. applications.testing for 'user-friendliness'.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. End-to-end testing . such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. Page 55 of 60 . Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. Functional testing . such as interacting with a database. Performance testing .black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. Load testing .testing of full. bogging down systems to a crawl. covers all combined parts of a system. Regression testing . input of large numerical values. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. Failover testing . This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. or corrupting databases. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. environment. or interacting with other hardware. surveys. hardware failures.testing an application under heavy loads.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Recovery testing . this type of testing should be done by testers. User interviews. or other catastrophic problems. Compatability testing . For example. large complex queries to a database system. Sanity testing or smoke testing . Stress testing . partial. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. Usability testing . especially near the end of the development cycle.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed.
not by programmers or testers. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. Communication . For example. In 'agile'-type environments. intranet capabilities. Typically done by end-users or others.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. not paper.start testing early on. complete. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations.e-mail. Typically done by end-users or others.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate..comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. Comparison testing . Adequate testing . What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . testing.often taken to mean a creative. detailed. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . Beta testing .a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. not by programmers or testers. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Context-driven testing . Ad-hoc testing . plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. and intended use of software. changes. etc. cohesive. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. 11.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. Mutation testing . insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . culture.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Realistic schedules . but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. If possible. User acceptance testing .similar to exploratory testing.testing driven by an understanding of the environment. promote teamwork and cooperation. re-testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . design. make extensive use of group communication tools . and be prepared to explain consequences. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. testers may be learning the software as they test it. bug fixing. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. and documentation.preferably electronic. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players.allow adequate time for planning. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities.clear. attainable. groupware. If changes are necessary. Alpha testing . personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. re-test after fixes or changes.
magazine columnists. delivered on time and within budget. quality is obviously a subjective term. but everyone has different ideas about what's best.) In adding comments. is bug free. Organize code for readability. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. stockholders. etc.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. or what is too many or too few rules. Use descriptive variable names . No matter how small.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). For C and C++ coding. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). use of brackets. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. and is maintainable. Function and method sizes should be minimized. indentations. There are also various theories and metrics. naming conventions. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. less than 100 lines of code is good. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. and is readable and maintainable. avoid abbreviations. • 13. One code statement per line. customer management. less than 50 lines is preferable. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. meets requirements and/or expectations. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. customer acceptance testers. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. However.use both upper and lower case. etc. customer contract officers. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. be consistent in naming conventions. the development organization's. future software maintenance engineers. Use descriptive function and method names . Use whitespace generously . here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . avoid abbreviations. 'Peer reviews'. etc.use both upper and lower case. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments.vertically and horizontally. be consistent in naming conventions.
Level 2 . Defense Department contractors. successful practices can be repeated. • • • 15. developed by the SEI. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . requirements management. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. and maintainable.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). 14. However. and works correctly when implemented.For programs that have a user interface. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). and configuration management processes are in place. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University.software project tracking. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. Level 1 . realistic planning. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). For C++. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. Level 3 . easily modifiable.S. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. understandable. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. keep class methods small. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. make liberal use of exception handlers. initiated by the U. For C++. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. Defense Department to help improve software development processes.S. Few if any processes in place. periodic panics. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. successes may not be repeatable. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear.) For C++. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things.characterized by chaos. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading.
13% at 3. test planning. and other aspects. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. Level 5 .Quality Management Systems: Requirements. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. testing. and quality is consistently high. integration. Also see http://www. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. production.iso. updates. development. It includes aspects such as initial concept. 6% at 4.metrics are used to track productivity. 23% at 2. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations.S. 27% were rated at Level 1. 16. ITIL. 23% at 3.among other things. For those rated at Level 1.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. 1018 organizations were assessed. 62% were at Level 1. maintenance. document preparation. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). and others. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . design. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. and other processes. and products. phase-out. internal design.4% at 5.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. and CobiT.asq. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products .S. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' .S.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . In the U. and 0. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance..Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. after which a complete reassessment is required. 2% at 4. and 5% at 5.ch/ for the latest information. not just software.the focus is on continuous process improvement. Of those. 39% at 2. Bootstrap. servicing. It covers documentation. Project performance is predictable. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . retesting. 17. testing. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. installation.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. (b)Q90002000 . the primary industrial standards body in the U. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. coding. To be ISO 9001 certified. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. 32% of organizations were U. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). Trillium.it indicates only that documented processes are followed. federal contractors or agencies. functional design. processes. Level 4 . requirements analysis. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. MOF. (c)Q9004-2000 . TickIT.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. documentation planning. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).
The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. dialog box choices. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions.since they are separate from the test drivers. Additionally.such as via a spreadsheet .to check that links are valid. etc. This document is for internal purposes only. documentation. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. HTML code usage is correct. This approach can enable more efficient control. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. a web site's interactions are secure.com/testing/. condition coverage. For larger projects. data. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing.monitor code complexity. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. Other tools . All contents of this document have been collated from various resources.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. Web test tools . adherence to standards. Memory analyzers .such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. and for all types of platforms. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests.for test case management. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. etc. Coverage analyzers . the primary being: http://www. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. Page 60 of 60 . If new buttons are added. For example. and configuration management. documentation management. etc.vyomworld. buttons. etc. Load/performance test tools . etc. bug reporting. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . client-side and server-side programs work. The data and actions can be more easily maintained .) can be a difficult task. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). path coverage. logs. development. or some underlying code in the application is changed. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool.