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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. functional. and closed-box. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. portability. There are many approaches to software testing. 2. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. completeness and quality of developed computer software. opaque-box. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. 2. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. stability. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. With that in mind. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". Black-box and white-box are test design methods. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces.2. and all visible code must also be readable. Types of Testing 2. maintainability and usability. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. clear box and open box testing. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. glass-box and clear-box. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. structural. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure.1. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. Page 4 of 60 . Unlike black box testing. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection.
4. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly.2.3.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". Page 5 of 60 . Unit Testing In computer programming. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing).3. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. system testing.3. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. In practice. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. but it's still discouraged. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. 2. 2. 2.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.3.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase.3. etc.3. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.) can use any test design methods. 2.1.
2. By definition.6.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. In addition. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. This results in loosely coupled code. for example. groups them in larger aggregates. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. across procedure calls or process activations.4. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested.e. 2. i.1. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. As a result. it will not catch integration errors. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. Therefore. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. This is a mistake.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. assemblages (or groups of units). are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. These "design items". Page 6 of 60 .3. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection.3.4. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items.5. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. in order to test the class. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface.
In the diagnostic case. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. Performance testing can serve different purposes. In performance testing. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. response time. i. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time.1. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 .Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition.. if it is made to respond faster.5. Various tools. Performance Testing In software engineering.e. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. However. are available to perform such tests.g. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. will result in the overall system running faster. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. etc. given as number of users vs. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload.5. e. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. Usually. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load.5. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. 2.2. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. that while the average response time might be acceptable.
or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action.3. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. either pass/fail. network overhead. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity.6. Analyzing the results. etc. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. and even done in different parts of the country. router configuration. in order to observe the results. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. often to a breaking point. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). 2. It can also be done in-house. where they had found the system spent most of its time. deployment of server instrumentation. For example. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. database access times. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time.5. 2. Performance testing can be performed across the web.
forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. including making things work with people. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. i. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. 2.7.7. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. manipulating parts.8. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. 2. then developers should improve the design and test it again. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. or a device) for its intended purpose. Also see testing. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. performance testing. a document. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. bots. Data corruption and application Defacement. to discover errors and areas of improvement. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. compromising usability and functionality.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. Stress testing a subset of load testing. Data theft. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. usability testing measures the usability of the object.1. Downtime. software testing. a computer interface. During usability testing. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge." Page 9 of 60 . such as people having difficulty understanding instructions.e. or interpreting feedback.
and pre. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. "Do you understand this?". Instruction phrasing. Page 10 of 60 . ideally. 2. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. Stability Testing In software testing. illustration quality. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. For example. For example. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. 2. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. and what people like. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system.11. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. In the pharmaceutical field. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. so that developers can see problem areas. Rather. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. software will not run etc. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. to which the system should conform. Users of the system will perform these tests which. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. 2. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. or realistic situation. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. it will work just the same in production.9. paper prototypes.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested.). and ask him or her to undertake this task.10. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. when testing instructions for assembling a toy.
2. Ideally. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. In distributed systems. 2. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. Page 11 of 60 . Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. A beta release is very close to the final release.14. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs.13. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. This technique is known as black box testing. testing is usually required before release to the general public. 2. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. however no serious or critical bugs would exist.12. Alfa Testing In software development. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. Beta Testing Many a time.
Page 12 of 60 . New York. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). New York. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.16. as its input.15. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. NY. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). Regression testing takes. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. 2. and as such. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. NY. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. As a rule. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. 2. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. During this testing. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. 1990. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. As a rule. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. System testing takes. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. as its input.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. 1990. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing.).). Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. and as such. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle.
The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. Suits. Page 13 of 60 . (d) complex. along with various additional pieces of information.17.18. test step or order of execution number. system. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. related requirement(s). Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. author. Test Cases. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. and descriptions of the following tests. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. A test case is usually a single step. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. or even a test scenario. They may also be called a test script. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. test category. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. depth. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. spreadsheet. database or other common repository. and its expected result. and regression testing. (c) credible. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. In a database system. and descriptions. The optional fields are a test case ID. operating system and browser versions. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. and (e) easy to evaluate. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. 2. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments.
evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts.1. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V.20. or recording feedback from customers). does the product do what the user really requires. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. abstraction refinement. Defect Tracking In engineering. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. processalgebraic methods. 2. 2.e. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. using formal methods.. does the product conform to the specifications. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. and tracking them to closure. testing. 2. E. and abstractions of general software components. timed automata and hybrid automata. Petri nets.19.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. digital circuits with internal memory. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. but not the same as session-based testing.. Page 14 of 60 . (by inspection.20. Validation is the complementary aspect.g. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). cryptographic protocols. abstract interpretation. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM).. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. symbolic state space enumeration.e. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). combinatorial circuits.
and free of preconceptions about system behavior. Thus. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system.21.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. For this reason. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality.e.. 2.1. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. 2. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. by crashing. rather than a direct measure. 2. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). rather than behaving correctly. If the program fails (for example. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. or by failing in-built code assertions). • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. i. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality.21. so that if the computer fails dramatically.2. For example. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. the test data is preserved. However. then there are defects to correct. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. such as relational databases. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. usually before applying it to the software. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. • Database inputs are from tabular data.21.
The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. and then ignore impossible requests. not handling every possible binary value. or conforms to actual production data.3. 2. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. However. By using all of these techniques in combination.5. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures.21. without even crude validation. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue.21.4.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area.21. Database fuzz is controversial. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. decode every possible binary value. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . 2. 2. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. It provides a repeatable. system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3.1. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. test cases. coverage analyzers. set priorities. boundary value analyses.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. timelines. load. 4. reporting requirements. and determine scope and limitations of tests. functional design.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. integration. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. set up logging and archiving processes. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. those responsible for tasks. change processes. milestones Determine input equivalence classes.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. etc. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. test environment.1. problem/bug tracking. software. Determine test approaches and methods . and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. required standards and processes (such as release processes. communications. functional. etc. usability tests. etc. etc. set up test tracking processes.10. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4.unit. test tracking. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities.
and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. screen. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. feature.g. module. ID. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. etc. etc. Bug identifier (number..Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. fixes should be re-tested. object. action. or event and an expected response. and expected results. and reproduce it if necessary. After the problem is resolved. 'Released for Retest'. test conditions/setup. objective. get an idea of it's severity. system. If a problem-tracking system is in place. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. it should encapsulate these processes. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. For this reason. where the bug occurred Environment specifics.) The application name or identifier and version The function. platform. input data requirements.) Current bug status (e. 'New'. test case name. steps. etc.
Time pressures . enormous relational databases. For instance. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. data communications. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. In some fast-changing business environments. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. etc. rescheduling of engineers. the result is bugs. Poorly documented code . can make mistakes. In this case. Windows-type interfaces. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. the result is bugs. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . Egos . like anyone else. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). hardware requirements that may be affected. client-server and distributed applications. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. often requiring a lot of guesswork. management must understand the resulting risks. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . testers need to know when retesting is needed.programmers. Programming errors . If there are many minor changes or any major changes.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. or may understand and request them anyway . continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. effects on other projects.redesign.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. mistakes will be made. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Changing requirements . and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Software complexity .
Includes: Unit Tester. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. class libraries. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. etc. Testing Tools and Software 5. Extensive documentation. Enables test case and test script development without programming. resulting in added bugs. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. RMI. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 .2. Useful for testing CORBA. GJTester Java unit. it should be hard to read'). Includes a natural user interface. profiler. Recorded GUI elements. Test private and protected functions. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. and server application's modules. 5. compilers. without implementing test clients. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. scripting capabilities. Tag Libs. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. understandable code. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. and other server technologies as well. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. scripting tools. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. metrics. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Filters.). Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure.1. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Software development tools . AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing.visual tools. EJBs. tuning. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. In fact. regression. etc. Code Analyzer. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI.
Free . TEXT) or custom report generation. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. JUnit . Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. using Ant. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. From Apache Software Foundation. LaTex. a script editor/recorder.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. etc) through an in-container approach. Contains Page 24 of 60 . Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. or from the command line. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. licensed under the BSD License. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. predefined (XML.Robot class. for which JUnit may be sufficient). improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge.awt. It uses JUnit and extends it. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. HTML. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Typically use within your IDE. CSV.
Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. JSynTest.. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. source distribution. Gathers coverage measures of branches. classes. for speed. file. etc. or jar file. tree node expanding. JBrowser class browser. configurable. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis.). Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. Works with source or compiled files. JCover test coverage analyzer. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. C. control flow analysis and diagramming. button pushing. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. Coverage API provided. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. class. Cyclomatic Number. JBuilder. and C++ applications. components. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. statements. Halstead Measures. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. compiler-style output. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. HTML. JMSAssert. text typing. Shows all dependencies. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. PDF. at all levels and between all levels. View coverage data in XML. highly scalable.. etc.. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. PerformaSure Low-overhead. Fifty different audits and metrics. and dependencies for Java. JEvolve.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. or via a Swing GUI. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). application. etc. . package and produces reports in multiple formats. methods. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. virtual machines. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator.e. Coverage difference comparison between runs. Inc. package. and other IDE's. method. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes.
Check listed web sites for current information. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. thread and event analysis. Halstead Software Science metrics. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. OptimizeIt Profiler. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. and race conditions. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. OS.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. complexity. and clarity. Has online advisor for quality improvement. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. servlets. coverage analysis. and size metrics related to reusability. includes Java support.) Page 26 of 60 . 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. written in Java. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. and applications. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. or are planning to add such capabilities. management. maintainability. stalls. or load testing of java applets. procedural. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. JProfiler freeware version available. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. thread debugger. Integrates with several Java IDE's. and network metrics. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. testability.
Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. or as infrequent as once a week. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Handles HTTP. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. multiple page list and site list capabilities. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. detects and reports redirected URL. customizable reports. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations.. Runs as often as every hour. updates links to moved and renamed files. domain names. HTTPS. and FTP protocols. can be automatically scheduled. free trial period available. Export to text.3. For Windows platforms. for Windows. fixes broken links with an easy. 3-click process. Excel. supports SSL websites. CSV. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. familiar interface for managing files. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. For Windows. DNS servers and SSL certificates. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. Page 27 of 60 . HTML. RTF. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. used to test and validate critical website components. several report formats available. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. evaluation version available. For Windows. such as internal and external links. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. free version or low-cost pro version. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Site Map. employs a simple. For Windows. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. includes FTP link checking. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics.
reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. Has not been updated in recent years. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. timeouts. results can be exported to database. link checker. and finding problem HTML areas. formatting disorganized editing. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. Available as source code or binaries. Not updated in recent years. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. It helps users to create. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. 5. Not updated in recent years. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. 5. Handles one URL at a time. page size analysis.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. doc-not-found. For all UNIX flavors. Mac. originally by Dave Raggett. support for all standard server-side image maps.4.'s link checker/site mapping tool. organize and Page 28 of 60 . but old versions still available as freeware. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. for UNIX and PERL. by Francois Pottier. site has much documentation and related info. 'what's new' reporting. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. For Windows. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. reports URLs changed since last checked. For Windows. test resumption at interruption point. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. ID/Password entries. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. HTML syntax error checking. Discontinued. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. relocations. released under IBM's Common Public License. configurable. Available as source code.0 or 3. ability to check password-protected areas. binary avaialable for Linux.net. Windows. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). Churchyard. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Results stored in database. randomized order checking.5. allowing for customizable queries and reports. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. unauthorized-access. Windows.
branching statements. and a Data-Driven. etc. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. LLC. form entry and submission. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. and other typical business web application features. Handles Applets. cookie testing and form submission. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. (300+ commands). Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. and Runner executes the test case document. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. but also adds mock objects. Free including source code. until recording capabilities are added. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. validation of table contents. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. animated bitmaps. playback window/size can be different than in capture. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. This includes web page navigation. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. etc. such as bitmap or text matching. 90-day evaluation copy available. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. with its HTML objects recognition. Page 30 of 60 . Maker creates test case documents. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. STC Master and STC Master Service. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Fuzzy matching capabilities. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. can be inserted during a recording. scripts have to be developed manually. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Special validation points. C++ or C++/MFC. Includes an Intelligent. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. Flash. Active-X controls. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development.
plug-in facility for third party apps. Scheduled vulnerability scanning.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. network security scan. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). real-time IDS event analysis.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Freeware. remediation management of vulnerabilities. data theft or system destruction. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . remote self scan and API facilities. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. asset management. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. websites. routers. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. CVE standards support. updated bi-monthly. based on the SATAN model. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. firewalls. Mac. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. Inc. inside and outside the firewall. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. can audit UNIX. SANS/ISTS certified. and browser checkup tool. Runs on Macintosh.
NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. Limited free or full licensed versions available. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. Updated regularly. by Renaud Deraison. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Includes DoS testing. Learns about network as it scans. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. product runs on Windows. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. CVE compatible.com for individual machines. Works with a variety of operating systems. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. Port scans. web server requests-per-second benchmark. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . open-source remote network security auditing tool. Nessus Security Scanner Free. and a wide variety of other tests. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. Runs on many UNIX flavors.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. Can scan a variety of operating systems. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. reports specify severity levels of problems. Customizable reporting. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Single machine or full network scans. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. denial-of-service checks. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language.
prepares remediation advice. Available as a hardware appliance. etc. and many other characteristics. Page 36 of 60 . desktops. what services (ports) they are offering. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. publications. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. etc. Provides flexible risk management reports. software product. routers. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. electronic law. organized by subject. intrusion detection tools. hubs. printers. remediation information. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. operating systems. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. servers. routers. scanners. etc. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. intrusion detection resources. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. DMZ and externally visible assets. workstations. or managed service. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. firewalls. etc.
) 5. and OS's. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site.. WYSIWYG editor. not just for testing. FPT/publishing. Similar managed service also available. combining site content. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. Includes link checker. site scores. service types. promoting. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. works with a variety of web servers. (Includes various types of security tools. Inc. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. and site monitoring capabilities. and online service available. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base.7. combined utilities/tools. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. analyzing web sites. Accessibility.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. Free and professional versions available. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. Inc. and Web Governance. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. server management and optimization tools. database servers.org.. Desktop product for multiple platforms. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. Information Assurance. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. Limitedcapability free version also available. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. traffic analysis.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. for maintaining. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations.
For Windows. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. etc. and popup. restart apps and services. for performance and availability monitoring. isolation. response times. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. page sizes. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. click path analysis. response errors. network management. page aborts. suited to large systems. pagers. services. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . Other capabilities include search engine optimization. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. run scripts.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. including server errors. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. Alerts via email. capabilities include notifications via email. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. applications. server. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. network errors. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. and network. from AllScoop. and more. net send. SMS. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. bandwidth usage. etc. automatically reboot servers. and diagnostics. restart services. real-time executive dash board. visitor segmentation. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. and repair. sends email notification if site is slow or down. Captures and monitors real user sessions. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring .
HTML and GIF optimization. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. site cleanup. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. Provides complete software developers environment. Statistical Reports. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. upload resuming. based on database-driven. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). Works on multiple platforms. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. high-level functions save template coding time. Free for use on small sites. Dynamic Menu. PHP-Code Insertion. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. and more. Multilingualism. low cost for large sites. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. All can be integrated without writing code. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. Message Board. WYSIWYG editor. etc. Search. User Administration. scheduler. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . additional features include manual or customizable automated control. Installer easily installs system on your server. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable.com for web site updating. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. verifying content and functional integrity.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. template-based dynamically-created content. load testing. such as option compatibilities on a single product. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. spatial relationships between products. Database Backup. link verification. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. and a robust API. drag-and-drop. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. detecting.
version control. Inc. publishing. portals and scanned images. For Mac or Windows. based on native XML and XSL technologies. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. where all content and content types are stored for management. Manages Web content. editing. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. Enables services such as library services. and customizable workflow. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. production. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). Mac. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. tracking of revisions. personalization. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. security. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. index/search. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. replication and administration. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. For Windows. deploying. staging. anticipate capacity shortfalls. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. content development. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. digital assets. management of workflow. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. documents. including creation. isolate. and manage and report on service level agreements. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows.. conversion services. workflow. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. reuse and access. services for capturing. and archiving. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. Page 41 of 60 .
server failure detection. UNIX. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. monitoring. For Windows. logging. monitoring and recovery. link problems. For MS and Netscape web servers. server management. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. real-time server monitoring of server response time. etc. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. and e-mail notifications. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. content management and site visualization. link checking. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. and platforms. HTML validation. For Windows. standards-based environment. logging capabilities. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. network management. requires Windows and MSIE. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. metrics. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. version control. for customizable automated site mapping. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. Web based interface for load balancing administration. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. e-mail submission of web content. OS's. access control. Interwoven Team Site Web development. Evaluation copy available. Page 43 of 60 . link analysis and quality control. alerting. works with many servers. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. and publishing control tool. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. management. E-mail/pager notifications. For Windows. number of pending requests. For Windows.
link checker. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. thumbnail viewer. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. Includes version control. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. Link checker. Meta manager. For Windows. error info is linked to error in html. file uploading. Page 44 of 60 . comparison capabilitie. Visual site structure editor. Date stamper. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. HTML-to-Text converter. file edit merging. browser interface. image tag checker. logs. For Windows. customizable reports. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. includes site management capabilities. For Windows and Unix. administration. etc. Support for managing content stored in databases. link checking. layout editor. databases. security. XML repositories. etc. API's. global search-and-replace. and encryption capabilities. Validates against various HTML versions. For Windows or Unix. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. publishing. staging/publishing control. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. browser extensions. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions.. From Talicom. Server side compatible with many available web servers. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. variable lock controls. graphics management. Includes automated deployment. links. and servers. connections. scheduled and on-demand reporting. spell checker. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. and maintenance. has updateable rulebase. provides notifications of problems. For Windows. management. and static files. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance.
requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. SiteTimer service . more. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. to which links it extracts. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. system resource usage. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. from how it breaks down the HTML. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. For anyone interested in css. Free. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. URL2image. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. system operations in 7 different categories. upload to a bug tracking system. Consists of 3 components. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. from TechSmith Corp. analyzing and sharing of usability data. and share with others. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. can specify the screen width(s). Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer .8. web standards and elastic design. where network traffic is captured over a LAN.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. Perl. for automated recording. and system configuration information.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. examine server's HTTP headers. For Windows. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data.
device drivers. modules. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. Provides performance enhancing tips. etc. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. html. XML. memory details. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. etc.) in small text files. virtual memory settings. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. loaded modules. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. system file listings. services. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. ODBC sources. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. tune-up wizard. environment settings. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. more. and much more. Free. processor information. OS version. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . drives. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. Free. mainboard. processes. Professional. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. for Windows. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware.). and delay. manage and monitor throughput. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting.NET event-based scripting subsystem. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. Sandra 'System ANalyser. loss. ports. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. set breakpoints. data creation or capture and replay. Includes CPU. physical memory information. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. Services information. Network Adaptor Information. and other versions available in multiple languages. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. component details. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. etc. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie.
binaries and source available. packet losses. Can log captures to disk. Free 90-day trial. For Windows.com. testing. For Windows. Enables enhancement of QA. compliance. binaries. and XML switches. filters. freeware. security. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Linux. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. Windows (on-demand). and other quality factors. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility.E. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. Page 47 of 60 . Can be used on user's workstations. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. analogous to running an MRI scan.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. originally designed for testing networking protocols. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. any operating system. available as on-line service. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. It allows the user to peek inside I. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. any version. Macintosh. Inc. delays. with GUI. Linux RPMs. or source code. and multipath effects. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. robustness. in most versions of every browser ever released. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. caching proxies.
or WinDump. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Also available: MITS. client/server. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. window advertisements. Overall Site Quality. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. snoop. and generating test scripts. Freeware. freeware. round trip times. Inc. etc. and various graphs. freeware.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. Runs on Windows. Runs on Windows platforms. and mainframe applications. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. bytes. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML).comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). and any network. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. throughput. etc). Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. HP Net Metrix. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. Works with all text-based IP protocols. Searchability. any message definitions. mailboxes. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. For windows. link validation. such as those produced by tcpdump. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. Available for various UNIX flavors. Ethernet. FTP. MITs. Page 48 of 60 . For automated testing of Web. for Windows. etherpeek. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Can crawl a site and report errors. and segments sent and received. and as source code. retransmissions.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data.
What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing.) 2. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. It is oriented to 'prevention'. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. then D should happen'). 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. What is 'good code'? 14. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What is software 'quality'? 13. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. It is oriented to 'detection'. Why does software have bugs? 6. What is verification and Validation? 8. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. What's an 'inspection'? 10. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . Testing FAQ 1. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. 3. and does C.monitoring and improving the process. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16.
Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank.S. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. In early 2004. A major U. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. portions of the project could be salvaged. according to mid-2004 news reports.S. According to the report. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. government IT systems project. Studies were under way to determine which. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. if any. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. According to news reports in April of 2004. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. the worst power system failure in North American history.
which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. client-server and distributed applications. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. data communications. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. 5. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . rescheduling of engineers. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. can make mistakes.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999.S. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. preventing problems is lowvisibility. the district's CIO was fired. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. 4. or may understand and request them anyway . problems included 10. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. and didn't work. enormous relational databases. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . If there are many minor changes or any major changes. futures exchange.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) .000 customers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications.000+ students.programmers. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. effects on other projects. Programming errors . which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. Software complexity . like anyone else.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.S. public school district with 100. was delivered late.redesign.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Multi-tiered applications. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. In early 2000.S. etc. Among other tasks. hardware requirements that may be affected.
management must understand the resulting risks. class libraries. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. understandable. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. In some fast-changing business environments. often requiring a lot of guesswork. etc. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. 6. depending on the type of customers and projects. mistakes will be made. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. resulting in added bugs.visual tools. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. maintainable code. and testers.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. the result is bugs.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . developers. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. Where the risk is lower.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. Poorly documented code . it should be hard to read'). it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. In fact. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. the result is bugs. In this case. Time pressures .see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. Software development tools . scripting tools. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. egos . step-at-a-time process. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. with a goal of clear. compilers. feedback to developers. complete. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. For small groups or projects. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. managers.
requirements. 9.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. Little or no preparation is usually required. walkthroughs. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. and a recorder to take notes. White box testing . 10. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. done by programmers or by testers. 7. reader. conditions. The 'parts' can be code modules. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. and inspection meetings. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation.the most 'micro' scale of testing. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. This can be done with checklists. or that test drivers be developed as needed. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. and specifications. most problems will be found during this preparation. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. • • Page 54 of 60 . The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . Tests are based on coverage of code statements. code. not to fix anything. plans. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. to test particular functions or code modules. paths. Unit testing . client and server applications on a network. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. issues lists. individual applications. branches. (b) design inspections and code inspections. Incremental integration testing . What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. 8.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. Integration testing .not based on any knowledge of internal design or code.
testing of full.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. Usability testing .typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. User interviews. Performance testing . It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Page 55 of 60 .term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. willful damage.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Install/uninstall testing . etc.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. or interacting with other hardware. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . End-to-end testing . Failover testing . the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. using network communications. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. partial. Sanity testing or smoke testing . Clearly this is subjective. or systems if appropriate. For example. large complex queries to a database system. and other techniques can be used. Regression testing . Compatability testing . etc.testing for 'user-friendliness'. Recovery testing . video recording of user sessions. or corrupting databases. Stress testing . Load testing . if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. bogging down systems to a crawl. input of large numerical values. applications. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. covers all combined parts of a system.) System testing . the 'macro' end of the test scale.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. this type of testing should be done by testers. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. Functional testing . surveys. or other catastrophic problems.similar to system testing. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. especially near the end of the development cycle.testing an application under heavy loads. such as interacting with a database. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. environment. hardware failures. Acceptance testing . may require sophisticated testing techniques. or upgrade install/uninstall processes.
not paper. detailed. attainable.often taken to mean a creative. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. culture.preferably electronic. Alpha testing . networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. Ad-hoc testing . informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. Mutation testing .testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release.e-mail. User acceptance testing . use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. Typically done by end-users or others. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements .. Communication . For example. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. and documentation. complete.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. re-testing. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Realistic schedules . promote teamwork and cooperation. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . bug fixing. make extensive use of group communication tools . not by programmers or testers. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game.similar to exploratory testing.testing driven by an understanding of the environment. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. testers may be learning the software as they test it. and intended use of software. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. not by programmers or testers.allow adequate time for planning. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. Typically done by end-users or others. 11. If changes are necessary. In 'agile'-type environments. groupware. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected.clear. and be prepared to explain consequences.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . etc. Comparison testing . Adequate testing . design. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. changes. Context-driven testing . intranet capabilities. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing.start testing early on.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. If possible. cohesive. testing.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Beta testing . re-test after fixes or changes. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful.
use of brackets. Organize code for readability. etc. future software maintenance engineers. naming conventions. stockholders. avoid abbreviations.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. avoid abbreviations. etc. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. One code statement per line. less than 50 lines is preferable. meets requirements and/or expectations. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.vertically and horizontally. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. be consistent in naming conventions. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. quality is obviously a subjective term. customer management. customer acceptance testers.use both upper and lower case. less than 100 lines of code is good.) In adding comments. be consistent in naming conventions. 'Peer reviews'. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. Function and method sizes should be minimized. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. However. Use descriptive variable names . • 13. Use whitespace generously . customer contract officers. magazine columnists. and is readable and maintainable. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). is bug free. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). indentations. delivered on time and within budget. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. or what is too many or too few rules.use both upper and lower case. Use descriptive function and method names . and is maintainable. etc. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. No matter how small. There are also various theories and metrics. the development organization's. For C and C++ coding. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' .
understandable. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. realistic planning. and configuration management processes are in place. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability.For programs that have a user interface. periodic panics. • • • 15. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. make liberal use of exception handlers. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. and maintainable. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application).S. Level 2 . For C++. and if reasonably applied can be helpful.characterized by chaos. It is geared to large organizations such as large U.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability.S. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). successes may not be repeatable. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear.software project tracking.) For C++. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. However. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. initiated by the U.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). Level 3 . Few if any processes in place. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. requirements management. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. and works correctly when implemented. easily modifiable. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. developed by the SEI. Level 1 . Minimize use of multiple inheritance. keep class methods small. successful practices can be repeated. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . For C++. 14. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. Defense Department contractors.
Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. It includes aspects such as initial concept. and 5% at 5.the focus is on continuous process improvement. document preparation. Of those. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).S. (For ratings during the period 1992-96.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. phase-out. For those rated at Level 1. 2% at 4. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). TickIT. 13% at 3. the primary industrial standards body in the U. 16. servicing. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. (c)Q9004-2000 . 62% were at Level 1. and products. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. 23% at 2. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. and quality is consistently high. 39% at 2.it indicates only that documented processes are followed.iso. and CobiT.4% at 5. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . functional design. 1018 organizations were assessed. requirements analysis. Bootstrap. Project performance is predictable. production. test planning. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001.S. after which a complete reassessment is required.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' .asq.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements.. installation. processes.metrics are used to track productivity. 17. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. ITIL. It covers documentation. and others. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . maintenance. integration. 6% at 4. Level 4 . updates. testing. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). and other processes. retesting. and other aspects.among other things. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. MOF. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. Also see http://www. not just software. development. In the U. documentation planning.S. Level 5 . 27% were rated at Level 1. 23% at 3. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. design. testing. 32% of organizations were U.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. internal design. federal contractors or agencies. To be ISO 9001 certified. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. coding. Trillium. (b)Q90002000 . and 0.ch/ for the latest information.
vyomworld. etc. development. etc. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. This approach can enable more efficient control. documentation management. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. etc. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . documentation.such as via a spreadsheet . and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. This document is for internal purposes only. dialog box choices.to check that links are valid. bug reporting. and configuration management.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. a web site's interactions are secure. HTML code usage is correct. logs. data. condition coverage. or some underlying code in the application is changed. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also.since they are separate from the test drivers. etc. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. adherence to standards. client-side and server-side programs work.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. etc. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. Coverage analyzers . Additionally. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. Memory analyzers . The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. and for all types of platforms. the primary being: http://www. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. Web test tools . Page 60 of 60 . The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. path coverage. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions.for test case management. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type.com/testing/. If new buttons are added. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . For larger projects. buttons.monitor code complexity. Load/performance test tools .for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. Other tools .) can be a difficult task. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. For example.
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