Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

Page 1 of 60

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

Page 2 of 60

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

Page 3 of 60

where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". stability. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. glass-box and clear-box. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. Unlike black box testing. and all visible code must also be readable. completeness and quality of developed computer software. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. opaque-box.2. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data.1. maintainability and usability. functional. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. and closed-box. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. Page 4 of 60 . There are many approaches to software testing. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. Types of Testing 2. With that in mind. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. portability. 2. structural. 2. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. clear box and open box testing. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program.

4.3. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct.3. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. but it's still discouraged.3. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.3.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. In practice.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach.3. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.) can use any test design methods. Unit Testing In computer programming. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly.1. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. system testing. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. 2.2. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. etc. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. 2. 2. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. Page 5 of 60 . but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. 2. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.3. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural".

The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional.4. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. Page 6 of 60 . and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. 2. for example. across procedure calls or process activations. By definition.3. Therefore. 2. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing.4. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. This is a mistake. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. in order to test the class. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested.e. This results in loosely coupled code. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. groups them in larger aggregates.1. assemblages (or groups of units).Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program.6. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. 2. i. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities.3. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. it will not catch integration errors. As a result.5.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. These "design items". In addition.

Various tools.e. response time. Performance testing can serve different purposes. e. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. 2. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries.5. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. that while the average response time might be acceptable.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Usually.1. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. etc. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. In performance testing.5. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2.. However. if it is made to respond faster. i.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification.5. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly.2. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. In the diagnostic case. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. will result in the overall system running faster. Performance Testing In software engineering.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . are available to perform such tests. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. given as number of users vs. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time.g.

deployment of server instrumentation.6. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. Analyzing the results. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. It can also be done in-house. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. For example. etc. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. and even done in different parts of the country.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. 2. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . in order to observe the results. 2. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). router configuration.3. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. where they had found the system spent most of its time. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. database access times.5. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. Performance testing can be performed across the web.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. either pass/fail. often to a breaking point. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. network overhead.

e. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. Data theft. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. Stress testing a subset of load testing. 2. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. compromising usability and functionality. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. usability testing measures the usability of the object. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. a computer interface. During usability testing. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. performance testing. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. including making things work with people. or interpreting feedback.7.1.8. a document. bots. 2. Data corruption and application Defacement. manipulating parts. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. or a device) for its intended purpose. i." Page 9 of 60 .you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible.7. Also see testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. Downtime.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. then developers should improve the design and test it again. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. software testing. to discover errors and areas of improvement.

and pre. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. Stability Testing In software testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. In the pharmaceutical field. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. Users of the system will perform these tests which. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. illustration quality.10. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. Rather. Instruction phrasing. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system.11. For example. and what people like.9.). For example. "Do you understand this?". developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. software will not run etc. so that developers can see problem areas. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. 2. it will work just the same in production. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. and ask him or her to undertake this task. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. ideally. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. 2. 2. Page 10 of 60 . to which the system should conform. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. paper prototypes. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. or realistic situation. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended.

Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. A beta release is very close to the final release. Beta Testing Many a time. Ideally. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same.13.12. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. testing is usually required before release to the general public. Page 11 of 60 . A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. In distributed systems. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. This technique is known as black box testing. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing.14. Alfa Testing In software development. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. 2. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. 2. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users.

System testing takes. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). as its input. 2. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. As a rule.15. and as such. New York. As a rule. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. New York. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. 1990.).16. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Page 12 of 60 . System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. 2. NY. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete.). Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. Regression testing takes. and as such. NY. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. During this testing. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. 1990. as its input. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle.

In a database system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Page 13 of 60 . A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. A test case is usually a single step.17. depth. and its expected result. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. spreadsheet. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. database or other common repository. (c) credible. (d) complex. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. system. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. or even a test scenario.18. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. 2. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. along with various additional pieces of information. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. related requirement(s). They may also be called a test script. test category. and descriptions. and regression testing. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. operating system and browser versions. author. and descriptions of the following tests. test step or order of execution number. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. Suits. The optional fields are a test case ID. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. and (e) easy to evaluate. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. Test Cases. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose.

E. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics.e. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically.1. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. testing. symbolic state space enumeration. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). (by inspection. cryptographic protocols. but not the same as session-based testing.. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. abstract interpretation. Page 14 of 60 . timed automata and hybrid automata.e. combinatorial circuits. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. using formal methods. 2. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. does the product do what the user really requires. Validation is the complementary aspect.. Defect Tracking In engineering. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. and tracking them to closure. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. processalgebraic methods. does the product conform to the specifications.19.g. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. Petri nets. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). and abstractions of general software components.20. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. 2. abstraction refinement.. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. digital circuits with internal memory. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). or recording feedback from customers).20.

2. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. • Database inputs are from tabular data. rather than a direct measure. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. then there are defects to correct. For example. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. Thus. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality.. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. or by failing in-built code assertions).21. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. 2.1. such as relational databases.21. so that if the computer fails dramatically. i. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. For this reason. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. the test data is preserved. However. If the program fails (for example. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. by crashing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. rather than behaving correctly. and free of preconceptions about system behavior.21.e. 2. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing.2. usually before applying it to the software. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?").

decode every possible binary value.21. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. and then ignore impossible requests.21. However. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. or conforms to actual production data. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. 2. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases.5. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose.4. By using all of these techniques in combination. 2. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. Database fuzz is controversial. 2. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. not handling every possible binary value. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes.21.3. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. without even crude validation. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data.

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
3.1.
• • •

Facts
In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

3.2.
• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

3.3.
• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.

Page 17 of 60

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.

3.4.

Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

3.4.1.Verification:
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

3.4.2.Validation:
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

3.5.
• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential

3.6.

What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

Page 18 of 60

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

3.7.
• • • • • •

Testing:
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

3.8.
• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

3.9.
• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.

3.10.

Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

Page 19 of 60

boundary value analyses. those responsible for tasks. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans.unit. set priorities. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. It provides a repeatable. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. functional design.1. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. usability tests. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. test environment. Determine test approaches and methods . Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. test cases. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. Determine test environment requirements (hardware.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. test tracking.1. timelines.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. set up logging and archiving processes. reporting requirements. etc. etc. set up test tracking processes. functional. change processes. system. 4. etc. problem/bug tracking.10. integration. communications. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. coverage analyzers. load. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. required standards and processes (such as release processes. and determine scope and limitations of tests. software. etc. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. milestones Determine input equivalence classes.

) The application name or identifier and version The function.g.. fixes should be re-tested. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. module. For this reason. object.) Current bug status (e. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). and expected results. objective. it should encapsulate these processes. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. ID. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. system. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. If a problem-tracking system is in place. or event and an expected response. etc. Bug identifier (number. screen. 'Released for Retest'. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . get an idea of it's severity. 'New'. etc. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. test conditions/setup. etc. action. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. steps. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. input data requirements. test case name. and reproduce it if necessary. feature. platform. After the problem is resolved.

or may understand and request them anyway . the result is bugs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. In some fast-changing business environments. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . often requiring a lot of guesswork. mistakes will be made. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. etc. Changing requirements . continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life.redesign. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. data communications. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). hardware requirements that may be affected. enormous relational databases. client-server and distributed applications. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. the result is bugs. management must understand the resulting risks. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. Programming errors . For instance.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. can make mistakes. In this case. like anyone else. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Software complexity . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. rescheduling of engineers. effects on other projects. Time pressures . testers need to know when retesting is needed.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Poorly documented code . Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .the customer may not understand the effects of changes. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information.programmers.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Egos . Windows-type interfaces. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take.

Test private and protected functions. Code Analyzer. metrics. and other server technologies as well. etc. Useful for testing CORBA. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. regression. resulting in added bugs. Enables test case and test script development without programming.). EJBs. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. Recorded GUI elements. Tag Libs. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. profiler. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. scripting tools. Software development tools . tuning. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp.1. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. class libraries. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. understandable code. Testing Tools and Software 5. and server application's modules. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. compilers. it should be hard to read'). Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Extensive documentation.2. Includes a natural user interface. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Filters. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. without implementing test clients. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. 5. In fact. scripting capabilities. Includes: Unit Tester. RMI.visual tools. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. etc. GJTester Java unit. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 .

Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. TEXT) or custom report generation. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Contains Page 24 of 60 . QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. using Ant. From Apache Software Foundation.Robot class. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. a script editor/recorder. or from the command line. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. etc) through an in-container approach. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. HTML. JUnit . Typically use within your IDE.awt. predefined (XML. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. for which JUnit may be sufficient). LaTex.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. licensed under the BSD License. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. CSV. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. Free . Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. It uses JUnit and extends it. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation).

control flow analysis and diagramming. Cyclomatic Number. or jar file. at all levels and between all levels. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. method. JBuilder. virtual machines. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. and other IDE's. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. application. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . JMSAssert. package. JEvolve. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. package and produces reports in multiple formats. etc. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. etc. JSynTest. Shows all dependencies. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. classes. C.. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). Works with source or compiled files. Coverage API provided.. etc. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. Halstead Measures. statements. Gathers coverage measures of branches. Coverage difference comparison between runs. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. . methods. highly scalable. View coverage data in XML. JCover test coverage analyzer. PDF. and C++ applications. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. PerformaSure Low-overhead.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. and dependencies for Java. JBrowser class browser. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. text typing. components. class. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options.e. tree node expanding. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. button pushing. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization.. Inc. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. HTML. file. compiler-style output. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. or via a Swing GUI. configurable. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. for speed.). Fifty different audits and metrics. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. source distribution.

2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. Has online advisor for quality improvement. servlets. OptimizeIt Profiler. OS. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. or load testing of java applets. Check listed web sites for current information. Halstead Software Science metrics. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems.) Page 26 of 60 . Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. and size metrics related to reusability. stalls. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). and clarity. complexity. written in Java. and race conditions. and applications. thread debugger. JProfiler freeware version available. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. maintainability. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. and network metrics. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. thread and event analysis. coverage analysis. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. testability. Integrates with several Java IDE's. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. management. or are planning to add such capabilities. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. procedural. includes Java support.

Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. HTML. domain names. For Windows.. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. updates links to moved and renamed files. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. familiar interface for managing files. such as internal and external links. 3-click process.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. for Windows. HTTPS. fixes broken links with an easy. and FTP protocols. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. Excel. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. DNS servers and SSL certificates. Runs as often as every hour. customizable reports. several report formats available. or as infrequent as once a week. For Windows. For Windows. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. Page 27 of 60 . evaluation version available. CSV. used to test and validate critical website components. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. supports SSL websites. Handles HTTP. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. free version or low-cost pro version. can be automatically scheduled.3. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. multiple page list and site list capabilities. includes FTP link checking. For Windows platforms. employs a simple. Export to text. RTF. Site Map. free trial period available. detects and reports redirected URL. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software.

relocations. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. For Windows. Not updated in recent years. test resumption at interruption point. support for all standard server-side image maps. link checker. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. Has not been updated in recent years. site has much documentation and related info. Handles one URL at a time. results can be exported to database. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. doc-not-found. For Windows. Available as source code or binaries. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. 'what's new' reporting. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. formatting disorganized editing. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. For all UNIX flavors. HTML syntax error checking. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags.5. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. unauthorized-access. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. Mac. 5. ability to check password-protected areas. allowing for customizable queries and reports. configurable. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. Churchyard. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. but old versions still available as freeware. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget.'s link checker/site mapping tool. timeouts. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. ID/Password entries. Windows.net. originally by Dave Raggett. Available as source code. for UNIX and PERL. released under IBM's Common Public License. Windows. Discontinued. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. Results stored in database. organize and Page 28 of 60 .0 or 3.4. reports URLs changed since last checked.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Not updated in recent years. randomized order checking. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. by Francois Pottier. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. and finding problem HTML areas. 5. It helps users to create. binary avaialable for Linux. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. page size analysis.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking.

built-in exception handling and reporting facility. HtmlUnit etc. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. Freeware. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. eastern and western European languages. and loop. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. HTML forms.DLL and . Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. supports ASP. For Windows and MSIE. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. Record and playback capability. CGI. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. integrates with a variety of IDE's. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. includes web functional testing capabilities. Page 29 of 60 . JSP. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. retry on error. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. Supports keyword-driven testing. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. etc. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. ASP. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. Can export created . Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive. files. HTML. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. run-time debugging features. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page. page titles and HTML element properties. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. Free and professional versions available.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. but with extended API). Works with Internet Explorer. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. provision to add GUI. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp. Multilingual for Asian. Includes Script Editor. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. Scripting uses Jython. cookies. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet. servlets. robust handling of page modifications. tuning. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. PHP. and Test Writing Assistant . records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate. SSL.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. autocomplete. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. Secure recording on password fields. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. Supports multiple OS's and browsers.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. that includes a web functional testing module.

Handles Applets. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. branching statements. Includes an Intelligent. Special validation points. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. etc. such as bitmap or text matching. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. (300+ commands). scripts have to be developed manually. and other typical business web application features. form entry and submission. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. can be inserted during a recording. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). etc. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. until recording capabilities are added. cookie testing and form submission. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Flash. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. validation of table contents. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Active-X controls. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. animated bitmaps. Page 30 of 60 . Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. C++ or C++/MFC. and Runner executes the test case document. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. LLC. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. 90-day evaluation copy available. but also adds mock objects. Free including source code. STC Master and STC Master Service. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. with its HTML objects recognition. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. This includes web page navigation. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. Maker creates test case documents. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. and a Data-Driven. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. playback window/size can be different than in capture. Fuzzy matching capabilities.

source code avalable.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. Free Demo and Test Script available. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. tab/comma delimited file formats.GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities. or logic associated with the engine. broken links and the structure of the crawled web. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. Easy development and maintenance . PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. Perl dbi database access. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. and more. Utilizes Collections. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . For Windows platforms. etc). Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. Multi-platform written in Java. dynamic Web applications. Methods. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation . Includes capability for automated scripting. screen names. all without changing tool. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. data driven scenarios. break points and response introspection. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined. testware architecture (object names. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. Written in ActivePerl. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback. For Windows. extensible IDE). This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. Create scenarios using the point and click interface.. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. Supports HTTPS/SSL. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy. many Perl cpan library functions.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. reporting various metrics. Free for most uses.no need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame. and generates a detailed test report. includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change.

It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements.org. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. content validation. WebKing Web site functional. For Windows. Java. Utilizes multiple validation methods. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. Works by remote controlling the browser. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. form filling. For Windows and MSIE. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. Jython is used as the scripting language. can enforce over 200 HTML. script testing and information gathering. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line.net/Open Source Development Network. Linux. databases. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality checking. and JUnit is used as the testing library. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. Can handle data input from text files. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. load. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. clicking. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. dynamic testing. an XML DOM. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. and links. JavaScript. for easier script maintenance. Solaris. from SourceForge. basic http authentication. and webserver load and capacity analysis. cookies and automatic page redirection. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. CSS. 508 compliance. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. Works as a proxy server. Records any combination of browsing. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. tables. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. page performance tuning. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. including form submission. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. or XML. written in Java. and web-based applications. or containers of forms.

browsers. For Windows and Linux. Evaluation version available. Enables data-driven testing. PDAs and cell phones. DOMbased testing and validation. direct database access and validation. test process management capabilities. includes support for testing Web.6. test plans. network appliances. in order to induce component crashes. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . proxies. and other applications. and more.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. compiling. protocol analyzers. etc. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws. scripting language. . Java or traditional client/server-based applications. produces defect analyses. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. ERP. recovery system for unattended testing. Java. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. ERP. and web-based applications. and to validate compliance with security requirements. and IDE for developing. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks. 5. editing. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. Handles ActiveX. XML. Java. hanging. etc. etc. C++.NET and J2EE applications. and record/playback. HTML. Features include: test creation and customization. etc.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . Java beans. Java. choice of scripting languages and editors. DHTML. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. and debugging scripts. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests.NET. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. running. test planning and management. includes support for testing Web. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web.

remediation management of vulnerabilities. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. remote self scan and API facilities. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. network security scan. routers. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. data theft or system destruction. websites. Runs on Macintosh. plug-in facility for third party apps. asset management. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. firewalls. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. inside and outside the firewall. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. updated bi-monthly. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. real-time IDS event analysis. based on the SATAN model. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. and browser checkup tool. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. Mac. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Freeware. CVE standards support.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. Inc. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . can audit UNIX. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. SANS/ISTS certified.

Includes DoS testing. reports specify severity levels of problems. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Learns about network as it scans. Customizable reporting.com for individual machines. denial-of-service checks. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. web server requests-per-second benchmark. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. Runs on many UNIX flavors. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. open-source remote network security auditing tool. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. Limited free or full licensed versions available. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Single machine or full network scans. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Works with a variety of operating systems. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. and a wide variety of other tests. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. Nessus Security Scanner Free. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. Port scans. CVE compatible. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Updated regularly. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. by Renaud Deraison. product runs on Windows.

prepares remediation advice. routers. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. desktops. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. or managed service. etc. scanners. Page 36 of 60 . and many other characteristics. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. remediation information. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. intrusion detection tools. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. firewalls. routers. operating systems. publications. etc. etc. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. printers. software product. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. For Windows/Solaris/Linux.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. hubs. etc. servers. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. organized by subject. electronic law. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. intrusion detection resources. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. Available as a hardware appliance. workstations. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. Provides flexible risk management reports. what services (ports) they are offering. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. DMZ and externally visible assets.

complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. Limitedcapability free version also available. FPT/publishing. (Includes various types of security tools. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. and Web Governance. works with a variety of web servers. Similar managed service also available. Free and professional versions available. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. Includes link checker. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. Information Assurance. promoting.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance.org. Accessibility.) 5. service types. Inc. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. Desktop product for multiple platforms.7. combined utilities/tools. for maintaining. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. database servers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. not just for testing. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. and online service available. server management and optimization tools.. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. Inc. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. combining site content. traffic analysis. analyzing web sites.. site scores. and OS's. WYSIWYG editor. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. and site monitoring capabilities. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports.

from AllScoop. bandwidth usage. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. network errors. visitor segmentation. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. click path analysis. network management. services. automatically reboot servers. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. and more. sends email notification if site is slow or down. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . restart services. isolation. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. and network. response errors. for performance and availability monitoring. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. Alerts via email. pagers. suited to large systems. Captures and monitors real user sessions. etc. net send. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. capabilities include notifications via email. and diagnostics. and repair.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. run scripts. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. page aborts. page sizes. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. applications. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . response times. and popup. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. including server errors. etc. SMS. real-time executive dash board. server. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. restart apps and services. For Windows.

HTML and GIF optimization. WYSIWYG editor. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. etc. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. based on database-driven. site cleanup. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. Search. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. Multilingualism. All can be integrated without writing code. PHP-Code Insertion. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. template-based dynamically-created content. detecting. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. Works on multiple platforms. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . spatial relationships between products. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Free for use on small sites. Provides complete software developers environment. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. User Administration.com for web site updating. low cost for large sites. drag-and-drop. such as option compatibilities on a single product. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. link verification. Dynamic Menu. verifying content and functional integrity. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. Installer easily installs system on your server. load testing. Statistical Reports. upload resuming. Message Board. scheduler. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. high-level functions save template coding time. and more. and a robust API. Database Backup. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC.

spell checker. and more. browser-based. administration. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. and website standards compliance. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. Easy to install. image mapper. image handling. Alerts by cell phone. e-commerce site designer/generator. HTML encryptor/optimizer. and more. privacy compliance. Can automatically run external programs. styles. HTML validator. broken links. security. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. For Windows. and DB servers. activity tracking. more. Enables collaboration. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP. length. Basic accounts are free. etc. version control. security. integration with a variety of servers. approval workflow. Works with content from any platform or application.capabilites/support include scalability. and log events. product info. invalid chars). Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. e-commerce. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. then Page 40 of 60 . site mapper. Runs with a variety of platforms. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. templates. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp. advertisements.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. business process automation. customer relationship management. site spider. multi-lingual support. pager. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. stories. renaming the files to match the convention. prices. Update news flashes. etc. HTML editor. text editor. accessibility. searchability. notifications. web servers. . simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. payment processing. support for more than 50 document formats.V.. e-mail. link checker. globalization. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. authoring tools.

Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. isolate. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. publishing. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. staging. Mac. version control. based on native XML and XSL technologies. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. workflow. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. and customizable workflow. and archiving. personalization. Inc. management of workflow. For Mac or Windows. reuse and access. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable..Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. tracking of revisions. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. and manage and report on service level agreements. services for capturing. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. Page 41 of 60 . index/search. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). including creation. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. digital assets. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. production. portals and scanned images. Enables services such as library services. security. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. editing. deploying. documents. conversion services. where all content and content types are stored for management. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. content development. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. anticipate capacity shortfalls. For Windows. replication and administration. Manages Web content. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities.

rank on page. XHTML. SSI. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. format. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. lookup help. extranet and portal sites. page. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. preview and publish web pages. and much more. on web server and Windows client. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. CSS. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. server-side and live preview modes. downloading and online editing of files. FTP Workspace for uploading. XHTML and XML authors to edit. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . meta tag creator. dragand-drop files. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. external. PERL. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. Requires UNIX. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. manage. JavaScript. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. Ruby. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. submit URL's. Requires MSIE and Windows. Java.com designed to help HTML. Searches top engines for keywords. and update websites. for Windows. From Monocle Solutions. searches for keywords. For Windows. Perl. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. XML. Includes internal. automatically resume interrupted transfers. improve search engine ranks. can specify search depth. checks search engine placement including position. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. Requires MSIE. support more than 50 host file systems. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. click paths. validate. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. upload. intranet. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. Python. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. XSL. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. full-featured editor from Chami.

and publishing control tool. and platforms. etc. link checking. version control. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. Evaluation copy available. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. link analysis and quality control. Web based interface for load balancing administration.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. number of pending requests. HTML validation. network management. real-time server monitoring of server response time. For Windows. requires Windows and MSIE. UNIX. standards-based environment. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. monitoring and recovery. logging. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. content management and site visualization. access control. and e-mail notifications. Page 43 of 60 . management. metrics. works with many servers. server management. logging capabilities. For Windows. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. alerting. E-mail/pager notifications. link problems. Interwoven Team Site Web development. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. e-mail submission of web content. For MS and Netscape web servers. server failure detection. OS's. For Windows. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. monitoring. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. For Windows. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. for customizable automated site mapping.

and encryption capabilities. administration. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. logs. and maintenance. etc. includes site management capabilities. layout editor. thumbnail viewer. Server side compatible with many available web servers. graphics management. scheduled and on-demand reporting. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. publishing. Validates against various HTML versions. For Windows. For Windows. global search-and-replace. Link checker. Includes automated deployment. For Windows or Unix. Includes version control. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. Support for managing content stored in databases. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. and servers. staging/publishing control. browser interface. Date stamper. etc. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. comparison capabilitie. API's. link checker. connections. Meta manager. management. Page 44 of 60 . error info is linked to error in html. has updateable rulebase. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. HTML-to-Text converter. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. file uploading. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. spell checker. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. Visual site structure editor. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. and static files. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. provides notifications of problems. databases. browser extensions. customizable reports. image tag checker. security. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. For Windows and Unix.. file edit merging. XML repositories. links. link checking. variable lock controls. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. From Talicom.

creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. For anyone interested in css. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. analyzing and sharing of usability data. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. system resource usage. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test.8. Consists of 3 components. SiteTimer service . A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. for automated recording.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. Free. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. system operations in 7 different categories. Perl. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. to which links it extracts. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . examine server's HTTP headers. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. upload to a bug tracking system.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. from how it breaks down the HTML. web standards and elastic design. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. can specify the screen width(s). The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. URL2image. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. more. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. from TechSmith Corp. and system configuration information. For Windows.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. and share with others.

Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. and includes a simple but powerful JScript.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. Services information. Provides performance enhancing tips. processes. device drivers. and much more. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. etc. virtual memory settings. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Network Adaptor Information.NET event-based scripting subsystem. ports. memory details. for Windows. data creation or capture and replay. and other versions available in multiple languages. loaded modules. Professional. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. more. services. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. drives.). and allows inspection of the HTTP data. html. mainboard. etc. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. ODBC sources. Free. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. component details. environment settings. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. Includes CPU. modules. XML. OS version. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. tune-up wizard. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. physical memory information. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. etc. system file listings.) in small text files. Free. Sandra 'System ANalyser. set breakpoints. and delay. manage and monitor throughput. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. processor information. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. loss. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware.

caching proxies. available as on-line service. Linux RPMs. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". originally designed for testing networking protocols. Enables enhancement of QA. delays. filters. with GUI. binaries and source available. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. compliance. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. Can log captures to disk. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. It allows the user to peek inside I.com. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. freeware. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. binaries. Macintosh. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Page 47 of 60 . Can be used on user's workstations. and multipath effects. packet losses. For Windows. and XML switches.E. analogous to running an MRI scan. testing. and other quality factors. Linux. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. security. any version. Windows (on-demand). in most versions of every browser ever released. any operating system. robustness. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. Free 90-day trial. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. Inc. or source code. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. For Windows. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects.

can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Can crawl a site and report errors. round trip times. freeware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. or WinDump. HP Net Metrix. For windows. etc. bytes. mailboxes. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. throughput.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. for Windows. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. and as source code. etherpeek. retransmissions.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. etc). Runs on Windows. freeware. and any network. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. client/server. Searchability. Page 48 of 60 . Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. and mainframe applications. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. Inc. Runs on Windows platforms. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. Overall Site Quality. Ethernet. Available for various UNIX flavors. any message definitions. Works with all text-based IP protocols. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. window advertisements. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. snoop. FTP. such as those produced by tcpdump. and segments sent and received. Freeware. and generating test scripts. link validation. Also available: MITS. MITs. For automated testing of Web. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. and various graphs. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML).

WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U. client. XML. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. Delphi. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction. COM+. Govt. time period.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. Runs on Solaris or Linux. without ever attaching to process. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. performance for each server. Windows.9/1. COM. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. Page 49 of 60 . and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds. MTS.0/1. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. VB. Thread. allows for entry of custom headers. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. Windows. For UNIX. VC++. ActiveX Exe. For Windows. URL. etc. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP.1. XHTML. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. CSS. Source code available. For UNIX. DLL. T-SQL. not just samples. and HTML. NIST. errors. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. comparison to SLA's.free tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. T-SQL. Freeware. written in any language ( ASP. Visual C++. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. CFML ). Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic.S. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. handles HTTP 0. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . VJ.

Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process .) 2. What is verification and Validation? 8. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. It is oriented to 'prevention'. What is 'good code'? 14. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . It is oriented to 'detection'. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. and does C. What's an 'inspection'? 10. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. 3. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. Testing FAQ 1. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is software 'quality'? 13. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. then D should happen'). What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. Why does software have bugs? 6. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing.monitoring and improving the process.

According to news reports in April of 2004. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. According to the report. government IT systems project. if any. the worst power system failure in North American history. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. In early 2004. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. according to mid-2004 news reports.S. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 .S. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. Studies were under way to determine which. portions of the project could be salvaged. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. A major U.

The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. futures exchange. was delivered late.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error.programmers. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. or may understand and request them anyway . effects on other projects. etc.S. enormous relational databases. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. the district's CIO was fired. hardware requirements that may be affected. 5. can make mistakes. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. client-server and distributed applications. data communications. public school district with 100.000 customers. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. like anyone else. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. Programming errors . one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. Among other tasks.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. problems included 10. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. and didn't work.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems.000+ students. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . preventing problems is lowvisibility. 4. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. rescheduling of engineers. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Multi-tiered applications. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. In early 2000.redesign. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999.S. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. Software complexity .S.

scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. For small groups or projects.visual tools. management must understand the resulting risks. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. resulting in added bugs. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . In fact.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. Poorly documented code . QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. Time pressures . step-at-a-time process. feedback to developers. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. it should be hard to read'). mistakes will be made. depending on the type of customers and projects. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. understandable. with a goal of clear. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. the result is bugs.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. In some fast-changing business environments. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. Software development tools . maintainable code. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. compilers. the result is bugs. Where the risk is lower. developers. managers. class libraries. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. scripting tools.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. and testers. 6. often requiring a lot of guesswork. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. In this case. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. complete. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. egos . etc.

plans.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. done by programmers or by testers. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. and a recorder to take notes. Unit testing . to test particular functions or code modules. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. branches. White box testing . and specifications. conditions. not to fix anything. paths.the most 'micro' scale of testing. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. issues lists. 7. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. The 'parts' can be code modules.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. • • Page 54 of 60 . client and server applications on a network. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. This can be done with checklists.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. code. or that test drivers be developed as needed. and inspection meetings. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. walkthroughs. 8. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. (b) design inspections and code inspections. 9. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. Little or no preparation is usually required. reader. individual applications. 10. most problems will be found during this preparation. requirements. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. Incremental integration testing . Integration testing . What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code.

surveys. Functional testing . the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. input of large numerical values. large complex queries to a database system. partial.testing of full. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. Acceptance testing . Performance testing . or interacting with other hardware. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. especially near the end of the development cycle. Usability testing . environment. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. Stress testing . or corrupting databases. Regression testing . Clearly this is subjective. and other techniques can be used. may require sophisticated testing techniques. or upgrade install/uninstall processes.) System testing . This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. End-to-end testing .testing for 'user-friendliness'.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. Failover testing . Compatability testing .testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. willful damage. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. Sanity testing or smoke testing . Install/uninstall testing . the 'macro' end of the test scale. using network communications. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. video recording of user sessions.testing how well a system recovers from crashes.testing an application under heavy loads.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. bogging down systems to a crawl. etc. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. or systems if appropriate.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. this type of testing should be done by testers. Load testing . such as interacting with a database. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. or other catastrophic problems. etc. User interviews.similar to system testing. covers all combined parts of a system.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. hardware failures. applications. For example.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. Page 55 of 60 . Recovery testing .

not paper. Typically done by end-users or others. In 'agile'-type environments. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. 11. not by programmers or testers. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. Typically done by end-users or others. and intended use of software. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. Adequate testing . use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. If possible. promote teamwork and cooperation. changes. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. re-test after fixes or changes.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. complete. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . re-testing. Realistic schedules . • • • • Page 56 of 60 . For example. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. intranet capabilities. bug fixing. make extensive use of group communication tools .determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. If changes are necessary. and be prepared to explain consequences.testing driven by an understanding of the environment. Mutation testing .testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release.often taken to mean a creative. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. etc. and documentation. testing. culture. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases.. cohesive. Communication . testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . testers may be learning the software as they test it. attainable. design.testing of an application when development is nearing completion.e-mail. groupware.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected.similar to exploratory testing.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game.allow adequate time for planning. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. detailed.start testing early on. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools.preferably electronic.clear. User acceptance testing . Context-driven testing . personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. not by programmers or testers. Comparison testing . Ad-hoc testing . Beta testing . Alpha testing .

use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. Use descriptive function and method names . and is readable and maintainable. Use descriptive variable names . What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. be consistent in naming conventions. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. and is maintainable. delivered on time and within budget. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. avoid abbreviations. or what is too many or too few rules. Function and method sizes should be minimized. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. No matter how small. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. Organize code for readability.use both upper and lower case.vertically and horizontally. • 13. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. the development organization's. Use whitespace generously . such as McCabe Complexity metrics. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). avoid abbreviations. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. quality is obviously a subjective term. One code statement per line. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. less than 50 lines is preferable. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. naming conventions. meets requirements and/or expectations. future software maintenance engineers.) In adding comments. etc. be consistent in naming conventions. For C and C++ coding. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . There are also various theories and metrics. indentations. less than 100 lines of code is good. use of brackets. stockholders. 'Peer reviews'. customer acceptance testers. customer contract officers. magazine columnists. etc. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. is bug free.use both upper and lower case. customer management. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. However.

Level 3 . For C++. However. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . Defense Department contractors. • • • 15. and configuration management processes are in place. keep class methods small. initiated by the U.S. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. It is geared to large organizations such as large U.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. requirements management. and works correctly when implemented. developed by the SEI. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. Few if any processes in place. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. easily modifiable. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability.For programs that have a user interface.) For C++. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. Level 1 . Defense Department to help improve software development processes. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. successes may not be repeatable. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'.software project tracking. successful practices can be repeated. realistic planning.characterized by chaos. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. and maintainable. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. make liberal use of exception handlers. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. periodic panics. understandable. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. Level 2 .S. For C++. 14. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application).

TickIT. testing. For those rated at Level 1. test planning. requirements analysis. 16. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). after which a complete reassessment is required. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. Level 5 . Level 4 . Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. 1018 organizations were assessed. Also see http://www. and other aspects. and others. updates. It covers documentation. It includes aspects such as initial concept. 23% at 2. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008).the focus is on continuous process improvement. and 5% at 5. installation. development. Project performance is predictable. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' .iso.among other things. design. MOF. servicing. 27% were rated at Level 1. In the U. and quality is consistently high. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). (For ratings during the period 1992-96. functional design.S.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. Bootstrap.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. document preparation. ITIL.it indicates only that documented processes are followed.asq.S. 17. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . 39% at 2. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). production. maintenance. 2% at 4. and 0. and CobiT.S. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. internal design. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. 62% were at Level 1. 13% at 3. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. (c)Q9004-2000 . 32% of organizations were U. and other processes. federal contractors or agencies. phase-out. and products.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. retesting. coding.metrics are used to track productivity. testing. documentation planning. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. (b)Q90002000 .ch/ for the latest information. not just software. 23% at 3. processes.4% at 5. Of those. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. integration. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. To be ISO 9001 certified.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. the primary industrial standards body in the U. Trillium. 6% at 4..

etc. This approach can enable more efficient control. If new buttons are added. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. condition coverage. Coverage analyzers .monitor code complexity. etc. bug reporting. etc. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. Load/performance test tools . the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. data.vyomworld. This document is for internal purposes only. client-side and server-side programs work.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test.since they are separate from the test drivers. a web site's interactions are secure.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. For example. the primary being: http://www.such as via a spreadsheet . dialog box choices. documentation management. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. etc. development. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type.for test case management.to check that links are valid. buttons. etc. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). path coverage. For larger projects. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. HTML code usage is correct. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. logs. and configuration management.com/testing/. Additionally. adherence to standards.) can be a difficult task. Page 60 of 60 .such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. or some underlying code in the application is changed. Other tools . or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. and for all types of platforms. Web test tools . The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. documentation. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. Memory analyzers . Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . The data and actions can be more easily maintained . and maintenance of automated tests/test cases.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful