Software Testing for Dummies (ADITI Edition) | Formal Verification | Software Testing

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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2. 2. With that in mind. portability. and closed-box. Unlike black box testing. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. structural. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. clear box and open box testing. functional. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces.1. stability. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. and all visible code must also be readable. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. There are many approaches to software testing. glass-box and clear-box. Types of Testing 2.2. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box".Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. Page 4 of 60 . maintainability and usability. opaque-box. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. completeness and quality of developed computer software.

and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.2.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. 2. In practice.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.3.3. 2. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. etc. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. Page 5 of 60 . The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. 2. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly.3.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design.1. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method.3.3. 2.3.) can use any test design methods. system testing. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. but it's still discouraged. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural".4. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. Unit Testing In computer programming. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.

Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. Therefore. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. it will not catch integration errors. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves.e. groups them in larger aggregates. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. 2.4. 2. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object.6. This results in loosely coupled code.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. i. 2. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. Page 6 of 60 .4. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. This is a mistake. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. As a result. In addition. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. across procedure calls or process activations. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs.1. These "design items". takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. in order to test the class.3. for example.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. By definition. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing.5. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. assemblages (or groups of units).3.

i. etc. response time.1.2. e. In performance testing.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. Performance testing can serve different purposes. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. In the diagnostic case.5. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. given as number of users vs. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. Various tools. 2.5. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. However.. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. Performance Testing In software engineering. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. a separate PC acts as a test conductor.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. if it is made to respond faster. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use.e. Usually. will result in the overall system running faster. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which.5. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. that while the average response time might be acceptable. are available to perform such tests.g.

Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests.3. It can also be done in-house. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. router configuration. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). Performance testing can be performed across the web. 2. deployment of server instrumentation. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally.5. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity.6. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. Analyzing the results. database access times. For example. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. 2. etc. where they had found the system spent most of its time. network overhead. either pass/fail. in order to observe the results. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. often to a breaking point. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). and even done in different parts of the country. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action.

Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. including making things work with people. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. Data corruption and application Defacement. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. Also see testing. compromising usability and functionality. then developers should improve the design and test it again. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. 2. or interpreting feedback. bots. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. to discover errors and areas of improvement. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. or a device) for its intended purpose. performance testing. software testing. a computer interface.7. Downtime.e.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool"." Page 9 of 60 . i. Stress testing a subset of load testing. Data theft. a document. 2. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. During usability testing. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts.8. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge.1. manipulating parts. usability testing measures the usability of the object. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions.7. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads.

paper prototypes. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. Instruction phrasing. illustration quality. "Do you understand this?". software will not run etc. Users of the system will perform these tests which. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. 2.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. Stability Testing In software testing. to which the system should conform. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. For example. 2. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. it will work just the same in production. For example. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. so that developers can see problem areas.10.). The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. and ask him or her to undertake this task. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. or realistic situation. Page 10 of 60 . 2. In the pharmaceutical field. and pre. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. and what people like. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process.11. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. ideally. Rather. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels.9.

A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. 2.14. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. 2. Ideally. Alfa Testing In software development. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. This technique is known as black box testing. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. 2. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. Page 11 of 60 . Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. A beta release is very close to the final release. Beta Testing Many a time. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. testing is usually required before release to the general public. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment.12.13. In distributed systems. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly.

As a rule. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). and as such.). Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). New York.). 2. NY. as its input. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. Regression testing takes. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. as its input. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. As a rule. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. NY. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. 2.16. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. System testing takes. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. During this testing.15. 1990. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. New York. 1990. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. Page 12 of 60 . and as such. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.

They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. test category. and its expected result. Page 13 of 60 . you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. The optional fields are a test case ID. Test Cases. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. (d) complex. and (e) easy to evaluate. system. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. test step or order of execution number. and descriptions. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. spreadsheet. A test case is usually a single step. database or other common repository. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. (c) credible. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. along with various additional pieces of information. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases.17. In a database system. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. or even a test scenario. author. and regression testing. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. Suits. related requirement(s). Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. operating system and browser versions.18. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. They may also be called a test script. and descriptions of the following tests. 2. depth. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome.

defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions.. testing. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). using formal methods. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic).. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. Defect Tracking In engineering. Validation is the complementary aspect. Page 14 of 60 . Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. 2. timed automata and hybrid automata. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. cryptographic protocols. E. does the product do what the user really requires. does the product conform to the specifications. which is more closely related to exploratory testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. 2. or recording feedback from customers). Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. and tracking them to closure. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. and abstractions of general software components. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). (by inspection.g. combinatorial circuits. processalgebraic methods.e.. Petri nets. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property.20.19. 2. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. symbolic state space enumeration. abstract interpretation.e.1. abstraction refinement. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. digital circuits with internal memory. but not the same as session-based testing.20. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts.

or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. then there are defects to correct. However.2. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. usually before applying it to the software.21. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness.21. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data.1. 2. If the program fails (for example. such as relational databases. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. For example.. 2. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. For this reason. so that if the computer fails dramatically. rather than a direct measure. the test data is preserved. rather than behaving correctly.e. i. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. or by failing in-built code assertions). the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). by crashing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. Thus. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. • Database inputs are from tabular data. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality.21. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. 2. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality.

21. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. without even crude validation. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. 2. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. 2. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. decode every possible binary value. or conforms to actual production data. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states.3. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. By using all of these techniques in combination. 2. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. and then ignore impossible requests.21. not handling every possible binary value. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. However.21.4. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator.5. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. Database fuzz is controversial. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash.

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

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Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.


Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential


What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

• • • • • •

An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.


Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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etc. usability tests.1. set priorities. change processes.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. 4. test cases. reporting requirements.10. set up logging and archiving processes. problem/bug tracking. required standards and processes (such as release processes. test environment. Determine test approaches and methods . and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. system. etc. communications. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. etc.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. coverage analyzers. load. functional. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan.unit. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. test tracking.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. those responsible for tasks. etc. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. integration. software. boundary value analyses. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. timelines. set up test tracking processes. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development.1. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. functional design. and determine scope and limitations of tests. It provides a repeatable. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities.

'Released for Retest'. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. and expected results. and reproduce it if necessary.) The application name or identifier and version The function. steps. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. or event and an expected response. ID. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . object. module. action. Bug identifier (number. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. test conditions/setup. system.g. After the problem is resolved. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). etc. 'New'. If a problem-tracking system is in place. test case name. screen. etc. get an idea of it's severity. input data requirements. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. platform. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere.) Current bug status (e. it should encapsulate these processes. objective.. For this reason. etc. fixes should be re-tested. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. feature.

In some fast-changing business environments.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. often requiring a lot of guesswork. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. the result is bugs.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. effects on other projects. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . Changing requirements . When deadlines loom and the crunch comes.redesign. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. mistakes will be made. rescheduling of engineers.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. client-server and distributed applications. testers need to know when retesting is needed. can make mistakes. Programming errors . Windows-type interfaces. For instance. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Software complexity . In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. like anyone else. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. etc. Egos . management must understand the resulting risks. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. Poorly documented code . enormous relational databases. data communications. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. or may understand and request them anyway .programmers. In this case. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. the result is bugs. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. hardware requirements that may be affected. Time pressures .

RMI. Includes: Unit Tester. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. GJTester Java unit. In fact. Includes a natural user interface. compilers. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. profiler. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 .). regression. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. 5. Enables test case and test script development without programming. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. class libraries. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. etc. Extensive documentation. tuning. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep.1.visual tools. Recorded GUI elements. without implementing test clients. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. Useful for testing CORBA. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear.2. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. it should be hard to read'). EJBs. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. resulting in added bugs. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. scripting tools. and server application's modules. Tag Libs. etc. Code Analyzer. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. Filters. understandable code. metrics. Test private and protected functions. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. Testing Tools and Software 5. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Software development tools . and other server technologies as well. scripting capabilities. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write.

or from the command line. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. for which JUnit may be sufficient).available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Typically use within your IDE. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. predefined (XML. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. JUnit . Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. etc) through an in-container approach. a script editor/recorder. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite.awt.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. Free . Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. LaTex. using Ant. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. licensed under the BSD License. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. It uses JUnit and extends it. CSV.Robot class. TEXT) or custom report generation. From Apache Software Foundation. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). Provides recording and playback capabilities. Contains Page 24 of 60 . HTML. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests.

Shows all dependencies. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . method. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. package. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. Cyclomatic Number. compiler-style output. Inc.. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. text typing. JEvolve. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. Coverage API provided. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans.e. and C++ applications. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. button pushing. classes. etc. JSynTest. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. and other IDE's. or via a Swing GUI. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. . a tool and technique for writing reliable software. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. PDF. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. source distribution. application. Fifty different audits and metrics. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement.. for speed. package and produces reports in multiple formats. methods. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. JBuilder.. Works with source or compiled files. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. at all levels and between all levels. highly scalable. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. file. configurable. PerformaSure Low-overhead. JCover test coverage analyzer.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. statements. or jar file. Gathers coverage measures of branches. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. and dependencies for Java. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. control flow analysis and diagramming. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. etc. etc. Coverage difference comparison between runs. JMSAssert. JBrowser class browser. View coverage data in XML. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. virtual machines. tree node expanding. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis.). a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. C. HTML. class. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. Halstead Measures. components.

(Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. thread and event analysis.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. OptimizeIt Profiler. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. Has online advisor for quality improvement. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). Check listed web sites for current information. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. and race conditions. OS. testability. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. procedural. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. JProfiler freeware version available. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. includes Java support. and applications. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. and size metrics related to reusability. or are planning to add such capabilities.) Page 26 of 60 . Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. servlets. coverage analysis. maintainability. Halstead Software Science metrics. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. Integrates with several Java IDE's. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. management. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. or load testing of java applets. and clarity. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. written in Java. complexity. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. and network metrics. stalls. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. thread debugger.

Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. supports SSL websites. evaluation version available. can be automatically scheduled. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. HTTPS. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. For Windows. updates links to moved and renamed files. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. RTF. Excel. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. CSV.. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. free trial period available. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. For Windows.3. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. For Windows platforms. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. Page 27 of 60 . HTML. 3-click process. fixes broken links with an easy. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. familiar interface for managing files. domain names. free version or low-cost pro version. Runs as often as every hour. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. includes FTP link checking. multiple page list and site list capabilities. DNS servers and SSL certificates. for Windows. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. such as internal and external links. several report formats available. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. Export to text. detects and reports redirected URL. Site Map. employs a simple. and FTP protocols. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. Handles HTTP. used to test and validate critical website components. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. customizable reports. or as infrequent as once a week. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal.

timeouts. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. Churchyard. and finding problem HTML areas. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. For all UNIX flavors. site has much documentation and related info.5. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. 'what's new' reporting. doc-not-found.'s link checker/site mapping tool. originally by Dave Raggett. Mac. relocations. formatting disorganized editing. For Windows. released under IBM's Common Public License. 5. 5. results can be exported to database. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. Handles one URL at a time. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. allowing for customizable queries and reports. page size analysis. ability to check password-protected areas. Available as source code. Windows. reports URLs changed since last checked. Discontinued. HTML syntax error checking. For Windows. support for all standard server-side image maps. Windows. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. configurable. organize and Page 28 of 60 .0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. ID/Password entries.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. unauthorized-access. link checker. test resumption at interruption point. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. Not updated in recent years. Not updated in recent years. Available as source code or binaries. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. randomized order checking. for UNIX and Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page.0 or 3. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links.4. It helps users to create. but old versions still available as freeware. Results stored in database. binary avaialable for Linux. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. Has not been updated in recent years. by Francois Pottier. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards).

built-in exception handling and reporting facility. JSP. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. Secure recording on password fields. Supports keyword-driven testing. retry on error. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. eastern and western European languages. Supports multiple OS's and browsers. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. HtmlUnit etc. Includes Script Editor. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. For Windows and MSIE. CGI. autocomplete. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet. cookies. and Test Writing Assistant . QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. provision to add GUI. SSL. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp. ASP.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. servlets. page titles and HTML element properties. Multilingual for Asian. and loop. etc. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. run-time debugging features. Scripting uses Jython.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. HTML. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. but with extended API). includes web functional testing capabilities. robust handling of page modifications.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page. Record and playback capability. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. integrates with a variety of IDE's. Page 29 of 60 . Works with Internet Explorer. Free and professional versions available. HTML forms. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. files. supports ASP. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. Can export created . actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. PHP. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. tuning.DLL and . Freeware. that includes a web functional testing module.

etc. and other typical business web application features. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. playback window/size can be different than in capture. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. with its HTML objects recognition. cookie testing and form submission. can be inserted during a recording. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Special validation points.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. (300+ commands). Free including source code. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. and a Data-Driven. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). Includes an Intelligent. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Fuzzy matching capabilities. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. scripts have to be developed manually. Handles Applets. and Runner executes the test case document. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. Page 30 of 60 . Active-X controls. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. such as bitmap or text matching. C++ or C++/MFC. LLC. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. This includes web page navigation. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. form entry and submission. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. 90-day evaluation copy available. branching statements. until recording capabilities are added. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. but also adds mock objects. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. animated bitmaps. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. etc. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. validation of table contents. Maker creates test case documents. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. Flash. STC Master and STC Master Service.

and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. all without changing tool. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. data driven scenarios. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation . Free Demo and Test Script need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. testware architecture (object names. For Windows platforms.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. and generates a detailed test report. Free for most uses. extensible IDE).. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback. source code avalable. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined. dynamic Web applications. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. screen names. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame. and more. Supports HTTPS/SSL. Includes capability for automated scripting. etc). Easy development and maintenance . Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. Create scenarios using the point and click interface. Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. For Windows. tab/comma delimited file formats. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. Written in ActivePerl.GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. many Perl cpan library functions. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. break points and response introspection. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. Utilizes Collections. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. broken links and the structure of the crawled web. Multi-platform written in Java. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities. Perl dbi database access. or logic associated with the engine.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy. includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . Methods. reporting various metrics.

cookies and automatic page redirection. For Windows. content validation. It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. Records any combination of browsing. 508 compliance. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. Works as a proxy server. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. written in Java. an XML DOM. Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. form Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. or XML. Java. and webserver load and capacity analysis. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. page performance tuning. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. can enforce over 200 HTML. clicking. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . HTTP-Redirects and cookies. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit. Can handle data input from text files. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. or containers of forms. and web-based applications. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts. and links. basic http authentication. Source Development Network. Jython is used as the scripting language. load. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. for easier script maintenance. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. Solaris. JavaScript. tables. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. Linux. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. and JUnit is used as the testing library. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality checking. Works by remote controlling the browser. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. CSS. WebKing Web site functional. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. from SourceForge. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. script testing and information gathering. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. Utilizes multiple validation methods. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. For Windows and MSIE. including form submission. dynamic testing.

scripting language. etc. 5. Java beans. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web.NET. and debugging scripts. C++. network appliances. PDAs and cell phones. HTML. compiling. etc. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. browsers. Handles ActiveX. recovery system for unattended testing. Java or traditional client/server-based applications. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. produces defect analyses. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks. Features include: test creation and customization. choice of scripting languages and editors. Java. test plans. and other applications. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. and record/playback. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. Java. and web-based applications. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. test planning and management. includes support for testing Web.6. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws. ERP. hanging. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. . etc. and more.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . ERP. XML. running. and IDE for developing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java.NET and J2EE applications. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. and to validate compliance with security requirements. editing. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . Java. Enables data-driven testing. includes support for testing Web. protocol analyzers. proxies. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. DHTML. DOMbased testing and validation. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. Evaluation version available. in order to induce component crashes. direct database access and validation. etc. test process management capabilities. For Windows and Linux.

data theft or system destruction. updated bi-monthly. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. based on the SATAN model.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. real-time IDS event analysis. remote self scan and API facilities. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. asset management. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. websites. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. and browser checkup tool. firewalls. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. remediation management of vulnerabilities. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. network security scan. Inc.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. can audit UNIX. Runs on Macintosh. plug-in facility for third party apps. inside and outside the firewall. SANS/ISTS certified. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). CVE standards support. routers. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Mac. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. Freeware.

Single machine or full network scans. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. Runs on many UNIX flavors. Customizable reporting. Updated regularly. Can scan a variety of operating systems. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. product runs on Windows. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. CVE compatible. Learns about network as it scans. Nessus Security Scanner Free. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. reports specify severity levels of problems. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning for individual machines. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. Port scans. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. open-source remote network security auditing tool. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. Works with a variety of operating systems. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. and a wide variety of other tests. Includes DoS testing. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. denial-of-service checks. web server requests-per-second benchmark. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. by Renaud Deraison. Limited free or full licensed versions available.

CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. prepares remediation advice. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. etc. desktops. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. remediation information. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. hubs. organized by subject. routers. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. servers. Provides flexible risk management reports. or managed service. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. intrusion detection resources. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. workstations. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. etc. printers. publications. software product. routers. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. etc. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. electronic law. intrusion detection tools. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. firewalls. what services (ports) they are offering. Page 36 of 60 . Available as a hardware appliance. DMZ and externally visible assets. etc. scanners. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. and many other characteristics. operating systems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing.

Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. and Web Governance. and OS's. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. Free and professional versions available. Similar managed service also available. traffic analysis. combined utilities/tools. promoting. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. not just for testing. server management and optimization tools. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc.) 5. FPT/publishing. Information Assurance. Accessibility. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. Includes link checker. Limitedcapability free version also available. for maintaining. WYSIWYG editor. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. (Includes various types of security tools. Inc. Desktop product for multiple platforms. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. analyzing web sites. site scores.. service types. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports.. combining site content.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. works with a variety of web servers. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Inc. database servers.7. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. and site monitoring capabilities. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. and online service available.

applications. SMS. and network. sends email notification if site is slow or down. pagers. network management. response times. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. restart services. for performance and availability monitoring. and popup. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. server. etc. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . response errors. services. and more. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. and repair. page sizes. automatically reboot servers. including server errors. click path analysis. For Windows. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . Other capabilities include search engine optimization. Alerts via email. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. restart apps and services. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. run scripts. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. capabilities include notifications via email. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. real-time executive dash board. page aborts. and diagnostics. net send. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. suited to large systems.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. network errors. etc. visitor segmentation. isolation. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. bandwidth usage. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. Captures and monitors real user sessions. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. from AllScoop.

template-based dynamically-created content. spatial relationships between products. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. Multilingualism. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. scheduler. Database Backup. Message Board. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. User Administration. drag-and-drop. upload resuming. WYSIWYG editor. Statistical Reports. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. All can be integrated without writing code. Dynamic Menu. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). Installer easily installs system on your server. link verification. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . based on database-driven. verifying content and functional integrity. detecting. such as option compatibilities on a single product. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. etc. and a robust API. site cleanup. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. PHP-Code Insertion. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. Works on multiple platforms. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. load testing. low cost for large sites. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. Search. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. Free for use on small sites. HTML and GIF for web site updating. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. and more. high-level functions save template coding time. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Provides complete software developers environment.

image mapper. broken links. Works with content from any platform or application. support for more than 50 document formats. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. approval workflow. browser-based. stories. version control. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. Alerts by cell phone. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp. payment processing. business process automation. integration with a variety of servers. and DB servers. HTML encryptor/optimizer. and website standards compliance. accessibility. security. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages.. text editor. site spider. HTML editor. customer relationship management. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. For Windows. more. pager. e-mail. and more. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP. styles. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. e-commerce site designer/generator. searchability. activity tracking.capabilites/support include scalability. Runs with a variety of platforms. Can automatically run external programs. Enables collaboration. Basic accounts are free. length. notifications. then Page 40 of 60 . globalization. and log events. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools.V. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. etc. authoring tools. multi-lingual support. privacy compliance. and more. templates. product info. image handling. renaming the files to match the convention. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. web servers. administration. spell checker. Easy to install. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. advertisements. . Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. security. invalid chars). HTML validator. prices. link checker. Update news flashes. site mapper. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. e-commerce.

Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. tracking of revisions. portals and scanned images. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. personalization. where all content and content types are stored for management. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. publishing. security. version control. replication and administration. and archiving.. reuse and access. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. deploying. isolate. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. and manage and report on service level agreements. Inc. conversion services. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. index/search.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. For Mac or Windows. based on native XML and XSL technologies. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. workflow. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. anticipate capacity shortfalls. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. digital assets. content development. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. Manages Web content. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. management of workflow. documents. production. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. including creation. editing. and customizable workflow. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. Mac. For Windows. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. services for capturing. Page 41 of 60 . staging. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. Enables services such as library services.

dragand-drop files. For Windows. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing designed to help HTML. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. rank on page. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. on web server and Windows client. click paths. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. downloading and online editing of files. From Monocle Solutions. Python. Requires MSIE. Java. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. Includes internal. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. automatically resume interrupted transfers. Ruby. can specify search depth. XHTML and XML authors to edit. SSI. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. and much more. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. validate. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. Perl. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. and update websites. PERL. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. page. Searches top engines for keywords. XML. meta tag creator.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. format. support more than 50 host file systems. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. CSS. preview and publish web pages. external. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . server-side and live preview modes. submit URL's. improve search engine ranks. upload. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. searches for keywords. XSL. FTP Workspace for uploading. JavaScript. full-featured editor from Chami. A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. intranet. checks search engine placement including position. manage. lookup help. Requires UNIX. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. XHTML. extranet and portal sites. for Windows. Requires MSIE and Windows.

etc. For Windows. link analysis and quality control. For MS and Netscape web servers. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. network management. e-mail submission of web content. works with many servers. Interwoven Team Site Web development. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. Web based interface for load balancing administration. number of pending requests. link problems. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. monitoring and recovery. Evaluation copy available. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. access control. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. E-mail/pager notifications. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. and publishing control tool.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. logging. requires Windows and MSIE. UNIX. monitoring. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. for customizable automated site mapping. OS's. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. and e-mail notifications. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. real-time server monitoring of server response time. management. server management. logging capabilities. For Windows. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. alerting. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. and platforms. Page 43 of 60 . link checking. standards-based environment. content management and site visualization. version control. For Windows. HTML validation. For Windows. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. server failure detection. metrics.

For Windows and Unix. scheduled and on-demand reporting. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. etc. administration.. browser interface. spell checker. HTML-to-Text converter. includes site management capabilities. For Windows or Unix. etc. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. Meta manager. publishing. staging/publishing control. Server side compatible with many available web servers. and servers. logs. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. Visual site structure editor. file edit merging. and maintenance. and encryption capabilities. file uploading. connections. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. has updateable rulebase. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. link checker. Page 44 of 60 . From Talicom. graphics management. link checking.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. comparison capabilitie. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. and static files. image tag checker. security. thumbnail viewer. For Windows. management. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. provides notifications of problems. API's. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. Includes automated deployment. databases. error info is linked to error in html. variable lock controls. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Support for managing content stored in databases. links. Validates against various HTML versions. Includes version control. customizable reports. XML repositories. For Windows. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. global search-and-replace. Date stamper. For Windows. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. Link checker. browser extensions. layout editor. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool.

from TechSmith Corp. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. For anyone interested in css. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. upload to a bug tracking system. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. and share with others. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer .8. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. system resource usage. Perl. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. system operations in 7 different categories. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. more. examine server's HTTP headers. SiteTimer service .Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. URL2image. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. from how it breaks down the HTML. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. Free. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. For Windows. and system configuration information. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. can specify the screen width(s). A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. and compress the result into a very small file to replay.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. web standards and elastic design. Consists of 3 components. for automated recording. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . analyzing and sharing of usability data. to which links it extracts.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5.

system file listings. Free. Professional. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. environment settings.NET event-based scripting subsystem. loaded modules. data creation or capture and replay. set breakpoints. Free. mainboard. OS version. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. virtual memory settings. for Windows. etc. loss. device drivers. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Sandra 'System ANalyser. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. physical memory information. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet.) in small text files. Provides performance enhancing tips. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . ports. Includes CPU. and delay. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. ODBC sources. html. services. processes. Services information. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. etc. and other versions available in multiple languages. tune-up wizard. drives. and much more. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. memory details. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. component details. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. modules. processor information. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Network Adaptor Information.). XML. more. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. etc. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. manage and monitor throughput.

Enables enhancement of QA. in most versions of every browser ever released. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Macintosh. originally designed for testing networking protocols. For Windows. with GUI. delays. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly.E. Page 47 of 60 . robustness. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. any operating CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Linux. caching proxies. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". testing. Inc. analogous to running an MRI scan. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. compliance. Can log captures to disk. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. For Windows. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. and other quality factors. packet losses. security. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. and multipath effects. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. or source code. Free 90-day trial. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. binaries.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. any version. and XML switches. filters. binaries and source available. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. It allows the user to peek inside I. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. available as on-line service. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. Can be used on user's workstations. Linux RPMs. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. Windows (on-demand). freeware. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source.

throughput. Works with all text-based IP protocols. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. retransmissions. window advertisements. Overall Site Quality. bytes. Also available: MITS.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. Runs on Windows platforms. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. For automated testing of Web. and mainframe applications. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. freeware. and various graphs. FTP. any message definitions. such as those produced by tcpdump.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. MITs. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). for Windows. Inc. For windows. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. Freeware. or WinDump. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. link validation. Page 48 of 60 . and any network. HP Net Metrix. Searchability. client/server. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. etherpeek. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. and as source code. Runs on Windows. and generating test scripts. etc. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. round trip times. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). freeware. snoop. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. etc). can also programmatically fix most common errors found. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Can crawl a site and report errors. Ethernet. and segments sent and received. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. mailboxes. Available for various UNIX flavors. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST.

handles HTTP 0. comparison to SLA's.1. T-SQL.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. Windows. DLL. etc. CFML ). includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. and HTML. MTS. written in any language ( ASP. NIST. Visual C++. Freeware.0/1. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. without ever attaching to process. performance for each server. URL. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. COM. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. For UNIX. T-SQL. CSS. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U. For Windows. For UNIX. Delphi. Windows. VC++. not just samples. XML. COM+.S. errors. Govt. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. allows for entry of custom headers. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. client. ActiveX Exe. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. Runs on Solaris or Linux. Source code available. VJ. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. XHTML. Thread. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . Page 49 of 60 . VB. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. time period.9/1.

Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. Testing FAQ 1. and does C. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. then D should happen'). How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is verification and Validation? 8.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. What's an 'inspection'? 10.) 2. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. It is oriented to 'prevention'. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. Why does software have bugs? 6. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. It is oriented to 'detection'. 3. What is 'Software Testing'? 3.monitoring and improving the process. What is software 'quality'? 13. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. What is 'good code'? 14. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15.

Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. Studies were under way to determine which. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. According to news reports in April of 2004. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout.S. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. the worst power system failure in North American history. if any. According to the report. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. portions of the project could be salvaged. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. according to mid-2004 news reports. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. government IT systems project. In early 2004. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. A major U. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million.S. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings.

the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. rescheduling of engineers. was delivered late. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . 5. Programming errors . It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . like anyone else. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. public school district with 100. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).S.S. futures exchange. Multi-tiered applications. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999.redesign. hardware requirements that may be affected. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. data communications. and didn't work. Among other tasks. enormous relational databases. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. the district's CIO was fired. 4. or may understand and request them anyway . known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 .000+ students. client-server and distributed applications. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U.S. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. problems included 10. effects on other projects. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. Software complexity . In early 2000.programmers. etc.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. preventing problems is lowvisibility.000 customers. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. can make mistakes.

depending on the type of customers and's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. class libraries. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. Where the risk is lower. also in Part 2 of the FAQ.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. often requiring a lot of guesswork.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. In some fast-changing business environments. resulting in added bugs. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. 6. In this case. Software development tools . For small groups or projects. compilers. developers. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. management must understand the resulting risks. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. Poorly documented code . often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. egos . A lot will depend on team leads or managers. and testers. complete.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. mistakes will be made. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. etc. managers. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. the result is bugs. Time pressures . maintainable code. with a goal of clear. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. the result is bugs. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes.visual tools. it should be hard to read'). step-at-a-time process. In fact. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. feedback to developers. understandable. scripting tools.

walkthroughs. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. requirements. and specifications. White box testing . typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. This can be done with checklists. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. plans. 9.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. Unit testing . (b) design inspections and code inspections. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. client and server applications on a network. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. and inspection meetings. Little or no preparation is usually required. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed.the most 'micro' scale of testing. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. • • Page 54 of 60 . 7. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. Incremental integration testing . The 'parts' can be code modules.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. and a recorder to take notes. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. paths. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. to test particular functions or code modules. issues lists. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. most problems will be found during this preparation. branches. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . 8. 10. or that test drivers be developed as needed. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. Integration testing . not to fix anything. conditions. individual applications.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. done by programmers or by testers. code. reader. Tests are based on requirements and functionality.

Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. Functional testing .testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. this type of testing should be done by testers. surveys. Recovery testing . especially near the end of the development cycle. or corrupting databases. or other catastrophic problems. partial. may require sophisticated testing techniques.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . willful damage. Failover testing . This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. Install/uninstall testing . environment. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails.testing an application under heavy loads. or systems if appropriate.) System testing . Usability testing . video recording of user sessions. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. and other techniques can be used. Acceptance testing . the 'macro' end of the test scale. input of large numerical values. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. hardware failures. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. Sanity testing or smoke testing . User interviews. Page 55 of 60 . large complex queries to a database system.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. applications. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Clearly this is subjective. using network communications. etc. Performance testing .similar to system type testing geared to functional requirements of an application.testing for 'user-friendliness'. End-to-end testing . involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. covers all combined parts of a system. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. bogging down systems to a crawl. or upgrade install/uninstall processes.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. Compatability testing . such as interacting with a after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. Load testing .testing of full. Regression testing . For example. Stress testing .term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. or interacting with other hardware.

testers may be learning the software as they test it. groupware. culture. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it.preferably electronic. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. Typically done by end-users or others. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. 11. For example. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. Comparison testing . intranet capabilities.often taken to mean a creative. Communication . attainable.. bug fixing. not by programmers or testers. If possible. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . re-test after fixes or changes. make extensive use of group communication tools .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . design.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. In 'agile'-type environments. Alpha testing .e-mail. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. complete. Adequate testing . informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. and be prepared to explain consequences. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. Context-driven testing . use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. testing. User acceptance testing . Typically done by end-users or others.similar to exploratory testing. Mutation testing . cohesive. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . re-testing. detailed.clear. etc.testing driven by an understanding of the environment. not by programmers or testers. and documentation. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . Realistic schedules . Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. changes. not paper. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.allow adequate time for planning.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. Ad-hoc testing . promote teamwork and cooperation.start testing early on.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. Beta testing . If changes are necessary. and intended use of software.testing of an application when development is nearing completion.

magazine columnists. avoid abbreviations. However. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. etc. and is maintainable. use of brackets.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. naming conventions. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. indentations. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. future software maintenance engineers. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. customer contract officers. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. and is readable and maintainable. One code statement per line. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments.) In adding comments. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). quality is obviously a subjective term. the development organization's. or what is too many or too few rules. stockholders.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . There are also various theories and metrics. Use descriptive variable names . No matter how small. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. less than 100 lines of code is good. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. customer acceptance testers. be consistent in naming conventions. customer management. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. Function and method sizes should be minimized. For C and C++ coding. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. is bug free. Use whitespace generously . Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. Organize code for readability. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. • 13.vertically and horizontally. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. less than 50 lines is preferable. etc. Use descriptive function and method names . What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. avoid abbreviations. meets requirements and/or expectations.use both upper and lower case. delivered on time and within budget. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . etc. 'Peer reviews'. be consistent in naming conventions.use both upper and lower case. such as McCabe Complexity metrics.

For C++. successes may not be repeatable. However. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. realistic planning. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). requirements management. Level 1 . less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. understandable. 14. easily modifiable. initiated by the U. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. and works correctly when implemented.characterized by chaos.S.For programs that have a user interface. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'.software project tracking. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . keep class methods small. periodic panics. Level 3 . Defense Department contractors. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. successful practices can be repeated. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. make liberal use of exception handlers. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. and configuration management processes are in place. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. Level 2 .) For C++. and maintainable. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. For C++. • • • 15. developed by the SEI.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. Few if any processes in place.S.

(c)Q9004-2000 . updates. It covers documentation. and products.S. 16. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . development.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. Also see http://www. (b)Q90002000 . 32% of organizations were U. 1018 organizations were assessed. and 0. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. It includes aspects such as initial concept. To be ISO 9001 certified.S. functional design.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel.the focus is on continuous process improvement. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. Project performance is predictable. coding. TickIT. phase-out. 23% at 3. Trillium. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. and others. the primary industrial standards body in the U. 17. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. production. In the U. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. 6% at 4. test indicates only that documented processes are followed.among other things. document preparation. not just software. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. 27% were rated at Level 1. maintenance.Quality Management Systems: Requirements.iso. Level 5 . and other aspects. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing for the latest information. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. and CobiT. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). Bootstrap. documentation planning. testing. 62% were at Level 1. processes. retesting. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required.metrics are used to track productivity.asq. design. and quality is consistently high. 2% at 4. internal design. integration.. and 5% at 5. Level 4 .The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. Of those. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). and other processes. requirements analysis. For those rated at Level 1. 39% at 2. ITIL. 13% at 3. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). servicing.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 .4% at 5. MOF. federal contractors or agencies.S. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. installation. after which a complete reassessment is required. testing. 23% at 2.

Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). For larger projects. data. documentation. buttons. Coverage analyzers .since they are separate from the test drivers.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. development. Other tools .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects.monitor code complexity. etc. etc. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. or some underlying code in the application is changed. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. Load/performance test tools . For example.) can be a difficult task. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. Additionally. etc. Page 60 of 60 . Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. client-side and server-side programs work. and for all types of platforms. a web site's interactions are secure. dialog box choices. the primary being: check that links are valid. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool.such as via a spreadsheet . Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. adherence to standards. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. path coverage. This document is for internal purposes only. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. If new buttons are added. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. condition coverage.vyomworld.for test case management. and configuration the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. This approach can enable more efficient control. Memory analyzers .these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. Web test tools . bug reporting. etc. logs. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. documentation management. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . HTML code usage is correct. etc. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .

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