Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". There are many approaches to software testing. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. glass-box and clear-box. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. structural. stability. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. functional. Page 4 of 60 . but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation.2. Types of Testing 2. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. and closed-box. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. opaque-box.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. With that in mind. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. completeness and quality of developed computer software. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. maintainability and usability. and all visible code must also be readable. 2. portability. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection.1. Unlike black box testing. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. clear box and open box testing. 2. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria.

Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date.3.4.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. Page 5 of 60 . but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method.3. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.3. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. 2. system testing. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". 2. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). etc. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.3. Unit Testing In computer programming. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.) can use any test design methods.3. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. 2. In practice. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. 2.1. but it's still discouraged. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.3.2. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code.

assemblages (or groups of units).Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. i. it will not catch integration errors.4. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection.3. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality.e. By definition. This results in loosely coupled code. 2. across procedure calls or process activations.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. As a result. 2.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items.1. In addition. in order to test the class. for example. These "design items". the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested.6. 2. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing.4. This is a mistake. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. Page 6 of 60 . Therefore. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object.3. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. groups them in larger aggregates.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.5.

Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . will result in the overall system running faster.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. However. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path.e. Usually. In performance testing.5. response time. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. if it is made to respond faster. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. are available to perform such tests. etc. Performance Testing In software engineering. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. In the diagnostic case. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification.5. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. Various tools. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. Performance testing can serve different purposes.g. that while the average response time might be acceptable. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. 2. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. e. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which.2. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum.5.1. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition.. given as number of users vs. i.

It can also be done in-house.5.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. where they had found the system spent most of its time. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. database access times. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity.6.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. and even done in different parts of the country. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . Analyzing the results. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. Performance testing can be performed across the web. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. in order to observe the results. 2. network overhead. either pass/fail. etc. For example. router configuration. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’.3. 2. deployment of server instrumentation. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. often to a breaking point.

the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. bots.7. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document.8. then developers should improve the design and test it again. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. manipulating parts.7. Stress testing a subset of load testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. performance testing. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. 2. 2. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles.1. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. including making things work with people. Data theft. Also see testing. software testing. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. Data corruption and application Defacement. compromising usability and functionality. to discover errors and areas of improvement. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats." Page 9 of 60 . Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". Downtime. During usability testing. i.e. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. a computer interface. usability testing measures the usability of the object. or a device) for its intended purpose. or interpreting feedback. a document.

For example. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. ideally. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. Rather. and what people like. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened.9. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. paper prototypes. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. 2. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system.). Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. and ask him or her to undertake this task. illustration quality. software will not run etc. to which the system should conform. Page 10 of 60 . 2. or realistic situation. Users of the system will perform these tests which. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. it will work just the same in production. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Instruction phrasing. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. and pre.11. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. so that developers can see problem areas. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. In the pharmaceutical field.10.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. "Do you understand this?". the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. Stability Testing In software testing. For example.

In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. Ideally. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. A beta release is very close to the final release. Alfa Testing In software development. This technique is known as black box testing. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. Beta Testing Many a time. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. testing is usually required before release to the general public. 2. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program.12. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on.14.13. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. In distributed systems. 2. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. Page 11 of 60 . The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free.

The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. and as such. System testing takes. 1990. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.15. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. 1990. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. Page 12 of 60 . System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. New York. and as such. 2.). Regression testing takes. NY. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. 2. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. During this testing.16. NY. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. As a rule. as its input. New York. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. As a rule. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s).). as its input.

The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. and (e) easy to evaluate.18. and descriptions of the following tests. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. author. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. operating system and browser versions. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan.17. Test Cases. or even a test scenario. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. test step or order of execution number. (c) credible. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. 2. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. and regression testing. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. A test case is usually a single step. Page 13 of 60 . (d) complex.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. and its expected result. related requirement(s). database or other common repository. and descriptions. along with various additional pieces of information. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. Suits. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. In a database system. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. They may also be called a test script. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. system. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. test category. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. The optional fields are a test case ID. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. spreadsheet. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. depth.

The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i... such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). 2. 2. symbolic state space enumeration. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. digital circuits with internal memory. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions.e. processalgebraic methods. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. does the product do what the user really requires. and tracking them to closure. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. abstraction refinement. 2. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. Page 14 of 60 . Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic).19. Defect Tracking In engineering. abstract interpretation. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. but not the same as session-based testing. timed automata and hybrid automata. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. using formal methods.g.1. or recording feedback from customers). does the product conform to the specifications. E. and abstractions of general software components. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. Petri nets. (by inspection.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration.20.20. cryptographic protocols. combinatorial circuits. Validation is the complementary aspect. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose.e. testing. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them.. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM).

then there are defects to correct. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. 2. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio.e. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. the test data is preserved. 2. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. rather than behaving correctly. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. However. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. 2. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. For this reason. such as relational databases. i. or by failing in-built code assertions). Thus. For example. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 .. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. If the program fails (for example. usually before applying it to the software. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams.21.21. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing.21. rather than a direct measure. by crashing.2. • Database inputs are from tabular data. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. so that if the computer fails dramatically. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. and free of preconceptions about system behavior.1. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?").Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically.

To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. However. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. decode every possible binary value. 2. and then ignore impossible requests.5. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. Database fuzz is controversial.21. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. 2. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data.21. or conforms to actual production data.4. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . not handling every possible binary value. 2. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. without even crude validation. By using all of these techniques in combination.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun.21.3. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes.

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Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
• • •

In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.


Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential


What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

• • • • • •

An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.


Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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software. etc. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. coverage analyzers. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. boundary value analyses.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. 4. etc. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. problem/bug tracking. etc. communications. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. Determine test approaches and methods . those responsible for tasks. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. set up logging and archiving processes.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. required standards and processes (such as release processes. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development.unit. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. functional. load.1. set priorities. set up test tracking processes. etc. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. test tracking.1. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. change processes. timelines. reporting requirements. system. and determine scope and limitations of tests. usability tests. It provides a repeatable. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents.10. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. functional design. test environment. integration. test cases. Obtain budget and schedule requirements.

input data requirements. it should encapsulate these processes. and reproduce it if necessary. steps.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier.g. etc. action. ID.. screen. get an idea of it's severity. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. After the problem is resolved. etc. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. module. object. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it.) The application name or identifier and version The function. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. Bug identifier (number. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . 'Released for Retest'. If a problem-tracking system is in place.) Current bug status (e. 'New'. For this reason. system. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. test conditions/setup. and expected results. etc. test case name. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). fixes should be re-tested. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. feature. objective. or event and an expected response. platform.

Egos .redesign. etc. the result is bugs. effects on other projects. like anyone else. Time pressures . For instance. management must understand the resulting risks. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. hardware requirements that may be affected. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Software complexity . enormous relational databases. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. or may understand and request them anyway . In some fast-changing business environments. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. can make mistakes. client-server and distributed applications.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. the result is bugs. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. often requiring a lot of guesswork. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .programmers. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. rescheduling of engineers. mistakes will be made. Windows-type interfaces. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . In this case. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. Changing requirements . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Programming errors .it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. data communications. Poorly documented code . testers need to know when retesting is needed.

Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. scripting capabilities. 5. Recorded GUI elements. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing.2. Tag Libs. Filters. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. RMI.). often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Software development tools . Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. resulting in added bugs. EJBs. profiler. without implementing test clients. In fact. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. scripting tools.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. Enables test case and test script development without programming. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. understandable code. GJTester Java unit. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp.1. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. Testing Tools and Software 5. Useful for testing CORBA. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Includes: Unit Tester. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. Extensive documentation. Code Analyzer. Test private and protected functions. etc. and other server technologies as well. regression. and server application's modules. compilers. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use.visual tools. tuning. etc. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Includes a natural user interface. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. metrics. class libraries. it should be hard to read').

QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. for which JUnit may be sufficient). Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. or from the command line. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests.awt. CSV. licensed under the BSD License. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. JUnit .Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. predefined (XML.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. From Apache Software Foundation. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting.Robot class. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. Typically use within your IDE. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. HTML. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. using Ant. TEXT) or custom report generation. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. etc) through an in-container approach. Contains Page 24 of 60 . Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. It uses JUnit and extends it. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Free . LaTex. a script editor/recorder. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java.

statements. and dependencies for Java. file. PerformaSure Low-overhead. View coverage data in XML.. JBuilder. Works with source or compiled files. Halstead Measures. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans.e. or via a Swing GUI. virtual machines. Cyclomatic Number. compiler-style output. C. methods. JBrowser class browser. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . Coverage API provided. etc. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. HTML. configurable. class. control flow analysis and diagramming. package and produces reports in multiple formats. classes. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. Fifty different audits and metrics. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. JSynTest. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. . application. highly scalable. Coverage difference comparison between runs. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. etc. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. for speed. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. method. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. button pushing. Shows all dependencies. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming.. package. etc. components. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). JEvolve.. at all levels and between all levels.). source distribution. Inc. and C++ applications. JMSAssert. and other IDE's. PDF. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. JCover test coverage analyzer. Gathers coverage measures of branches. text typing. tree node expanding.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. or jar file. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. a tool and technique for writing reliable software.

complexity. and race conditions. and size metrics related to reusability. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. Halstead Software Science metrics. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. stalls. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. maintainability. or are planning to add such capabilities. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. management. thread debugger. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. or load testing of java applets. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). and applications. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. OptimizeIt Profiler. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. thread and event analysis. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. JProfiler freeware version available. procedural. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. Has online advisor for quality improvement. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. includes Java support. and network metrics. coverage analysis. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. Check listed web sites for current information. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. servlets.) Page 26 of 60 . written in Java. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. testability. and clarity. Integrates with several Java IDE's. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. OS.

Page 27 of 60 . used to test and validate critical website components. Runs as often as every hour. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. For Windows platforms. such as internal and external links. Excel. multiple page list and site list capabilities. Export to text. domain names. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. includes FTP link checking. evaluation version available. HTTPS. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. free trial period available. supports SSL websites. DNS servers and SSL certificates. customizable reports. employs a simple. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. RTF. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. familiar interface for managing files.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. HTML. Site Map. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. fixes broken links with an easy. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. updates links to moved and renamed files. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. Handles HTTP. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. CSV. detects and reports redirected URL.3. free version or low-cost pro version. 3-click process. For Windows. can be automatically scheduled.. For Windows. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. or as infrequent as once a week. several report formats available. and FTP protocols. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. For Windows. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. for Windows.

Distributed under Gnu General Public License.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. and finding problem HTML areas. ID/Password entries. For Windows. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. For all UNIX flavors. configurable. Has not been updated in recent years. page size analysis. Handles one URL at a time. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. Not updated in recent years. but old versions still available as freeware. allowing for customizable queries and reports. released under IBM's Common Public License. test resumption at interruption point.'s link checker/site mapping tool. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix.4. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. Windows. It helps users to create. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). randomized order checking. binary avaialable for Linux. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. link checker. timeouts. Churchyard. Validates hyperlinks for all major by Francois Pottier. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider.5.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. reports URLs changed since last checked. 5. unauthorized-access. For Windows. site has much documentation and related info. Windows. Available as source code or binaries. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. relocations. Available as source code. 'what's new' reporting. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags.0 or 3. ability to check password-protected areas. support for all standard server-side image maps. results can be exported to database. organize and Page 28 of 60 . Results stored in database. formatting disorganized editing. doc-not-found. originally by Dave Raggett. 5. HTML syntax error checking. Not updated in recent years. Discontinued. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. Mac. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. for UNIX and PERL.

includes web functional testing capabilities. autocomplete. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. integrates with a variety of IDE's. JSP. PHP. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. HtmlUnit etc. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. Includes Script Editor. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive. run-time debugging features. For Windows and MSIE. CGI. Scripting uses Jython. SSL. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. Page 29 of 60 . Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties. Supports multiple OS's and browsers. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. that includes a web functional testing module. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate. ASP. provision to add GUI. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. and loop. HTML forms. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. Secure recording on password fields. Free and professional versions available. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp.DLL and . Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. but with extended API). files. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. cookies. Multilingual for Asian. tuning. Record and playback capability. etc. robust handling of page modifications. Can export created . QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. retry on error. built-in exception handling and reporting facility. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. Supports keyword-driven testing. servlets. HTML.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. and Test Writing Assistant . supports ASP. page titles and HTML element properties. eastern and western European languages. Freeware.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. Works with Internet Explorer.

TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. This includes web page navigation. until recording capabilities are added. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. form entry and submission. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Includes an Intelligent. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. (300+ commands). WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. 90-day evaluation copy available. C++ or C++/MFC. with its HTML objects recognition.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. validation of table contents. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. Page 30 of 60 . but also adds mock objects. STC Master and STC Master Service. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. etc. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. and Runner executes the test case document. and a Data-Driven. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Flash. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. cookie testing and form submission. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. LLC. and other typical business web application features. scripts have to be developed manually. Special validation points. Handles Applets. etc. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Maker creates test case documents. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. playback window/size can be different than in capture. Active-X controls. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). Fuzzy matching capabilities. animated bitmaps. Free including source code. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. can be inserted during a recording. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. such as bitmap or text matching. branching statements.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. and generates a detailed test report. broken links and the structure of the crawled web. extensible IDE). Free for most uses. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. tab/comma delimited file formats. and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. dynamic Web applications. Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. or logic associated with the engine. Utilizes Collections. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation .GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. Includes capability for automated scripting. Written in ActivePerl. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. break points and response introspection. reporting various metrics. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback. and more. data driven scenarios. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. Easy development and maintenance . screen names. Free Demo and Test Script available. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. testware architecture (object names. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. source code avalable. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities.. Methods. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. all without changing tool. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. Perl dbi database access. For Windows. Supports HTTPS/SSL. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. For Windows platforms. etc). Create scenarios using the point and click interface. Multi-platform written in Java. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. many Perl cpan library functions.

It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements. or containers of forms. Jython is used as the scripting language. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. tables. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts. content validation. an XML DOM. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. or XML. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. and web-based applications. Source Development Network. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. written in Java. can enforce over 200 HTML. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. basic http authentication. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . cookies and automatic page redirection. clicking. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. 508 compliance. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. Linux. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. and links. Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. Works by remote controlling the browser. WebKing Web site functional. For Windows. page performance tuning. including form submission. and JUnit is used as the testing library. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. Works as a proxy server. Solaris. for easier script maintenance. CSS. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. load. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. JavaScript. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. Can handle data input from text files. Utilizes multiple validation methods. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. databases. For Windows and MSIE. script testing and information gathering.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins. form filling. Records any combination of browsing. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. and webserver load and capacity analysis. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality from SourceForge. dynamic testing. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro.

Features include: test creation and customization. browsers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. and IDE for developing. in order to induce component crashes. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. ERP. Java beans.6. . and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws. DHTML. and debugging scripts. direct database access and validation. scripting language. Enables data-driven testing.NET. Java. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . etc. Java.NET and J2EE applications. includes support for testing Web. ERP. For Windows and Linux. and web-based applications. 5. produces defect analyses. test plans. compiling. etc. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks. XML. Evaluation version available. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. C++. choice of scripting languages and editors. and more. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. test planning and management. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. etc.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . DOMbased testing and validation. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. test process management capabilities. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. and record/playback. running. Java or traditional client/server-based applications. hanging. and other applications. protocol analyzers. Handles ActiveX. PDAs and cell phones. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests. network appliances. HTML. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web. recovery system for unattended testing. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. editing. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. proxies. and to validate compliance with security requirements. Java. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. etc. includes support for testing Web.

Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. real-time IDS event analysis. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. plug-in facility for third party apps. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Runs on Macintosh. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. can audit UNIX. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). asset management. remote self scan and API facilities. data theft or system destruction.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. SANS/ISTS certified. network security scan. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. updated bi-monthly. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. based on the SATAN model. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. websites. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. CVE standards support. inside and outside the firewall. routers. Inc. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. Mac. remediation management of vulnerabilities. and browser checkup tool. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Freeware. firewalls. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service.

Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Single machine or full network scans. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. web server requests-per-second benchmark. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Port scans. Includes DoS testing. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. Customizable reporting. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. Runs on many UNIX flavors. Works with a variety of operating systems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability for individual machines. CVE compatible. denial-of-service checks. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Updated regularly. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. Nessus Security Scanner Free. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. reports specify severity levels of problems. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. by Renaud Deraison. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. open-source remote network security auditing tool. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . and a wide variety of other tests. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. product runs on Windows. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Learns about network as it scans.

Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. workstations. etc. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. Available as a hardware appliance. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. hubs. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. Page 36 of 60 . For Windows/Solaris/Linux. etc. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. or managed service. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. intrusion detection tools. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. publications. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. and many other characteristics. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. routers. etc. servers. routers. organized by subject. Provides flexible risk management reports. what services (ports) they are offering. firewalls. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. intrusion detection resources. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. printers. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. DMZ and externally visible assets. operating systems. etc. software product. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. prepares remediation advice. electronic law. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. remediation information. desktops. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. scanners.

Limitedcapability free version also available. service types. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. Free and professional versions available. Accessibility. works with a variety of web servers.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. server management and optimization tools.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. and site monitoring capabilities. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. and OS's. Desktop product for multiple platforms. traffic analysis. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure.) 5. combining site content. site scores.. Information Assurance. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. and online service available. combined utilities/tools.. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. Inc. not just for testing. Similar managed service also available. (Includes various types of security tools. database servers.7. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. FPT/publishing. promoting. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. analyzing web sites. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. Includes link checker. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. and Web Governance. WYSIWYG editor. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. for maintaining.

For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . run scripts. SMS. page aborts. response errors. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. and popup. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. from AllScoop. applications. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. services. automatically reboot servers. etc. capabilities include notifications via email. and network. server.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. and more. etc. Alerts via email. click path analysis. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. restart services. pagers. Captures and monitors real user sessions. visitor segmentation. including server errors. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. real-time executive dash board. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. and repair. page sizes. isolation. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. net send. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. suited to large systems. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. restart apps and services. for performance and availability monitoring. network errors. response times. bandwidth usage. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. sends email notification if site is slow or down. and diagnostics. network management. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available.

Installer easily installs system on your server. drag-and-drop. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. scheduler. Free for use on small sites. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. Database Backup. Works on multiple platforms. and more. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. HTML and GIF optimization. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. Provides complete software developers environment. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. such as option compatibilities on a single product. link verification. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. verifying content and functional integrity. Dynamic Menu. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. high-level functions save template coding time. spatial relationships between products. Message Board. PHP-Code Insertion. upload for web site updating. All can be integrated without writing code. WYSIWYG editor. site cleanup. based on database-driven. low cost for large sites. template-based dynamically-created content. etc. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. Multilingualism. detecting. Statistical Reports. load testing. Search. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. and a robust API. User Administration. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor).

administration. HTML validator. authoring tools. site spider. browser-based. and more. accessibility. etc. security. Runs with a variety of platforms. templates. prices. then Page 40 of 60 . e-commerce. stories. link checker. Works with content from any platform or application. text editor. length. site mapper. image handling. pager. integration with a variety of servers. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. Can automatically run external programs.V. support for more than 50 document formats. Basic accounts are free. Easy to install. privacy compliance. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. and more. invalid chars). spell checker. styles. searchability. activity tracking. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. renaming the files to match the convention. . version control. Enables collaboration. Alerts by cell phone. payment processing. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance.. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. web servers. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. customer relationship management. notifications. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. and DB servers. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp. security. business process automation. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. HTML encryptor/optimizer. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP.capabilites/support include scalability. multi-lingual support. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. e-mail.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. image mapper. and website standards compliance. etc. advertisements. approval workflow. For Windows. more. e-commerce site designer/generator. and log events. globalization. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages. broken links. product info. HTML editor. Update news flashes.

including creation. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. Manages Web content. reuse and access. security. tracking of revisions. based on native XML and XSL technologies. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. isolate. Enables services such as library services. Inc. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. and customizable workflow. conversion services. management of workflow. editing. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. where all content and content types are stored for management. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. workflow. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. version control. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. services for capturing. content development. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. portals and scanned images. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. and archiving.. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. staging. deploying. index/search. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. documents. For Windows. and manage and report on service level agreements. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). digital assets. personalization. Page 41 of 60 . replication and administration. publishing. anticipate capacity shortfalls. production. For Mac or Windows. Mac.

on web server and Windows client. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. CSS. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. validate. rank on page. Requires MSIE and Windows. support more than 50 host file systems. Ruby. For Windows. XHTML and XML authors to edit. improve search engine ranks. XML. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. Java. upload. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. Python. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. JavaScript. external. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. XSL. for Windows. searches for keywords. Requires UNIX. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. and much more. checks search engine placement including position. manage. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. server-side and live preview modes. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . Perl. submit URL's. Includes internal. intranet. and update websites. preview and publish web pages. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. XHTML. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. Searches top engines for keywords. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. Requires MSIE. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. lookup help. full-featured editor from Chami. downloading and online editing of files. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. page. click paths. From Monocle Solutions. designed to help HTML. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. automatically resume interrupted transfers. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. PERL. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. meta tag creator. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. format. dragand-drop files. extranet and portal sites.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. FTP Workspace for uploading. can specify search depth.

link analysis and quality control. and publishing control tool. network management. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. requires Windows and MSIE. HTML validation. logging. real-time server monitoring of server response time. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. standards-based environment. content management and site visualization. E-mail/pager notifications. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. and platforms. For Windows. For Windows. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. monitoring.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. and e-mail notifications. UNIX. Page 43 of 60 . Interwoven Team Site Web development. alerting. link checking. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. For Windows. for customizable automated site mapping. Evaluation copy available. e-mail submission of web content. link problems. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. server management. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. OS's. Web based interface for load balancing administration. management. metrics. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. access control. etc. For Windows. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. number of pending requests. For MS and Netscape web servers. server failure detection. version control. logging capabilities. monitoring and recovery. works with many servers.

browser interface. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. For Windows or Unix.. spell checker. For Windows. file edit merging. API's. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. From Talicom. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. HTML-to-Text converter. etc. browser extensions. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. logs. includes site management capabilities. Includes version control. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. image tag checker. Visual site structure editor. provides notifications of problems. Link checker. databases. variable lock controls. administration. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. file uploading. error info is linked to error in html. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. connections. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. XML repositories. management. For Windows. Server side compatible with many available web servers. Includes automated deployment. publishing. scheduled and on-demand reporting. layout editor. link checking. Page 44 of 60 . graphics management. For Windows. Date stamper. links. Support for managing content stored in databases. customizable reports. staging/publishing control. Meta manager. has updateable rulebase. link checker. thumbnail viewer. global search-and-replace. and encryption capabilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. and servers. and static files. and maintenance. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. Validates against various HTML versions. security. comparison capabilitie. For Windows and Unix. etc. HTML PowerTools HTML validator.

creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . analyzing and sharing of usability data. more. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. can specify the screen width(s). Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. to which links it extracts. examine server's HTTP headers.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. upload to a bug tracking system. and system configuration information. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. For Windows. from TechSmith Corp. URL2image. Free. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. from how it breaks down the HTML. Perl. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. SiteTimer service . A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test.8. system operations in 7 different categories. For anyone interested in css. for automated recording. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. system resource usage. and share with others. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. web standards and elastic design. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. Consists of 3 components. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware.

Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. drives. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . Sandra 'System ANalyser. for Windows. XML. device drivers. tune-up wizard. processes. ODBC sources.) in small text files. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. mainboard. Professional. more. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. set breakpoints. component details. system file listings. loaded modules. and much more. etc. etc. environment settings. services. OS version. Services information. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Free. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. loss. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. modules. Network Adaptor Information. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. data creation or capture and replay. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. manage and monitor throughput. memory details. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. processor information. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Includes CPU. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. Free. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. Provides performance enhancing tips. etc.NET event-based scripting subsystem. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. physical memory information. and other versions available in multiple languages. ports. html. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. virtual memory settings. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates.). and delay.

Inc. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. Free 90-day trial. Windows (on-demand). Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Can be used on user's workstations. and multipath effects. any operating system. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. with GUI. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. freeware. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. originally designed for testing networking protocols. and other quality factors. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. filters. Can log captures to disk. binaries and source available. Macintosh. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. available as on-line service. delays. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Linux. For Windows. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. robustness. any version. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. Linux RPMs. Page 47 of 60 . especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. For Windows. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Enables enhancement of QA. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. packet losses. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. and XML switches. testing. in most versions of every browser ever analogous to running an MRI scan. security. caching proxies. binaries. or source code. compliance. It allows the user to peek inside I.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages.E.

) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. For automated testing of Web. client/server. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. and various graphs. and any network.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. link validation. for Windows. Page 48 of 60 . MITs. snoop. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. For windows. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. etherpeek. Overall Site Quality. window advertisements. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. Ethernet. and segments sent and received. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. and mainframe applications. Freeware. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. throughput. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. round trip times. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. Can crawl a site and report errors. Available for various UNIX flavors. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. and generating test scripts. any message definitions. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. HP Net Metrix. Runs on Windows. etc. bytes. FTP. freeware. Searchability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. etc). Runs on Windows platforms. or WinDump.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. Works with all text-based IP protocols. Also available: MITS. Inc. freeware. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. such as those produced by tcpdump. mailboxes. and as source code. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. retransmissions.

Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. Freeware. Page 49 of 60 . MTS. client.1. handles HTTP 0. and HTML. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. ActiveX Exe. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. Windows. VC++. XML. For UNIX. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. comparison to SLA's.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. Runs on Solaris or Linux. VJ. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. URL. XHTML. without ever attaching to process. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. COM. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction. VB. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. For Windows. CSS. T-SQL. For UNIX. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. time period. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U.S. Source code available. CFML ). data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. T-SQL. Thread. not just tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. errors.9/1. performance for each server. Windows. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP. Delphi. NIST. etc. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds. Visual C++.0/1. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . written in any language ( ASP. Govt. DLL. COM+. allows for entry of custom headers.

What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. It is oriented to 'detection'. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What is 'good code'? 14. 3. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . It is oriented to 'prevention'.monitoring and improving the process. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. Testing FAQ 1.) 2. What's an 'inspection'? 10. then D should happen'). and does C. What is software 'quality'? 13. Why does software have bugs? 6. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is verification and Validation? 8. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B.

In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. According to news reports in April of 2004.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. government IT systems project. according to mid-2004 news reports. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. if any. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. the worst power system failure in North American history. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. In early 2004. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'.S. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. portions of the project could be salvaged. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. A major U. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. Studies were under way to determine which. According to the report. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code.S. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project.

which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages.programmers. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. rescheduling of engineers. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. and didn't work.000+ students.redesign. futures to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). public school district with 100. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. can make mistakes. In early 2000.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. enormous relational databases. like anyone else. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. was delivered late. 5. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U.S. 4. client-server and distributed applications. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. data communications.S. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.000 customers. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. or may understand and request them anyway .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. the district's CIO was fired. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U.S. Programming errors . In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. etc. effects on other projects. problems included 10. hardware requirements that may be affected. Software complexity . Multi-tiered applications.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Among other tasks. preventing problems is lowvisibility. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 .

For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. understandable. management must understand the resulting risks. Where the risk is lower. managers. depending on the type of customers and projects. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. maintainable code. and ensuring adequate communications among customers.visual tools. Poorly documented code . and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. developers. etc. the result is bugs. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. mistakes will be made.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. step-at-a-time process. 6.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. In this case. and testers. Time pressures . resulting in added bugs. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. feedback to developers. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . compilers. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. egos . scripting tools. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. For small groups or projects. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. often requiring a lot of guesswork. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. class's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. the result is bugs. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. complete. Software development tools . with a goal of clear. In some fast-changing business environments.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. it should be hard to read'). until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. In fact.

most problems will be found during this preparation.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are based on requirements and functionality.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. paths. branches. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. individual applications. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. • • Page 54 of 60 . done by programmers or by testers. 9. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. code. 10. reader. not to fix anything. Little or no preparation is usually required. Unit testing . may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. and inspection meetings. and specifications. 7. client and server applications on a network.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. White box testing . Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. 8. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing .based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. The 'parts' can be code modules. Integration testing . What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. conditions. walkthroughs.the most 'micro' scale of testing. This can be done with checklists. (b) design inspections and code inspections. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. or that test drivers be developed as needed. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. requirements. to test particular functions or code modules. plans. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. issues lists. Incremental integration testing .

Regression testing . Sanity testing or smoke testing .typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. video recording of user type testing geared to functional requirements of an application.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. or systems if appropriate. For example.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Page 55 of 60 . This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. and other techniques can be used. User interviews. Load testing . may require sophisticated testing techniques. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. etc. Install/uninstall testing . if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. especially near the end of the development cycle. using network testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. Functional testing . or interacting with other hardware. environment. Usability testing . involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. Acceptance testing . or upgrade install/uninstall processes. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. Failover testing . hardware failures. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.testing of full. partial.testing an application under heavy loads. large complex queries to a database system. or other catastrophic problems. bogging down systems to a crawl. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access.) System testing . Performance testing . Recovery testing .similar to system testing. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. surveys. or corrupting databases. willful damage. covers all combined parts of a system. the 'macro' end of the test scale. Compatability testing . etc.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. this type of testing should be done by testers. Clearly this is subjective.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing.testing for 'user-friendliness'. after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. Stress testing . the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. such as interacting with a database. End-to-end testing . input of large numerical type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads.

they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. Context-driven testing . and be prepared to explain consequences. Beta testing . etc. Communication .a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. intranet capabilities.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. re-test after fixes or changes. User acceptance testing . detailed. not by programmers or testers. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . and intended use of software. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. If changes are necessary. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on.allow adequate time for planning. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . Comparison testing . bug fixing. If possible. attainable.clear. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. complete. Ad-hoc testing .preferably electronic. Typically done by end-users or others.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. changes. In 'agile'-type environments. Realistic schedules . work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. promote teamwork and cooperation. and documentation. testers may be learning the software as they test it. Alpha testing . continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. 11.similar to exploratory testing. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. Adequate testing . cohesive. make extensive use of group communication tools . insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . not paper. testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . culture.. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. Mutation testing . groupware. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release.testing driven by an understanding of the environment.start testing early on. not by programmers or testers. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. For example.e-mail.often taken to mean a creative. Typically done by end-users or others. re-testing.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. and is readable and maintainable. • 13. etc. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. customer management. delivered on time and within budget. naming conventions. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. avoid abbreviations. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. However. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. less than 50 lines is preferable.use both upper and lower case. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. future software maintenance engineers. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. be consistent in naming conventions. indentations. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. or what is too many or too few rules. One code statement per line. 'Peer reviews'. avoid abbreviations.use both upper and lower case. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. Use whitespace generously . the development organization's.vertically and horizontally. No matter how small. Function and method sizes should be minimized. Organize code for readability. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. use of brackets. quality is obviously a subjective term. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. less than 100 lines of code is good. Use descriptive function and method names . an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . magazine columnists. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. be consistent in naming conventions. For C and C++ coding. is bug free. meets requirements and/or expectations. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). stockholders. customer acceptance testers. customer contract officers. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. etc. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). Use descriptive variable names . and is maintainable. There are also various theories and metrics. etc.) In adding comments. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg.

and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects.S.characterized by chaos. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. For C++. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. periodic panics. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. developed by the SEI. However. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . requirements management. • • • 15. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. and configuration management processes are in place. successes may not be repeatable. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. Defense Department contractors. keep class methods small. Level 3 . Level 1 . and if reasonably applied can be helpful. 14. Few if any processes in place. Level 2 . some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. easily modifiable. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading.For programs that have a user interface. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing).) For C++. and maintainable. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many project tracking. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. For C++. successful practices can be repeated. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. and works correctly when implemented. initiated by the U. realistic planning.S. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. make liberal use of exception handlers. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. understandable.

'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. and others. 62% were at Level 1. coding. Project performance is predictable. and quality is consistently high. documentation planning. test planning. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. Level 5 .) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. Of those. 2% at 4. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . (b)Q90002000 . document preparation. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. development. internal design. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). Also see for the latest information. and 0. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. requirements analysis. production. servicing. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). 23% at 2.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. and 5% at 5.S. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. design.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. not just software. phase-out. federal contractors or agencies. Bootstrap. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. functional design. 32% of organizations were U. 1018 organizations were assessed. after which a complete reassessment is required. installation. 13% at 3. the primary industrial standards body in the U. TickIT.asq. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . To be ISO 9001 certified. integration. and products. 23% at 3.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes.among other things. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. It covers documentation.. (For ratings during the period 1992-96.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. 6% at 4. (c)Q9004-2000 . maintenance.S. 17. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products .S. Trillium. 39% at 2. 27% were rated at Level 1. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. For those rated at Level 1. 16. testing. retesting. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' .4% at 5. and other indicates only that documented processes are followed.the focus is on continuous process improvement. In the U. and other processes. updates. It includes aspects such as initial concept. and CobiT. testing. processes.metrics are used to track productivity.iso. Level 4 . MOF.

etc. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. etc. documentation. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. condition etc.since they are separate from the test drivers. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . path coverage.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. Web test tools .such as via a spreadsheet .these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. For larger projects. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. If new buttons are added. and for all types of platforms. Load/performance test tools . Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. Additionally. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. Page 60 of 60 . buttons. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). documentation management.monitor code complexity. dialog box choices. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. a web site's interactions are secure. the primary being: http://www. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type.) can be a difficult task. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . and configuration management.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. adherence to standards. This document is for internal purposes only. data. client-side and server-side programs work. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. development. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. or some underlying code in the application is changed. etc.for test case management. Other tools . This approach can enable more efficient control. Coverage analyzers . Memory analyzers . HTML code usage is check that links are valid. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. bug reporting. etc. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. logs.vyomworld. For example.

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