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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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glass-box and clear-box. functional. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. 2. clear box and open box testing.2. Types of Testing 2. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. There are many approaches to software testing. and closed-box. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. 2. opaque-box. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". structural. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. stability. maintainability and usability. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. Page 4 of 60 . Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". portability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. completeness and quality of developed computer software. With that in mind.1. and all visible code must also be readable. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". Unlike black box testing. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection.
and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. Unit Testing In computer programming. but it's still discouraged. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. Page 5 of 60 .3.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. etc.3.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing).3. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.3.3. system testing. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs.) can use any test design methods. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether.1. 2. 2. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. 2. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural".4. 2.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach.3.2. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. In practice.
3.5.4. As a result. Page 6 of 60 . 2. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. across procedure calls or process activations. in order to test the class. for example. By definition. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. it will not catch integration errors.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. i. performance problems and any other system-wide issues.1. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. groups them in larger aggregates. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. 2.3. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. assemblages (or groups of units). Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. This results in loosely coupled code.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. This is a mistake. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.e. Therefore. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.6. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing.4. In addition. 2. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. These "design items".
including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. Performance Testing In software engineering. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script.2. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. given as number of users vs.5.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification.e.5. Various tools. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. i. e. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. if it is made to respond faster. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. that while the average response time might be acceptable. are available to perform such tests.g.. Performance testing can serve different purposes. 2. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. However. In the diagnostic case. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing.5. Usually.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. response time. will result in the overall system running faster. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . etc. In performance testing.1. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time.
It can also be done in-house. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. deployment of server instrumentation. etc. database access times. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Analyzing the results.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. 2. router configuration. Performance testing can be performed across the web.3. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. 2. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. and even done in different parts of the country. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. in order to observe the results. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time.6. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. where they had found the system spent most of its time. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. network overhead.5. often to a breaking point. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). either pass/fail. For example.
whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. 2. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs.e. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". 2. a document. Data corruption and application Defacement. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts.7. Data theft. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. Stress testing a subset of load testing. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. During usability testing. compromising usability and functionality.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. a computer interface.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. usability testing measures the usability of the object. software testing. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. performance testing. manipulating parts. Also see testing. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. Downtime. bots.7. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. to discover errors and areas of improvement. then developers should improve the design and test it again. i. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions." Page 9 of 60 .you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. or a device) for its intended purpose.1. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance.8. or interpreting feedback. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. including making things work with people. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads.
or realistic situation. 2. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. For example. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. Stability Testing In software testing. "Do you understand this?". ideally. illustration quality. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. Page 10 of 60 . The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. software will not run etc. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. paper prototypes. and pre. Instruction phrasing. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. 2. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. 2.10. For example. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Users of the system will perform these tests which. In the pharmaceutical field. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. so that developers can see problem areas. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. it will work just the same in production. Rather. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process.). Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. and ask him or her to undertake this task.11.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. and what people like.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. to which the system should conform. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario.9.
In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. In distributed systems. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. Alfa Testing In software development. A beta release is very close to the final release. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. testing is usually required before release to the general public. Ideally. This technique is known as black box testing. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. Page 11 of 60 . Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. 2.13. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. Beta Testing Many a time. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. however no serious or critical bugs would exist.14. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. 2. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. 2. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used.12. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing.
1990. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. as its input. New York. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.16.). IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries.). Regression testing takes. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. Page 12 of 60 . all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. 2. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). NY. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. 2. NY. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. and as such. 1990. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. New York. System testing takes. As a rule. During this testing. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. and as such. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). as its input. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing.15. As a rule. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.
spreadsheet. They may also be called a test script. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. The optional fields are a test case ID. Page 13 of 60 . (d) complex. along with various additional pieces of information. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. test category. A test case is usually a single step. author.18. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. related requirement(s).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. depth. 2. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. and (e) easy to evaluate. (c) credible. and descriptions of the following tests. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. In a database system. Test Cases. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. and regression testing. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table.17. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. operating system and browser versions. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. database or other common repository. test step or order of execution number. system. and its expected result. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. Suits. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. or even a test scenario. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. and descriptions.
but not the same as session-based testing. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. testing. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. Defect Tracking In engineering. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts.1. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. timed automata and hybrid automata. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions.. cryptographic protocols. digital circuits with internal memory. using formal methods. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). Page 14 of 60 .e. and abstractions of general software components. or recording feedback from customers). 2. E. 2.20. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property.g. does the product conform to the specifications. abstraction refinement. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. Validation is the complementary aspect. which is more closely related to exploratory testing.20.e. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. abstract interpretation. does the product do what the user really requires.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. and tracking them to closure. Petri nets.. 2. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). symbolic state space enumeration. processalgebraic methods.19. (by inspection. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle.. combinatorial circuits.
. 2. the test data is preserved. These usually have a budget to develop test tools.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically.21. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. However. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing.2. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior.21. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. so that if the computer fails dramatically. or by failing in-built code assertions). Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. 2.21. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. then there are defects to correct. For example. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. Thus. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. • Database inputs are from tabular data. rather than behaving correctly.1.e. If the program fails (for example. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. For this reason. usually before applying it to the software. such as relational databases. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. by crashing. rather than a direct measure. 2. i. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low.
Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. However. By using all of these techniques in combination. 2. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected.5. 2. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures.21.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. not handling every possible binary value. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. 2. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. and a general-purpose interface is available to users.21. or conforms to actual production data. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator.4. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. without even crude validation.21. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. decode every possible binary value. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes.3. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. and then ignore impossible requests. Database fuzz is controversial. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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system. set up test tracking processes. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. required standards and processes (such as release processes. test cases.unit. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. etc.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. set priorities. coverage analyzers. integration. software. change processes. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. problem/bug tracking. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . usability tests. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. reporting requirements. milestones Determine input equivalence classes.1. set up logging and archiving processes. and determine scope and limitations of tests. test environment.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. load. communications.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. functional. Determine test approaches and methods . timelines. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. test tracking. etc. those responsible for tasks. It provides a repeatable.1. 4.10. functional design. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. etc. etc. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. boundary value analyses. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides.
'Released for Retest'. input data requirements. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. ID. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. fixes should be re-tested. 'New'. objective. action. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. system. module. it should encapsulate these processes. get an idea of it's severity. and expected results. etc. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). screen.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input.. test case name. feature. steps. etc. etc. If a problem-tracking system is in place. For this reason. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 .) Current bug status (e. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. test conditions/setup. and reproduce it if necessary.g. Bug identifier (number. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. object.) The application name or identifier and version The function. or event and an expected response. platform. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the problem is resolved. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc.
If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Windows-type interfaces. Software complexity . work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. In some fast-changing business environments.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. testers need to know when retesting is needed. enormous relational databases. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. the result is bugs. data communications. often requiring a lot of guesswork. or may understand and request them anyway . effects on other projects. management must understand the resulting risks. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. client-server and distributed applications.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. mistakes will be made.programmers. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. Changing requirements .as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Poorly documented code . like anyone else. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. etc. Egos . we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take.redesign. the result is bugs. Time pressures . developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. Programming errors . can make mistakes. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . For instance. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. hardware requirements that may be affected. rescheduling of engineers.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. In this case.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented.
Filters. Recorded GUI elements. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. Useful for testing CORBA. tuning. GJTester Java unit. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. Software development tools .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. scripting capabilities. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Code Analyzer. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. it should be hard to read').). EJBs. understandable code. Enables test case and test script development without programming. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. profiler. without implementing test clients. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Includes a natural user interface. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . etc. RMI. and server application's modules. Tag Libs. regression. metrics. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. Test private and protected functions. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5.visual tools. In fact. 5. resulting in added bugs. etc. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks.1. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Testing Tools and Software 5. compilers. class libraries. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Extensive documentation. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. scripting tools. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. Includes: Unit Tester. and other server technologies as well. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft.2. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets.
Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Provides recording and playback capabilities. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. using Ant. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. licensed under the BSD License. CSV. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. or from the command line. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation).available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. for which JUnit may be sufficient). Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. From Apache Software Foundation. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. TEXT) or custom report generation. Contains Page 24 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. LaTex. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. a script editor/recorder. etc) through an in-container approach. JUnit . predefined (XML. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components.awt. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. It uses JUnit and extends it. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Free . HTML. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Typically use within your IDE.Robot class.
file. or jar file. package and produces reports in multiple formats. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. PDF. View coverage data in XML. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. classes. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. and C++ applications. Works with source or compiled files. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. and other IDE's. control flow analysis and diagramming. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. JBrowser class browser. configurable. tree node expanding.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. C. Fifty different audits and metrics. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. text typing. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA.. JEvolve. HTML. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. at all levels and between all levels.). J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. package. PerformaSure Low-overhead.e. Shows all dependencies. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . components. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. source distribution. statements. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. button pushing. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. class. highly scalable. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. compiler-style output. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. virtual machines. for speed. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. method. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). a tool and technique for writing reliable software.. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. etc. etc. Inc. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. etc. Gathers coverage measures of branches. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. Coverage difference comparison between runs. and dependencies for Java. Coverage API provided. Cyclomatic Number. application. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. . Halstead Measures. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. JMSAssert. JCover test coverage analyzer. JSynTest. or via a Swing GUI. JBuilder. methods. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options.. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's.
code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. Integrates with several Java IDE's. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. complexity. Has online advisor for quality improvement. written in Java. and network metrics. and clarity. procedural. stalls. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time.) Page 26 of 60 . thread debugger. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. or are planning to add such capabilities. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. management. and applications. maintainability. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. and race conditions. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). includes Java support. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. OS. OptimizeIt Profiler. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. servlets. JProfiler freeware version available. thread and event analysis. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. Check listed web sites for current information. or load testing of java applets.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. testability. Halstead Software Science metrics. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. coverage analysis. and size metrics related to reusability. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software.
provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations.. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. For Windows platforms. For Windows. 3-click process. evaluation version available. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. free version or low-cost pro version. or as infrequent as once a week. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. can be automatically scheduled. Runs as often as every hour. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. familiar interface for managing files. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. fixes broken links with an easy. supports SSL websites. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. HTML. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool.3. several report formats available. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. Handles HTTP. DNS servers and SSL certificates. domain names. used to test and validate critical website components. Export to text. for Windows. includes FTP link checking. multiple page list and site list capabilities. Excel. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. CSV. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. customizable reports. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. such as internal and external links. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. detects and reports redirected URL. employs a simple. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. Page 27 of 60 . HTTPS. updates links to moved and renamed files.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. free trial period available. For Windows. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. and FTP protocols. Site Map. RTF. For Windows.
LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Handles one URL at a time. organize and Page 28 of 60 . allowing for customizable queries and reports. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages.0 or 3. for UNIX and PERL. unauthorized-access. originally by Dave Raggett. link checker. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. doc-not-found. 5. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. support for all standard server-side image maps. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. It helps users to create. released under IBM's Common Public License.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. but old versions still available as freeware. and finding problem HTML areas. For Windows. Has not been updated in recent years. Available as source code. results can be exported to database. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. Churchyard. page size analysis. by Francois Pottier.5. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. Mac. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. Results stored in database. test resumption at interruption point. reports URLs changed since last checked.net. Discontinued.4. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. For Windows. Not updated in recent years. formatting disorganized editing. randomized order checking. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. HTML syntax error checking.'s link checker/site mapping tool. ability to check password-protected areas. Available as source code or binaries. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. ID/Password entries. For all UNIX flavors. configurable. Windows. site has much documentation and related info. Not updated in recent years. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). 'what's new' reporting. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. 5. timeouts. Windows. binary avaialable for Linux. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. relocations.
Handles Applets. LLC. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. and other typical business web application features. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. with its HTML objects recognition. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Includes an Intelligent. Free including source code. but also adds mock objects. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. Page 30 of 60 . and a Data-Driven. Special validation points. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Maker creates test case documents. animated bitmaps. Flash. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. STC Master and STC Master Service. etc. C++ or C++/MFC. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. Active-X controls. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. This includes web page navigation. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. (300+ commands). etc. cookie testing and form submission. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. until recording capabilities are added. validation of table contents.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. 90-day evaluation copy available. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. Fuzzy matching capabilities. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. and Runner executes the test case document. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. scripts have to be developed manually. playback window/size can be different than in capture. such as bitmap or text matching. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. form entry and submission. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. can be inserted during a recording. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. branching statements. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors.
based on the SATAN model. SANS/ISTS certified. remote self scan and API facilities. and browser checkup tool. Runs on Macintosh. inside and outside the firewall. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. real-time IDS event analysis. asset management.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. remediation management of vulnerabilities. updated bi-monthly. can audit UNIX. firewalls. plug-in facility for third party apps. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. data theft or system destruction. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. routers. CVE standards support. Freeware. network security scan. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Mac. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Inc. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. websites.
Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. Limited free or full licensed versions available. open-source remote network security auditing tool. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files.com for individual machines. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. Works with a variety of operating systems. Includes DoS testing. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. reports specify severity levels of problems. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. and a wide variety of other tests. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. Customizable reporting. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. denial-of-service checks. product runs on Windows. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. Port scans. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. web server requests-per-second benchmark. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Learns about network as it scans. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. CVE compatible. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . Single machine or full network scans. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. Runs on many UNIX flavors. by Renaud Deraison. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. Updated regularly. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. Nessus Security Scanner Free.
etc. prepares remediation advice. DMZ and externally visible assets. operating systems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. intrusion detection resources. etc. or managed service. what services (ports) they are offering. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. etc. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. organized by subject. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. hubs. routers. firewalls. Available as a hardware appliance. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. software product. workstations. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. publications. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. Page 36 of 60 . NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. printers. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. remediation information. and many other characteristics. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. desktops. routers. intrusion detection tools. Provides flexible risk management reports. scanners. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. electronic law. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. servers. etc. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers.
Includes link checker. site scores.. Free and professional versions available.) 5. server management and optimization tools. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. Similar managed service also available. and site monitoring capabilities. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. combined utilities/tools. traffic analysis. Accessibility. FPT/publishing. works with a variety of web servers. and online service available. database servers. service types. not just for testing. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. and OS's. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . Inc. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. Desktop product for multiple platforms. promoting. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Information Assurance.org. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. for maintaining. analyzing web sites. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. and Web Governance. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy.. (Includes various types of security tools. WYSIWYG editor. Limitedcapability free version also available.7. combining site content.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. Inc. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software.
etc. capabilities include notifications via email. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. net send. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. click path analysis. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. page sizes. real-time executive dash board. services. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . and more.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. response times. restart apps and services. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. response errors. and network. restart services. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. applications.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. from AllScoop. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. for performance and availability monitoring. and diagnostics. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. bandwidth usage. sends email notification if site is slow or down. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. For Windows. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . and repair. isolation. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. run scripts. visitor segmentation. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. Captures and monitors real user sessions. including server errors. pagers. suited to large systems. automatically reboot servers. server. network errors. page aborts. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. Alerts via email. network management. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. etc. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. and popup. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. SMS.
All can be integrated without writing code. link verification. Free for use on small sites. Provides complete software developers environment. detecting. high-level functions save template coding time. and more. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. Statistical Reports. site cleanup. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Works on multiple platforms. Database Backup. such as option compatibilities on a single product. WYSIWYG editor. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. User Administration. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. Multilingualism. low cost for large sites. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. Installer easily installs system on your server. Search. verifying content and functional integrity. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. drag-and-drop.com for web site updating. Message Board. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. load testing. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). template-based dynamically-created content. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Dynamic Menu. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. spatial relationships between products. PHP-Code Insertion. upload resuming. HTML and GIF optimization. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. scheduler. based on database-driven. and a robust API. etc. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 .
documents. workflow. Manages Web content. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. based on native XML and XSL technologies. For Windows. and customizable workflow. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. replication and administration. and manage and report on service level agreements. production. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. personalization. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. where all content and content types are stored for management. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. For Mac or Windows. management of workflow. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. index/search. reuse and access. and archiving. including creation. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. digital assets. version control. security. tracking of revisions. portals and scanned images. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. publishing. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. Page 41 of 60 .. Inc. editing. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. staging. services for capturing. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. Mac. isolate. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. Enables services such as library services. deploying. conversion services. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. content development. anticipate capacity shortfalls. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically.
HTML validation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. content management and site visualization. works with many servers. requires Windows and MSIE. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. For Windows. e-mail submission of web content. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. For MS and Netscape web servers. OS's. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. number of pending requests. For Windows. and platforms. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. etc. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. For Windows. and publishing control tool. Evaluation copy available. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. real-time server monitoring of server response time. monitoring and recovery. metrics. access control. network management. server management. standards-based environment. Page 43 of 60 . link analysis and quality control. link checking. for customizable automated site mapping. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. management. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. E-mail/pager notifications. Interwoven Team Site Web development. link problems. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. Web based interface for load balancing administration. version control. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. UNIX. server failure detection. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. alerting. and e-mail notifications. monitoring. logging. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. For Windows. logging capabilities.
Runs on servers and monitors server performance. global search-and-replace. Link checker. For Windows. HTML-to-Text converter. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Visual site structure editor. links. error info is linked to error in html. Page 44 of 60 .. For Windows. Date stamper. file edit merging. customizable reports. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. Server side compatible with many available web servers. databases. API's. Support for managing content stored in databases. connections. logs. publishing. Meta manager. and servers. graphics management. provides notifications of problems. and maintenance. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. XML repositories. etc. management. link checking. includes site management capabilities. image tag checker. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. administration. browser extensions. browser interface. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. file uploading. thumbnail viewer. From Talicom. Validates against various HTML versions. security. staging/publishing control. layout editor. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. scheduled and on-demand reporting.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. etc. For Windows. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. Includes automated deployment. spell checker. Includes version control. For Windows and Unix. and encryption capabilities. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. comparison capabilitie. link checker. For Windows or Unix. and static files. variable lock controls. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. has updateable rulebase.
from how it breaks down the HTML. where network traffic is captured over a LAN.8. Consists of 3 components. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. from TechSmith Corp. and share with others. for automated recording. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. more. For Windows. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. web standards and elastic design. Free.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. and system configuration information. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. upload to a bug tracking system. examine server's HTTP headers. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. can specify the screen width(s). SiteTimer service . A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. system resource usage. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. to which links it extracts. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. system operations in 7 different categories.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. For anyone interested in css. Perl. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. analyzing and sharing of usability data. URL2image.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page.
Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . html. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. and much more.NET event-based scripting subsystem. environment settings. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. component details.) in small text files. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Network Adaptor Information. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. device drivers. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. etc. Free. etc. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. for Windows. services. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. ODBC sources. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. loaded modules. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. drives. Provides performance enhancing tips. processes. modules. Services information. physical memory information. Professional. Free. loss. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding.). Includes CPU. etc. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. Sandra 'System ANalyser. system file listings. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. and other versions available in multiple languages. and delay. set breakpoints. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. data creation or capture and replay. XML. tune-up wizard. OS version. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. processor information. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. virtual memory settings. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. memory details. manage and monitor throughput. ports. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. mainboard. more. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info.
testing. binaries. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. and other quality factors. filters. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server.E. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. freeware. in most versions of every browser ever released. packet losses. Linux RPMs. compliance. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. and XML switches.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. security. or source code. any operating system. Page 47 of 60 . Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. delays. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. Inc. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". binaries and source available. Free 90-day trial. robustness. Can be used on user's workstations. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. caching proxies. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. and multipath effects. originally designed for testing networking protocols. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. Linux. Can log captures to disk. Windows (on-demand). Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. For Windows. with GUI. analogous to running an MRI scan.com. available as on-line service. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. It allows the user to peek inside I. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. Macintosh. any version. Enables enhancement of QA. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. For Windows.
Page 48 of 60 . Runs on Windows platforms.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. Overall Site Quality. round trip times. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. Available for various UNIX flavors. freeware. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. any message definitions. Also available: MITS. freeware. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). and mainframe applications.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. or WinDump. retransmissions. and various graphs. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Runs on Windows. For windows. client/server. for Windows. Works with all text-based IP protocols. etc. MITs. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. window advertisements. HP Net Metrix. link validation. and segments sent and received. throughput. and any network. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). Searchability. and generating test scripts. etc). For automated testing of Web. etherpeek. bytes. snoop. Freeware. Ethernet. Inc. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. mailboxes. FTP. Can crawl a site and report errors. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. and as source code. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. such as those produced by tcpdump. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time.
making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should.) 2. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with.monitoring and improving the process. Why does software have bugs? 6. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is 'good code'? 14. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. What is verification and Validation? 8.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. 3. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What's an 'inspection'? 10. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What is software 'quality'? 13. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. It is oriented to 'detection'. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. Testing FAQ 1. then D should happen'). with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. It is oriented to 'prevention'. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. and does C. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7.
portions of the project could be salvaged.S. In early 2004. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. A major U.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. government IT systems project. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software.S. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. according to mid-2004 news reports. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. According to news reports in April of 2004. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. Studies were under way to determine which. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. the worst power system failure in North American history. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . if any. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. According to the report. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank.
S.S. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. futures exchange.S. 4. or may understand and request them anyway . the district's CIO was fired. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. In early 2000. Software complexity .as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. public school district with 100. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. rescheduling of engineers. and didn't work. data communications. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. can make mistakes. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . was delivered late. Among other tasks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. like anyone else. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . preventing problems is lowvisibility. hardware requirements that may be affected. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. enormous relational databases. Multi-tiered applications. etc.programmers. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 .000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U.000 customers. effects on other projects. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. 5.redesign. problems included 10.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Programming errors . This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out.000+ students. client-server and distributed applications.
Poorly documented code . Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. feedback to developers. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. class libraries. In fact. complete. etc. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. resulting in added bugs. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. In some fast-changing business environments. Where the risk is lower. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . compilers.visual tools.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. developers.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. understandable. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . egos . often requiring a lot of guesswork. it should be hard to read'). a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. with a goal of clear. In this case.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. scripting tools. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. depending on the type of customers and projects. managers. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. management must understand the resulting risks. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. the result is bugs. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. maintainable code. step-at-a-time process.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. Time pressures . mistakes will be made. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For small groups or projects.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. the result is bugs. Software development tools . QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. 6. and testers. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.
branches. code. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. 7. or that test drivers be developed as needed.the most 'micro' scale of testing. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. requirements. most problems will be found during this preparation. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. paths. 10. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. • • Page 54 of 60 . and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. and a recorder to take notes. and specifications. The 'parts' can be code modules. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . issues lists.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. and inspection meetings. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. Little or no preparation is usually required. White box testing . as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Integration testing . done by programmers or by testers.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. Unit testing .not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. client and server applications on a network.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. (b) design inspections and code inspections. individual applications. plans. Incremental integration testing . 9. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. conditions. This can be done with checklists.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. to test particular functions or code modules. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. 8. walkthroughs. not to fix anything. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. reader. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users.
black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. especially near the end of the development cycle.testing an application under heavy loads. this type of testing should be done by testers.) System testing . or interacting with other hardware.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Performance testing . Page 55 of 60 . etc. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. surveys.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. Stress testing .testing how well a system recovers from crashes. Sanity testing or smoke testing .similar to system testing. hardware failures. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. using network communications. or other catastrophic problems. video recording of user sessions. may require sophisticated testing techniques. large complex queries to a database system.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. For example. input of large numerical values. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. or systems if appropriate. Recovery testing .testing for 'user-friendliness'. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing.testing of full. or corrupting databases. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. or upgrade install/uninstall processes. Clearly this is subjective. the 'macro' end of the test scale. Usability testing . or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. Functional testing . User interviews. Compatability testing . applications. bogging down systems to a crawl. Load testing . Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. covers all combined parts of a system. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. Failover testing .re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. willful damage. Regression testing . such as interacting with a database. Install/uninstall testing . etc. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. environment.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. End-to-end testing . and other techniques can be used. partial. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. Acceptance testing .
testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. etc. culture. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. not paper. changes. Ad-hoc testing . not by programmers or testers. 11. If possible. re-testing.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. re-test after fixes or changes. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. attainable.often taken to mean a creative. promote teamwork and cooperation. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . make extensive use of group communication tools . Typically done by end-users or others.allow adequate time for planning. intranet capabilities. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on.clear. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements.testing driven by an understanding of the environment.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. Mutation testing . • • • • Page 56 of 60 . What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . cohesive. User acceptance testing .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . detailed. Adequate testing . by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. Context-driven testing . testing.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. testers may be learning the software as they test it. and intended use of software. Beta testing .a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. In 'agile'-type environments. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . bug fixing.start testing early on. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. Typically done by end-users or others. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations.similar to exploratory testing.preferably electronic. and documentation. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. Alpha testing . plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. groupware. design.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. For example.e-mail. If changes are necessary. Communication . not by programmers or testers. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary.. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. and be prepared to explain consequences. Realistic schedules . complete.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. Comparison testing .
delivered on time and within budget. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. less than 100 lines of code is good. meets requirements and/or expectations. avoid abbreviations. • 13. There are also various theories and metrics. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . customer contract officers. etc. customer management. quality is obviously a subjective term.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. and is readable and maintainable. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. use of brackets. No matter how small. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. customer acceptance testers. indentations. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. avoid abbreviations.) In adding comments. magazine columnists. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. naming conventions. is bug free. Use whitespace generously . Function and method sizes should be minimized. the development organization's. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. One code statement per line. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). Use descriptive function and method names . future software maintenance engineers. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. and is maintainable. Organize code for readability. stockholders. be consistent in naming conventions.vertically and horizontally. However. etc. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. etc. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. Use descriptive variable names . 'Peer reviews'. or what is too many or too few rules.use both upper and lower case.use both upper and lower case.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. be consistent in naming conventions. less than 50 lines is preferable. For C and C++ coding.
developed by the SEI. and configuration management processes are in place. initiated by the U. keep class methods small.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. successful practices can be repeated. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . Defense Department to help improve software development processes. and maintainable.S. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. successes may not be repeatable. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. understandable. requirements management.For programs that have a user interface. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). It is geared to large organizations such as large U. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. Defense Department contractors. For C++. Few if any processes in place. 14. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. make liberal use of exception handlers. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. easily modifiable.) For C++. • • • 15. However. For C++.characterized by chaos. Level 1 . and works correctly when implemented. Level 3 .S. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. periodic panics. Level 2 . but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'.software project tracking.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. realistic planning. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable.
It covers documentation. testing. and other processes. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. ITIL.metrics are used to track productivity. 6% at 4. internal design.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. retesting.S.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. development. Of those. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. not just software.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . requirements analysis. MOF. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. 17. updates. Trillium. integration. 62% were at Level 1. testing. 27% were rated at Level 1. 32% of organizations were U. maintenance. Level 5 . a third-party auditor assesses an organization.S. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. the primary industrial standards body in the U. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . Project performance is predictable.iso. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. 13% at 3.it indicates only that documented processes are followed. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . Level 4 .the focus is on continuous process improvement. 39% at 2. processes. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). after which a complete reassessment is required. It includes aspects such as initial concept. and others.asq. (c)Q9004-2000 . installation. 23% at 2. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. coding. production.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. functional design. 2% at 4. document preparation. In the U.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary.among other things.4% at 5. phase-out. (b)Q90002000 . test planning..Quality Management Systems: Requirements. and quality is consistently high. To be ISO 9001 certified.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). and 5% at 5. Also see http://www. servicing. 23% at 3. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. and products. and other aspects. and CobiT. 16. 1018 organizations were assessed. and 0. For those rated at Level 1. Bootstrap. TickIT. documentation planning.ch/ for the latest information. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. federal contractors or agencies.S. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. design.
or some underlying code in the application is changed.since they are separate from the test drivers. For larger projects. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. buttons. Additionally. If new buttons are added. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. data. Page 60 of 60 . Load/performance test tools . documentation management. the primary being: http://www. adherence to standards. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. This document is for internal purposes only. etc.to check that links are valid. Web test tools .such as via a spreadsheet . A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. logs. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. condition coverage.for test case management. etc. etc.) can be a difficult task. Other tools . HTML code usage is correct. Coverage analyzers . the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. and configuration management. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . bug reporting. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool.vyomworld. This approach can enable more efficient control. path coverage. development. For example. a web site's interactions are secure. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .com/testing/. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. dialog box choices. and for all types of platforms. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). etc. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. documentation. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. etc.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. client-side and server-side programs work. Memory analyzers .monitor code complexity.
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