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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. functional. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. Types of Testing 2. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. glass-box and clear-box. portability. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. maintainability and usability. 2. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. There are many approaches to software testing. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection.1. clear box and open box testing. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. 2. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. structural.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. and closed-box. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. and all visible code must also be readable. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. stability. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". Unlike black box testing. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. Page 4 of 60 . not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure.2. opaque-box. With that in mind. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability.
Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. etc. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. 2. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. Unit Testing In computer programming. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase.2. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing).) can use any test design methods. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. but it's still discouraged. 184.108.40.206.3. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". system testing.3. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. 2. 2. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden.3.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs.3. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. Page 5 of 60 . Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. In practice.3. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one.
3. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. assemblages (or groups of units). success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. it will not catch integration errors. This is a mistake. for example. i. thus minimizing dependencies in the system.5. 2. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. As a result. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. Page 6 of 60 . in order to test the class. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. across procedure calls or process activations. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. 2. By definition. These "design items". and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves.1.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface.3. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database.e.6. groups them in larger aggregates. In addition. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. Therefore. This results in loosely coupled code. 2. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested.4.4.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional.
It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. Usually. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. Various tools. e. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. Performance testing can serve different purposes. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 ..2. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. In the diagnostic case. Performance Testing In software engineering. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. that while the average response time might be acceptable. response time.1. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. etc. However. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. if it is made to respond faster. given as number of users vs. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. will result in the overall system running faster. i. In performance testing. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities.5. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly.e. 2. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries.5. are available to perform such tests. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing.5.g.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification.
often to a breaking point. 2. database access times. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. Performance testing can be performed across the web. It can also be done in-house. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. where they had found the system spent most of its time. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). in order to observe the results. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Analyzing the results.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. 2. deployment of server instrumentation. and even done in different parts of the country. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 .Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification.3. network overhead. etc. either pass/fail.5. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. router configuration. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time.6. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). For example.
a computer interface.8.7. Downtime. During usability testing. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. Also see testing. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. a document. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. 2." Page 9 of 60 . Stress testing a subset of load testing.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2.1. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. or interpreting feedback. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. to discover errors and areas of improvement. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects.7. Data corruption and application Defacement. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. including making things work with people. then developers should improve the design and test it again. i. 2. bots. Data theft.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. compromising usability and functionality. manipulating parts. or a device) for its intended purpose. performance testing. usability testing measures the usability of the object.e. software testing.
Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. Rather. it will work just the same in production. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. For example. Instruction phrasing.). the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. 2. and pre. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. illustration quality.9.11.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested.10. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. In the pharmaceutical field. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. or realistic situation. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. paper prototypes. and ask him or her to undertake this task. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. and what people like. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. 2. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. ideally. For example. to which the system should conform.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. Stability Testing In software testing. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. Page 10 of 60 . software will not run etc. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. "Do you understand this?". so that developers can see problem areas. 2. Users of the system will perform these tests which.
2. Alfa Testing In software development. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used.13. A beta release is very close to the final release. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. In distributed systems. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. This technique is known as black box testing. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. Ideally. Page 11 of 60 . 2. Beta Testing Many a time. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment.14. testing is usually required before release to the general public. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. 2.12. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing.
integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries.).). Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. As a rule. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. as its input. New York. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. 1990. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing.15.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. As a rule. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. New York. NY. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. 2. During this testing. System testing takes. NY. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. and as such.16. as its input. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). 2. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Regression testing takes. and as such. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. 1990. Page 12 of 60 . where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware.
thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. test category. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. related requirement(s). and descriptions of the following tests. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. spreadsheet. (c) credible. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. depth. system. test step or order of execution number. author. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result.18. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. 2. and descriptions. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. and (e) easy to evaluate. and its expected result.17. along with various additional pieces of information. Page 13 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. The optional fields are a test case ID. and regression testing. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. In a database system. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. Test Cases. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. (d) complex. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. A test case is usually a single step. operating system and browser versions. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. database or other common repository. They may also be called a test script. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. or even a test scenario. Suits.
19. does the product do what the user really requires. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). digital circuits with internal memory. cryptographic protocols.. 2. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. Petri nets. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task.. abstraction refinement. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. combinatorial circuits. processalgebraic methods. does the product conform to the specifications. 2. testing. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). Page 14 of 60 . symbolic state space enumeration. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. Defect Tracking In engineering. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). but not the same as session-based testing.20. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. abstract interpretation. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. E. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. and abstractions of general software components. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. timed automata and hybrid automata.20.1. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically.. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i.g. and tracking them to closure. Validation is the complementary aspect. or recording feedback from customers). (by inspection.e. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems.e. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. using formal methods. 2. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing.
For example. then there are defects to correct. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. such as relational databases.e. 2. rather than a direct measure. rather than behaving correctly.1. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. by crashing. • Database inputs are from tabular data. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. Thus.21. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. However. or by failing in-built code assertions).2. so that if the computer fails dramatically. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. i. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. and free of preconceptions about system behavior.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically.21. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior.21. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. the test data is preserved. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. 2. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. usually before applying it to the software. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. For this reason. If the program fails (for example. 2. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 ..
Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . However. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. Database fuzz is controversial. By using all of these techniques in combination.3. 2. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. and a general-purpose interface is available to users.220.127.116.11. and then ignore impossible requests. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. 2. decode every possible binary value.21. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. not handling every possible binary value. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. without even crude validation. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. or conforms to actual production data. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. 2. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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etc. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. functional design. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. change processes. coverage analyzers. reporting requirements. test environment. and determine scope and limitations of tests. test tracking. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. boundary value analyses. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan.10. software. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. required standards and processes (such as release processes.1. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. etc. integration.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. functional. set priorities. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. timelines. those responsible for tasks. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. problem/bug tracking. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . Determine test approaches and methods . etc. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. system. communications. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools.1. usability tests. load.unit.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. etc. set up test tracking processes. test cases. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. It provides a repeatable. set up logging and archiving processes. 4.
steps. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. or event and an expected response. 'New'. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug.g. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. Bug identifier (number. input data requirements. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. and expected results.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. etc. ID. 'Released for Retest'. get an idea of it's severity. etc.) The application name or identifier and version The function. objective. module. system. screen. test conditions/setup. and reproduce it if necessary. feature.. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). test case name. After the problem is resolved. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. it should encapsulate these processes. fixes should be re-tested. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 .) Current bug status (e. For this reason. If a problem-tracking system is in place. platform. etc. action. object.
In this case. Time pressures . Programming errors . Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. In some fast-changing business environments. management must understand the resulting risks. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.redesign. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . data communications. like anyone else. Poorly documented code . rescheduling of engineers. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). If there are many minor changes or any major changes. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. the result is bugs. client-server and distributed applications. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. For instance. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. hardware requirements that may be affected.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. enormous relational databases. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. Changing requirements .people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. the result is bugs. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. or may understand and request them anyway . Software complexity .the customer may not understand the effects of changes.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. testers need to know when retesting is needed. Windows-type interfaces. can make mistakes. Egos .programmers. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . mistakes will be made. effects on other projects. often requiring a lot of guesswork.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. etc.
and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. RMI. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. profiler. 5. Includes a natural user interface. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp.visual tools. EJBs. Extensive documentation. regression. it should be hard to read'). 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. Test private and protected functions. Testing Tools and Software 5. without implementing test clients. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. Includes: Unit Tester. Tag Libs. class libraries. Filters. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. scripting capabilities. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. etc. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. and other server technologies as well. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. scripting tools. etc. In fact. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. metrics. understandable code. Useful for testing CORBA. tuning.2. Code Analyzer. GJTester Java unit. and server application's modules.). Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. compilers. Recorded GUI elements. resulting in added bugs. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. Software development tools . regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . Enables test case and test script development without programming.1.
Typically use within your IDE. for which JUnit may be sufficient). Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. From Apache Software Foundation. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. a script editor/recorder. Contains Page 24 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. HTML. CSV. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. LaTex. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. Provides recording and playback capabilities. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. predefined (XML. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. or from the command line. JUnit .Robot class. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. It uses JUnit and extends it. etc) through an in-container approach. licensed under the BSD License. using Ant. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. TEXT) or custom report generation. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. Free .awt. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework.
Coverage API provided. and other IDE's. source distribution. JCover test coverage analyzer. Works with source or compiled files. JSynTest. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. at all levels and between all levels. tree node expanding. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. JMSAssert. file. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. View coverage data in XML. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. Coverage difference comparison between runs. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. and C++ applications. JBrowser class browser. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. application.. Cyclomatic Number. package. Gathers coverage measures of branches. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. configurable.. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. Shows all dependencies. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. for speed. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. . JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. text typing. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. method. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. classes. compiler-style output. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. components. Inc. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. virtual machines. or jar file. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . control flow analysis and diagramming.. button pushing. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. etc. methods. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. C. or via a Swing GUI. Fifty different audits and metrics. class.). Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. PerformaSure Low-overhead. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. JEvolve. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. PDF. and dependencies for Java. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications.e. Halstead Measures. etc. highly scalable. package and produces reports in multiple formats.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. HTML. statements. etc. JBuilder.
and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. complexity. OS. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. management. coverage analysis. and size metrics related to reusability. OptimizeIt Profiler. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. Check listed web sites for current information. or are planning to add such capabilities. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. procedural. thread debugger. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. and network metrics. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. Integrates with several Java IDE's. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. thread and event analysis. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products.) Page 26 of 60 . Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. written in Java. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. stalls. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. JProfiler freeware version available. servlets. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. includes Java support. and applications. testability. Has online advisor for quality improvement. or load testing of java applets. maintainability. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. and clarity. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. and race conditions. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. Halstead Software Science metrics.
For Windows platforms. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. employs a simple. DNS servers and SSL certificates. free version or low-cost pro version. free trial period available. For Windows. such as internal and external links. evaluation version available. for Windows.. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. Page 27 of 60 . HTTPS. domain names. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. customizable reports. includes FTP link checking. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. supports SSL websites. RTF. Excel. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. and FTP protocols. used to test and validate critical website components. Export to text. familiar interface for managing files. or as infrequent as once a week. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. CSV. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. updates links to moved and renamed files. Site Map. can be automatically scheduled. For Windows. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. Runs as often as every hour. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. detects and reports redirected URL. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. multiple page list and site list capabilities. several report formats available. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking.3. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. fixes broken links with an easy. For Windows. 3-click process. HTML. Handles HTTP.
reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. for UNIX and PERL. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. Windows. support for all standard server-side image maps. configurable. 5. For Windows. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. Churchyard. It helps users to create. Has not been updated in recent years. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. and finding problem HTML areas. Not updated in recent years.net. link checker. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. test resumption at interruption point. binary avaialable for Linux. Not updated in recent years. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. unauthorized-access. but old versions still available as freeware. 'what's new' reporting. Available as source code. doc-not-found. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. randomized order checking. results can be exported to database. Mac. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. page size analysis.4. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. released under IBM's Common Public License. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. site has much documentation and related info. originally by Dave Raggett. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Results stored in database. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. For all UNIX flavors. timeouts.5. ID/Password entries.'s link checker/site mapping tool. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. relocations. by Francois Pottier. ability to check password-protected areas. HTML syntax error checking. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Handles one URL at a time. 5. organize and Page 28 of 60 . For Windows. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. Discontinued. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. allowing for customizable queries and reports. formatting disorganized editing. Windows. Available as source code or binaries. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). reports URLs changed since last checked.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking.0 or 3.
Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. LLC. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. Includes an Intelligent. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Fuzzy matching capabilities. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. and other typical business web application features. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. C++ or C++/MFC. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. can be inserted during a recording. This includes web page navigation. 90-day evaluation copy available. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. and Runner executes the test case document. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). playback window/size can be different than in capture. Handles Applets. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. until recording capabilities are added. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. branching statements. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. (300+ commands). cookie testing and form submission. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. Flash. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. form entry and submission. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. and a Data-Driven. Special validation points. validation of table contents. Maker creates test case documents. Free including source code. STC Master and STC Master Service. such as bitmap or text matching. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. but also adds mock objects. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. etc. Page 30 of 60 . etc. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. scripts have to be developed manually. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. animated bitmaps. with its HTML objects recognition. Active-X controls. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor.
Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. websites. asset management. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). firewalls. Runs on Macintosh. based on the SATAN model. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. network security scan. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Mac. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. data theft or system destruction. remote self scan and API facilities. plug-in facility for third party apps. SANS/ISTS certified. Freeware. Inc. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. updated bi-monthly. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. can audit UNIX. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. routers. remediation management of vulnerabilities. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. real-time IDS event analysis. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . CVE standards support. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. inside and outside the firewall. and browser checkup tool.
Updated regularly.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Learns about network as it scans. Can scan a variety of operating systems. product runs on Windows. denial-of-service checks. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. Runs on many UNIX flavors. Single machine or full network scans. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . CVE compatible. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. Works with a variety of operating systems. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. Includes DoS testing. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. by Renaud Deraison. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. open-source remote network security auditing tool. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. reports specify severity levels of problems. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Nessus Security Scanner Free.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Limited free or full licensed versions available. and a wide variety of other tests. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately.com for individual machines. Customizable reporting. web server requests-per-second benchmark. Port scans. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language.
Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. scanners. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. remediation information. desktops. publications. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. etc. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. software product. hubs. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. firewalls. etc. operating systems. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. and many other characteristics. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. Available as a hardware appliance. printers. electronic law. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. DMZ and externally visible assets. intrusion detection resources. routers. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. Page 36 of 60 . For Windows/Solaris/Linux. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. prepares remediation advice. what services (ports) they are offering. organized by subject. routers. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. workstations. etc. etc. servers. Provides flexible risk management reports. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. or managed service. intrusion detection tools. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts.
7. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . and OS's. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy.. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. WYSIWYG editor. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Limitedcapability free version also available. and Web Governance. and online service available. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. analyzing web sites. Inc. Free and professional versions available. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. Accessibility. server management and optimization tools. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. Desktop product for multiple platforms. (Includes various types of security tools.org. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. combined utilities/tools. Information Assurance. FPT/publishing. traffic analysis. promoting. Inc. database servers. and site monitoring capabilities. Similar managed service also available. not just for testing. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site.) 5. service types. site scores. for maintaining.. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. combining site content. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. works with a variety of web servers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. Includes link checker.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software.
run scripts. response times. visitor segmentation. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. and network. Captures and monitors real user sessions. restart services. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. services. page aborts. and diagnostics. from AllScoop. including server errors. sends email notification if site is slow or down. page sizes. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. for performance and availability monitoring. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. and repair. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. etc. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. click path analysis. automatically reboot servers. suited to large systems. and popup. isolation. bandwidth usage. etc. SMS. real-time executive dash board. network management. and more. applications. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. net send. capabilities include notifications via email. response errors. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. Alerts via email. pagers. restart apps and services. server. network errors. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. For Windows. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. Asset Manager to securely centralize images.
Free for use on small sites. Works on multiple platforms. PHP-Code Insertion. Database Backup. Provides complete software developers environment. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. detecting. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . reporting and fixing problems before users see them. high-level functions save template coding time. Search. User Administration. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. template-based dynamically-created content. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. scheduler. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). link verification. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. spatial relationships between products. Statistical Reports. HTML and GIF optimization.com for web site updating. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. etc. drag-and-drop. All can be integrated without writing code. verifying content and functional integrity. low cost for large sites. Dynamic Menu. upload resuming. such as option compatibilities on a single product. Installer easily installs system on your server. WYSIWYG editor. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. and more. site cleanup. Multilingualism. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. Message Board. load testing. and a robust API. based on database-driven.
including creation. Inc. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. documents. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). where all content and content types are stored for management. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. Enables services such as library services. replication and administration. workflow. services for capturing. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. tracking of revisions. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. staging. digital assets. production. For Windows. and archiving. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. version control. conversion services. personalization. For Mac or Windows. index/search. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. Manages Web content. Page 41 of 60 . Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. deploying. and manage and report on service level agreements. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. Mac. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. security. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. management of workflow. reuse and access. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. portals and scanned images. isolate. publishing. editing. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure.. content development. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. anticipate capacity shortfalls. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. based on native XML and XSL technologies. and customizable workflow.
number of pending requests. requires Windows and MSIE. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. and e-mail notifications. e-mail submission of web content. and platforms. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. Evaluation copy available. real-time server monitoring of server response time. access control. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. standards-based environment. metrics. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. link problems. and publishing control tool. link analysis and quality control. HTML validation. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. for customizable automated site mapping. content management and site visualization. E-mail/pager notifications. server failure detection. Interwoven Team Site Web development. etc. Page 43 of 60 . PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. version control. For Windows. OS's. For MS and Netscape web servers. logging. For Windows. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. For Windows. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. monitoring and recovery. works with many servers. network management. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. monitoring. alerting. server management. Web based interface for load balancing administration. link checking. management. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. logging capabilities. UNIX. For Windows. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML.
layout editor. has updateable rulebase. etc. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. browser interface. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. For Windows. comparison capabilitie. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. graphics management. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. Supports a wide variety of web attributes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. Includes version control. spell checker. connections. includes site management capabilities. XML repositories. links. file uploading. For Windows and Unix. link checking. and encryption capabilities. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. Page 44 of 60 . Support for managing content stored in databases. management. file edit merging. browser extensions. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. and servers. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. global search-and-replace. Validates against various HTML versions. From Talicom. link checker.. scheduled and on-demand reporting. and maintenance. For Windows or Unix. and static files. logs. thumbnail viewer. Server side compatible with many available web servers. variable lock controls. customizable reports. For Windows. Visual site structure editor. provides notifications of problems. security. For Windows. administration. Link checker. HTML-to-Text converter. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. etc. error info is linked to error in html. staging/publishing control. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. Date stamper. publishing. Meta manager. API's. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. Includes automated deployment. image tag checker. databases. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control.
can specify the screen width(s).Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. system operations in 7 different categories. for automated recording. and share with others. upload to a bug tracking system. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. more. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. Perl. web standards and elastic design. and system configuration information. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio.8. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. from TechSmith Corp. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. URL2image. to which links it extracts. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. analyzing and sharing of usability data. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. from how it breaks down the HTML. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. For Windows. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. system resource usage. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. examine server's HTTP headers. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. For anyone interested in css. Consists of 3 components.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. SiteTimer service . how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. Free.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders.
Provides performance enhancing tips. html. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. environment settings. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. processes. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. manage and monitor throughput. and much more. and other versions available in multiple languages. OS version.) in small text files. etc. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. modules. data creation or capture and replay. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. Professional. processor information. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Free. virtual memory settings. component details. ports. physical memory information. services. set breakpoints. device drivers. loaded modules. Services information.). Includes CPU. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. Free. loss. etc.NET event-based scripting subsystem.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. Sandra 'System ANalyser. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. Network Adaptor Information. tune-up wizard. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. ODBC sources. mainboard. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. etc. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. XML. memory details. drives. for Windows. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. and delay. more. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. system file listings. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie.
Page 47 of 60 . and other quality factors. originally designed for testing networking protocols. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. delays. security. available as on-line service. Windows (on-demand). Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. Linux RPMs. any version. with GUI. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. any operating system. Enables enhancement of QA. analogous to running an MRI scan. compliance. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Can log captures to disk.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. Free 90-day trial. in most versions of every browser ever released. or source code. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. For Windows. binaries. testing. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. binaries and source available. and XML switches. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. Can be used on user's workstations. filters. For Windows. Inc. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo.com. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. freeware. Macintosh. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. caching proxies. Linux. and multipath effects. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". It allows the user to peek inside I. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source.E. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. packet losses. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. robustness. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server.
Runs on Windows. and segments sent and received. Page 48 of 60 . HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. Works with all text-based IP protocols. FTP. such as those produced by tcpdump. freeware. Inc. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. bytes. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. and mainframe applications. Also available: MITS. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. HP Net Metrix. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Available for various UNIX flavors. Overall Site Quality. and as source code. freeware. Freeware. window advertisements. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. retransmissions.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. etherpeek. and generating test scripts. etc. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. or WinDump.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. link validation. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. client/server. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. etc). Searchability. MITs. and various graphs. and any network. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). Ethernet. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. Runs on Windows platforms. throughput. any message definitions. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. round trip times. For windows. for Windows. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. For automated testing of Web. snoop. Can crawl a site and report errors. mailboxes.
making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . then D should happen'). What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What is 'good code'? 14. What's an 'inspection'? 10. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. 3.monitoring and improving the process. and does C.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Testing FAQ 1. Why does software have bugs? 6. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. It is oriented to 'detection'. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. It is oriented to 'prevention'. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together.) 2. What is software 'quality'? 13. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. What is verification and Validation? 8.
portions of the project could be salvaged. According to the report. Studies were under way to determine which. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. the worst power system failure in North American history. In early 2004. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. if any. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. According to news reports in April of 2004. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 .S. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. government IT systems project. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. A major U. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. according to mid-2004 news reports.S.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances.
futures exchange. Programming errors . one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. problems included 10.S.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. effects on other projects. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) .000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. Software complexity . If there are many minor changes or any major changes. 4. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. public school district with 100. In early 2000. preventing problems is lowvisibility.000 customers. client-server and distributed applications. Among other tasks. can make mistakes. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. Multi-tiered applications. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. etc.000+ students. was delivered late.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. rescheduling of engineers.redesign.S. like anyone else. or may understand and request them anyway .S. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. and didn't work. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. the district's CIO was fired. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. data communications.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. hardware requirements that may be affected. 5. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . enormous relational databases. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.programmers. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors.
often requiring a lot of guesswork. maintainable code. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. developers. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. For small groups or projects. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. mistakes will be made. it should be hard to read'). In fact. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. also in Part 2 of the FAQ.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. depending on the type of customers and projects. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. with a goal of clear. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. In this case.visual tools. etc. complete. Software development tools . step-at-a-time process. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. management must understand the resulting risks. resulting in added bugs. Poorly documented code . A lot will depend on team leads or managers. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. managers. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. the result is bugs. egos .people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. the result is bugs. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. and testers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . understandable. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. compilers. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. Time pressures . In some fast-changing business environments. scripting tools. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. and ensuring adequate communications among customers.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. 6. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . feedback to developers. Where the risk is lower. class libraries. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP.
Unit testing . or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. and specifications. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. or that test drivers be developed as needed. individual applications. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. reader. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. The 'parts' can be code modules. issues lists. (b) design inspections and code inspections. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. 9.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. most problems will be found during this preparation. and a recorder to take notes. and inspection meetings.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. plans. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. Integration testing . Incremental integration testing . not to fix anything. 8. White box testing . walkthroughs. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. done by programmers or by testers. branches. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. client and server applications on a network.the most 'micro' scale of testing.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. paths. • • Page 54 of 60 . requirements. 7. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. This can be done with checklists. Little or no preparation is usually required. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. code. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. to test particular functions or code modules. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. 10. conditions. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly.
using network communications. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. User interviews.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. may require sophisticated testing techniques.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Functional testing . involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Regression testing .term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. large complex queries to a database system. End-to-end testing . willful damage. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. Failover testing . Performance testing .black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. For example. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. Page 55 of 60 . etc. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. video recording of user sessions. applications. Recovery testing . such as interacting with a database.similar to system testing. Load testing .testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. etc. especially near the end of the development cycle. environment. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. Clearly this is subjective.testing an application under heavy loads.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. input of large numerical values. Sanity testing or smoke testing . It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. hardware failures. or upgrade install/uninstall processes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. partial. or corrupting databases. Usability testing .final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer.testing for 'user-friendliness'. Install/uninstall testing . covers all combined parts of a system. or other catastrophic problems. Stress testing . Acceptance testing . Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. surveys.) System testing . such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. bogging down systems to a crawl. this type of testing should be done by testers. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. Compatability testing .testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. or interacting with other hardware.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. the 'macro' end of the test scale.testing of full. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. and other techniques can be used. or systems if appropriate.
culture. testing. Mutation testing . Alpha testing . not paper. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. promote teamwork and cooperation. intranet capabilities. 11.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer.start testing early on.often taken to mean a creative. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. not by programmers or testers. Adequate testing . Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. Comparison testing .testing driven by an understanding of the environment. etc. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. Context-driven testing . detailed. Realistic schedules . personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations.clear.allow adequate time for planning. For example.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. bug fixing. Typically done by end-users or others.preferably electronic. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . In 'agile'-type environments. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. Communication . If changes are necessary. and be prepared to explain consequences. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. complete. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. User acceptance testing . make extensive use of group communication tools . and documentation. Ad-hoc testing . minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases.e-mail.similar to exploratory testing. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. groupware. changes. re-testing. If possible. Beta testing . cohesive. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. Typically done by end-users or others.. re-test after fixes or changes. and intended use of software.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. not by programmers or testers. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. testers may be learning the software as they test it. attainable.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . design.
It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. less than 50 lines is preferable.vertically and horizontally. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. • 13. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. and is readable and maintainable. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. etc. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). such as McCabe Complexity metrics. stockholders. less than 100 lines of code is good. delivered on time and within budget. Organize code for readability. quality is obviously a subjective term. No matter how small. Use descriptive variable names . 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. For C and C++ coding. indentations. use of brackets. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments.use both upper and lower case. avoid abbreviations. customer acceptance testers. 'Peer reviews'. is bug free. etc. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things.) In adding comments. be consistent in naming conventions. the development organization's. One code statement per line. and is maintainable. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. etc. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code.use both upper and lower case. customer contract officers. There are also various theories and metrics. meets requirements and/or expectations. Use whitespace generously . Use descriptive function and method names . Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . be consistent in naming conventions. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. future software maintenance engineers. magazine columnists. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. customer management. or what is too many or too few rules. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). Function and method sizes should be minimized. avoid abbreviations. naming conventions. However. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables.
avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. Defense Department contractors. initiated by the U. However. make liberal use of exception handlers. and works correctly when implemented.characterized by chaos. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. and maintainable.For programs that have a user interface.) For C++.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization.S. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. developed by the SEI. realistic planning. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. periodic panics. requirements management. Level 1 . keep class methods small.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). successes may not be repeatable. For C++. Level 3 . CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. 14. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. Few if any processes in place. For C++. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging.S. and configuration management processes are in place. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. easily modifiable. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. • • • 15. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). understandable. successful practices can be repeated. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. Level 2 .software project tracking. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 .
32% of organizations were U. and other processes.it indicates only that documented processes are followed. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . testing. internal design. (c)Q9004-2000 . What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).Quality Management Systems: Requirements. 39% at 2. and CobiT. test planning. retesting. installation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. development. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. Of those. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. coding.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. and quality is consistently high. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). 17. integration. and others.among other things. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . It includes aspects such as initial concept. MOF. 62% were at Level 1. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. 6% at 4. and 5% at 5. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. updates.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. 23% at 2. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). a third-party auditor assesses an organization. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . (b)Q90002000 . the primary industrial standards body in the U. 2% at 4. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required.S.S. It covers documentation. and other aspects. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829).iso.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . Project performance is predictable.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. testing. document preparation. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. and 0. phase-out. functional design. not just software.S. 27% were rated at Level 1. ITIL.asq. maintenance. TickIT. Also see http://www. requirements analysis..the focus is on continuous process improvement. federal contractors or agencies. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. To be ISO 9001 certified. Trillium. servicing. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. Bootstrap.4% at 5. processes.metrics are used to track productivity. 23% at 3. production. 1018 organizations were assessed. 13% at 3. Level 5 . after which a complete reassessment is required. design. 16. and products. Level 4 . In the U.ch/ for the latest information.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. documentation planning. For those rated at Level 1.
This document is for internal purposes only. etc. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . buttons.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. documentation management. If new buttons are added. and for all types of platforms. Additionally. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. Load/performance test tools . and configuration management. Page 60 of 60 . etc. data. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. path coverage. Coverage analyzers .such as via a spreadsheet . Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. Web test tools . The data and actions can be more easily maintained . or some underlying code in the application is changed.com/testing/. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable.for test case management. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. etc.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. the primary being: http://www.) can be a difficult task.to check that links are valid. This approach can enable more efficient control.monitor code complexity. dialog box choices. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. etc. development. For example. Other tools . HTML code usage is correct. bug reporting. a web site's interactions are secure. client-side and server-side programs work. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. logs. documentation.vyomworld. etc.since they are separate from the test drivers. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). For larger projects. condition coverage. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. adherence to standards. Memory analyzers . interpretation and analysis of results (screens.
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