Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1.1. Page 4 of 60 . The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". glass-box and clear-box. maintainability and usability. and closed-box. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. opaque-box. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Unlike black box testing. Types of Testing 2. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. With that in mind. stability. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. clear box and open box testing. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. 2. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. portability. There are many approaches to software testing. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION.2. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. structural. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. 2. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. functional. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. and all visible code must also be readable. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box.

a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. etc. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate.3.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct.3.3. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. 2. system testing. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one.3.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. 2. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.4.3. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase.3. In practice. but it's still discouraged.2. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. 2. 2.) can use any test design methods. Unit Testing In computer programming. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. Page 5 of 60 . Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.1.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing).

3. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. 2. for example. 2. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. This is a mistake. 2. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. In addition.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. across procedure calls or process activations.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. These "design items". Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. Page 6 of 60 . testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class.3. i. it will not catch integration errors. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates.4. This results in loosely coupled code. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. As a result. thus minimizing dependencies in the system.6.1. in order to test the class. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database.4. assemblages (or groups of units). are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. Therefore.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. groups them in larger aggregates. By definition. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages.5. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database.e.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object.

Performance Testing In software engineering. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. response time. It can compare two systems to find which performs better.2. In the diagnostic case.g. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. 2. given as number of users vs. if it is made to respond faster. Performance testing can serve different purposes.e.5. that while the average response time might be acceptable. Various tools. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . Usually. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. i. e. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload.. are available to perform such tests.5.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. However. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. will result in the overall system running faster. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. etc. a separate PC acts as a test conductor.5.1. In performance testing.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2.

For example. where they had found the system spent most of its time. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . database access times. 2. router configuration.6. It can also be done in-house. Analyzing the results. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. either pass/fail.3. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. often to a breaking point. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. and even done in different parts of the country. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). in order to observe the results. network overhead. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results.5. Performance testing can be performed across the web. 2. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. etc. deployment of server instrumentation. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests.

Data theft. manipulating parts. usability testing measures the usability of the object. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool".8. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. a computer interface. During usability testing. including making things work with people. Stress testing a subset of load testing. software testing. Data corruption and application Defacement.e." Page 9 of 60 . An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible.1. Also see testing. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. performance testing. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. bots. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles.7. Downtime. a document. compromising usability and functionality. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. i. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. or interpreting feedback. then developers should improve the design and test it again. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. 2. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. or a device) for its intended purpose.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. 2. If usability testing uncovers difficulties.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts.7. to discover errors and areas of improvement. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions.

Stability Testing In software testing. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system.9. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. and pre. For example. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. illustration quality. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. it will work just the same in production. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. Users of the system will perform these tests which. paper prototypes. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. ideally. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. Rather. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. 2. and what people like. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. 2. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. so that developers can see problem areas. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. 2.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested.11. to which the system should conform.). or realistic situation. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. Instruction phrasing. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. "Do you understand this?". Page 10 of 60 . The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. and ask him or her to undertake this task. In the pharmaceutical field. For example. software will not run etc.10. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing.

2.12. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. 2. Alfa Testing In software development. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. Beta Testing Many a time. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. In distributed systems. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product.13. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. A beta release is very close to the final release. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. testing is usually required before release to the general public. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. Ideally. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. 2. This technique is known as black box testing.14. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. Page 11 of 60 .

1990.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. NY.). System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Regression testing takes. New York.15. 2. as its input. 2. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Page 12 of 60 . System testing is testing conducted on a complete. New York. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.). all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). During this testing. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. System testing takes. As a rule. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. 1990.16. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. and as such. and as such. as its input. As a rule. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. NY.

Page 13 of 60 . test category. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. 2. depth. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. operating system and browser versions. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. database or other common repository. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result.17. (c) credible. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. In a database system. test step or order of execution number. and its expected result. (d) complex. They may also be called a test script. A test case is usually a single step. Test Cases. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. Suits. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. system. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. and descriptions of the following tests. and descriptions. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system.18. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. spreadsheet.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. and regression testing. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. author. and (e) easy to evaluate. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. along with various additional pieces of information. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. or even a test scenario. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. The optional fields are a test case ID. related requirement(s). Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan.

Defect Tracking In engineering. testing. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). abstraction refinement. or recording feedback from customers). Page 14 of 60 . which is more closely related to exploratory testing. and tracking them to closure. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). 2.1. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). E. using formal methods. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. abstract interpretation. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. and abstractions of general software components. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. cryptographic protocols. 2. (by inspection. processalgebraic methods. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. timed automata and hybrid automata. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically.20. Validation is the complementary aspect.. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. 2. does the product do what the user really requires.19. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them.g. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. symbolic state space enumeration. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. Petri nets.. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V.e. combinatorial circuits. but not the same as session-based testing.e. does the product conform to the specifications.20. digital circuits with internal memory..

fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. Thus. the test data is preserved. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. For example. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. or by failing in-built code assertions). Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. 2. usually before applying it to the software. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. then there are defects to correct. so that if the computer fails dramatically. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. 2. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing.1.21. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically.. by crashing. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. • Database inputs are from tabular data.21. rather than a direct measure.2. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. If the program fails (for example. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data.21. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. such as relational databases. However. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. rather than behaving correctly.e. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. i. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. 2. For this reason. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 .

and a general-purpose interface is available to users. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun.21. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . decode every possible binary value.21.5. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. or conforms to actual production data.21. 2. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. 2.4. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. Database fuzz is controversial. 2. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. and then ignore impossible requests. By using all of these techniques in combination. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. without even crude validation. However. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. software must validate all fields of every queue entry.3. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. not handling every possible binary value.

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Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
• • •

In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.


Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential


What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

• • • • • •

An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.


Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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functional. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . communications. change processes. Obtain budget and schedule requirements.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. set up test tracking processes. coverage analyzers. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. Determine test approaches and methods . 4. etc. software.10. test cases. test environment.unit. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. those responsible for tasks. load. etc. etc. and determine scope and limitations of tests. required standards and processes (such as release processes. set up logging and archiving processes. problem/bug tracking. set priorities. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. functional design. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. usability tests. It provides a repeatable. Determine test environment requirements (hardware.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. etc. integration. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. test tracking. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be.1.1. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. system. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. reporting requirements. timelines.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. boundary value analyses.

ID. input data requirements. After the problem is resolved. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). it should encapsulate these processes. Bug identifier (number. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. system. feature. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. and expected results.. 'New'. screen. test conditions/setup. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. If a problem-tracking system is in place. objective. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . or event and an expected response.) The application name or identifier and version The function. test case name. fixes should be re-tested.g. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. module. and reproduce it if necessary. platform. etc. etc.) Current bug status (e. action. 'Released for Retest'. object. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. get an idea of it's severity. For this reason. steps. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier.

people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . can make mistakes. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . client-server and distributed applications. Poorly documented code . etc. In some fast-changing business environments.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. Windows-type interfaces. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). enormous relational databases. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. the result is bugs. For instance.programmers. mistakes will be made. the result is bugs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. like anyone else. often requiring a lot of guesswork.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. hardware requirements that may be affected. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. data communications.redesign. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. testers need to know when retesting is needed. Changing requirements . or may understand and request them anyway .the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Programming errors . work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. management must understand the resulting risks. rescheduling of engineers. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. effects on other projects. In this case. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. Time pressures .it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. Software complexity . Egos . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.

Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Test private and protected functions. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. scripting capabilities. class libraries. without implementing test clients. Software development tools . GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. regression. Extensive documentation. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. Recorded GUI elements. Filters. Testing Tools and Software 5. tuning. GJTester Java unit. 5. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. EJBs. profiler. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Includes a natural user interface. understandable code. Includes: Unit Tester.2. and server application's modules. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. etc. RMI. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. metrics. and other server technologies as well. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. Enables test case and test script development without programming. it should be hard to read'). presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Tag Libs. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage.1. Code Analyzer. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. In fact. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology.). resulting in added bugs. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets.visual tools. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. compilers. Useful for testing CORBA. scripting tools. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure.

Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. It uses JUnit and extends it. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. using Ant. for which JUnit may be sufficient). HTML. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. licensed under the BSD License. Contains Page 24 of 60 . (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. predefined (XML. Provides recording and playback capabilities. CSV. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. a script editor/recorder. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. or from the command line. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. etc) through an in-container approach. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. LaTex.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Free . Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. TEXT) or custom report generation. JUnit . Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing.awt. From Apache Software Foundation. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests.Robot class. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Typically use within your IDE.

PDF. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. C.. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. tree node expanding. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. View coverage data in XML. components. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. or jar file. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. JMSAssert. method. statements. JBrowser class browser. Coverage difference comparison between runs. application. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. Fifty different audits and metrics. compiler-style output. Inc. classes. and dependencies for Java. text typing. file. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. etc.e. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . control flow analysis and diagramming. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. and other IDE's. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle.). Halstead Measures. Works with source or compiled files. JEvolve. methods.. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. button pushing. HTML. etc. class. source distribution. PerformaSure Low-overhead. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. package and produces reports in multiple formats. Shows all dependencies. . JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's.. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. and C++ applications. package. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. Cyclomatic Number. at all levels and between all levels. highly scalable. configurable. etc. Gathers coverage measures of branches. JBuilder. for speed. JCover test coverage analyzer. or via a Swing GUI. Coverage API provided. virtual machines. JSynTest. Available as binary distribution (including documentation).

maintainability. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. complexity. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. includes Java support. procedural. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. or load testing of java applets. JProfiler freeware version available. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. stalls. servlets. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. OptimizeIt Profiler. Halstead Software Science metrics. Integrates with several Java IDE's. and network metrics. and race conditions. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. and size metrics related to reusability. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity.) Page 26 of 60 . and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). coverage analysis.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. thread debugger. and clarity. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. management. written in Java. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. Has online advisor for quality improvement. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. testability. thread and event analysis. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. or are planning to add such capabilities. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. OS. and applications. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. Check listed web sites for current information.

Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. HTML. several report formats available. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. Handles HTTP. evaluation version available. free trial period available. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. such as internal and external links. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. RTF. customizable reports. Site Map.. DNS servers and SSL certificates. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. multiple page list and site list capabilities. used to test and validate critical website components. familiar interface for managing files. Runs as often as every hour. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. can be automatically scheduled. domain names. and FTP protocols.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. For Windows. free version or low-cost pro version. Page 27 of 60 . Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. Export to text. For Windows platforms. fixes broken links with an easy. For Windows. For Windows. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. detects and reports redirected URL. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. CSV. employs a simple. HTTPS. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail.3. 3-click process. includes FTP link checking. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. or as infrequent as once a week. for Windows. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. updates links to moved and renamed files. supports SSL websites. Excel.

by Francois Pottier. unauthorized-access. Handles one URL at a time. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page.'s link checker/site mapping tool. For Not updated in recent years. but old versions still available as freeware.4. 'what's new' reporting. page size analysis. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. link checker. test resumption at interruption point. doc-not-found. Results stored in database. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. 5. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. allowing for customizable queries and reports. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. For Windows. Not updated in recent years. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. relocations. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). Churchyard. Windows. site has much documentation and related info. Available as source code. formatting disorganized editing. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. randomized order checking. organize and Page 28 of 60 . reports URLs changed since last checked. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. timeouts. It helps users to create. for UNIX and PERL. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. configurable. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. and finding problem HTML areas. binary avaialable for Linux. Mac.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. support for all standard server-side image maps. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider.0 or 3. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. ability to check password-protected areas. Discontinued. released under IBM's Common Public License. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. Has not been updated in recent years. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. ID/Password entries.5. originally by Dave Raggett.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Available as source code or binaries. HTML syntax error checking. results can be exported to database. 5. Windows. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. For all UNIX flavors.

integrates with a variety of IDE's. that includes a web functional testing module. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. Multilingual for Asian. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. SSL. robust handling of page modifications. Works with Internet Explorer. and Test Writing Assistant . and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp. Page 29 of 60 . Free and professional versions available. Freeware. PHP. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. Record and playback capability. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. and loop.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. etc. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. HtmlUnit etc. Can export created . retry on error. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. CGI. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. HTML. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. page titles and HTML element properties. but with extended API). JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. autocomplete. Includes Script Editor. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. HTML forms. JSP. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet. Secure recording on password fields. For Windows and MSIE. servlets. ASP. Supports multiple OS's and browsers. tuning. run-time debugging features. records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. cookies. Supports keyword-driven testing. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications. Scripting uses Jython. built-in exception handling and reporting facility. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. supports ASP. eastern and western European languages. includes web functional testing capabilities.DLL and . files. provision to add GUI. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive.

but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. This includes web page navigation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. such as bitmap or text matching. Special validation points. etc. branching statements. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Page 30 of 60 . HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Flash. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. with its HTML objects recognition. and other typical business web application features. animated bitmaps. Includes an Intelligent. Handles Applets. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. C++ or C++/MFC. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. cookie testing and form submission. 90-day evaluation copy available. validation of table contents. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. playback window/size can be different than in capture. and a Data-Driven. but also adds mock objects. etc. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. form entry and submission. scripts have to be developed manually. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. Free including source code. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. Active-X controls. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. STC Master and STC Master Service. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. can be inserted during a recording. and Runner executes the test case document. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. Fuzzy matching capabilities. until recording capabilities are added. LLC. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. (300+ commands). jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Maker creates test case documents.

Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. all without changing tool. many Perl cpan library functions.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. Free for most uses. Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. source code avalable. Easy development and maintenance . HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. Supports HTTPS/SSL. Multi-platform written in Java. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined. Includes capability for automated scripting. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. tab/comma delimited file formats.GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. and generates a detailed test report. Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. Methods. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. and more. Perl dbi database access. data driven scenarios. reporting various metrics. Written in ActivePerl. Create scenarios using the point and click interface. includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . break points and response introspection. or logic associated with the engine. screen names. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. etc). Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. For Windows. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. Utilizes Collections. broken links and the structure of the crawled web. Free Demo and Test Script available. extensible IDE).no need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities.. testware architecture (object names. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation . dynamic Web applications. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. For Windows platforms. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. script testing and information gathering. databases. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. and JUnit is used as the testing library. and web-based applications. CSS. tables. Java. dynamic testing. Linux. Works as a proxy server. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. For Windows and MSIE. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. can enforce over 200 HTML. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. Solaris. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. or XML. or containers of forms. It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. form filling. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. Jython is used as the scripting language. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit. clicking. 508 compliance. For Windows. load. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. Utilizes multiple validation methods. cookies and automatic page redirection. Works by remote controlling the browser. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. Emulates the relevant portions of browser Source Development Network. and links. written in Java. content validation. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . JavaScript. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. WebKing Web site functional. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality checking. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. from SourceForge. and webserver load and capacity analysis. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. basic http authentication. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. Can handle data input from text files. Records any combination of browsing. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. an XML DOM. for easier script maintenance. including form submission. page performance tuning.

Java. direct database access and validation. ERP. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. produces defect analyses. editing. Features include: test creation and customization. . network appliances. in order to induce component crashes. and debugging scripts. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws. scripting language. test planning and management. XML. etc. compiling.NET.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. proxies. etc. includes support for testing Web. DOMbased testing and validation.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . Java or traditional client/server-based applications. Java. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . and more. DHTML. and to validate compliance with security requirements. Java. and web-based applications. protocol analyzers. test plans. and IDE for developing. Enables data-driven testing. includes support for testing Web. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. ERP. hanging. test process management capabilities. recovery system for unattended testing. C++. Evaluation version available. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. running. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. Java beans. etc. browsers.NET and J2EE applications. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests. Handles ActiveX. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. and record/playback. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web. 5. For Windows and Linux. etc. HTML. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. choice of scripting languages and editors. and other applications. PDAs and cell phones. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web.6.

network security scan. firewalls. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. based on the SATAN model. and browser checkup tool. SANS/ISTS certified.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. websites. real-time IDS event analysis. Freeware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. updated bi-monthly. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Mac. CVE standards support. remote self scan and API facilities. asset management. plug-in facility for third party apps. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Runs on Macintosh. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. data theft or system destruction. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. inside and outside the firewall. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. can audit UNIX. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. routers. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. Inc. remediation management of vulnerabilities. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys.

correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. web server requests-per-second benchmark. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base for individual machines.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. and a wide variety of other tests. product runs on Windows. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . by Renaud Deraison. Single machine or full network scans. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Includes DoS testing. denial-of-service checks. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. Port scans. Updated regularly. Works with a variety of operating systems. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . Learns about network as it scans. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. Runs on many UNIX flavors. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. open-source remote network security auditing tool. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. CVE compatible. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. Nessus Security Scanner Free. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. reports specify severity levels of problems. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. Customizable reporting. Can scan a variety of operating systems. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language.

Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. routers. firewalls. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. workstations. or managed service. intrusion detection tools. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. electronic law. publications. etc. Page 36 of 60 . to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. what services (ports) they are offering. prepares remediation advice. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. printers. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. etc. and many other characteristics. intrusion detection resources.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. organized by subject. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. remediation information. DMZ and externally visible assets. servers. etc. operating systems. Available as a hardware appliance. hubs. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. etc. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. software product. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. scanners. Provides flexible risk management reports. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. routers. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. desktops. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows.

traffic analysis. Includes link checker.. Similar managed service also available. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control Information Assurance. combined utilities/tools. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. Accessibility. and Web Governance. Inc. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. not just for testing. (Includes various types of security tools. combining site content. and site monitoring capabilities. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. FPT/publishing. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. database servers.7. site scores. service types. Inc. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. and OS's.) 5. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. server management and optimization tools. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. WYSIWYG editor.. Limitedcapability free version also available. for maintaining. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. Free and professional versions available. and online service available. works with a variety of web servers. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. Desktop product for multiple platforms. promoting. analyzing web sites. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base.

etc. and popup. restart services. visitor segmentation. for performance and availability monitoring. restart apps and services. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. etc. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. services. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. net send. Alerts via email. automatically reboot servers. capabilities include notifications via email. response errors. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. SMS. suited to large systems. page sizes. from AllScoop. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . real-time executive dash board. sends email notification if site is slow or down. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. and repair. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. pagers. page aborts. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. response times. network management. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. bandwidth usage. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. and diagnostics. Captures and monitors real user sessions. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. For Windows. run scripts. and network. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. click path analysis. isolation. including server errors. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. applications. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. and more.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. server. network errors. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring .

Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. etc. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . Search. spatial relationships between products. User Administration. Multilingualism. WYSIWYG editor. such as option compatibilities on a single product. Provides complete software developers environment. site cleanup. All can be integrated without writing code. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. and a robust API. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. based on database-driven. and more. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. Works on multiple platforms. HTML and GIF optimization. scheduler. detecting. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. upload resuming. Statistical Reports. low cost for large sites. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. Message Board. Installer easily installs system on your server. drag-and-drop. Database Backup. template-based dynamically-created content. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic for web site updating. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. link verification. Dynamic Menu. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. load testing. Free for use on small sites.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. verifying content and functional integrity. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. PHP-Code Insertion. high-level functions save template coding time.

Runs with a variety of platforms. authoring tools. administration. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP. . pager. and DB servers. HTML encryptor/optimizer. etc. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. and more. activity tracking. HTML editor. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp. Easy to install. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. HTML validator.V. Update news flashes. Alerts by cell phone. browser-based. e-commerce. integration with a variety of servers.. text editor. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. e-mail. accessibility. Works with content from any platform or application. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages. approval workflow. stories. security. business process automation. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. length. more. Can automatically run external programs. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. broken links. site mapper. security. version control. then Page 40 of 60 . invalid chars). site spider. styles. etc. advertisements. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. product info.capabilites/support include scalability. Enables collaboration. globalization. and more. payment processing. image handling. prices. notifications. link checker. support for more than 50 document formats. web servers. spell checker. and log events. Basic accounts are free. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. templates. customer relationship management. privacy compliance. and website standards compliance.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. image mapper. searchability. multi-lingual support. For Windows. e-commerce site designer/generator. renaming the files to match the convention.

digital assets. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. anticipate capacity shortfalls. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. Mac. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. Manages Web content. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. version control. For Mac or Windows. replication and administration. Inc. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. services for capturing. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. editing. and customizable workflow. staging. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. documents. production. content development. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. reuse and access. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. management of workflow. publishing. personalization. and archiving. portals and scanned images. For Windows. where all content and content types are stored for management. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. tracking of revisions. and manage and report on service level agreements. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. conversion services. based on native XML and XSL technologies. Page 41 of 60 . Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. including creation. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. index/search.. deploying. security. isolate. Enables services such as library services. workflow.

server-side and live preview modes. validate. on web server and Windows client. automatically resume interrupted transfers. and update websites. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. JavaScript. lookup help. downloading and online editing of files. for Windows. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . Ruby. page. extranet and portal sites. external. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. format. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. improve search engine ranks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. intranet. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. preview and publish web pages. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. Requires UNIX. For Windows. checks search engine placement including position. SSI. dragand-drop files. XML. upload. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. searches for keywords. click paths. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. PERL. XSL. Searches top engines for keywords. Perl. FTP Workspace for uploading. full-featured editor from Chami. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. Includes internal. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. submit URL's. XHTML. meta tag creator. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. rank on page. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. Python. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. manage. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant designed to help HTML. From Monocle Solutions. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. can specify search depth. Java. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. XHTML and XML authors to edit. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. and much more. support more than 50 host file systems. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. Requires MSIE and Windows. CSS. Requires MSIE. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities.

real-time server monitoring of server response time. monitoring and recovery.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. logging capabilities. For Windows. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. metrics. link checking. Web based interface for load balancing administration. works with many servers. E-mail/pager notifications. e-mail submission of web content. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. For MS and Netscape web servers. requires Windows and MSIE. OS's. server failure detection. access control. For Windows. content management and site visualization. UNIX. server management. Page 43 of 60 . link analysis and quality control. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. monitoring. For Windows. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. HTML validation. etc. network management. alerting. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. link problems. and publishing control tool. Interwoven Team Site Web development. management. logging. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. standards-based environment. and platforms. for customizable automated site mapping. number of pending requests. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. Evaluation copy available. version control. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. and e-mail notifications. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. For Windows. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia.

Includes published API for creating custom monitors. customizable reports. HTML-to-Text converter. file edit merging. administration. scheduled and on-demand reporting. publishing. From Talicom. Meta manager. thumbnail viewer. browser interface. Includes version control. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. For Windows or Unix. error info is linked to error in html. comparison capabilitie. etc. provides notifications of problems. security. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. Support for managing content stored in databases. layout editor. file uploading. link checker. includes site management capabilities. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. Date stamper. has updateable rulebase. Includes automated deployment. For Windows and Unix. etc. variable lock controls. and maintenance. management. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. Validates against various HTML versions. image tag checker. API's. spell checker. graphics management.. and encryption capabilities. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. logs. browser extensions. link checking. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. Page 44 of 60 . Visual site structure editor. For Windows. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Link checker. databases. Server side compatible with many available web servers. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. For Windows. connections. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. and servers. global search-and-replace. links. and static files. staging/publishing control. XML repositories.

Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. can specify the screen width(s). from how it breaks down the HTML. and share with others. system operations in 7 different categories. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. from TechSmith Corp. system resource usage. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. SiteTimer service . URL2image. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. For Windows. examine server's HTTP headers.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. and system configuration information. Free. to which links it extracts. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 .com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer .8. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. upload to a bug tracking system. more. for automated recording. Perl. web standards and elastic design.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. Consists of 3 components. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. analyzing and sharing of usability data. For anyone interested in css.

Includes CPU. Sandra 'System ANalyser. environment settings. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. html. and other versions available in multiple languages. Professional. memory details. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. XML. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Provides performance enhancing tips. ODBC sources. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Network Adaptor Information. services. and delay. set breakpoints. mainboard. Free. device drivers. etc. loss.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. and much more. etc. for Windows. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. manage and monitor throughput. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. component details. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. data creation or capture and replay. processes. physical memory information. drives. modules.NET event-based scripting subsystem. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. virtual memory settings. system file listings. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. more. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. processor information. OS version. tune-up wizard. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. Services information. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. ports. etc.) in small text files. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data.). SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . Free. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. loaded modules.

or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. It allows the user to peek inside I. available as on-line service. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. any version. binaries.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. packet losses. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. delays. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. any operating system. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. For Windows. Can log captures to disk. or source code. originally designed for testing networking protocols. and troubleshooting with code coverage filters. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. with GUI. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. Enables enhancement of QA. Free 90-day trial. analogous to running an MRI scan. binaries and source available. Linux. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. Inc. Page 47 of 60 . especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge.E. caching proxies. in most versions of every browser ever released. robustness. and multipath effects. and XML switches. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. compliance. Can be used on user's workstations. testing. security. and other quality factors. For Windows. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. Linux RPMs. Windows (on-demand). Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Macintosh. freeware. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality.

allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). Available for various UNIX flavors. etc. any message definitions. and segments sent and received. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Searchability. Page 48 of 60 . freeware. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. throughput. Freeware. For automated testing of Web. round trip times. etherpeek. such as those produced by tcpdump. link validation. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. for Windows. HP Net Metrix. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. Runs on Windows. snoop. For windows. MITs. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. mailboxes. Can crawl a site and report errors. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. FTP. window advertisements. retransmissions. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. Runs on Windows platforms. Also available: MITS.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. and generating test scripts. and mainframe applications. and various graphs. etc). Works with all text-based IP protocols. freeware. bytes. Overall Site Quality. and any network. or WinDump. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. and as source code. Inc. client/server. Ethernet.

and HTML. errors. ActiveX Exe. DLL. VB. Thread. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. CSS. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. Windows. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction. Delphi. Windows. COM+. CFML ). For UNIX. Runs on Solaris or Linux. VJ. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U. Govt. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds. For Windows. written in any language ( ASP. handles HTTP 0. NIST. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . allows for entry of custom headers. Visual C++. VC++. MTS. T-SQL.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. not just samples.S. performance for each server. Source code available. Page 49 of 60 . Removes unnecessary information in HTML. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. COM. comparison to SLA's. URL. XHTML.1.9/1. XML. tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. without ever attaching to process. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. time period. For UNIX. T-SQL. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. Freeware. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. client. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP.0/1. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text.

What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. then D should happen'). It is oriented to 'detection'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. It is oriented to 'prevention'. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16.) 2. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is verification and Validation? 8.monitoring and improving the process. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. Why does software have bugs? 6. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. 3. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. and does C. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. What is software 'quality'? 13. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . What's an 'inspection'? 10. What is 'good code'? 14. Testing FAQ 1. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual.

the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings.S. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. according to mid-2004 news reports. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. portions of the project could be salvaged. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. A major U. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. if any. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. the worst power system failure in North American history. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. government IT systems project. According to news reports in April of 2004. According to the report. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. Studies were under way to determine which. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. In early 2004.S. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers.

hardware requirements that may be affected. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. like anyone else. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. the district's CIO was fired. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . can make mistakes. enormous relational databases. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. data communications. or may understand and request them anyway . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. was delivered late.S.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. Software complexity .000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . effects on other projects. Multi-tiered applications.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. problems included 10.000 customers. Among other tasks. and didn't work. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units.000+ students. futures exchange.S.programmers. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. public school district with 100. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. rescheduling of to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). preventing problems is lowvisibility.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . Programming errors . telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. In early 2000. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. 5. etc. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error.S. 4. client-server and distributed applications.redesign. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999.

In fact. the result is bugs. the result is bugs. In this case. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. it should be hard to read'). maintainable code. often requiring a lot of guesswork. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. and ensuring adequate communications among customers.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Where the risk is lower. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. scripting tools. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. Poorly documented code . feedback to developers. understandable. and testers. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. etc. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . Time pressures . depending on the type of customers and projects. egos . management must understand the resulting risks. 6. mistakes will be made. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. with a goal of clear. class libraries. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. Software development tools . it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. managers. complete. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. compilers. step-at-a-time process. developers.visual tools. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. In some fast-changing business environments. resulting in added bugs. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. For small groups or projects.

Incremental integration testing . as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Little or no preparation is usually required. and a recorder to take notes. 10. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. 7. walkthroughs. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. not to fix anything.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. White box testing . What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. 9. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. plans. paths. individual applications.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . most problems will be found during this preparation. and specifications. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. reader. to test particular functions or code modules. or that test drivers be developed as needed. • • Page 54 of 60 . 8. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. The 'parts' can be code modules.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. branches. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. This can be done with checklists.the most 'micro' scale of testing. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. and inspection meetings. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. Integration testing . done by programmers or by testers. client and server applications on a network. issues lists. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. Unit testing . The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. code. (b) design inspections and code inspections. requirements. conditions. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives.

typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing .re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. etc. or interacting with other hardware. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. etc. Performance testing . Clearly this is subjective. Page 55 of 60 . Usability testing . type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. input of large numerical values.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. or upgrade install/uninstall type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. using network communications.) System testing . or corrupting databases. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. the 'macro' end of the test scale. this type of testing should be done by testers. willful damage. Recovery testing . involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. applications. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. may require sophisticated testing techniques.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. Sanity testing or smoke testing .testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. surveys. or systems if appropriate. Acceptance testing . Functional testing . and other techniques can be used. Load testing . This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. environment. Stress testing .testing for 'user-friendliness'. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time.similar to system testing. Compatability testing . Install/uninstall testing . such as interacting with a database. Failover testing . hardware failures. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. or other catastrophic problems.testing of full. especially near the end of the development cycle. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. large complex queries to a database system. User interviews.testing an application under heavy loads. For example. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. bogging down systems to a crawl. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. video recording of user sessions. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. covers all combined parts of a system. Regression testing . End-to-end testing .term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing.

bug fixing. Typically done by end-users or others. re-testing. Alpha testing . User acceptance testing . If changes are necessary. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. and be prepared to explain consequences. testers may be learning the software as they test it. attainable. In 'agile'-type environments.clear. make extensive use of group communication tools .e-mail. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . Proper implementation requires large computational resources. detailed. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. and documentation. and intended use of software. promote teamwork and cooperation. groupware. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. Ad-hoc testing . cohesive. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities.. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. Beta testing .be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. 11. design. etc. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. Adequate testing .a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. testing.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. intranet capabilities. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. not by programmers or testers. Context-driven testing . Typically done by end-users or others.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. not paper. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out.similar to exploratory testing. Realistic schedules . insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date .testing of an application when development is nearing completion. For example. not by programmers or testers.preferably electronic.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. Mutation testing . If possible.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. changes.start testing early on. Communication .often taken to mean a creative. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary.testing driven by an understanding of the environment. culture.allow adequate time for planning. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . Comparison testing . but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. complete. re-test after fixes or changes. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements .

use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). quality is obviously a subjective term. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. etc. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. customer contract officers. less than 50 lines is preferable. No matter how small. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.use both upper and lower case. Organize code for readability. less than 100 lines of code is good. or what is too many or too few rules.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. customer acceptance testers.vertically and horizontally. and is readable and maintainable. Use whitespace generously . and is maintainable. Function and method sizes should be minimized. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . avoid abbreviations. meets requirements and/or expectations. magazine columnists. etc. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. avoid abbreviations. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. One code statement per line.use both upper and lower case. use of brackets. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. is bug free. indentations. For C and C++ coding. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. be consistent in naming conventions. stockholders. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. the development organization's. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. delivered on time and within budget. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. etc. 'Peer reviews'. naming conventions.) In adding comments. There are also various theories and metrics. Use descriptive variable names . • 13. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . be consistent in naming conventions. customer management. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. However. future software maintenance engineers. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. Use descriptive function and method names .

now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). keep class methods small.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. For C++. requirements management. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University.S. and maintainable. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. Defense Department contractors. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. realistic planning. and works correctly when implemented. However. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). and configuration management processes are in place.S. periodic panics.) For C++. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . project tracking. easily modifiable. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. initiated by the U. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. Level 3 . Level 2 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing).For programs that have a user interface. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. make liberal use of exception handlers. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. successes may not be repeatable. Few if any processes in place. understandable. developed by the SEI. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. Level 1 .characterized by chaos. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. • • • 15. successful practices can be repeated. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. For C++. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things.

and other processes. testing. and quality is consistently high. production. 39% at 2. MOF.S. coding. after which a complete reassessment is required. 16.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. Level 5 . 1018 organizations were assessed. 32% of organizations were U. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. and 0.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. documentation planning. In the U. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. 2% at 4. 27% were rated at Level 1.metrics are used to track productivity. development. design. requirements analysis. and other aspects.iso. and others. 17.among other for the latest information. ITIL. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. and 5% at 5. Also see http://www.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary.S. installation. 23% at 2. federal contractors or agencies. (c)Q9004-2000 . and products.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. and CobiT. Of those.. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). document preparation. functional design.S. the primary industrial standards body in the U.4% at 5. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). Project performance is predictable.the focus is on continuous process improvement. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products .Quality Management Systems: Requirements. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. It covers documentation. integration. processes. not just software. Trillium. test planning. (b)Q90002000 . Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. maintenance. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. testing. indicates only that documented processes are followed. 23% at 3.asq. internal design. TickIT. It includes aspects such as initial concept. Bootstrap. 6% at 4. Level 4 . 62% were at Level 1.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. To be ISO 9001 certified. For those rated at Level 1. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). servicing. 13% at 3. retesting. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. updates.

client-side and server-side programs work.vyomworld. documentation management.since they are separate from the test drivers. Coverage analyzers . Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. This document is for internal purposes check that links are valid. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. etc.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. Load/performance test tools . Web test tools . For example.such as via a spreadsheet . Additionally. This approach can enable more efficient control.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . or some underlying code in the application is changed. buttons. Other tools . The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. development. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. and for all types of platforms.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. and may be oriented to code statement coverage.) can be a difficult task. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. etc.monitor code complexity. the primary being: http://www. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . etc. and configuration management. HTML code usage is correct. bug reporting. data. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. a web site's interactions are secure. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests.for test case management. Memory analyzers . documentation. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. For larger projects. etc. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. etc. condition coverage. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. dialog box choices. Page 60 of 60 . Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. path coverage. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. If new buttons are added. adherence to standards.

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