Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. Types of Testing 2. stability. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box.1. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. 2. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. clear box and open box testing. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. Page 4 of 60 . In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. glass-box and clear-box. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. and closed-box. maintainability and usability. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. With that in mind. Unlike black box testing. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". and all visible code must also be readable. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. 2. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. functional. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. portability. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral.2. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. There are many approaches to software testing. structural. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". opaque-box.

It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.3.1. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. Page 5 of 60 . Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. 2. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. 2. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.3. 2. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible.3. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code.2. but it's still discouraged. Unit Testing In computer programming.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.3. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. In practice.4. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date.3.3. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. system testing. etc. 2.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural".) can use any test design methods. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.

assemblages (or groups of units).3. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. for example. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. As a result. Therefore. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program.6. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. This results in loosely coupled code. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface.5. These "design items". In addition. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. across procedure calls or process activations. it will not catch integration errors. By definition. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. in order to test the class.e. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. Page 6 of 60 . are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. groups them in larger aggregates. 2.1. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. 2.3.4. i. This is a mistake. 2. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class.4. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. thus minimizing dependencies in the system.

Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system.2. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. e.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. Various tools. However. that while the average response time might be acceptable. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. given as number of users vs.5. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. It can compare two systems to find which performs better.e. In the diagnostic case. response time. Performance Testing In software engineering.. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. if it is made to respond faster. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. Usually. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. etc. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 .1. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. i.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries.5. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. are available to perform such tests. In performance testing. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. will result in the overall system running faster. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is.g.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.5. Performance testing can serve different purposes. 2. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition.

since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’.3.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. often to a breaking point.6. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. in order to observe the results. deployment of server instrumentation.5. It can also be done in-house. For example. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. router configuration. either pass/fail. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. 2. Performance testing can be performed across the web. where they had found the system spent most of its time.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. network overhead. and even done in different parts of the country. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. etc. Analyzing the results. 2. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. database access times.

performance testing.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. Downtime.7. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. a computer interface. including making things work with people. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. compromising usability and functionality. software testing. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. 2. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. or interpreting feedback. or a device) for its intended purpose. to discover errors and areas of improvement. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. manipulating parts. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. usability testing measures the usability of the object. i. During usability testing. a document. then developers should improve the design and test it again. Also see testing. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. 2. bots.1.e.7." Page 9 of 60 . "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. Stress testing a subset of load testing. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". Data corruption and application Defacement.8. Data theft.

11. Stability Testing In software testing. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. so that developers can see problem areas. "Do you understand this?". wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. ideally. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. paper prototypes. illustration quality. 2. Page 10 of 60 . Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. to which the system should conform. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. For example. Instruction phrasing. Rather. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program.10. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. For example. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. and pre. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. 2. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system.). Users of the system will perform these tests which. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. and ask him or her to undertake this task. software will not run etc. and what people like.9. 2. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. or realistic situation. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. In the pharmaceutical field. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. it will work just the same in production.

This technique is known as black box testing. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation.14. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. 2. 2.12. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. testing is usually required before release to the general public. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. Beta Testing Many a time. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. Ideally. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. A beta release is very close to the final release. 2. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. Alfa Testing In software development. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. Page 11 of 60 . In distributed systems.13.

all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries.). As a rule. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. New York. and as such.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate.15. During this testing. NY. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Regression testing takes. 2. Page 12 of 60 . IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. System testing takes. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. New York. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. 1990. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. NY. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. as its input. 2. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole.). 1990. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. As a rule. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s).16. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. as its input. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. and as such.

database or other common repository. and (e) easy to evaluate. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. and its expected result. and descriptions of the following tests. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. related requirement(s). depth. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. A test case is usually a single step. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. Page 13 of 60 . Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. They may also be called a test script. (d) complex. author. In a database system. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. 2. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. These steps can be stored in a word processor document.17. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. Test Cases. system. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. along with various additional pieces of information. test step or order of execution number. Suits.18. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. or even a test scenario. and descriptions. (c) credible.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. operating system and browser versions. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. and regression testing. spreadsheet. The optional fields are a test case ID. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. test category. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases.

does the product do what the user really requires. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. using formal methods. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. and tracking them to closure. 2. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. testing. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. or recording feedback from customers). timed automata and hybrid automata. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V.20.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. 2. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. and abstractions of general software components. Page 14 of 60 . E. digital circuits with internal memory. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics...1. abstraction refinement. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.19. processalgebraic methods. Defect Tracking In engineering.e. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). combinatorial circuits. but not the same as session-based testing. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). Petri nets. cryptographic protocols. 2. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. (by inspection. abstract interpretation.20. symbolic state space enumeration. does the product conform to the specifications. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. Validation is the complementary aspect..e.g.

then there are defects to correct. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. However. 2. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. rather than a direct measure. by crashing. For this reason. usually before applying it to the software. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . These usually have a budget to develop test tools.21.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically.21. or by failing in-built code assertions). or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. If the program fails (for example. the test data is preserved. so that if the computer fails dramatically. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. For example.21. Thus. 2. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. rather than behaving correctly. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing.1. i. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. • Database inputs are from tabular data.e..2. 2. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. such as relational databases. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality.

Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. 2. software must validate all fields of every queue entry.21.21. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. or conforms to actual production data.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. Database fuzz is controversial. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. By using all of these techniques in combination. and then ignore impossible requests. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data.21. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input.3. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures.5. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. decode every possible binary value. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. 2. without even crude validation. However. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. not handling every possible binary value.4. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. 2.

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
3.1.
• • •

Facts
In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

3.2.
• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

3.3.
• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.

3.4.

Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

3.4.1.Verification:
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

3.4.2.Validation:
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

3.5.
• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential

3.6.

What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

3.7.
• • • • • •

Testing:
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

3.8.
• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

3.9.
• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.

3.10.

Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. boundary value analyses. 4. change processes.1. functional.1. required standards and processes (such as release processes. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. Determine test approaches and methods . set up logging and archiving processes. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. etc. reporting requirements.unit. and determine scope and limitations of tests. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. set priorities. test tracking. functional design. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. etc. load. communications. integration. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides.10. system. problem/bug tracking. It provides a repeatable. timelines. those responsible for tasks. set up test tracking processes. coverage analyzers. test cases. etc. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. test environment. etc. software. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. usability tests.

Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. etc. After the problem is resolved. input data requirements. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. or event and an expected response.. object. objective. it should encapsulate these processes. action. If a problem-tracking system is in place. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. and reproduce it if necessary.) Current bug status (e. system. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. For this reason. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. platform. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. and expected results. steps. feature.g. screen.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). etc. 'Released for Retest'. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 .) The application name or identifier and version The function. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. get an idea of it's severity. 'New'. module. ID. fixes should be re-tested. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. etc. test conditions/setup. test case name. Bug identifier (number.

it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. often requiring a lot of guesswork. Poorly documented code . mistakes will be made. For instance.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. the result is bugs. Changing requirements . Software complexity . In some fast-changing business environments.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. effects on other projects. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. etc.redesign. management must understand the resulting risks. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.programmers. Windows-type interfaces. can make mistakes. enormous relational databases. rescheduling of engineers. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Programming errors . Egos . developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. like anyone else. the result is bugs. testers need to know when retesting is needed. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. hardware requirements that may be affected. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. data communications.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. In this case. client-server and distributed applications. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. Time pressures . When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . or may understand and request them anyway . known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. Test private and protected functions. etc. it should be hard to read'). intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. compilers. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code.). presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. Testing Tools and Software 5.1. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. understandable code. Tag Libs. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades.2. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI.visual tools. and other server technologies as well. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. EJBs. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. Useful for testing CORBA. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. scripting capabilities. Code Analyzer. GJTester Java unit. Software development tools . Filters. Includes: Unit Tester. Enables test case and test script development without programming. etc. scripting tools. profiler. Includes a natural user interface. Recorded GUI elements. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. regression. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. In fact. 5. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. and server application's modules. RMI. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. tuning. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. metrics. without implementing test clients. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. resulting in added bugs. class libraries. Extensive documentation. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 .

The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. a script editor/recorder.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. using Ant. It uses JUnit and extends it. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. JUnit . and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. predefined (XML. Typically use within your IDE. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. etc) through an in-container approach. TEXT) or custom report generation.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. HTML. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. Contains Page 24 of 60 . Integrates with Ant and JUnit.awt. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). for which JUnit may be sufficient). Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. licensed under the BSD License. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. CSV. From Apache Software Foundation. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. LaTex. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. Free . For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation.Robot class. or from the command line. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications.

Shows all dependencies. application. PerformaSure Low-overhead. Halstead Measures. etc.. classes. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. PDF. Coverage difference comparison between runs. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. JBuilder. class. button pushing. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. JEvolve. for speed. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. and dependencies for Java. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . JBrowser class browser. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. Inc. JMSAssert. statements. C.e. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. package. virtual machines. . Cyclomatic Number. highly scalable. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. HTML. etc. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. and other IDE's. compiler-style output. package and produces reports in multiple formats.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. at all levels and between all levels. method. etc. Works with source or compiled files. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. tree node expanding. Gathers coverage measures of branches. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). methods. source distribution.). JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans.. or via a Swing GUI. JCover test coverage analyzer. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization.. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. Fifty different audits and metrics. or jar file. and C++ applications. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. Coverage API provided. control flow analysis and diagramming. file. configurable. text typing. components. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. JSynTest. View coverage data in XML.

) Page 26 of 60 . and clarity. and size metrics related to reusability. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. OptimizeIt Profiler. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. Halstead Software Science metrics. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. and race conditions. procedural. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. maintainability. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. coverage analysis. and applications. testability. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. written in Java. JProfiler freeware version available. management. includes Java support. Has online advisor for quality improvement. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. thread and event analysis. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. or load testing of java applets. and network metrics. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. Integrates with several Java IDE's. servlets. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. or are planning to add such capabilities. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. thread debugger. Check listed web sites for current information. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. stalls. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. complexity. OS.

updates links to moved and renamed files. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc.. detects and reports redirected URL. for Windows. such as internal and external links. 3-click process. Excel. Handles HTTP. several report formats available. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. HTTPS. free version or low-cost pro version. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. domain names. Runs as often as every hour.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. and FTP protocols. DNS servers and SSL certificates. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. customizable reports. used to test and validate critical website components. Site Map. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. can be automatically scheduled. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr.3. free trial period available. CSV. evaluation version available. HTML. For Windows. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. familiar interface for managing files. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. or as infrequent as once a week. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. For Windows platforms. Page 27 of 60 . Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. includes FTP link checking. Export to text. For Windows. fixes broken links with an easy. employs a simple. multiple page list and site list capabilities. RTF. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. supports SSL websites. For Windows. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft.

binary avaialable for Linux. released under IBM's Common Public License. Not updated in recent years. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags.'s link checker/site mapping tool. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. formatting disorganized editing. configurable. but old versions still available as freeware. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. timeouts. Discontinued.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. 5.5. Available as source code. doc-not-found. support for all standard server-side image maps. Handles one URL at a time. For Windows. site has much documentation and related info. Available as source code or binaries. page size analysis. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. 'what's new' reporting. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. Windows. Results stored in database. Not updated in recent years. Windows. results can be exported to database. ID/Password entries. Has not been updated in recent years. reports URLs changed since last checked. Churchyard. by Francois Pottier. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. test resumption at interruption point. relocations.4. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. originally by Dave Raggett. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. 5. randomized order checking. unauthorized-access. capabilities include specified URL exclusions.0 or 3. for UNIX and PERL. Mac. For Windows. HTML syntax error checking. It helps users to create. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. organize and Page 28 of 60 . Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix.net. allowing for customizable queries and reports. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. ability to check password-protected areas. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. and finding problem HTML areas.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. link checker. For all UNIX flavors.

fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. ASP. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. Supports keyword-driven testing. records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate. autocomplete. but with extended API). PHP. QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties. run-time debugging features. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. page titles and HTML element properties. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. provision to add GUI.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. built-in exception handling and reporting facility. integrates with a variety of IDE's. Record and playback capability. Page 29 of 60 . Supports multiple OS's and browsers. servlets. etc. Includes Script Editor. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. Secure recording on password fields. Free and professional versions available. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. Scripting uses Jython. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. tuning. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive. HtmlUnit etc. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. robust handling of page modifications. and Test Writing Assistant . For Windows and MSIE. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense.DLL and . Works with Internet Explorer. and loop. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. retry on error. JSP. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. includes web functional testing capabilities. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. supports ASP. Freeware. files. CGI. eastern and western European languages. Multilingual for Asian. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. Can export created . HTML forms. HTML. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. that includes a web functional testing module. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. cookies. SSL.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. playback window/size can be different than in capture. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. can be inserted during a recording. STC Master and STC Master Service. and other typical business web application features. and a Data-Driven. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. Maker creates test case documents. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. such as bitmap or text matching. scripts have to be developed manually. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. but also adds mock objects. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. and Runner executes the test case document. Free including source code. etc. until recording capabilities are added. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. validation of table contents. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. Includes an Intelligent. C++ or C++/MFC. form entry and submission. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. etc. Handles Applets. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. LLC. Active-X controls. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Flash. This includes web page navigation. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. with its HTML objects recognition. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. animated bitmaps. Page 30 of 60 . Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. Special validation points. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. Fuzzy matching capabilities. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. (300+ commands). 90-day evaluation copy available. cookie testing and form submission. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. branching statements. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used.

and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy. many Perl cpan library functions. or logic associated with the engine. Multi-platform written in Java. Written in ActivePerl. Perl dbi database access. Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. Includes capability for automated scripting. has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities. dynamic Web applications. Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. etc).no need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation . includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. Create scenarios using the point and click interface. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. Supports HTTPS/SSL. Utilizes Collections. source code avalable. tab/comma delimited file formats. Methods. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. all without changing tool. extensible IDE). Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. For Windows platforms. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. Free Demo and Test Script available. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. Free for most uses. For Windows. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. broken links and the structure of the crawled web. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. and more. screen names. testware architecture (object names. Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. data driven scenarios. break points and response introspection. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. reporting various metrics. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts.. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. Easy development and maintenance .GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. and generates a detailed test report. and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined.

Jython is used as the scripting language. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality checking. and JUnit is used as the testing library. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. and web-based applications. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. Linux. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts. For Windows and MSIE. Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. clicking. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. dynamic testing. databases. content validation. WebKing Web site functional. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. from SourceForge. load. basic http authentication. CSS. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. script testing and information gathering. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. for easier script maintenance. Works by remote controlling the browser. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. Solaris. Java. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. or containers of forms. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. Can handle data input from text files. can enforce over 200 HTML. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. form filling. Works as a proxy server. including form submission. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. Records any combination of browsing. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. page performance tuning. For Windows. tables. cookies and automatic page redirection. an XML DOM. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . and links. and webserver load and capacity analysis. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. Utilizes multiple validation methods. JavaScript. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. 508 compliance. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit.org. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. or XML. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. written in Java. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins.net/Open Source Development Network.

includes support for testing Web. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. proxies. Features include: test creation and customization. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web. For Windows and Linux. Java. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. and more. test process management capabilities. network appliances.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. choice of scripting languages and editors. direct database access and validation. etc.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . XML. etc. produces defect analyses. Enables data-driven testing. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. recovery system for unattended testing. Java. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . HTML. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. test planning and management. Java or traditional client/server-based applications. and web-based applications. ERP. DHTML. ERP. etc. test plans. running. etc. includes support for testing Web. Handles ActiveX. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests. and other applications. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws. in order to induce component crashes. and to validate compliance with security requirements. compiling. PDAs and cell phones. Java. and IDE for developing. hanging. protocol analyzers. browsers. scripting language. Evaluation version available. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. and record/playback. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing.NET and J2EE applications. Java beans. editing. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. . C++. 5.NET. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks.6. and debugging scripts. DOMbased testing and validation. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury.

MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. updated bi-monthly. Runs on Macintosh. data theft or system destruction. SANS/ISTS certified. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. CVE standards support. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . and browser checkup tool. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. firewalls. can audit UNIX. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. routers. inside and outside the firewall. real-time IDS event analysis. Freeware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. remediation management of vulnerabilities. plug-in facility for third party apps. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. Inc. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). remote self scan and API facilities. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. based on the SATAN model. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. websites. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. network security scan. asset management. Mac. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 .

Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . open-source remote network security auditing tool. reports specify severity levels of problems. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Port scans. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. Works with a variety of operating systems. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments.com for individual machines. Limited free or full licensed versions available. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. and a wide variety of other tests. product runs on Windows. CVE compatible. Nessus Security Scanner Free.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. Includes DoS testing. by Renaud Deraison. Single machine or full network scans. web server requests-per-second benchmark. denial-of-service checks. Learns about network as it scans. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Runs on many UNIX flavors. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. Customizable reporting. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. Updated regularly. Can scan a variety of operating systems. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. 45 common web server vulnerability checks.

Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. scanners. and many other characteristics. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. software product. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. etc. routers. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. workstations. publications. DMZ and externally visible assets. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. operating systems. printers. etc. desktops. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. electronic law. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. etc. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. hubs. routers. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. organized by subject. firewalls. or managed service. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. intrusion detection tools. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. Page 36 of 60 . servers. prepares remediation advice. etc. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. what services (ports) they are offering. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. Available as a hardware appliance. remediation information. intrusion detection resources. Provides flexible risk management reports. what operating system (and OS version) they are running.

Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users.) 5. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. and site monitoring capabilities. and Web Governance. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. traffic analysis. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Similar managed service also available. Information Assurance. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. FPT/publishing. Inc. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. not just for testing. database servers.. combining site content.7. analyzing web sites. Limitedcapability free version also available. Includes link checker.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. server management and optimization tools. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. and OS's. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. site scores. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. combined utilities/tools. Free and professional versions available. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. promoting. WYSIWYG editor. Inc. Desktop product for multiple platforms. works with a variety of web servers. service types. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools.org. Accessibility. for maintaining.. (Includes various types of security tools. and online service available.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports.

PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. response times. restart services. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. and network. including server errors. page aborts. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. Alerts via email. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. and repair. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. automatically reboot servers. restart apps and services. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. SMS. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . click path analysis. isolation. response errors. capabilities include notifications via email. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. pagers. and more. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. applications. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. net send. network errors. sends email notification if site is slow or down. and diagnostics. run scripts. etc. page sizes. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. services. real-time executive dash board. from AllScoop. For Windows. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. visitor segmentation. bandwidth usage. and popup. suited to large systems. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. for performance and availability monitoring. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. server. etc. Captures and monitors real user sessions. network management.

which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. detecting. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . low cost for large sites. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. template-based dynamically-created content. Installer easily installs system on your server. verifying content and functional integrity. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. etc. Search. such as option compatibilities on a single product. All can be integrated without writing code. User Administration. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. HTML and GIF optimization. drag-and-drop. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. high-level functions save template coding time. Works on multiple platforms. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). link verification. WYSIWYG editor. load testing. and more. Message Board. upload resuming. based on database-driven. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Provides complete software developers environment. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. Multilingualism. Dynamic Menu. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. scheduler. Free for use on small sites. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Statistical Reports. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. and a robust API. spatial relationships between products. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. PHP-Code Insertion.com for web site updating. Database Backup. site cleanup. reporting and fixing problems before users see them.

prices. pager. and log events. and website standards compliance. link checker. customer relationship management. HTML encryptor/optimizer. broken links. product info. renaming the files to match the convention. Update news flashes. browser-based. Works with content from any platform or application. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. payment processing. authoring tools.V. e-mail. security. and more. accessibility. etc. approval workflow. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp. spell checker.. privacy compliance. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP. and more. HTML validator. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. templates. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. Alerts by cell phone. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. invalid chars). notifications. stories. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. support for more than 50 document formats. image mapper. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. then Page 40 of 60 . etc. text editor. activity tracking. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. image handling. and DB servers. advertisements. length. integration with a variety of servers. searchability. business process automation. HTML editor. version control. Enables collaboration. Easy to install. administration. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. Can automatically run external programs. web servers. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. Runs with a variety of platforms. security. site mapper. . e-commerce. enables users to update their web site via e-mail.capabilites/support include scalability. site spider. styles. For Windows. e-commerce site designer/generator. Basic accounts are free. globalization. more. multi-lingual support.

For Mac or Windows.. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. Manages Web content. workflow. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. isolate. conversion services. including creation. Mac. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. Inc. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. portals and scanned images. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). Page 41 of 60 . services for capturing. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. replication and administration. deploying. and customizable workflow. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. personalization. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. index/search. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. and manage and report on service level agreements. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. version control. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. staging. content development. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. anticipate capacity shortfalls. Enables services such as library services. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. security. For Windows. digital assets. and archiving. reuse and access. production. tracking of revisions. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. documents. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. management of workflow. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. publishing. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. based on native XML and XSL technologies. where all content and content types are stored for management. editing. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating.

IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. can specify search depth. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. XML. on web server and Windows client. and much more. XHTML. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. XHTML and XML authors to edit. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. Python. A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. external. submit URL's. Requires UNIX. Ruby. CSS. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. manage. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. Searches top engines for keywords. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. rank on page. downloading and online editing of files. extranet and portal sites. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities. meta tag creator. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. Perl. lookup help. improve search engine ranks. SSI. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. server-side and live preview modes. PERL. XSL. JavaScript. Includes internal. for Windows. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. click paths. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. For Windows. checks search engine placement including position. page. Requires MSIE and Windows. intranet. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. dragand-drop files. support more than 50 host file systems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. Requires MSIE. format. upload. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. preview and publish web pages. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. validate. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. automatically resume interrupted transfers. full-featured editor from Chami. searches for keywords. and update websites. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. Java. From Monocle Solutions. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines.com designed to help HTML. FTP Workspace for uploading.

E-mail/pager notifications. link problems. etc. network management. number of pending requests. for customizable automated site mapping. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. UNIX. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. access control. requires Windows and MSIE. monitoring and recovery. For Windows. and e-mail notifications. version control. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. content management and site visualization. link checking. link analysis and quality control. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. monitoring. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. For Windows. For Windows. OS's. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. Interwoven Team Site Web development. For MS and Netscape web servers. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. logging capabilities. server failure detection. metrics. standards-based environment. For Windows. Evaluation copy available. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. logging. management. Web based interface for load balancing administration. and platforms. works with many servers. real-time server monitoring of server response time. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. server management. e-mail submission of web content. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. Page 43 of 60 . HTML validation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. alerting. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. and publishing control tool.

administration. For Windows or Unix. For Windows and Unix. layout editor. file uploading. provides notifications of problems. Visual site structure editor. Server side compatible with many available web servers. For Windows. and servers. and static files. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. file edit merging. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. From Talicom. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. variable lock controls. comparison capabilitie. Link checker. browser extensions. link checking. links. etc. databases. HTML PowerTools HTML validator.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Meta manager. For Windows. includes site management capabilities. connections. logs. Includes automated deployment.. customizable reports. HTML-to-Text converter. browser interface. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. security. spell checker. etc. and encryption capabilities. For Windows. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. graphics management. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. staging/publishing control. Date stamper. scheduled and on-demand reporting. has updateable rulebase. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. and maintenance. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. error info is linked to error in html. management. Support for managing content stored in databases. Page 44 of 60 . link checker. publishing. image tag checker. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. thumbnail viewer. XML repositories. global search-and-replace. Includes version control. Validates against various HTML versions. API's.

Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . and share with others. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. for automated recording.8. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. system operations in 7 different categories. and system configuration information. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. Perl. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. can specify the screen width(s). For Windows. system resource usage.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. For anyone interested in css. Free. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. analyzing and sharing of usability data. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. examine server's HTTP headers. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. upload to a bug tracking system. Consists of 3 components. URL2image. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. web standards and elastic design. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . SiteTimer service . Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. from how it breaks down the HTML. to which links it extracts.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. more. from TechSmith Corp.

OS version. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting.NET event-based scripting subsystem. memory details. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. and delay. set breakpoints.). SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Includes CPU. Free. loss. and much more. more. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Professional. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. environment settings. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. loaded modules. Provides performance enhancing tips. mainboard. data creation or capture and replay. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. manage and monitor throughput. Sandra 'System ANalyser. device drivers. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. modules. processor information. physical memory information. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. Network Adaptor Information. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. and other versions available in multiple languages. etc. Free. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. drives. system file listings. component details. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. html. for Windows. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. ports. ODBC sources. services. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. etc. XML. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. tune-up wizard. Services information. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities.) in small text files. processes. virtual memory settings.

and XML switches. in most versions of every browser ever released. Page 47 of 60 . originally designed for testing networking protocols. or source code. any operating system. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. delays.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Macintosh. robustness. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. caching proxies. and other quality factors. security. For Windows. Free 90-day trial. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. Linux RPMs. Can be used on user's workstations. available as on-line service. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Enables enhancement of QA. Inc. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. filters.com. It allows the user to peek inside I. and multipath effects. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Linux. Windows (on-demand). Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. binaries and source available. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. with GUI. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. Can log captures to disk. testing. binaries. For Windows. compliance. any version. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects.E. analogous to running an MRI scan. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". freeware. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. packet losses. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. Freeware. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. such as those produced by tcpdump. Available for various UNIX flavors. for Windows. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. and generating test scripts. For windows. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. Ethernet. Also available: MITS. round trip times. and mainframe applications. FTP. Works with all text-based IP protocols. Page 48 of 60 . can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. client/server. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. and any network. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. etherpeek. For automated testing of Web. and segments sent and received. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. Searchability. Can crawl a site and report errors. Inc. freeware. retransmissions. window advertisements. Overall Site Quality. mailboxes. MITs. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. and as source code.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). any message definitions. throughput. etc). HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. snoop. Runs on Windows. freeware. etc. Runs on Windows platforms. or WinDump. and various graphs. HP Net Metrix. link validation. bytes.

VC++. NIST. Delphi. For UNIX. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. written in any language ( ASP.S. VB. CSS. not just samples.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. MTS. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. handles HTTP 0.0/1.9/1. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. Page 49 of 60 . COM+. Freeware. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. comparison to SLA's. URL. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. client. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text. T-SQL. ActiveX Exe. Thread. Govt. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds. DLL. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. Source code available.1. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. Runs on Solaris or Linux. time period. CFML ). XML. errors. without ever attaching to process. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. allows for entry of custom headers.free tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U. Visual C++. For Windows. Windows. T-SQL. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic. VJ. COM. For UNIX. etc. performance for each server. and HTML. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. XHTML. Windows. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher .

What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. What is software 'quality'? 13. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What kinds of testing should be considered? 11.) 2. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. What is verification and Validation? 8. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. and does C. Why does software have bugs? 6. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. Testing FAQ 1. It is oriented to 'detection'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. 3. What is 'good code'? 14. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What's an 'inspection'? 10. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12.monitoring and improving the process. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It is oriented to 'prevention'. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. then D should happen').

the worst power system failure in North American history. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. A major U.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. government IT systems project. According to news reports in April of 2004. if any. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers.S. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. portions of the project could be salvaged. According to the report. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. Studies were under way to determine which. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. according to mid-2004 news reports. In early 2004. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase.S. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed.

Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. and didn't work. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. was delivered late.programmers.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Software complexity . the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. effects on other projects. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. can make mistakes. hardware requirements that may be affected. futures exchange. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. client-server and distributed applications. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999.redesign. Among other tasks. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. 5. In early 2000. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. or may understand and request them anyway . data communications. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. etc.000+ students.S. Programming errors . work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. like anyone else. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.S. enormous relational databases. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. public school district with 100. the district's CIO was fired. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems.000 customers.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. rescheduling of engineers. problems included 10. preventing problems is lowvisibility. Multi-tiered applications.S. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. 4.

scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. management must understand the resulting risks. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. resulting in added bugs. In fact. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. mistakes will be made. compilers. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. For small groups or projects. often requiring a lot of guesswork. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. scripting tools. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP.visual tools. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. Poorly documented code . and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . In some fast-changing business environments. and testers. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. depending on the type of customers and projects. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. egos . class libraries. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. understandable.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. Software development tools .it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. Where the risk is lower. with a goal of clear. it should be hard to read'). complete. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. etc. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. Time pressures . testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . feedback to developers. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. the result is bugs. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. 6. In this case. developers. step-at-a-time process. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. the result is bugs.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. managers. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. maintainable code.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.

client and server applications on a network. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. requirements. walkthroughs. The 'parts' can be code modules. This can be done with checklists. reader. (b) design inspections and code inspections. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. Integration testing . Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. and specifications. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. • • Page 54 of 60 . What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . Unit testing . What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. 9. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. and inspection meetings. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. plans. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. conditions. individual applications. Incremental integration testing . and a recorder to take notes. or that test drivers be developed as needed. not to fix anything. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. 10. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives.the most 'micro' scale of testing. issues lists. paths. to test particular functions or code modules. code. most problems will be found during this preparation. 8. White box testing . Little or no preparation is usually required.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. done by programmers or by testers. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. 7. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. branches. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code.

re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. Load testing .term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing.testing of full. surveys. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. covers all combined parts of a system. etc. hardware failures. or interacting with other hardware. large complex queries to a database system.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. this type of testing should be done by testers. especially near the end of the development cycle. or corrupting databases. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. For example. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. the 'macro' end of the test scale. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. User interviews. input of large numerical values. and other techniques can be used. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.) System testing .testing how well a system recovers from crashes. Compatability testing . Page 55 of 60 . End-to-end testing . Stress testing .similar to system testing. etc. using network communications. Functional testing .testing for 'user-friendliness'. may require sophisticated testing techniques. Regression testing .typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. environment. or upgrade install/uninstall processes.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. Sanity testing or smoke testing . applications. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. video recording of user sessions. partial.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Clearly this is subjective. Usability testing . Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. Recovery testing . or systems if appropriate. or other catastrophic problems. bogging down systems to a crawl.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Install/uninstall testing . Acceptance testing . the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. such as interacting with a database. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.testing an application under heavy loads. willful damage. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. Failover testing . Performance testing . if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.

'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. testers may be learning the software as they test it.start testing early on. For example. In 'agile'-type environments.often taken to mean a creative.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. re-testing. not by programmers or testers. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . design. not by programmers or testers. Ad-hoc testing . and intended use of software. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. 11. groupware. make extensive use of group communication tools .be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . Context-driven testing . Typically done by end-users or others. Adequate testing . Proper implementation requires large computational resources.allow adequate time for planning. Alpha testing . by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. changes. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. culture. cohesive.similar to exploratory testing. and documentation. Communication . complete. bug fixing. Beta testing . Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . detailed. etc.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. Typically done by end-users or others. promote teamwork and cooperation. re-test after fixes or changes. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. and be prepared to explain consequences. User acceptance testing .clear.e-mail.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. If changes are necessary.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. attainable.preferably electronic.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Realistic schedules . Mutation testing .testing driven by an understanding of the environment. Comparison testing . If possible. testing. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. intranet capabilities.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products.. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. not paper.

No matter how small. customer acceptance testers. delivered on time and within budget. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. stockholders. be consistent in naming conventions. avoid abbreviations. avoid abbreviations. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line).use both upper and lower case. future software maintenance engineers. naming conventions. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. be consistent in naming conventions. less than 100 lines of code is good. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. or what is too many or too few rules. Use whitespace generously . etc. and is readable and maintainable. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. 'Peer reviews'. use of brackets. One code statement per line. customer contract officers. is bug free. and is maintainable. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. etc. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. Organize code for readability. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. customer management. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. Use descriptive function and method names . Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . meets requirements and/or expectations. indentations. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. Use descriptive variable names . the development organization's. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. quality is obviously a subjective term. For C and C++ coding. magazine columnists.vertically and horizontally. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. less than 50 lines is preferable.) In adding comments. Function and method sizes should be minimized. There are also various theories and metrics. However. • 13.use both upper and lower case.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. etc. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things.

For C++. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. For C++. 14. requirements management. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. and works correctly when implemented. developed by the SEI. Few if any processes in place. However. initiated by the U. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). understandable.S. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things.S. Level 3 . Minimize use of multiple inheritance.software project tracking.characterized by chaos. make liberal use of exception handlers.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. realistic planning. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation.For programs that have a user interface. and configuration management processes are in place. Level 1 . Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. • • • 15. Defense Department contractors. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. successful practices can be repeated.) For C++. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. keep class methods small. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. Level 2 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). successes may not be repeatable. easily modifiable. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . and maintainable. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. periodic panics. It is geared to large organizations such as large U.

The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. after which a complete reassessment is required. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . Level 5 . production.S. 32% of organizations were U. 27% were rated at Level 1.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. maintenance.it indicates only that documented processes are followed.S. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. processes. 6% at 4.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors.. (b)Q90002000 . not just software. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. and other aspects.ch/ for the latest information. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). testing. 23% at 3. test planning.iso. and 5% at 5. 39% at 2.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. Also see http://www. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). 17. and others. ITIL. To be ISO 9001 certified.metrics are used to track productivity. internal design. and products.asq. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. It covers documentation.the focus is on continuous process improvement. 2% at 4. Project performance is predictable. and CobiT. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008).org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . Of those. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). 62% were at Level 1. retesting. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. phase-out. In the U. Trillium. It includes aspects such as initial concept. functional design. 1018 organizations were assessed. and 0.4% at 5. 13% at 3. 23% at 2. installation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. a third-party auditor assesses an organization.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . and other processes. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. design. the primary industrial standards body in the U. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . coding. TickIT. requirements analysis. For those rated at Level 1. development.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary.among other things. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. updates. Bootstrap. servicing. 16. Level 4 . and quality is consistently high. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. (c)Q9004-2000 . integration. testing. federal contractors or agencies. MOF. document preparation.S. documentation planning.

or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable.since they are separate from the test drivers. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. the primary being: http://www. Memory analyzers . Additionally. path coverage. data. and configuration management. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. If new buttons are added. Web test tools . Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. This approach can enable more efficient control. Other tools .com/testing/. etc. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. condition coverage. Coverage analyzers . documentation management. buttons. HTML code usage is correct. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. adherence to standards.such as via a spreadsheet . etc.vyomworld. documentation.monitor code complexity.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. a web site's interactions are secure. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. etc.to check that links are valid. Page 60 of 60 . The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested.) can be a difficult task. For larger projects. or some underlying code in the application is changed. etc. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. bug reporting. logs. development. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box').for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. Load/performance test tools . the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. dialog box choices. This document is for internal purposes only. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. and may be oriented to code statement coverage.for test case management. and for all types of platforms. client-side and server-side programs work. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. etc. For example.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test.