Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. There are many approaches to software testing. opaque-box. 2. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. Unlike black box testing. and closed-box.1. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. functional. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". Synonyms for white-box include: structural. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. portability. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. structural. and all visible code must also be readable. Page 4 of 60 . stability. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. 2. maintainability and usability. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. With that in mind. glass-box and clear-box. Types of Testing 2. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product.2. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. clear box and open box testing. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box.

Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. 2. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.4.3. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. 2. Page 5 of 60 . 2.3. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use.) can use any test design methods.3. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. system testing. Unit Testing In computer programming.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate.3.3.3. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. In practice. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. etc. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.1. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. but it's still discouraged.2. 2.

e.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes.6. performance problems and any other system-wide issues.4.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. Therefore. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. In addition.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.3. for example. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. assemblages (or groups of units). It follows unit testing and precedes system testing.5. groups them in larger aggregates. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. These "design items". thus minimizing dependencies in the system. in order to test the class. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. By definition.3.1. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. across procedure calls or process activations. As a result. it will not catch integration errors. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. This results in loosely coupled code. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. 2. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. i.4. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. Page 6 of 60 . 2. This is a mistake. 2.

Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. Various tools. However. will result in the overall system running faster.5. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system.1. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. are available to perform such tests. Usually.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. Performance testing can serve different purposes. 2. response time. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload.5. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. if it is made to respond faster. In performance testing. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. i. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. given as number of users vs. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load.. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. etc. e. that while the average response time might be acceptable. Performance Testing In software engineering. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition.2. In the diagnostic case.5.e. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.g.

If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating.5. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . router configuration. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. 2. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users).6. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. and even done in different parts of the country.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. It can also be done in-house. where they had found the system spent most of its time. either pass/fail. often to a breaking point. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. database access times. network overhead. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. Performance testing can be performed across the web. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. etc.3. deployment of server instrumentation. Analyzing the results. in order to observe the results. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. For example. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. 2. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification.

the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. then developers should improve the design and test it again. usability testing measures the usability of the object. software testing. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page.7. manipulating parts. Data corruption and application Defacement. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. or interpreting feedback. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. a computer interface. a document. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool".7. performance testing." Page 9 of 60 . to discover errors and areas of improvement. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. or a device) for its intended purpose.8. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible.e. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. Also see testing.1.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. 2. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. 2. compromising usability and functionality. i. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. including making things work with people. Downtime. Stress testing a subset of load testing. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. bots. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. Data theft. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. During usability testing.

Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. it will work just the same in production. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts.). it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. to which the system should conform.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. "Do you understand this?". Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. Instruction phrasing.9. paper prototypes. ideally. and pre. or realistic situation. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process.10. illustration quality. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. software will not run etc. so that developers can see problem areas. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. Users of the system will perform these tests which. and ask him or her to undertake this task. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. 2. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Rather. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. In the pharmaceutical field. 2. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. and what people like. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes.11. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. Stability Testing In software testing. 2. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. Page 10 of 60 . For example. For example.

Ideally. 2.13. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. 2. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. In distributed systems. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users.14. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. 2.12. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. This technique is known as black box testing. Beta Testing Many a time. Page 11 of 60 . The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. A beta release is very close to the final release. Alfa Testing In software development. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. testing is usually required before release to the general public. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing.

NY. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. 1990. NY. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. New York. as its input. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.). System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. As a rule. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. During this testing. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. As a rule.15. New York. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Page 12 of 60 . all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s).). System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. and as such. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. and as such. System testing takes. 2. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. 1990. as its input.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate.16. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. Regression testing takes. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. 2.

depth.17. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. operating system and browser versions. They may also be called a test script. Page 13 of 60 . or even a test scenario.18. and descriptions of the following tests. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. In a database system. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. spreadsheet. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. test category. along with various additional pieces of information. A test case is usually a single step. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. (c) credible. and (e) easy to evaluate. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. (d) complex. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. Suits. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. related requirement(s). The optional fields are a test case ID. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. author. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. and its expected result. test step or order of execution number. and descriptions. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. and regression testing. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. Test Cases. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. 2. database or other common repository.

cryptographic protocols. Petri nets. testing. abstract interpretation. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. Page 14 of 60 .20. or recording feedback from customers). does the product conform to the specifications... Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i.g. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them.. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. 2. combinatorial circuits. using formal methods. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. and tracking them to closure. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. abstraction refinement. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. digital circuits with internal memory. does the product do what the user really requires. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.e. but not the same as session-based testing.1.20. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). timed automata and hybrid automata. Defect Tracking In engineering. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. (by inspection. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). which is more closely related to exploratory testing. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). E.e. symbolic state space enumeration. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. and abstractions of general software components.19. 2. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. processalgebraic methods. Validation is the complementary aspect. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to.

by crashing. 2. • Database inputs are from tabular data.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. For example. Thus. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. so that if the computer fails dramatically.e. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter.. 2. such as relational databases. i.21. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 .1. the test data is preserved. usually before applying it to the software. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. For this reason. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio.2. If the program fails (for example.21. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. or by failing in-built code assertions). Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. rather than a direct measure. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. 2. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?").21. rather than behaving correctly. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. However. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. then there are defects to correct. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for.

5. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. 2. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. without even crude validation. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. decode every possible binary value. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue.21. However. 2. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. 2. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space.21. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. By using all of these techniques in combination. or conforms to actual production data. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. not handling every possible binary value.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. Database fuzz is controversial. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash.21.4. and then ignore impossible requests.3. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software.

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Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
• • •

In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.


Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential


What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

• • • • • •

An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.


Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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coverage analyzers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. those responsible for tasks. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware.10. problem/bug tracking. functional design.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. integration. set up test tracking processes. etc. functional. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. Determine test approaches and methods . prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. boundary value analyses. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. test environment. test tracking. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements.1. reporting requirements. etc. and determine scope and limitations of tests. usability tests. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. load. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. It provides a repeatable. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates.1.unit. 4. system. etc. set up logging and archiving processes. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . required standards and processes (such as release processes.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. change processes.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. test cases. set priorities. communications. timelines. software. etc.

since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. For this reason. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. or event and an expected response. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . get an idea of it's severity. platform.) Current bug status (e. screen. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. steps. etc. etc. 'Released for Retest'. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. ID.g. test conditions/setup.) The application name or identifier and version The function. it should encapsulate these processes. After the problem is resolved. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. and reproduce it if necessary. objective. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. etc. If a problem-tracking system is in place. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly.. test case name. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. and expected results. module. feature. 'New'. action. Bug identifier (number. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. fixes should be re-tested. system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. object. input data requirements.

Changing requirements . work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. rescheduling of engineers. the result is bugs. hardware requirements that may be to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).the customer may not understand the effects of changes. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. In some fast-changing business environments. like anyone else. enormous relational databases. often requiring a lot of guesswork.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Windows-type interfaces. Time pressures .programmers. management must understand the resulting risks. can make mistakes. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Programming errors . effects on other projects. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. data communications. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. For instance.redesign. In this case. mistakes will be made. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. client-server and distributed applications. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Software complexity . developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. etc. Poorly documented code .it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. Egos . or may understand and request them anyway . testers need to know when retesting is needed. the result is bugs.

tuning. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. 5. and server application's modules. Extensive documentation. without implementing test clients. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. Testing Tools and Software 5. Enables test case and test script development without programming. Useful for testing CORBA. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. etc. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. regression. resulting in added bugs. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. compilers. In fact. Includes a natural user interface. and other server technologies as well. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. class libraries. understandable code. Code Analyzer. Software development tools . presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing.visual tools. scripting tools. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. Filters. metrics. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. RMI. Includes: Unit Tester.2. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. etc. it should be hard to read'). Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. GJTester Java unit. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Tag Libs. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. Test private and protected functions.1. Recorded GUI elements. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. profiler. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. EJBs. scripting capabilities.).

From Apache Software Foundation. CSV. JUnit . Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. TEXT) or custom report generation. for which JUnit may be sufficient). Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing.awt. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. Contains Page 24 of 60 . LaTex. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. using Ant. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation.Robot class. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. predefined (XML. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. etc) through an in-container approach. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. or from the command line. It uses JUnit and extends it. HTML. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. a script editor/recorder. Free . By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. licensed under the BSD License. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. Typically use within your IDE.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors.

or via a Swing GUI. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. HTML. and C++ applications. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. for speed. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. View coverage data in XML. Works with source or compiled files. classes. compiler-style output. package and produces reports in multiple formats. Shows all dependencies. method. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). etc. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. and dependencies for Java. Halstead Measures.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. and other IDE's. configurable. PDF. Cyclomatic Number.. C. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. Inc. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. JBuilder. statements. package. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. etc. Fifty different audits and metrics. button pushing. JBrowser class browser. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. class. JSynTest. at all levels and between all levels.e. methods. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. JEvolve. or jar file. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. JCover test coverage analyzer. Gathers coverage measures of branches. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. tree node expanding. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. control flow analysis and diagramming. PerformaSure Low-overhead. . it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. source distribution. file.). a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth.. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. components. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. Coverage difference comparison between runs. Coverage API provided.. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. JMSAssert. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . virtual machines. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. text typing. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. highly scalable. application. etc.

Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. complexity. and race conditions. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. thread debugger. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. OS. or load testing of java applets. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. testability. coverage analysis. servlets. and network metrics. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. or are planning to add such capabilities. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO.) Page 26 of 60 . and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. and size metrics related to reusability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. and applications. written in Java. includes Java support. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. management. procedural. maintainability. stalls. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. Integrates with several Java IDE's. and clarity. Halstead Software Science metrics. Has online advisor for quality improvement. thread and event analysis. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. JProfiler freeware version available. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. Check listed web sites for current information. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. OptimizeIt Profiler.

DNS servers and SSL certificates. For Windows platforms. supports SSL websites. free version or low-cost pro version. HTML. evaluation version available. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Export to text. 3-click process. several report formats available. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. multiple page list and site list capabilities. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. for Windows. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. Site Map. updates links to moved and renamed files. Handles HTTP. fixes broken links with an easy. detects and reports redirected URL. includes FTP link checking. such as internal and external links. customizable reports. used to test and validate critical website components. For Windows. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. CSV. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. Runs as often as every hour. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. HTTPS. familiar interface for managing files. For Windows. Page 27 of 60 . Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives.. or as infrequent as once a week. Excel. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. domain names.3. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. RTF. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. employs a simple. free trial period available. can be automatically scheduled. and FTP protocols. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. For Windows.

ability to check password-protected areas. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. organize and Page 28 of 60 . site has much documentation and related info. Results stored in database. doc-not-found. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. results can be exported to database. Has not been updated in recent years. Not updated in recent years. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. page size analysis. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. Churchyard. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. formatting disorganized editing. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. For all UNIX flavors.'s link checker/site mapping tool. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. relocations. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. by Francois Pottier. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Windows. timeouts. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. HTML syntax error checking. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. allowing for customizable queries and reports. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. for UNIX and PERL.5. For Windows. Available as source configurable. 5. originally by Dave Raggett. support for all standard server-side image maps. Mac. and finding problem HTML areas. released under IBM's Common Public License.4. It helps users to create. Discontinued. test resumption at interruption point. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links.0 or 3. Available as source code or binaries. binary avaialable for Linux. but old versions still available as freeware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. randomized order checking. Not updated in recent years. 'what's new' reporting. 5. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. link checker. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. ID/Password entries. Handles one URL at a time. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. unauthorized-access. Windows. For Windows. reports URLs changed since last checked.

DLL and . files. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. Can export created . etc. Secure recording on password fields. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. but with extended API). Record and playback capability. ASP. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. Free and professional versions available. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. Page 29 of 60 . page titles and HTML element properties. eastern and western European languages. For Windows and MSIE. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. tuning. robust handling of page modifications. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. supports ASP. autocomplete. Works with Internet Explorer. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties. that includes a web functional testing module.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. SSL. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. includes web functional testing capabilities. retry on error.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. built-in exception handling and reporting facility. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. HTML. Scripting uses Jython. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. integrates with a variety of IDE's. Supports multiple OS's and browsers. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. PHP. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. and loop. HtmlUnit etc. provision to add GUI. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. HTML forms. run-time debugging features. CGI. and Test Writing Assistant . Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. Supports keyword-driven testing. records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. servlets. cookies. Freeware. Multilingual for Asian. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. Includes Script Editor. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. JSP. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp.

Special validation points. Flash. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. Maker creates test case documents. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Fuzzy matching capabilities. Page 30 of 60 . Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Includes an Intelligent. animated bitmaps. 90-day evaluation copy available. etc. Handles Applets. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. until recording capabilities are added. and a Data-Driven. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. and Runner executes the test case document. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Active-X controls. scripts have to be developed manually. with its HTML objects recognition. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. validation of table contents. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. STC Master and STC Master Service. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. C++ or C++/MFC. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. branching statements. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. This includes web page navigation. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. and other typical business web application features. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. but also adds mock objects. such as bitmap or text matching. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. (300+ commands). etc. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. Free including source code. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). can be inserted during a recording. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. playback window/size can be different than in capture. LLC. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. cookie testing and form submission. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. form entry and submission. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor.

Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. Multi-platform written in Java. Written in ActivePerl. broken links and the structure of the crawled web. screen names. etc). Free for most uses. all without changing tool. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content.. Free Demo and Test Script available. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. tab/comma delimited file formats. Utilizes Collections.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. data driven scenarios. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. and more.GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. or logic associated with the need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. Create scenarios using the point and click interface. extensible IDE). Easy development and maintenance . Methods. Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation . Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. Includes capability for automated scripting. dynamic Web applications. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback. break points and response introspection. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy. reporting various metrics. and generates a detailed test report. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. source code avalable. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . For Windows. and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. Supports HTTPS/SSL. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined. Perl dbi database access. testware architecture (object names.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. many Perl cpan library functions. For Windows platforms. Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc.

load. for easier script maintenance. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. or XML. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts. and web-based applications. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. Linux. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. tables. content validation. basic http authentication. 508 compliance. and links. Java. and webserver load and capacity analysis. and JUnit is used as the testing library. For Windows. or containers of forms. Works as a proxy server. dynamic testing. Records any combination of browsing. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. script testing and information Source Development Network. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit. cookies and automatic page redirection. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. JavaScript. Solaris. CSS. an XML DOM. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page including form submission. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. databases. form filling. Utilizes multiple validation methods. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. clicking. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. written in Java. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . Can handle data input from text files. Works by remote controlling the browser. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. page performance tuning. from SourceForge.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. Jython is used as the scripting language. For Windows and MSIE. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. can enforce over 200 HTML. WebKing Web site functional. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality checking.

6. Java. DOMbased testing and validation. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. in order to induce component crashes.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . protocol analyzers. . Evaluation version available. ERP. and more. For Windows and Linux. test plans.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws. running. and web-based applications. proxies. Java beans. Java or traditional client/server-based applications. choice of scripting languages and editors. and debugging scripts. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. and IDE for developing. etc. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests. test process management capabilities. scripting language. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. HTML. and other applications.NET and J2EE applications. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. etc. network appliances. direct database access and validation. 5. PDAs and cell phones. and record/playback. C++. produces defect analyses. Enables data-driven testing. etc.NET. test planning and management. and to validate compliance with security requirements. Java. etc. editing. XML. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. recovery system for unattended testing. includes support for testing Web. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web. DHTML. browsers. ERP. compiling. includes support for testing Web. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. Features include: test creation and customization. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. Java. hanging. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . Handles ActiveX.

websites. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. and browser checkup tool. remote self scan and API facilities. real-time IDS event analysis. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . SANS/ISTS certified. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Runs on Macintosh. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. data theft or system destruction. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. remediation management of vulnerabilities. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. network security scan. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. can audit UNIX. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. Freeware. firewalls. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. plug-in facility for third party apps. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. asset management. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. based on the SATAN model. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. Inc. routers. inside and outside the firewall. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Mac. CVE standards support. updated bi-monthly.

An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. Runs on many UNIX flavors. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. and a wide variety of other tests. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. product runs on Windows. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. Single machine or full network scans. web server requests-per-second benchmark. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single for individual machines. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. CVE compatible. and SAINTbox scanner appliance.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. Port scans. reports specify severity levels of problems. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. denial-of-service checks. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. Nessus Security Scanner Free. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. Includes DoS testing. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Can scan a variety of operating systems. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Updated regularly. Learns about network as it scans. Customizable reporting. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. by Renaud Deraison. open-source remote network security auditing tool. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . Works with a variety of operating systems. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. firewalls. Page 36 of 60 . what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. printers. desktops. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. software product. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. etc. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. prepares remediation advice. electronic law. etc. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. scanners. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. hubs. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. etc. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. servers. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. operating systems. organized by subject. what services (ports) they are offering. workstations. Available as a hardware appliance. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. and many other characteristics. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. publications. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. remediation information. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. intrusion detection tools. etc. or managed service. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. Provides flexible risk management reports. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. intrusion detection resources. routers. routers. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. DMZ and externally visible assets.

(Includes various types of security tools. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. site scores. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. Free and professional versions available. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. Accessibility. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. and Web Governance. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. traffic analysis. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site..7. Information Assurance. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. Desktop product for multiple platforms. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . server management and optimization tools. FPT/publishing. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. Similar managed service also available. Inc. WYSIWYG editor. Includes link checker. works with a variety of web servers. and online service available. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. for maintaining.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. Inc. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. analyzing web sites. and OS's. combining site content. and site monitoring capabilities. promoting. combined utilities/tools. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. Limitedcapability free version also available. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue service types. not just for testing. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet.) 5. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base.. database servers.

bandwidth usage. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. For Windows.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. automatically reboot servers. network errors. and more. for performance and availability monitoring. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. run scripts. including server errors. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. and repair. visitor segmentation. network management. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. response errors.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . capabilities include notifications via email. services. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. etc. restart services. SMS. response times. page aborts. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. isolation. applications. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. net send. suited to large systems. page sizes. and network. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. restart apps and services. from AllScoop. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. click path analysis. and popup. and diagnostics. real-time executive dash board. Captures and monitors real user sessions. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. sends email notification if site is slow or down. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. pagers. etc. Alerts via email. server.

Database Backup. low cost for large sites. detecting. site cleanup. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. high-level functions save template coding time. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. Installer easily installs system on your server. Includes: Ready-to-use for web site updating. link verification. spatial relationships between products. such as option compatibilities on a single product. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. scheduler. and a robust API. Message Board. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. Works on multiple platforms. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Multilingualism. PHP-Code Insertion. template-based dynamically-created content. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). additional features include manual or customizable automated control. Search. drag-and-drop. load testing. verifying content and functional integrity. User Administration. and more. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. All can be integrated without writing code. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . Provides complete software developers environment. HTML and GIF optimization. Dynamic Menu. upload resuming. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. based on database-driven. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. Free for use on small sites. Statistical Reports. etc. WYSIWYG editor.

site spider. more. and more. Alerts by cell phone.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. privacy compliance. stories. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. and DB servers. business process automation.. product info. advertisements. prices. templates. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages. For Windows. HTML editor. and log events. HTML encryptor/optimizer. then Page 40 of 60 . e-commerce. payment processing. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. Update news flashes. image mapper. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. administration. notifications. searchability. integration with a variety of servers. pager. image handling. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp. customer relationship management. HTML validator. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. styles. link checker. e-commerce site designer/generator. invalid chars). version control. spell checker. security. renaming the files to match the convention. security. etc. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. e-mail. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. accessibility. and more. browser-based. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. etc. Easy to install. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. Runs with a variety of platforms. Can automatically run external programs. length. and website standards compliance. activity tracking. approval workflow.capabilites/support include scalability. site mapper. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP.V. support for more than 50 document formats. web servers. Works with content from any platform or application. multi-lingual support. authoring tools. . broken links. Basic accounts are free. globalization. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. Enables collaboration. text editor.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Mac. Page 41 of 60 . documents. and manage and report on service level agreements. Inc. services for capturing. security. workflow. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. reuse and access. digital assets. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. including creation.. management of workflow. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. staging. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. portals and scanned images. isolate. personalization. and customizable workflow. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. editing. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. index/search. For Mac or Windows. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. conversion services. anticipate capacity shortfalls. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. content development. based on native XML and XSL technologies. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. Enables services such as library services. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. publishing. For Windows. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. tracking of revisions. Manages Web content. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. production. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. where all content and content types are stored for management. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. version control. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. replication and administration. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). deploying. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. and archiving.

A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. full-featured editor from Chami. meta tag creator. page. can specify search depth. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. manage. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. Perl. upload. JavaScript. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. Java. From Monocle Solutions. XML. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. external. click paths. and update websites. XHTML and XML authors to edit. intranet. Pro plugins available to paid registered users.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. dragand-drop files. validate. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. For Windows. PERL. improve search engine ranks. Requires UNIX. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. XSL. on web server and Windows client. checks search engine placement including position. SSI. Requires MSIE. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. rank on page. Requires MSIE and Windows. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. format. Python. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. and much more. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. FTP Workspace for uploading. for Windows. submit URL's. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. preview and publish web designed to help HTML. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. CSS. Includes internal. searches for keywords. server-side and live preview modes. support more than 50 host file systems. downloading and online editing of files. Searches top engines for keywords. Ruby. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. lookup help. extranet and portal sites. XHTML. automatically resume interrupted transfers.

monitoring. logging. E-mail/pager notifications. for customizable automated site mapping. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. management. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. For Windows. For Windows. Page 43 of 60 . OS's. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. access control. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. server failure detection. server management. Evaluation copy available. network management. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. metrics. UNIX. number of pending requests. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. standards-based environment. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. and publishing control tool. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. requires Windows and MSIE. link analysis and quality control. content management and site visualization. e-mail submission of web content. real-time server monitoring of server response time. and platforms. monitoring and recovery.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. version control. HTML validation. link problems. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. For Windows. etc. logging capabilities. alerting. and e-mail notifications. For Windows. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. works with many servers. link checking. Interwoven Team Site Web development. For MS and Netscape web servers. Web based interface for load balancing administration. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis.

layout editor. error info is linked to error in html. image tag checker. comparison capabilitie. Includes version control. Server side compatible with many available web servers. link checker. security. Meta manager. thumbnail viewer. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. and servers. Support for managing content stored in databases. etc. etc. links. file uploading. For Windows and Unix. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. variable lock controls. Page 44 of 60 . management. includes site management capabilities. Includes automated deployment. logs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. publishing. For Windows.. Link checker. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. For Windows or Unix. global search-and-replace. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. spell checker. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. databases. For Windows. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. Date stamper. XML repositories. graphics management. customizable reports. From Talicom. API's. and encryption capabilities. connections. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. link checking. and static files. browser extensions. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. HTML-to-Text converter. scheduled and on-demand reporting. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. file edit merging. administration. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. provides notifications of problems. Validates against various HTML versions. Visual site structure editor. For Windows. browser interface. and maintenance. has updateable rulebase. staging/publishing control.

Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. more. URL2image. system resource usage. from how it breaks down the HTML. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. Consists of 3 components. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. to which links it extracts. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. check all the graphical links to ensure they're Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. examine server's HTTP headers. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. Free. For Windows. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. can specify the screen width(s). web standards and elastic design. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . from TechSmith Corp. and system configuration information. for automated recording. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Perl.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. For anyone interested in css. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. analyzing and sharing of usability data. system operations in 7 different categories. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. SiteTimer service . and share with others. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. upload to a bug tracking system. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . and compress the result into a very small file to replay.8. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data.

processes. Professional. etc. ODBC sources. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Includes CPU. for Windows. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. OS version. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. loaded modules. drives. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. physical memory information. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. device drivers. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Network Adaptor Information. etc. modules. system file listings. set breakpoints. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. Free. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. services.NET event-based scripting subsystem. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. processor information. mainboard. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. component details. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . memory details. and other versions available in multiple languages. ports. data creation or capture and replay. loss. Services information. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. and delay. and much more. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. environment settings.) in small text files. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. Sandra 'System ANalyser. html.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. more. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. XML. Provides performance enhancing tips. virtual memory settings.). etc. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. tune-up wizard. manage and monitor throughput. Free.

in most versions of every browser ever released. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. filters. freeware. available as on-line service. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. and multipath effects. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. security. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. Enables enhancement of QA. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. For Windows. For Windows. analogous to running an MRI scan. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. packet losses.E. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Inc. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. and XML switches. caching proxies.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. Linux. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. testing. binaries and source available. any version. originally designed for testing networking protocols. Can be used on user's workstations. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. compliance. with GUI. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Page 47 of 60 . Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. or source code. It allows the user to peek inside I. any operating Free 90-day trial. binaries. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. delays. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. robustness. Windows (on-demand). Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. and other quality factors. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. Linux RPMs. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. Macintosh. Can log captures to disk.

contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. or WinDump. and segments sent and received. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. Searchability. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. Ethernet. HP Net Metrix. for Windows. client/server. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. Runs on Windows. Page 48 of 60 . retransmissions. bytes. and generating test scripts. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. snoop. Also available: MITS. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. Freeware. throughput. Overall Site Quality. and any network. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. freeware. etc). etherpeek. link validation.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). Works with all text-based IP protocols. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. and mainframe applications. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. freeware. Inc. Can crawl a site and report errors.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. mailboxes. MITs. For automated testing of Web. Available for various UNIX flavors. and various graphs. window advertisements.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. etc. FTP.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. and as source code. such as those produced by tcpdump. round trip times. Runs on Windows platforms. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. For windows. any message definitions.

Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction.0/1.9/1. Windows. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. allows for entry of custom headers. CFML ). Delphi. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP. Runs on Solaris or Linux. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U. Visual C++. not just samples. ActiveX Exe. VB. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds.1. client. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. Thread. MTS. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. XML. Freeware. For UNIX. COM. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. handles HTTP 0. Page 49 of 60 . MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . and HTML. For Windows. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. For UNIX. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text. tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. VJ. VC++. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. XHTML. Source code available. without ever attaching to process. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. URL. etc. T-SQL. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. Govt.S. NIST. performance for each server. CSS. Windows. comparison to SLA's. written in any language ( ASP. COM+.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. T-SQL. time period. DLL. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic.

It is oriented to 'prevention'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. and does C. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. What is verification and Validation? 8. then D should happen'). It is oriented to 'detection'. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual.) 2. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Why does software have bugs? 6. Testing FAQ 1. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should.monitoring and improving the process. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is 'good code'? 14. What is software 'quality'? 13. 3. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What's an 'inspection'? 10. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4.

retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. portions of the project could be salvaged. A major U. government IT systems project. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. According to news reports in April of 2004. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. Studies were under way to determine which. according to mid-2004 news reports. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. According to the report. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. if any. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. In early 2004. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. the worst power system failure in North American history. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. forced shutdown of 100 power plants.S.S. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings.

known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . problems included 10.S. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. Among other tasks. Software complexity . like anyone else.programmers. rescheduling of engineers. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. Programming errors . the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. 4. hardware requirements that may be affected.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. was delivered late. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. and didn't work. client-server and distributed applications. futures exchange. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. or may understand and request them anyway . which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. enormous relational databases. the district's CIO was fired.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. public school district with 100.000+ students. data communications.000 customers. etc. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . In early 2000. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. effects on other projects.S.redesign. preventing problems is lowvisibility. 5. can make mistakes. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. Multi-tiered applications. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).S. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord.

complete. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. Where the risk is lower. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. In this case. etc. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Time pressures . depending on the type of customers and projects. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. resulting in added bugs.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. often requiring a lot of guesswork. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. the result is bugs. scripting tools. egos . the result is bugs. For small groups or projects. developers. class libraries. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. understandable. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. managers. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. Software development tools . often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. management must understand the resulting risks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.visual tools. In some fast-changing business environments. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . and testers. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. compilers. In fact. it should be hard to read'). mistakes will be made. Poorly documented code . feedback to developers. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . step-at-a-time process. maintainable code. with a goal of clear. 6. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary.

Unit testing . plans. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. Integration testing . may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. most problems will be found during this preparation. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. requirements. (b) design inspections and code inspections. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. 10. and inspection meetings. Incremental integration testing . and a recorder to take notes. • • Page 54 of 60 . 8. White box testing . not to fix anything. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. 9. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. reader.the most 'micro' scale of testing. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. Tests are based on coverage of code statements.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. issues lists. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. 7. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . branches.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. or that test drivers be developed as needed. individual applications.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. The 'parts' can be code modules. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. This can be done with checklists. to test particular functions or code modules. done by programmers or by testers. conditions. Little or no preparation is usually required. paths. client and server applications on a network. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. code. and specifications. walkthroughs.

may require sophisticated testing type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. or other catastrophic problems. or interacting with other hardware. etc.testing for 'user-friendliness'. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Functional testing . Install/uninstall testing .testing of full. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. partial.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. bogging down systems to a crawl.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. input of large numerical values.testing an application under heavy loads. applications. Usability testing . environment.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Failover testing . Stress testing . Regression testing . the 'macro' end of the test scale. and other techniques can be used. surveys. Recovery testing . or upgrade install/uninstall processes. End-to-end testing . especially near the end of the development cycle. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. large complex queries to a database system. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. Sanity testing or smoke testing . such as interacting with a database. using network communications.) System testing . Page 55 of 60 . if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.similar to system testing. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. Compatability testing .black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. etc.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. hardware failures. Acceptance testing . video recording of user after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. this type of testing should be done by testers. covers all combined parts of a system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. Clearly this is subjective. or corrupting databases. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. or systems if appropriate. For example. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. Performance testing . Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. Load testing . willful damage. User interviews.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing.

by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. and documentation. re-test after fixes or changes. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. promote teamwork and cooperation. For example. Context-driven testing .testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. 11. Adequate testing prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. cohesive. not paper. detailed. and intended use of software. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . intranet capabilities. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. changes. etc.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. make extensive use of group communication tools . work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. In 'agile'-type environments. complete. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. not by programmers or testers.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. If changes are necessary. Comparison testing .determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer.often taken to mean a creative. testers may be learning the software as they test it. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. and be prepared to explain consequences. bug fixing.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. testing. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.similar to exploratory testing. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Realistic schedules .preferably electronic. Ad-hoc testing . • • • • Page 56 of 60 . User acceptance testing . Communication .allow adequate time for planning. attainable. design. Typically done by end-users or others.. Beta testing . culture. Mutation testing . use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. If possible. Alpha testing . personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. groupware. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date .testing driven by an understanding of the environment. re-testing.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful.start testing early on. not by programmers or testers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . Typically done by end-users or others. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements.clear. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game.

etc. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. Use descriptive variable names . use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line).use both upper and lower case. No matter how small. customer contract officers. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. etc. be consistent in naming conventions. avoid abbreviations. meets requirements and/or expectations. Function and method sizes should be minimized. customer management. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. stockholders. However.use both upper and lower case. avoid abbreviations. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. delivered on time and within budget. or what is too many or too few rules. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to.vertically and horizontally.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. less than 100 lines of code is good. etc. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. Use whitespace generously .) In adding comments. Organize code for readability. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . and is maintainable. less than 50 lines is preferable. There are also various theories and metrics. future software maintenance engineers. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. use of brackets. Use descriptive function and method names . 'Peer reviews'. quality is obviously a subjective term. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. indentations. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). is bug free. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . be consistent in naming conventions. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. One code statement per line. customer acceptance testers. magazine columnists. For C and C++ coding.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. and is readable and maintainable. the development organization's. • 13. naming conventions.

initiated by the U. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. 14. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. and configuration management processes are in place. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help.S. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. requirements management. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability.For programs that have a user interface. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. successes may not be repeatable. Level 3 . • • • 15.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. For C++. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration').characterized by chaos. However. Few if any processes in place. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. Defense Department contractors. developed by the SEI. successful practices can be repeated. Level 1 . For C++. and works correctly when implemented. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things.) For C++. and maintainable.S. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). make liberal use of exception handlers. project tracking. easily modifiable.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. periodic panics. realistic planning. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . Level 2 . keep class methods small.

27% were rated at Level 1. Also see http://www. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. Level 5 . Trillium. the primary industrial standards body in the U. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. It includes aspects such as initial concept.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. and CobiT. and 0. 13% at 3.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. 17. testing. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . test planning. testing. and quality is consistently high. production. documentation planning. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'.S. TickIT. not just software. document preparation. Bootstrap. coding. To be ISO 9001 certified. For those rated at Level 1. Of those. 6% at 4. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. Level 4 . development.iso. It covers documentation. 2% at 4. 39% at 2. 23% at 3. updates.. processes.4% at 5. internal design. indicates only that documented processes are followed. installation. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). 1018 organizations were assessed. and products. ITIL. In the U. 23% at 2. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . 32% of organizations were U. and 5% at 5. federal contractors or IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' .ch/ for the latest information. (c)Q9004-2000 . servicing. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. functional design. requirements analysis. and other aspects. retesting.asq.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel.metrics are used to track productivity. and other processes. (b)Q90002000 .S.among other things. MOF. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use.S. Project performance is predictable. after which a complete reassessment is required. integration. 62% were at Level 1. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. and others.the focus is on continuous process improvement. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. maintenance. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. design. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. 16. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes.

etc. If new buttons are added. documentation management. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable.monitor code complexity. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. client-side and server-side programs work. check that links are valid. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also.) can be a difficult task. a web site's interactions are secure. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). and configuration management. and maintenance of automated tests/test Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. Additionally. and for all types of platforms.such as via a spreadsheet .these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. adherence to standards. For example. path coverage. documentation. the primary being: http://www.since they are separate from the test drivers. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. etc. Page 60 of 60 . dialog box choices. etc. Memory analyzers .vyomworld. data.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. condition coverage. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . etc. Coverage analyzers . Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .for test case management. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. Other tools . This document is for internal purposes only. bug reporting. development. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. Load/performance test tools . in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. This approach can enable more efficient control. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. For larger projects. HTML code usage is correct. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. etc. or some underlying code in the application is changed. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. buttons. Web test tools .such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors.

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