Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. 2. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". With that in mind. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. There are many approaches to software testing. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. structural. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. portability. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. opaque-box. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. and all visible code must also be readable.1. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. Unlike black box testing. glass-box and clear-box. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection.2. 2. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. clear box and open box testing. and closed-box. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Page 4 of 60 . He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. stability. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. maintainability and usability. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. Types of Testing 2. functional.

3.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. Unit Testing In computer programming. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.) can use any test design methods. 2. In practice.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. but it's still discouraged. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. 2.3.1. etc.3. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural".4. 2. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. 2.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible.3. Page 5 of 60 .3. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.2. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether.3. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. system testing.

Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. In addition. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. By definition. Page 6 of 60 . Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing.3.1.3. This is a mistake. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. 2. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object.e. for example.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.5. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing.4. assemblages (or groups of units). it will not catch integration errors. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates.4. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. 2. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. These "design items".Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. performance problems and any other system-wide issues.6. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. in order to test the class. As a result. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. i. This results in loosely coupled code. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. across procedure calls or process activations. 2. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. groups them in larger aggregates.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. Therefore.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary.

Various tools. if it is made to respond faster. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. a separate PC acts as a test conductor.. etc. response time. will result in the overall system running faster. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning.5.g. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum.2. Performance Testing In software engineering.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load.e. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is.1. e. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. that while the average response time might be acceptable. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. Usually. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time.5. given as number of users vs.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. are available to perform such tests. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. In performance testing. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. In the diagnostic case.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. Performance testing can serve different purposes. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 .5. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. However. i. 2.

router configuration. often to a breaking point. Performance testing can be performed across the web. and even done in different parts of the country. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Analyzing the results. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. database access times. network overhead. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. 2. etc. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform).5. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . either pass/fail. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. where they had found the system spent most of its time.6. deployment of server instrumentation. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. It can also be done in-house.3. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. 2. in order to observe the results. For example. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action.

a computer interface. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. or a device) for its intended purpose. During usability testing." Page 9 of 60 .e.7.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. i. software testing. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. a document. compromising usability and functionality. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks.7. including making things work with people. Stress testing a subset of load testing. or interpreting feedback. Data corruption and application Defacement. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool".1. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance.8. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. 2. Downtime. then developers should improve the design and test it again. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. to discover errors and areas of improvement. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. bots. 2. manipulating parts. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. Also see testing. performance testing. usability testing measures the usability of the object. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. Data theft.

developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. 2. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. 2.9. ideally. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment.10. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. Instruction phrasing. to which the system should conform. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. For example. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. Stability Testing In software testing. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. Page 10 of 60 . illustration quality. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. so that developers can see problem areas. For example. paper prototypes.11. Rather.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested.). 2. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. "Do you understand this?". or realistic situation. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. Users of the system will perform these tests which. and what people like. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. In the pharmaceutical field. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. software will not run etc. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. and ask him or her to undertake this task. it will work just the same in production. and pre. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash.

14. 2. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. Alfa Testing In software development. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. 2. Beta Testing Many a time. Ideally. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. A beta release is very close to the final release. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. This technique is known as black box testing.12. In distributed systems. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. testing is usually required before release to the general public. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs.13. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. Page 11 of 60 . the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. 2. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing.

The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware.). NY. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. 1990. During this testing. As a rule. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. NY. and as such. 1990. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. New York.15. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. Regression testing takes. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. 2. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Page 12 of 60 . integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. as its input. and as such. as its input. New York. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. As a rule. System testing takes. 2.16. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s).).

Page 13 of 60 . Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. author. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. operating system and browser versions. (d) complex. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Test Cases. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. depth. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. and descriptions. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. database or other common repository. A test case is usually a single step. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. In a database system. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. along with various additional pieces of information. The optional fields are a test case ID. 2. spreadsheet. and its expected result. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. and descriptions of the following tests. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. or even a test scenario. They may also be called a test script. and regression testing. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite.18. related requirement(s). test step or order of execution number.17. system. Suits. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. and (e) easy to evaluate. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. (c) credible. test category.

Validation is the complementary aspect.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. E. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. 2. testing. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics.. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. symbolic state space enumeration.. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL).19. does the product do what the user really requires. Page 14 of 60 . but not the same as session-based testing. digital circuits with internal memory. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task.e. does the product conform to the specifications.e. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. 2. combinatorial circuits. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). cryptographic protocols. processalgebraic methods. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. Defect Tracking In engineering. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. abstraction refinement. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. or recording feedback from customers).20. abstract interpretation. which is more closely related to exploratory testing.. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. and abstractions of general software components. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. using formal methods. (by inspection. 2.g. and tracking them to closure. timed automata and hybrid automata.1. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. Petri nets.20.

The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. Thus. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically.21.21. so that if the computer fails dramatically. For example. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . If the program fails (for example. or by failing in-built code assertions). usually before applying it to the software. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. such as relational databases. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. i.e. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. However. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple.. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. 2. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). For this reason. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. rather than a direct measure.21.1. then there are defects to correct. by crashing. 2. rather than behaving correctly. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. • Database inputs are from tabular data. 2. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. the test data is preserved. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality.2.

not handling every possible binary value. decode every possible binary value. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 .21. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable.21. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected.5. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. or conforms to actual production data. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area.4. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. without even crude validation. However. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. 2. and then ignore impossible requests. By using all of these techniques in combination. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. 2.21. software must validate all fields of every queue entry.3. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. Database fuzz is controversial. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun.

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Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
• • •

In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.


Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential


What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

• • • • • •

An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.


Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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etc. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . test environment. test tracking. problem/bug tracking. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. boundary value analyses. Determine test approaches and methods . A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. change processes. functional design.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. set up test tracking processes. set priorities. integration. communications. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. system. timelines. functional. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. usability tests. set up logging and archiving processes. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. test cases. those responsible for tasks. etc. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. It provides a repeatable. reporting requirements.10. etc. load. coverage analyzers. 4. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. and determine scope and limitations of tests. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. milestones Determine input equivalence classes.unit. software. etc.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. required standards and processes (such as release processes.1.1. Obtain budget and schedule requirements.

relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. For this reason. 'New'. and expected results.) Current bug status (e. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. etc. 'Released for Retest'. Bug identifier (number. If a problem-tracking system is in place. ID. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. platform. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. system. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . screen. or event and an expected response. etc. etc. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it.) The application name or identifier and version The function. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. objective. and reproduce it if necessary. fixes should be re-tested. input data requirements. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. it should encapsulate these processes. where the bug occurred Environment specifics.g. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. feature. module.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. test conditions/setup. get an idea of it's severity. action. test case name. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). object. After the problem is resolved.. steps.'s tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. like anyone else. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. data communications. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. Software complexity . enormous relational databases. can make mistakes.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. In some fast-changing business environments. hardware requirements that may be affected. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. Poorly documented code . we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Changing requirements .redesign. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). effects on other projects. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. Windows-type interfaces. For instance. Programming errors . often requiring a lot of guesswork. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. In this case. mistakes will be made. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. Time pressures . management must understand the resulting risks. client-server and distributed applications. rescheduling of engineers. etc. the result is bugs. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. testers need to know when retesting is needed. the result is bugs. or may understand and request them anyway . Egos .

Test private and protected functions. and other server technologies as well. without implementing test clients. it should be hard to read'). Tag Libs. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. profiler. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. etc. GJTester Java unit. scripting capabilities. understandable code. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. resulting in added bugs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. Recorded GUI elements. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. etc. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . In fact. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use.). Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. regression. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. Filters. scripting tools. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. compilers. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. Includes: Unit Tester. Extensive documentation.visual tools. Enables test case and test script development without programming. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. Useful for testing CORBA. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. Testing Tools and Software 5. Includes a natural user interface. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. and server application's modules. EJBs. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep.1. 5. class libraries. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. metrics. RMI. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. tuning. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. Software development tools .2. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. Code Analyzer.

The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. JUnit . Typically use within your IDE. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. LaTex. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Free . Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite.Robot class. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). HTML. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. for which JUnit may be sufficient). Provides recording and playback capabilities. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. CSV.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. From Apache Software Foundation. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. It uses JUnit and extends it. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. TEXT) or custom report generation. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. Contains Page 24 of 60 .awt. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. a script editor/recorder. using Ant. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. etc) through an in-container approach. licensed under the BSD License. or from the command line. predefined (XML. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components.

Coverage API provided. JBrowser class browser. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. virtual machines. file. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. and dependencies for Java. C.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. Shows all dependencies. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. PDF.e. PerformaSure Low-overhead. Fifty different audits and metrics. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. JBuilder. Halstead Measures. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software.. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. tree node expanding. highly scalable. Works with source or compiled files. control flow analysis and diagramming. and C++ applications. for speed. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. etc. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). text typing. Inc. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. or jar file. application. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. . package and produces reports in multiple formats. compiler-style output. JMSAssert. at all levels and between all levels. View coverage data in XML. class.). Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT.. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. HTML. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. configurable. Gathers coverage measures of branches. or via a Swing GUI. package. button pushing. JCover test coverage analyzer. etc. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. methods. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. and other IDE's. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. statements.. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . method. source distribution. etc. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. JSynTest. Coverage difference comparison between runs. JEvolve. Cyclomatic Number. classes. components. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle.

stalls. maintainability. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. written in Java. and applications. procedural. OS. and clarity. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). thread debugger.) Page 26 of 60 . thread and event analysis. Integrates with several Java IDE's. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. and network metrics. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. coverage analysis. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. or load testing of java applets. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. Halstead Software Science metrics. management. or are planning to add such capabilities. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. testability. OptimizeIt Profiler. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. Has online advisor for quality improvement. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. and size metrics related to reusability. servlets. includes Java support. JProfiler freeware version available. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. and race conditions. Check listed web sites for current information. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. complexity. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity.

several report formats available. updates links to moved and renamed files. employs a simple. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. HTTPS. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. for Windows. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. Site Map. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. and FTP protocols. HTML.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. free trial period available. For Windows. evaluation version available. used to test and validate critical website components. includes FTP link checking. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. Page 27 of 60 . Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. detects and reports redirected URL. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. For Windows.3. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. RTF. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. Excel. familiar interface for managing files. domain names. For Windows. such as internal and external links. supports SSL websites.. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. Handles HTTP. free version or low-cost pro version. multiple page list and site list capabilities. DNS servers and SSL certificates. or as infrequent as once a week. can be automatically scheduled. fixes broken links with an easy. Export to text. CSV. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. 3-click process. Runs as often as every hour. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. customizable reports. For Windows platforms.

Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. and finding problem HTML areas. page size analysis. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. randomized order checking. Not updated in recent years. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. For Windows. site has much documentation and related info. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. Available as source code. reports URLs changed since last checked. relocations. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. released under IBM's Common Public License. HTML syntax error checking. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. Windows. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. support for all standard server-side image maps. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. 5. 5. test resumption at interruption point. ability to check password-protected areas. for UNIX and PERL. It helps users to create.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. originally by Dave Raggett. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. configurable. Discontinued. doc-not-found. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. Not updated in recent years. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. Handles one URL at a time. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance.0 or Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. Churchyard. Mac.4. by Francois Pottier. Results stored in database. allowing for customizable queries and reports. timeouts.'s link checker/site mapping tool. Windows. organize and Page 28 of 60 . capabilities include specified URL exclusions. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. formatting disorganized editing.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. results can be exported to database. link checker. Available as source code or binaries. unauthorized-access. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. binary avaialable for Linux. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. For Windows. 'what's new' reporting. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. ID/Password entries. Has not been updated in recent years. For all UNIX flavors. but old versions still available as freeware. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards).

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. that includes a web functional testing module.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. page titles and HTML element properties. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. Freeware. but with extended API). HTML. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. Free and professional versions available. eastern and western European languages. and loop. Scripting uses Jython. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp. Supports keyword-driven testing. files. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. integrates with a variety of IDE's. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. Includes Script Editor. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. CGI.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. cookies. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. provision to add GUI. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties. retry on error. Multilingual for Asian. Can export created . Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. Secure recording on password fields. Page 29 of 60 . QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications. JSP. Record and playback capability. PHP.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. servlets. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. Works with Internet Explorer. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. robust handling of page modifications.DLL and . HTML forms. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. includes web functional testing capabilities. For Windows and MSIE. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet. and Test Writing Assistant . WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. run-time debugging features. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. HtmlUnit etc. etc. tuning. SSL. supports ASP. autocomplete. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. Supports multiple OS's and browsers. ASP. built-in exception handling and reporting facility. records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate.

Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. This includes web page navigation. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. with its HTML objects recognition. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. and other typical business web application features. Active-X controls. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. Handles Applets. such as bitmap or text matching. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. Flash. animated bitmaps. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. Maker creates test case documents. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. playback window/size can be different than in capture. and a Data-Driven. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. Special validation points. Fuzzy matching capabilities. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. Page 30 of 60 . Free including source code. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. LLC. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. etc. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. etc. cookie testing and form submission. branching statements. 90-day evaluation copy available. C++ or C++/MFC. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. and Runner executes the test case document. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. form entry and submission. but also adds mock objects. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. validation of table contents. until recording capabilities are added. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Includes an Intelligent. (300+ commands). TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. scripts have to be developed manually. can be inserted during a recording. STC Master and STC Master Service.

Supports HTTPS/SSL. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation .. For Windows platforms. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined. This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 .'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. Utilizes Collections. Includes capability for automated scripting. broken links and the structure of the crawled web. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. source code avalable. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. Perl dbi database access. testware architecture (object names. has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. and more. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. data driven scenarios. screen names. extensible IDE). includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. For Windows.GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. Free for most uses. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. or logic associated with the engine. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. dynamic Web need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. and generates a detailed test report. break points and response introspection. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities. Free Demo and Test Script available. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. Written in ActivePerl. Multi-platform written in Java. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy. Easy development and maintenance . Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. tab/comma delimited file formats. many Perl cpan library functions. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback. Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. Create scenarios using the point and click interface. reporting various metrics. all without changing tool.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. Methods. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. etc).

Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. and JUnit is used as the testing library. tables. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. script testing and information gathering. For Windows. Java. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. and links. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. can enforce over 200 HTML. basic http authentication. It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. Works as a proxy server. CSS. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. Linux. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. cookies and automatic page redirection. for easier script maintenance. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit. and webserver load and capacity analysis. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality Source Development Network. WebKing Web site functional. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins. written in Java. clicking. an XML DOM. Utilizes multiple validation methods. content validation. 508 compliance. from SourceForge. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. or XML. For Windows and MSIE. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. and web-based applications. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. databases. load. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. Jython is used as the scripting language. form filling. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. including form submission. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . page performance tuning. dynamic Solaris. or containers of forms. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. JavaScript. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. Works by remote controlling the browser. Records any combination of browsing. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. Can handle data input from text files. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software.

and more. and to validate compliance with security requirements. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. includes support for testing Web. etc. For Windows and Linux. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. compiling. C++. running. etc. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. direct database access and validation. in order to induce component crashes. Features include: test creation and customization. Java. test process management capabilities. DOMbased testing and validation.NET and J2EE applications. scripting language. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web. XML. Java. HTML. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security.NET. . 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests. and debugging scripts. recovery system for unattended testing. and record/playback. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . produces defect analyses. test plans. etc. choice of scripting languages and editors. test planning and management. Java. hanging. network appliances. and other applications. includes support for testing Web. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. and web-based applications. Java beans. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. browsers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. proxies. Java or traditional client/server-based applications. Handles ActiveX. DHTML. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks. Enables data-driven testing. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. ERP. 5. and IDE for developing. PDAs and cell phones. Evaluation version available. editing.6. protocol analyzers. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . etc. ERP. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws.

firewalls. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. plug-in facility for third party apps. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. and browser checkup tool. Inc. based on the SATAN model. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. websites. routers.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. network security scan. data theft or system destruction. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. inside and outside the firewall. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Freeware. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. updated bi-monthly. Runs on Macintosh. Mac. remote self scan and API facilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. can audit UNIX. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. real-time IDS event analysis. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. SANS/ISTS certified. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. remediation management of vulnerabilities. CVE standards support. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. asset management. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers.

adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Port scans. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. and a wide variety of other tests. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. Works with a variety of operating systems. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. product runs on Windows. denial-of-service checks. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . Customizable reporting.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Nessus Security Scanner Free. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. Learns about network as it scans. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. Runs on many UNIX flavors. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. web server requests-per-second benchmark. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. CVE compatible. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. Single machine or full network scans. Includes DoS testing. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. reports specify severity levels of problems. by Renaud Deraison. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from for individual machines. Updated regularly. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. open-source remote network security auditing tool. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp.

software product. hubs. what services (ports) they are offering. firewalls. or managed service. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. prepares remediation advice. desktops. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. etc. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. DMZ and externally visible assets. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. routers. organized by subject. remediation information. intrusion detection tools. operating systems. Provides flexible risk management reports. and many other characteristics. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. etc. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. electronic law. workstations. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. servers. Available as a hardware appliance. intrusion detection resources. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. publications. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. routers. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. printers. etc. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. etc. scanners. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. Page 36 of 60 . CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack.

site scores. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. combined utilities/tools. server management and optimization tools. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . FPT/publishing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. and OS's. database servers. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV.) 5. traffic analysis. Limitedcapability free version also available. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. Information Assurance. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools.7. and site monitoring capabilities. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. Includes link checker. and Web Governance. analyzing web sites. Desktop product for multiple platforms. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. (Includes various types of security tools. service types. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. WYSIWYG editor. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. works with a variety of web servers. and online service available. Similar managed service also available. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. Free and professional versions available. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. promoting... Inc. combining site content. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. not just for testing.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. Inc. Accessibility. for complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site.

and diagnostics. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. page aborts. SMS. restart services.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. and network. automatically reboot servers. suited to large systems. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. etc. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. from AllScoop. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. Alerts via email. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . sends email notification if site is slow or down. and popup. real-time executive dash board. network management. capabilities include notifications via email. isolation. including server errors. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . Asset Manager to securely centralize images. and repair. and more. network errors. Captures and monitors real user sessions. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. For Windows. click path analysis. restart apps and services. for performance and availability monitoring. applications. response times. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. etc. page sizes. response errors. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. pagers. net send. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. visitor segmentation. bandwidth usage. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. services. server. run scripts.

WYSIWYG editor. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. template-based dynamically-created content. Database Backup. site cleanup. low cost for large sites. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. Statistical Reports. based on database-driven. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. such as option compatibilities on a single product. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic for web site updating. and a robust API. Dynamic Menu. Search. Works on multiple platforms. User Administration. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Provides complete software developers environment. high-level functions save template coding time. verifying content and functional integrity. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. drag-and-drop. Message Board. PHP-Code Insertion. Free for use on small sites. upload resuming. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. All can be integrated without writing code. HTML and GIF optimization. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. etc. scheduler. spatial relationships between products. and more. Multilingualism. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. detecting. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). Installer easily installs system on your server. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . link verification. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. load testing. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign.

version control. privacy compliance. approval workflow. image handling. Runs with a variety of platforms. pager. HTML validator. notifications. site mapper. browser-based. Enables collaboration. Easy to install. etc. searchability. globalization. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. Alerts by cell phone. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. HTML editor. broken links. and log events. and website standards compliance. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. multi-lingual support. business process automation. activity tracking. HTML encryptor/optimizer.. product info. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. styles. e-mail. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. length. . invalid chars). payment processing. renaming the files to match the convention. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. accessibility. etc. more. Can automatically run external programs. text editor. image mapper. security. and more. and DB servers. web servers. and more. customer relationship management. Update news flashes. security. prices. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. support for more than 50 document formats. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. advertisements. stories. For Windows. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages. Basic accounts are free. site spider. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP. e-commerce site designer/generator. authoring tools. integration with a variety of servers.V.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. then Page 40 of 60 . e-commerce.capabilites/support include scalability. spell checker. templates. Works with content from any platform or application. link checker. administration. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp.

Page 41 of 60 . For Mac or Windows. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. staging. Inc. production. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. based on native XML and XSL technologies. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. services for capturing. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. and archiving. Manages Web content. tracking of revisions. reuse and access. digital assets. workflow. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. replication and administration. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. deploying. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. including creation. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. isolate. version control. personalization. For Windows. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. and customizable workflow.. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. publishing. documents. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. Mac. management of workflow. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. portals and scanned images. and manage and report on service level agreements. anticipate capacity shortfalls. index/search. conversion services. security. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. Enables services such as library services. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. where all content and content types are stored for management.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. content development. editing.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. SSI. Includes internal. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. external. searches for keywords. can specify search depth. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. format. downloading and online editing of files. submit URL's. XSL. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page designed to help HTML. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. From Monocle Solutions. for Windows. page. support more than 50 host file systems. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. XHTML. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. and update websites. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. Requires MSIE. Ruby. FTP Workspace for uploading. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities. automatically resume interrupted transfers. Python. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. JavaScript. meta tag creator. validate. upload. Perl. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. improve search engine ranks. rank on page. extranet and portal sites. lookup help. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. and much more. click paths. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. Requires UNIX. PERL. XHTML and XML authors to edit. full-featured editor from Chami. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. Requires MSIE and Windows. Searches top engines for keywords. intranet. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. checks search engine placement including position. dragand-drop files. on web server and Windows client. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. server-side and live preview modes. XML. preview and publish web pages. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. manage. A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. CSS. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. Java. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. For Windows.

Web based interface for load balancing administration. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. For Windows. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. e-mail submission of web content. link problems. Evaluation copy available. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. metrics.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. server failure detection. HTML validation. link analysis and quality control. works with many servers. link checking. and publishing control tool. For Windows. real-time server monitoring of server response time. monitoring. monitoring and recovery. server management. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. for customizable automated site mapping. requires Windows and MSIE. alerting. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. and platforms. E-mail/pager notifications. UNIX. For Windows. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. access control. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. logging capabilities. OS's. For MS and Netscape web servers. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. etc. content management and site visualization. version control. Page 43 of 60 . Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. standards-based environment. management. network management. number of pending requests. logging. Interwoven Team Site Web development. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. For Windows. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. and e-mail notifications.

For Windows. layout editor. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. XML repositories. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. For Windows or Unix. error info is linked to error in html. logs. comparison capabilitie. Support for managing content stored in databases. API's. Validates against various HTML versions. file edit merging. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. For Windows and Unix. etc. browser interface. link checker. global search-and-replace. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. Link checker. Includes version control. variable lock controls. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. administration. scheduled and on-demand reporting. and maintenance. For Windows. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Page 44 of 60 . graphics management. file uploading. and servers. Meta manager.. databases. provides notifications of problems. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. publishing. has updateable rulebase. and encryption capabilities. Date stamper. customizable reports. For Windows. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. includes site management capabilities. image tag checker. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. and static files. links. thumbnail viewer. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. Server side compatible with many available web servers. browser extensions. security. link checking. spell checker. management. Includes automated deployment. HTML-to-Text converter. Visual site structure editor. staging/publishing control. From Talicom. etc. connections.

how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. analyzing and sharing of usability data. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . For anyone interested in css. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. Consists of 3 components. web standards and elastic Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. Perl. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. and system configuration information. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. and share with others.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. SiteTimer service . from TechSmith Corp. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. upload to a bug tracking system. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. to which links it extracts. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . Free. system operations in 7 different categories. system resource usage. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. For Windows.8.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. for automated recording. examine server's HTTP headers. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. can specify the screen width(s). it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. more. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. URL2image. from how it breaks down the HTML. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. where network traffic is captured over a LAN.

Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. etc. Services information. environment settings.NET event-based scripting subsystem. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Professional. manage and monitor throughput. for Windows. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. etc. Free. modules. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. drives. Provides performance enhancing tips.) in small text files. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. more. OS version. processes. and much more. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. ODBC sources. set breakpoints. Sandra 'System ANalyser. processor information. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. Network Adaptor Information. Includes CPU. data creation or capture and replay. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. and delay. and other versions available in multiple languages. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. component details. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. Free.). device drivers. loss. system file listings. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. ports. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. services. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. virtual memory settings. tune-up wizard. XML. etc. loaded modules. html. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. physical memory information. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. memory details. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. mainboard. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting.

with GUI. available as on-line service. analogous to running an MRI scan. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. any operating system. and other quality factors. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. Enables enhancement of QA. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. freeware. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. filters. compliance. testing. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. any version. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. in most versions of every browser ever released. packet losses. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. binaries.E. binaries and source available. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. Linux. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Can be used on user's workstations. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. or source code. It allows the user to peek inside I. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. For Windows. Can log captures to disk. security. delays. Macintosh. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. robustness. originally designed for testing networking protocols. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. caching proxies. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. and XML switches. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. Windows (on-demand). PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. and multipath effects. Free 90-day trial. Page 47 of 60 . Linux RPMs. Inc. For Windows.

bytes. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. such as those produced by tcpdump. any message definitions. for Windows. and mainframe applications. Runs on Windows.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. Can crawl a site and report errors. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. and segments sent and received. etherpeek. For windows. For automated testing of Web. Freeware. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Available for various UNIX flavors. Ethernet. Overall Site Quality. and any network. MITs. HP Net Metrix. freeware. link validation. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. mailboxes. Searchability. throughput. retransmissions. and various graphs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. Works with all text-based IP protocols. round trip times. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. client/server.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. etc). or WinDump.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. snoop. and generating test scripts. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. Inc. Runs on Windows platforms. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. FTP. etc. and as source code. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. freeware. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). Page 48 of 60 . Also available: MITS. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. window advertisements.

handles HTTP 0. VJ. DLL. URL.S. COM+. ActiveX Exe. NIST. XHTML. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. CSS. MTS.1. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text. performance for each server. CFML ). and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. Delphi. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. Source code available. T-SQL. tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. written in any language ( ASP. etc. allows for entry of custom headers. time period. XML. VB. Runs on Solaris or Linux. errors. Govt. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. For UNIX. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. Page 49 of 60 . generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. Thread.0/1. Windows. T-SQL. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. not just samples. Windows. and HTML. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. Visual C++. comparison to SLA's. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U.9/1. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. COM. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. without ever attaching to process. For UNIX. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds. For Windows. VC++. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. Freeware. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction.

Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is software 'quality'? 13. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is 'good code'? 14. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. Testing FAQ 1. It is oriented to 'detection'. 3. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. It is oriented to 'prevention'. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B.monitoring and improving the process. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process .) 2. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. and does C. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. What's an 'inspection'? 10. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What is verification and Validation? 8. then D should happen'). What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. Why does software have bugs? 6. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2.

according to mid-2004 news reports. government IT systems project. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. the worst power system failure in North American history. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. According to news reports in April of 2004. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. Studies were under way to determine which. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed.S. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U.S. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. portions of the project could be salvaged. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. if any. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. In early 2004. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. A major U. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. According to the report. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion.

000 customers. effects on other projects. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units.S. was delivered late. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. rescheduling of engineers. preventing problems is lowvisibility. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord.redesign. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. enormous relational databases.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. public school district with 100. data communications.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. 5. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. the district's CIO was fired. etc. can make mistakes. Software complexity . futures exchange. client-server and distributed applications. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process.000+ students. hardware requirements that may be affected. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. Among other tasks. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills.S. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).programmers. and didn't work. like anyone else. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. Programming errors .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.S. In early 2000. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. Multi-tiered applications. 4. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. or may understand and request them anyway . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. problems included 10. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) .

people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. egos . often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. In this case. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. For small groups or projects.visual tools. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. developers. understandable. In some fast-changing business environments. Software development tools . it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. and testers. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. scripting tools. it should be hard to read').it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. 6. compilers. mistakes will be made. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . Where the risk is lower. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. with a goal of clear. step-at-a-time process. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. complete. the result is bugs. depending on the type of customers and projects. Poorly documented code .see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. class libraries. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. managers. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. resulting in added bugs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. In fact. etc. feedback to developers. often requiring a lot of guesswork. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. management must understand the resulting risks. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. the result is bugs. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. Time pressures . maintainable code.

Tests are based on requirements and functionality. 10. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . (b) design inspections and code inspections. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. 8. White box testing .testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. plans. conditions. most problems will be found during this preparation. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. Little or no preparation is usually required. not to fix anything. Integration testing . or that test drivers be developed as needed.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. This can be done with checklists.the most 'micro' scale of testing. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. requirements. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. branches. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. done by programmers or by testers. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. code. • • Page 54 of 60 . Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. 9. individual applications. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. to test particular functions or code modules.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. client and server applications on a network. 7. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. and a recorder to take notes. Incremental integration testing . reader.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. The 'parts' can be code modules. issues lists. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. and inspection meetings. and specifications. Unit testing . paths. walkthroughs.

etc. Acceptance testing . Install/uninstall testing . Functional testing . large complex queries to a database system. Page 55 of 60 . Regression testing . End-to-end testing . Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. or interacting with other hardware. environment. Sanity testing or smoke testing . may require sophisticated testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. or systems if appropriate. hardware failures. bogging down systems to a crawl. For example.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. partial. Recovery testing . Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. willful damage. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. Compatability testing . applications. and other techniques can be used. Load testing .black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. surveys.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing.) System testing . Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.testing of full.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. or corrupting databases.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. User interviews. Clearly this is subjective. or other catastrophic problems. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. such as interacting with a database. input of large numerical values.testing how well a system recovers from testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer.testing an application under heavy loads. Performance testing .similar to system testing. the 'macro' end of the test scale. Stress testing . Usability testing .testing for 'user-friendliness'. or upgrade install/uninstall processes. video recording of user sessions. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. especially near the end of the development cycle. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. etc. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. covers all combined parts of a system. using network communications. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. this type of testing should be done by testers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. Failover testing . and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.

but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. culture. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. Typically done by end-users or others.similar to exploratory testing. Beta testing .allow adequate time for planning.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . cohesive. Comparison testing . testers may be learning the software as they test it. testing. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . groupware. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. Context-driven testing . insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date .. Typically done by end-users or others. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players.preferably electronic. not by programmers or testers. 11. etc.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. detailed. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. not paper. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected.often taken to mean a creative. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible .clear. Alpha testing .testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. If possible. Realistic schedules . Ad-hoc testing . promote teamwork and cooperation.e-mail. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. not by programmers or testers. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.start testing early on. and documentation. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . In 'agile'-type environments.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. Communication . bug fixing. design. For example. If changes are necessary. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. Mutation testing . 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. complete. and intended use of software. attainable. re-testing. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. changes. User acceptance testing . Adequate testing .testing driven by an understanding of the environment. intranet capabilities.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. and be prepared to explain consequences.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. make extensive use of group communication tools . re-test after fixes or changes.

indentations. etc. Use descriptive function and method names . • 13. quality is obviously a subjective term. future software maintenance engineers. One code statement per line. Function and method sizes should be minimized. delivered on time and within budget.) In adding comments.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. For C and C++ coding. or what is too many or too few rules.vertically and horizontally. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). such as McCabe Complexity metrics. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works.use both upper and lower case. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. However. There are also various theories and metrics. Organize code for readability. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. avoid abbreviations. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. magazine columnists. less than 50 lines is preferable. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. and is readable and maintainable. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. and is maintainable. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. the development organization's. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. be consistent in naming conventions. customer contract officers. etc. etc. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. use of brackets. less than 100 lines of code is good. be consistent in naming conventions. is bug free. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments.use both upper and lower case. meets requirements and/or expectations. 'Peer reviews'. avoid abbreviations. customer acceptance testers. Use descriptive variable names . an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . Use whitespace generously . customer management. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. No matter how small. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' .the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. naming conventions. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. stockholders.

It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. 14. understandable.S. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. realistic planning. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. However. • • • 15. successes may not be repeatable. Level 3 . successful practices can be repeated. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . Few if any processes in place. easily modifiable. Minimize use of multiple project tracking. requirements management. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. Level 1 . make liberal use of exception handlers. developed by the SEI. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. and maintainable. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. For C++. and works correctly when implemented. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. Defense Department contractors. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing).S. keep class methods small. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application).characterized by chaos. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). periodic panics. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University.For programs that have a user interface. Level 2 . it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. and configuration management processes are in place. initiated by the U. For C++. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear.) For C++.

iso. In the U. and products. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 .the focus is on continuous process improvement. MOF. 32% of organizations were U. documentation planning.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. 16.4% at 5. testing. and 5% at 5. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. ITIL. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. internal design. It includes aspects such as initial indicates only that documented processes are followed. 17. TickIT.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary.asq. For those rated at Level 1. 23% at 2. and other aspects. servicing. Also see http://www. Bootstrap. installation.S. updates. and CobiT. not just software. 6% at 4. Level 5 . requirements for the latest information. (c)Q9004-2000 . 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). functional design. a third-party auditor assesses an organization.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes.S. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. coding. after which a complete reassessment is required. and 0. 13% at 3. It covers documentation. Project performance is predictable. Trillium.metrics are used to track productivity.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. 1018 organizations were assessed. (b)Q90002000 . 62% were at Level 1. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. phase-out. 2% at 4. 39% at 2.. design. and quality is consistently high. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). and certification is typically good for about 3 years. To be ISO 9001 certified. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). 27% were rated at Level 1. 23% at 3. and others. processes. maintenance. retesting. document preparation. development. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. the primary industrial standards body in the U. Of those. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. Level 4 .among other things. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. test planning. integration. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. and other processes.S. production. federal contractors or agencies. testing.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008).org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products .

in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box').monitor code complexity.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects.since they are separate from the test drivers. etc. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. interpretation and analysis of results (screens.such as via a spreadsheet . Page 60 of 60 . Load/performance test tools . the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. etc. The data and actions can be more easily maintained .) can be a difficult task. Other tools . The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. This approach can enable more efficient control. Memory analyzers . All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. dialog box choices. development. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. condition check that links are valid. Web test tools . Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. buttons. documentation management. HTML code usage is correct. Coverage analyzers . documentation. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. or some underlying code in the application is changed.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. etc. bug reporting. logs. the primary being: http://www. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. client-side and server-side programs work. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. data. etc. and configuration management. and for all types of platforms. a web site's interactions are secure. etc.vyomworld. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. path coverage. For larger projects. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . adherence to standards. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. This document is for internal purposes only.for test case management. For example.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. If new buttons are added.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test.

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