Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. glass-box and clear-box. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria.1. and closed-box. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". 2. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. clear box and open box testing. and all visible code must also be readable. With that in mind. opaque-box. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. portability. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software.2. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. Types of Testing 2. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. stability. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". completeness and quality of developed computer software. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. There are many approaches to software testing. structural. maintainability and usability. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. 2. Page 4 of 60 . Unlike black box testing. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. functional.

but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design.3. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing).Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.) can use any test design methods.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. 2.2.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. 2. but it's still discouraged. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural".3. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct.1. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. 2. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. system testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. 2. Unit Testing In computer programming. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.3. In practice.3.3. etc. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly.4. Page 5 of 60 . Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.3. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.

As a result. across procedure calls or process activations. This results in loosely coupled code.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. in order to test the class. Page 6 of 60 . applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes.5. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. Therefore. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. assemblages (or groups of units).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality.4. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. it will not catch integration errors. In addition. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object.3. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. 2. groups them in larger aggregates. This is a mistake. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. These "design items".e.1. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. By definition. 2. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly.3. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items.6. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. i. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. 2. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages.4. for example. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing.

will result in the overall system running faster.5. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. In the diagnostic case. if it is made to respond faster. i. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly.e. given as number of users vs. Various tools. Usually. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. Performance Testing In software engineering. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script.5. e.1. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. that while the average response time might be acceptable. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. response time.2. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. etc. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. 2. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load.5. are available to perform such tests.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. However.. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. In performance testing. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. Performance testing can serve different purposes. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2.g. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning.

where they had found the system spent most of its time. in order to observe the results. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . For example.3.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. router configuration. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. deployment of server instrumentation. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). network overhead. 2. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. It can also be done in-house. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. Analyzing the results.5. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times.6. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. and even done in different parts of the country. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. 2. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. often to a breaking point. either pass/fail. Performance testing can be performed across the web. etc. database access times.

If usability testing uncovers difficulties. a document. Stress testing a subset of load testing. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. 2. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. Downtime. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects.e. performance testing. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool".7. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. to discover errors and areas of must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. Also see testing. manipulating parts.1. or interpreting feedback. usability testing measures the usability of the object. then developers should improve the design and test it again. Data theft. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. Data corruption and application Defacement. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. During usability testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. or a device) for its intended purpose. software testing.7. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible.8.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2." Page 9 of 60 . compromising usability and functionality. i. bots. a computer interface. including making things work with people. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. 2.

to which the system should conform. 2. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process.). when testing instructions for assembling a toy. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. Stability Testing In software testing. or realistic situation. 2. In the pharmaceutical field.10.9. Users of the system will perform these tests which. For example. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. and what people like. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. and ask him or her to undertake this task. Rather. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. so that developers can see problem areas. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. 2. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. illustration quality. software will not run etc. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. For example. "Do you understand this?". The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. Instruction phrasing. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. paper prototypes. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. and pre. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes.11. ideally. it will work just the same in production. Page 10 of 60 . to test the attachment function of an e-mail program.

13. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. Ideally. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. In distributed systems.14. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. testing is usually required before release to the general public. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. 2. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly.12. Beta Testing Many a time. A beta release is very close to the final release. 2. 2. Alfa Testing In software development. This technique is known as black box testing. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. Page 11 of 60 .

should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. New York. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. 1990.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. as its input. As a rule. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any.). and as such. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE.15. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. NY. System testing is testing conducted on a complete.16. New York. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. and as such. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Regression testing takes. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). 2. Page 12 of 60 . IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. 2. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.). NY. During this testing. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. as its input. 1990. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. System testing takes. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. As a rule.

The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. They may also be called a test script. A test case is usually a single step. and descriptions. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. along with various additional pieces of information. In a database system. 2. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Page 13 of 60 . you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. system. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. Suits. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. test step or order of execution number.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. related requirement(s). These steps can be stored in a word processor document. database or other common repository. Test Cases.18. test category. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts.17. author. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. or even a test scenario. (d) complex. and regression testing. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. The optional fields are a test case ID. operating system and browser versions. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. and (e) easy to evaluate. and descriptions of the following tests. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. (c) credible. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. spreadsheet. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. depth. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. and its expected result. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite.

20.1. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product.. symbolic state space enumeration. 2. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V.g. Defect Tracking In engineering. and tracking them to closure. which is more closely related to exploratory testing.. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. using formal methods. combinatorial circuits. testing. (by inspection.19. but not the same as session-based testing. or recording feedback from customers).. and abstractions of general software components. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.e.e. abstract interpretation. Validation is the complementary aspect. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). Page 14 of 60 . timed automata and hybrid automata. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. cryptographic protocols. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. Petri nets. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. digital circuits with internal memory. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. does the product do what the user really requires. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose.20. processalgebraic methods. 2. 2. E. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. abstraction refinement. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. does the product conform to the specifications.

almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. These usually have a budget to develop test tools.21. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . If the program fails (for example. rather than behaving correctly. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. For example. the test data is preserved. or by failing in-built code assertions). The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. so that if the computer fails dramatically. by crashing. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. i. such as relational databases. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. • Database inputs are from tabular data.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. rather than a direct measure. usually before applying it to the software. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. then there are defects to correct.1.. 2. However. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. 2. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for.2. Thus. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find.e. 2.21.21. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). For this reason. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness.

One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures.21.21. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. decode every possible binary value. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. or conforms to actual production data. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. By using all of these techniques in combination. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area.5. without even crude validation. However. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software.4. Database fuzz is controversial. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states.21. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. not handling every possible binary value. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. 2. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. and then ignore impossible requests.3. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. 2. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. 2. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun.

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Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
• • •

In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.


Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential


What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

• • • • • •

An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.


Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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test cases. etc. Determine test approaches and methods . set up test tracking processes. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. timelines. coverage analyzers. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. test tracking. those responsible for tasks. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. etc. functional design. software. functional. reporting requirements.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. etc.unit. required standards and processes (such as release processes.1. Determine test environment requirements (hardware.1. It provides a repeatable. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. boundary value analyses. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. set up logging and archiving processes. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. test environment. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. set priorities. 4. communications. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. etc.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. change processes. usability tests. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. system. problem/bug tracking. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. and determine scope and limitations of tests. load.10. integration.

it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. test conditions/setup. object. If a problem-tracking system is in place. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc.) The application name or identifier and version The function.) Current bug status (e. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. 'Released for Retest'. steps. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. For this reason. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . ID.. input data requirements. and expected results. Bug identifier (number. feature. get an idea of it's severity. and reproduce it if necessary. action. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. etc. etc. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. objective.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. fixes should be re-tested. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. test case name. platform. it should encapsulate these processes. system. 'New'. or event and an expected response. After the problem is resolved. screen. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug.g. etc. module. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools).

until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. enormous relational databases. hardware requirements that may be affected. the result is bugs. like anyone else. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. effects on other projects. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. can make mistakes. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). or may understand and request them anyway . we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. testers need to know when retesting is needed. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . For instance. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. client-server and distributed applications. management must understand the resulting risks. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. Time pressures . And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. etc. Software complexity . often requiring a lot of guesswork. Poorly documented code . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. rescheduling of engineers.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. the result is bugs.programmers. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. In some fast-changing business's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Egos . In this case. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. data communications. Changing requirements . Windows-type interfaces.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. Programming errors . mistakes will be made.redesign.

intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. scripting capabilities. and other server technologies as well. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. profiler. Testing Tools and Software 5. class libraries. regression. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. Code Analyzer. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. Test private and protected functions. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. EJBs. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. and server application's modules. without implementing test clients. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. Recorded GUI elements. Useful for testing CORBA. Filters. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp.). AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. understandable code.1. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . tuning. compilers. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. GJTester Java unit.visual tools. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. RMI. metrics. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. etc. scripting tools. Enables test case and test script development without programming. etc. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. Software development tools . Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. 5. resulting in added bugs.2. Includes a natural user interface. Extensive documentation. it should be hard to read'). Includes: Unit Tester. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. Tag Libs. In fact.

Free . Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Contains Page 24 of 60 . or from the command line. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. for which JUnit may be sufficient). Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. TEXT) or custom report generation. HTML. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. CSV.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. licensed under the BSD License. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). It uses JUnit and extends it. a script editor/recorder. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. From Apache Software Foundation. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components.Robot class. predefined (XML. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. using Ant. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Typically use within your IDE. JUnit . Provides recording and playback capabilities. etc) through an in-container approach. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. LaTex. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting.awt. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests.

method. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. HTML. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. JBuilder. source distribution. classes. etc. Coverage difference comparison between runs. for speed. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis.e. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. components. Inc. highly scalable. C. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. file. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. View coverage data in XML.. Halstead Measures. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle.. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . configurable. JBrowser class browser. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. JSynTest. Cyclomatic Number. virtual machines. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. and dependencies for Java. JEvolve. at all levels and between all levels.). button pushing. methods. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. and C++ applications. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. package and produces reports in multiple formats. Gathers coverage measures of branches. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. PDF. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. Coverage API provided. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. etc. Shows all dependencies. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). statements. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. text typing. or jar file. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. etc. application. PerformaSure Low-overhead. and other IDE's. JMSAssert. tree node expanding. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. class. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE.. control flow analysis and diagramming. Fifty different audits and metrics. JCover test coverage analyzer. . Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. Works with source or compiled files. or via a Swing GUI. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. compiler-style output.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. package.

code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. servlets. includes Java support. thread and event analysis. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. maintainability. Halstead Software Science metrics.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. OS. and size metrics related to reusability. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. or are planning to add such capabilities. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. and clarity. and applications. OptimizeIt Profiler. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. and race conditions. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. thread debugger. management. coverage analysis. Has online advisor for quality improvement. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. stalls. Check listed web sites for current information.) Page 26 of 60 . JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. complexity. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). procedural. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. or load testing of java applets. written in Java. testability. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. and network metrics. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. JProfiler freeware version available. Integrates with several Java IDE's.

Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files.. Page 27 of 60 . free trial period available. includes FTP link checking. employs a simple. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. or as infrequent as once a week. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. for Windows. evaluation version available. For Windows. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail.3. For Windows. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. RTF. updates links to moved and renamed files. can be automatically scheduled. and FTP protocols. free version or low-cost pro version. DNS servers and SSL certificates. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. familiar interface for managing files. fixes broken links with an easy. Export to text. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. CSV. such as internal and external links. Runs as often as every hour. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. detects and reports redirected URL. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. 3-click process. For Windows platforms. domain names. customizable reports. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. supports SSL websites. Site Map. HTTPS. HTML. Excel. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Handles HTTP. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. multiple page list and site list capabilities. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. used to test and validate critical website components. several report formats available. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability.

Has not been updated in recent years. For all UNIX flavors.5. formatting disorganized editing. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. site has much documentation and related info. Discontinued. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. support for all standard server-side image maps. Handles one URL at a time. randomized order checking. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet link checker. 5. originally by Dave Raggett. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. For Windows. Mac. unauthorized-access. ability to check password-protected areas. binary avaialable for Linux. doc-not-found. ID/Password entries. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. Windows. Available as source code. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. for UNIX and PERL. Not updated in recent years.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. Windows. by Francois Pottier. HTML syntax error checking. 'what's new' reporting. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. organize and Page 28 of 60 . Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. timeouts. Churchyard.0 or 3. configurable. results can be exported to database. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. For Windows. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. Available as source code or binaries. It helps users to create. test resumption at interruption point. released under IBM's Common Public License. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. allowing for customizable queries and reports. page size analysis. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Not updated in recent years. but old versions still available as freeware. 5. relocations. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found.'s link checker/site mapping tool. reports URLs changed since last checked. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software.4. and finding problem HTML areas. Results stored in database. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards).

provision to add GUI. supports ASP. eastern and western European languages. tuning. Secure recording on password fields. Works with Internet Explorer. files. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. but with extended API). etc. Page 29 of 60 . Free and professional versions available. Includes Script Editor. that includes a web functional testing module. and loop. QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications. autocomplete. page titles and HTML element properties. robust handling of page modifications. cookies. run-time debugging features. HtmlUnit etc. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. servlets.DLL and .) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. and Test Writing Assistant . HTML forms. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. Can export created . Supports multiple OS's and browsers. HTML. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. Record and playback capability. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. built-in exception handling and reporting facility. ASP. JSP. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp. includes web functional testing capabilities. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. PHP. retry on error. Multilingual for Asian. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. SSL. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. Scripting uses Jython. integrates with a variety of IDE's. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. CGI. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet. Supports keyword-driven testing. records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate. Freeware. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. For Windows and MSIE. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit.

Fuzzy matching capabilities. scripts have to be developed manually. but also adds mock objects. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. until recording capabilities are added. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. can be inserted during a recording. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. animated bitmaps. such as bitmap or text matching. LLC. Page 30 of 60 . playback window/size can be different than in capture. form entry and submission. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. 90-day evaluation copy available. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. STC Master and STC Master Service. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. Special validation points. Handles Applets. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. and Runner executes the test case document. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. with its HTML objects recognition. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Active-X controls. branching statements. This includes web page navigation. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. etc. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. and a Data-Driven. Free including source code. Flash. (300+ commands). Includes a WinTask Scheduler. and other typical business web application features. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. C++ or C++/MFC. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. etc. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. Includes an Intelligent. Maker creates test case documents. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. cookie testing and form submission. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. validation of table contents.

Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. or logic associated with the engine. Methods. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame. extensible IDE). and generates a detailed test report. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined. Written in ActivePerl.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. etc). Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. Create scenarios using the point and click interface. source code avalable. and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. break points and response introspection. Utilizes Collections. Easy development and maintenance . allowing creation of more scripts in less time. Includes capability for automated scripting. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. broken links and the structure of the crawled web. For Windows platforms. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. Perl dbi database access. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. data driven scenarios. Free Demo and Test Script available. Supports HTTPS/SSL. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. many Perl cpan library functions..GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. all without changing tool. Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. tab/comma delimited file formats. Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback. dynamic Web applications. Free for most uses. This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . screen names. Multi-platform written in Java. For Windows. reporting various metrics. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation . testware architecture (object names. and more.

For Windows. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. form filling. Works by remote controlling the browser. and links. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. Can handle data input from text files. tables. page performance tuning. Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. Works as a proxy server. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. can enforce over 200 HTML. and JUnit is used as the testing library. content validation. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. from SourceForge. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. JavaScript. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. Linux. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. written in Java. For Windows and MSIE. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality checking. cookies and automatic page redirection. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. dynamic testing. including form submission. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins. or XML. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts. WebKing Web site functional. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. an XML DOM. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. basic http authentication. It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements. Records any combination of Source Development Jython is used as the scripting language. 508 compliance. clicking. Solaris. CSS. and web-based applications. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. Java. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. for easier script maintenance. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. and webserver load and capacity analysis. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. script testing and information gathering. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. databases. Utilizes multiple validation methods. or containers of forms. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. load.

and debugging scripts. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. Handles ActiveX. hanging.6. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web. ERP. Evaluation version available. Java. running. and record/playback. Java or traditional client/server-based applications. in order to induce component crashes. and web-based applications. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . PDAs and cell phones. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. DHTML. recovery system for unattended testing. browsers. includes support for testing Web. includes support for testing Web. ERP. etc. test planning and management. etc. network appliances.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws. editing. XML. proxies.NET. 5. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. and other applications. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. . and IDE for developing. test process management capabilities. etc. produces defect analyses. Java beans. Enables data-driven testing. test plans. and to validate compliance with security requirements. choice of scripting languages and editors. scripting language. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. direct database access and validation. protocol analyzers. DOMbased testing and validation. Java. Java. C++. and more. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests.NET and J2EE applications. HTML. compiling. etc. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. For Windows and Linux. Features include: test creation and customization.

an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Inc. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. remote self scan and API facilities. data theft or system destruction. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. updated bi-monthly. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). real-time IDS event analysis. Freeware. and browser checkup tool. network security scan. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . firewalls. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. CVE standards support. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. based on the SATAN model. remediation management of vulnerabilities. Runs on Macintosh. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. routers. Mac. can audit UNIX. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. plug-in facility for third party apps. SANS/ISTS certified. asset management. inside and outside the firewall. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. websites.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus.

Works with a variety of operating systems. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Learns about network as it scans. Nessus Security Scanner Free. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Includes DoS testing. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous for individual machines. product runs on Windows. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Customizable reporting. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. and a wide variety of other tests. Limited free or full licensed versions available. CVE compatible. Updated regularly. open-source remote network security auditing tool. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. by Renaud Deraison. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . 45 common web server vulnerability checks. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. denial-of-service checks. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . web server requests-per-second benchmark. Port scans. Runs on many UNIX flavors. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. reports specify severity levels of problems. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. Single machine or full network scans. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories.

prepares remediation advice. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. software product. routers. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. etc. etc. scanners. or managed service. Page 36 of 60 . InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. servers. etc. etc. workstations. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. hubs. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. organized by subject. printers. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. firewalls. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. DMZ and externally visible assets. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. intrusion detection resources. routers. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. intrusion detection tools. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. what services (ports) they are offering. and many other characteristics.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. desktops. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. Provides flexible risk management reports. Available as a hardware appliance. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. publications. operating systems. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. remediation information. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. electronic law.

database servers.7.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. analyzing web sites. combining site content. traffic analysis. WYSIWYG editor. and online service available. and OS's.) 5. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. Accessibility. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. promoting.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. and Web Governance. (Includes various types of security tools. Limitedcapability free version also available. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. combined utilities/tools. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. server management and optimization tools.. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. Similar managed service also available. works with a variety of web servers. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. Inc. not just for testing. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. FPT/publishing. service types. Desktop product for multiple platforms. Free and professional versions available. Includes link checker. for maintaining. site scores. Information Assurance.. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Inc. and site monitoring

applications. click path analysis. visitor segmentation. etc. and diagnostics. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. bandwidth usage. automatically reboot servers. page sizes. restart services. for performance and availability monitoring. isolation. etc. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. restart apps and services.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. real-time executive dash board. and repair. Alerts via email. network management. and more. and network. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. from AllScoop. run scripts. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 .Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. Captures and monitors real user sessions. net send. server. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. network errors. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. For Windows. page aborts. including server errors. and popup. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. capabilities include notifications via email. response times. sends email notification if site is slow or down. services. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. SMS. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. suited to large systems. response errors. pagers.

site cleanup. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. WYSIWYG editor. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. and a robust API. HTML and GIF optimization. etc. Statistical Reports. Database Backup. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. detecting. User Administration. Dynamic for web site updating. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). spatial relationships between products. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. link verification. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. low cost for large sites. drag-and-drop. Provides complete software developers environment. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. and more. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. Search.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Multilingualism. Works on multiple platforms. verifying content and functional integrity. upload resuming. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. such as option compatibilities on a single product. Installer easily installs system on your server. Message Board. PHP-Code Insertion. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. template-based dynamically-created content. high-level functions save template coding time. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. based on database-driven. scheduler. All can be integrated without writing code. load testing. Free for use on small sites.

For Windows. globalization. security. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. HTML validator. Basic accounts are free. stories. advertisements. browser-based. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. etc. HTML editor. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. Alerts by cell phone. security. Can automatically run external programs. more. Update news flashes. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. renaming the files to match the convention. e-mail. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. link checker. text editor. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp.V. e-commerce site designer/generator.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. pager. e-commerce. and log events. site mapper. Easy to install. product info. etc. and more. length. HTML encryptor/optimizer. and DB servers. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. payment processing. support for more than 50 document formats. administration. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages. activity tracking. broken links. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP. invalid chars). authoring tools. Runs with a variety of platforms. Works with content from any platform or application. templates. integration with a variety of servers. multi-lingual support. version control. . notifications. image mapper. customer relationship management. and website standards compliance. Enables collaboration.capabilites/support include scalability. styles.. and more. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. searchability. image handling. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. site spider. business process automation. web servers. spell checker. prices. then Page 40 of 60 . accessibility. approval workflow. privacy compliance.

Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. tracking of revisions.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. portals and scanned images. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. For Windows. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. and archiving. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. version control. anticipate capacity shortfalls. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. and customizable workflow. replication and administration. Enables services such as library services. where all content and content types are stored for management. index/search. isolate. For Mac or Windows. management of workflow. Enables scheduling of content refreshes.. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. publishing. documents. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. workflow. Inc. editing. Manages Web content. deploying. digital assets. reuse and access. services for capturing. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. based on native XML and XSL technologies. and manage and report on service level agreements. Page 41 of 60 . Mac. production. staging. security. personalization. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. conversion services. content development. including creation. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word.

Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. rank on page. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. From Monocle Solutions. and much more. external. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. Includes internal. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. and update websites. improve search engine ranks. extranet and portal sites. checks search engine placement including position. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. PERL. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. automatically resume interrupted transfers. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities. XML. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. can specify search depth. on web server and Windows client. downloading and online editing of files. JavaScript. Python. dragand-drop files. format. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. click paths. submit URL's. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. CSS. page. full-featured editor from Chami. intranet. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. XHTML and XML authors to edit. support more than 50 host file systems. server-side and live preview modes. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. Requires MSIE. For Windows. manage. upload. meta tag creator. FTP Workspace for uploading. preview and publish web designed to help HTML. Requires MSIE and Windows. validate. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. Perl. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . Requires UNIX.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. XSL. searches for keywords. SSI. Searches top engines for keywords. for Windows. Ruby. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. lookup help. Java. XHTML. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host.

For Windows. works with many servers. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. for customizable automated site mapping. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. server failure detection. and platforms. link checking. and publishing control tool. For Windows. monitoring. server management. Evaluation copy available. For MS and Netscape web servers. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. logging. Interwoven Team Site Web development. For Windows. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. Web based interface for load balancing administration. standards-based environment. Page 43 of 60 . link analysis and quality control. e-mail submission of web content. metrics. network management. OS's. UNIX. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. real-time server monitoring of server response time. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. link problems. version control. logging capabilities. requires Windows and MSIE. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. monitoring and recovery. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. number of pending requests. content management and site visualization. HTML validation. access control. alerting. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. etc. E-mail/pager notifications. management. and e-mail notifications.

logs. Link checker. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. scheduled and on-demand reporting. From Talicom. databases. customizable reports. staging/publishing control. etc. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. browser interface. Meta manager. Date stamper. links. error info is linked to error in html. connections. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. For Windows. management. variable lock controls. link checker. Visual site structure editor. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. For Windows. layout editor. For Windows or Unix. HTML-to-Text converter. link checking. browser extensions.. provides notifications of problems. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. thumbnail viewer. comparison capabilitie. publishing. image tag checker. file edit merging. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Server side compatible with many available web servers. Validates against various HTML versions. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. global search-and-replace. and static files. API's. Page 44 of 60 . XML repositories. and maintenance. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. Support for managing content stored in databases. and encryption capabilities. For Windows and Unix. spell checker. Includes version control. Includes automated deployment. administration. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. file uploading. security. graphics management. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. etc. includes site management capabilities. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. has updateable rulebase. For Windows. and servers.

A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. examine server's HTTP headers. and share with others. more. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. and system configuration information. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. web standards and elastic design. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. system resource usage. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. system operations in 7 different categories. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. to which links it extracts. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . can specify the screen width(s). and compress the result into a very small file to replay. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Perl. from how it breaks down the HTML. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. Consists of 3 components. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. Free. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. for automated recording. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. SiteTimer service . upload to a bug tracking system. For Windows. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. analyzing and sharing of usability data. from TechSmith Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. For anyone interested in css.8. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. URL2image. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data.

VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. modules. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. for Windows. loaded modules. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. ODBC sources. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. device drivers. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. component details. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. processor information. Provides performance enhancing tips. manage and monitor throughput. data creation or capture and replay. Includes CPU. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. set breakpoints. more. Free. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. system file listings. Free.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. tune-up wizard. loss. ports. etc. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. memory details. physical memory information. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. OS version.NET event-based scripting subsystem. services. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Professional. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. mainboard.) in small text files. and much more. Services information. etc. Network Adaptor Information. virtual memory settings. and other versions available in multiple languages. processes. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. etc. html. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . Sandra 'System ANalyser. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles.). environment settings. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. and delay. XML. drives.

For Windows. and other quality factors. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Linux. Windows (on-demand). originally designed for testing networking protocols. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. Page 47 of 60 . any operating system. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. compliance. security.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. or source code. Free 90-day trial. available as on-line service. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. caching proxies. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. robustness. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality.E. any version. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. and XML switches. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. filters. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. Macintosh. with GUI. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. For Windows. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. It allows the user to peek inside I. in most versions of every browser ever released. packet losses. Can log captures to disk. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. binaries and source available. Linux RPMs. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. analogous to running an MRI such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. delays. testing. Inc. Enables enhancement of QA. freeware. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. binaries. Can be used on user's workstations. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. and multipath effects.

etc). For managing and developing test cases and scripts. and generating test scripts. bytes. freeware. and various graphs. For automated testing of Web. freeware. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. HP Net Metrix.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. for Windows. Available for various UNIX flavors. Inc. throughput. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Runs on Windows platforms. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. Freeware. Searchability. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. round trip times. mailboxes. etc. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Also available: MITS. such as those produced by tcpdump. Can crawl a site and report errors. etherpeek. Runs on Windows. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. client/server. any message definitions. or WinDump. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. Page 48 of 60 . and segments sent and received. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. link validation. For windows. and mainframe applications. and as source code. snoop.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. Works with all text-based IP protocols. Ethernet. and any network. FTP.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. retransmissions. Overall Site Quality. window advertisements. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. MITs.

free tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. comparison to SLA's. Thread. client. Delphi. MTS. URL. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. XML. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. COM. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. Visual C++. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. Page 49 of 60 . CFML ). VJ. T-SQL. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. DLL. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic. ActiveX Exe. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. Windows. not just samples. without ever attaching to process. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds. VC++. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP.0/1. Govt. performance for each server. VB.1. errors. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U. XHTML. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . For Windows. Freeware. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text. For UNIX.9/1. For UNIX. handles HTTP 0. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction. Source code available. and HTML. etc.S. CSS.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. T-SQL. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. written in any language ( ASP. Runs on Solaris or Linux. Windows. COM+. NIST. allows for entry of custom headers. time period. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives.

then D should happen'). Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. and does C. Why does software have bugs? 6. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. It is oriented to 'prevention'. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B.monitoring and improving the process. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together.) 2. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. It is oriented to 'detection'. What is software 'quality'? 13. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. What is verification and Validation? 8. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. What is 'good code'? 14. 3. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . What kinds of testing should be considered? 11.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. Testing FAQ 1. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What's an 'inspection'? 10.

The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. portions of the project could be salvaged.S. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. In early 2004. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. According to news reports in April of 2004. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. government IT systems project. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. if any. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems.S. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. Studies were under way to determine which. according to mid-2004 news reports. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. the worst power system failure in North American history. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. According to the report. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . A major U.

as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Among other tasks. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. etc.redesign. client-server and distributed applications.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. futures exchange. 5.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999.S. or may understand and request them anyway .the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 .000+ students.programmers. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. public school district with 100. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. Programming errors . preventing problems is lowvisibility. can make mistakes. In early 2000. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. effects on other projects. the district's CIO was fired. rescheduling of engineers. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . 4. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. like anyone else. problems included 10. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U.000 customers. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. enormous relational databases. and didn't work.S. was delivered late. Multi-tiered applications. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. hardware requirements that may be affected.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes.S. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . data communications. Software complexity . It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units.

and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . A lot will depend on team leads or managers. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. feedback to developers. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. complete. etc. and testers. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. step-at-a-time process. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. it should be hard to read'). developers. Time pressures . Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. mistakes will be made. the result is bugs. resulting in added bugs. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. depending on the type of customers and projects. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. In some fast-changing business environments. and ensuring adequate communications among customers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. maintainable code. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. For small groups or projects. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. class's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. managers. In fact. understandable. compilers. often requiring a lot of guesswork. Where the risk is lower. with a goal of clear. management must understand the resulting risks. Software development tools . In this case.visual tools.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . 6. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. Poorly documented code . scripting tools. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. egos .see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. the result is bugs. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write.

Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. reader. most problems will be found during this preparation. branches. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. (b) design inspections and code inspections. client and server applications on a network. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. 7. or that test drivers be developed as needed. not to fix anything. and a recorder to take notes.the most 'micro' scale of testing. plans. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . and specifications. conditions.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. requirements. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. paths. and inspection meetings. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. done by programmers or by testers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. Unit testing . may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. walkthroughs. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. • • Page 54 of 60 . Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. White box testing .continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. code. 8. Little or no preparation is usually required.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. Incremental integration testing . The 'parts' can be code modules. Integration testing . to test particular functions or code modules. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. This can be done with checklists. issues lists. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. 9. individual applications. 10.

involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. hardware failures. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. or upgrade install/uninstall processes.testing an application under heavy loads. Compatability testing .black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. willful damage. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. End-to-end testing . large complex queries to a database system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. or systems if appropriate.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. etc.testing of full. partial. such as interacting with a database.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state.) System testing . or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. input of large numerical values. Acceptance testing . Usability testing . or corrupting databases. applications. may require sophisticated testing techniques. Install/uninstall testing . Page 55 of 60 . For example. Clearly this is subjective. surveys. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. etc. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. and other techniques can be used.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. Failover testing . Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. especially near the end of the development cycle. bogging down systems to a crawl.testing for 'user-friendliness'. environment.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . using network communications. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. Stress testing . Recovery testing .final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer.similar to system testing. or interacting with other hardware. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. the 'macro' end of the test scale. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. Sanity testing or smoke testing . this type of testing should be done by testers. video recording of user sessions. or other catastrophic problems.testing how well a system recovers from crashes.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. covers all combined parts of a system. Performance testing . Functional testing .black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. User interviews. Regression testing . Load testing .

Typically done by end-users or others. cohesive.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.start testing early on. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. groupware. promote teamwork and cooperation.preferably electronic. etc. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. attainable. Communication .clear. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. Beta testing . Realistic schedules . Mutation testing . Ad-hoc testing . • • • • Page 56 of 60 . If possible.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. not by programmers or testers.allow adequate time for planning. Comparison testing . What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . and be prepared to explain consequences. changes. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . not paper. make extensive use of group communication tools . testers may be learning the software as they test it.often taken to mean a creative. If changes are necessary. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. bug fixing. culture. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. re-testing. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. complete. 11. design. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing .testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. and documentation. not by programmers or testers. Context-driven testing .e-mail.similar to exploratory testing. intranet capabilities.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. Alpha testing . Typically done by end-users or others. In 'agile'-type environments. User acceptance testing .testing driven by an understanding of the environment. For example. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes.. re-test after fixes or changes. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. testing. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. Adequate testing . continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. and intended use of software.

is bug free.vertically and horizontally. be consistent in naming conventions. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. the development organization's. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. delivered on time and within budget. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. However. Use descriptive function and method names . • 13. customer management. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. etc. Function and method sizes should be minimized. Organize code for readability.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . avoid abbreviations. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). customer acceptance testers.) In adding comments. stockholders. be consistent in naming conventions. magazine columnists. less than 50 lines is preferable. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. naming conventions. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . For C and C++ coding. customer contract officers. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. One code statement per line. meets requirements and/or expectations. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. There are also various theories and metrics. avoid abbreviations. future software maintenance engineers. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. and is maintainable. and is readable and maintainable. etc. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. etc. or what is too many or too few rules. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. quality is obviously a subjective term. Use whitespace generously . No matter how small.use both upper and lower case. indentations. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. less than 100 lines of code is good. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. use of brackets. Use descriptive variable names . can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. 'Peer reviews'.use both upper and lower case. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12.

understandable.S. Level 2 . 14. and maintainable. and configuration management processes are in place.characterized by chaos. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. Level 3 . However. developed by the SEI. easily modifiable. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. make liberal use of exception handlers. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. and works correctly when implemented. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging.S. Defense Department contractors. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. Level 1 . For C++. Few if any processes in place. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. successes may not be repeatable. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). initiated by the project tracking. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). It is geared to large organizations such as large U. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'.) For C++. • • • 15. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. keep class methods small. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. For C++. periodic panics.For programs that have a user interface. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. successful practices can be repeated. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. requirements management. realistic planning.

publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). 23% at 3. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. It includes aspects such as initial concept. and CobiT.S.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. integration. It covers documentation. the primary industrial standards body in the U. installation. testing. for the latest information. 13% at 3.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. internal design. (c)Q9004-2000 . after which a complete reassessment is required. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. production. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. In the U. 62% were at Level 1. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. development. retesting. testing.the focus is on continuous process improvement. and other processes. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. requirements analysis. servicing. 6% at 4. and 5% at 5. and products. 23% at 2. MOF. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' .The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. ITIL. document preparation. and quality is consistently high.metrics are used to track productivity.S. updates. 17. indicates only that documented processes are followed. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 .) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. 39% at 2. 32% of organizations were U. To be ISO 9001 certified. Of those. and other aspects. TickIT. 16. federal contractors or agencies. design.among other things. 1018 organizations were assessed. processes.. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. and 0. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. functional design. test planning. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). Also see http://www. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. 27% were rated at Level 1. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. Project performance is predictable.4% at 5. and others. Level 5 . Bootstrap. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. not just software. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730).asq.S. (b)Q90002000 . documentation planning. (For ratings during the period 1992-96.iso.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. maintenance. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . For those rated at Level 1. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . 2% at 4. Level 4 . The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' .

and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. HTML code usage is correct. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. bug reporting. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). development. This document is for internal purposes only.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. client-side and server-side programs work. logs. etc. and for all types of platforms. etc.for test case Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .such as via a spreadsheet .to check that links are valid. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. dialog box choices. Load/performance test tools . a web site's interactions are secure. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also.monitor code complexity. data. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. For example. This approach can enable more efficient control. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. condition coverage. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. Web test tools .for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. documentation management. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. If new buttons are added.vyomworld. For larger projects.since they are separate from the test drivers. and configuration management. adherence to standards. buttons. etc. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. Additionally. Other tools . Page 60 of 60 . or some underlying code in the application is changed. Memory analyzers . The data and actions can be more easily maintained . the primary being: http://www.) can be a difficult task. etc. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. documentation. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. Coverage analyzers . and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. etc. path coverage.