Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. completeness and quality of developed computer software. and closed-box. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. 2. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. clear box and open box testing. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. Types of Testing 2. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Page 4 of 60 . portability. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. structural. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". With that in mind. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". maintainability and usability. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product.2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure.1. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. There are many approaches to software testing. opaque-box. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. stability. and all visible code must also be readable. functional. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. Unlike black box testing. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. 2. glass-box and clear-box. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements.

it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. Unit Testing In computer programming.3.) can use any test design methods. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design.3. but it's still discouraged. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden.2. 2. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use.3.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.3. etc. 2.3. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.3.4. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. 2. Page 5 of 60 . Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design.1. 2. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. system testing.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. In practice.

By definition.5. This results in loosely coupled code. assemblages (or groups of units). As a result. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. 2. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. Page 6 of 60 . and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object.e. for example. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.4.3. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. i. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality.3. it will not catch integration errors. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. across procedure calls or process activations. These "design items". This is a mistake. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. In addition. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. groups them in larger aggregates. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. 2.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. in order to test the class. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database.6.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. 2.4. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. Therefore.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program.1.

will result in the overall system running faster. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. i. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . etc. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification.g. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. Performance testing can serve different purposes. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. 2.5. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. Various tools. if it is made to respond faster. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. Usually.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script.e.. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. given as number of users vs.1. response time.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. In the diagnostic case. Performance Testing In software engineering. However.5. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. are available to perform such tests. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities.5. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. In performance testing. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. that while the average response time might be acceptable. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition.2. e. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2.

deployment of server instrumentation. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. 2. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. often to a breaking point. either pass/fail. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests.3.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. network overhead. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. etc. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . and even done in different parts of the country. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. router configuration. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. 2.5. It can also be done in-house. Analyzing the results. in order to observe the results. Performance testing can be performed across the web. where they had found the system spent most of its time. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. database access times. For example.6.

Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. performance testing. including making things work with people. a computer interface. 2.1. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. During usability testing. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. to discover errors and areas of improvement. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. Data corruption and application Defacement. i. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. manipulating parts. or interpreting feedback. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts.7. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge.8. usability testing measures the usability of the object. Stress testing a subset of load testing. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. or a device) for its intended purpose. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. bots." Page 9 of 60 .Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2.7. software testing. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. 2. then developers should improve the design and test it again.e. Data theft. Downtime. Also see testing. a document. compromising usability and must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance.

The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. For example. In the pharmaceutical field. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing.9. when testing instructions for assembling a toy.10. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. paper prototypes. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. and what people like. and ask him or her to undertake this task. Users of the system will perform these tests which. and pre. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. so that developers can see problem areas. it will work just the same in production. Instruction phrasing. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. Stability Testing In software testing. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. Rather. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. "Do you understand this?". it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. 2. illustration quality. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. For example. or realistic situation. 2.). The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. software will not run etc. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. Page 10 of 60 . ideally. 2.11. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. to which the system should conform.

The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free.14. Beta Testing Many a time. In distributed systems. 2. A beta release is very close to the final release. 2. Page 11 of 60 . Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. testing is usually required before release to the general public. 2. This technique is known as black box testing. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing.12. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. Alfa Testing In software development. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs.13. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. Ideally. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful.

NY. 1990. 2. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware.). 1990. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. New York. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. as its input.15. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. During this testing. As a rule. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. Page 12 of 60 . System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. and as such. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. 2. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. Regression testing takes.). According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. NY. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. New York. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. System testing takes. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing.16. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. as its input. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. and as such. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. As a rule.

A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. and its expected result. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. A test case is usually a single step. spreadsheet. The optional fields are a test case ID. and (e) easy to evaluate.18. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. database or other common repository. and regression testing. system. depth. and descriptions. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. Suits. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. test category. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. test step or order of execution number. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. or even a test scenario. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. In a database system. operating system and browser versions. along with various additional pieces of information. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. and descriptions of the following tests. (d) complex. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. They may also be called a test script. author. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. related requirement(s). It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. Test Cases. These steps can be stored in a word processor document.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Page 13 of 60 . Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue.17. 2. (c) credible.

. 2. abstraction refinement. Petri nets.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. processalgebraic methods. combinatorial circuits.e. and abstractions of general software components. Defect Tracking In engineering. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V.e. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). Validation is the complementary aspect.20. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. E. cryptographic protocols. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. Page 14 of 60 .g.. using formal methods. does the product conform to the specifications. abstract interpretation. timed automata and hybrid automata. 2. does the product do what the user really requires. digital circuits with internal memory. but not the same as session-based testing. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i.. 2. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. or recording feedback from customers).1. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. symbolic state space enumeration. testing. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions.20.19. (by inspection. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. and tracking them to closure.

rather than a direct measure.1. or by failing in-built code assertions). or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter.21. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing.. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find.2. rather than behaving correctly. For this reason. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. i. then there are defects to correct. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. For example. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. If the program fails (for example. 2. 2. such as relational databases. 2. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. so that if the computer fails dramatically. the test data is preserved.21. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams.e. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. by crashing. usually before applying it to the software. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 .21. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). Thus. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. However. • Database inputs are from tabular data. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality.

because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases.21.3. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. not handling every possible binary value. without even crude validation. 2. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . or conforms to actual production data. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains.4. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. However. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software.5. and then ignore impossible requests. Database fuzz is controversial. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. By using all of these techniques in combination. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases.21. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected.21. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. 2. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. 2. decode every possible binary value. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures.

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Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
• • •

In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.


Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential


What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

• • • • • •

An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.


Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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unit. set priorities. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. required standards and processes (such as release processes. functional design. boundary value analyses. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates.10. It provides a repeatable. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. usability tests. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. load. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. those responsible for tasks. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. set up test tracking processes. system.1. set up logging and archiving processes. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . 4. and determine scope and limitations of tests. functional. Determine test approaches and methods . communications. etc. integration.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. test environment. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. etc. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. coverage analyzers. reporting requirements. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. timelines. etc. software.1. etc. test cases. problem/bug tracking. test tracking. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. change processes.

) The application name or identifier and version The function. input data requirements. fixes should be re-tested. 'New'. etc. or event and an expected response. After the problem is resolved. platform. If a problem-tracking system is in place. Bug identifier (number. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. object. it should encapsulate these processes. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. etc. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. action. objective.. etc. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. ID. get an idea of it's severity. and expected results. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). test case name. test conditions/setup.g. 'Released for Retest'. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . For this reason. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc.) Current bug status (e. and reproduce it if necessary. steps. screen. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. feature. system. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. module. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible.

like anyone else. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. Changing requirements . known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Software complexity . In some fast-changing business environments.the customer may not understand the effects of changes.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. mistakes will be made. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. In this case. Egos . the result is bugs. can make mistakes. etc. For instance. management must understand the resulting risks. enormous relational databases. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . Poorly documented code . Time pressures .the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Windows-type interfaces.programmers. client-server and distributed applications. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. testers need to know when retesting is needed. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information.scheduling of software projects is difficult at's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented.redesign. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. data communications. or may understand and request them anyway . hardware requirements that may be affected. the result is bugs. effects on other projects. rescheduling of engineers. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. often requiring a lot of guesswork. Programming errors .

and server application's modules. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. it should be hard to read'). Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. Extensive documentation.2. Testing Tools and Software 5. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. Includes: Unit Tester. Recorded GUI elements. Enables test case and test script development without programming. Software development tools . etc. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. 5. scripting capabilities. Test private and protected functions. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. RMI. EJBs. Filters. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. etc. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. resulting in added bugs. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Code Analyzer.). class libraries. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. metrics.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. without implementing test clients.visual tools. and other server technologies as well. regression. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. understandable code. Includes a natural user interface. In fact. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. Tag Libs. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. Useful for testing CORBA.1. compilers. GJTester Java unit. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. profiler. scripting tools. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. tuning. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage.

QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. or from the command line. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. Contains Page 24 of 60 .available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). From Apache Software Foundation. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. for which JUnit may be sufficient). for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality.Robot class. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. licensed under the BSD License. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. LaTex.awt. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. etc) through an in-container approach.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. a script editor/recorder. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. JUnit . Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. Free . Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. It uses JUnit and extends it. CSV. Typically use within your IDE. HTML. TEXT) or custom report generation. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. Provides recording and playback capabilities. predefined (XML. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. using Ant. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'.

integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. text typing. PerformaSure Low-overhead. etc. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. class. or via a Swing GUI. methods. JEvolve. virtual machines. Coverage difference comparison between runs. Halstead Measures. View coverage data in XML. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. statements. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. or jar file. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). Cyclomatic Number. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. source distribution. button pushing. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. etc. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. package. and C++ applications. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. method. PDF. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE.). JBrowser class browser. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. Fifty different audits and metrics. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . components. package and produces reports in multiple formats. etc. application.. for speed. configurable. and other IDE's. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. highly scalable. control flow analysis and diagramming. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. compiler-style output. at all levels and between all levels. tree node expanding. JMSAssert. JCover test coverage analyzer. Shows all dependencies. JBuilder. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. and dependencies for Java.e. file. C. . HTML. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. JSynTest.. Inc. Coverage API provided. Works with source or compiled files. Gathers coverage measures of branches. classes..

to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. Has online advisor for quality improvement. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. and race conditions.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. written in Java. or are planning to add such capabilities. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. Integrates with several Java IDE's. OS. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems.) Page 26 of 60 . Halstead Software Science metrics. coverage analysis. JProfiler freeware version available. procedural. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. or load testing of java applets. thread and event analysis. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. stalls. thread debugger. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. OptimizeIt Profiler. includes Java support. Check listed web sites for current information. servlets. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. complexity. and network metrics. and applications. management. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. testability. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. and clarity. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. and size metrics related to reusability. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). maintainability. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO.

SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. detects and reports redirected URL. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. for Windows. HTML. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. customizable reports.3. multiple page list and site list capabilities. updates links to moved and renamed files. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Excel. supports SSL websites. evaluation version available.. Handles HTTP. For Windows. free version or low-cost pro version. RTF.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. Site Map. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. free trial period available. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. domain names. Page 27 of 60 . Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. HTTPS. can be automatically scheduled. For Windows. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. Export to text. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. used to test and validate critical website components. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. such as internal and external links. and FTP protocols. Runs as often as every hour. 3-click process. For Windows. fixes broken links with an easy. DNS servers and SSL certificates. For Windows platforms. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. familiar interface for managing files. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. employs a simple. CSV. several report formats available. includes FTP link checking. or as infrequent as once a week.

for UNIX and PERL.4. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. allowing for customizable queries and reports. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software.5. Windows. For all UNIX flavors. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. randomized order checking. For Windows. by Francois Pottier.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. Not updated in recent years. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. Results stored in database. results can be exported to database. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. configurable. doc-not-found. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. page size analysis. timeouts. but old versions still available as freeware. ability to check password-protected areas. Available as source code or binaries. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. Available as source code. binary avaialable for Linux. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. unauthorized-access. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. and finding problem HTML areas.0 or 3. Mac.'s link checker/site mapping tool. Has not been updated in recent years. 'what's new' reporting. site has much documentation and related info. Handles one URL at a time. ID/Password entries. Not updated in recent years. Windows. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. link checker. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. test resumption at interruption point. reports URLs changed since last checked. For Windows. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. support for all standard server-side image maps. It helps users to create. Discontinued. organize and Page 28 of 60 . originally by Dave Raggett. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. formatting disorganized editing. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. relocations. 5. HTML syntax error checking. released under IBM's Common Public License. Churchyard. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards).

eastern and western European languages. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. For Windows and MSIE. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. Includes Script Editor.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests. integrates with a variety of IDE's. files. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp. but with extended API). cookies. page titles and HTML element properties. Record and playback capability. Supports multiple OS's and browsers. provision to add GUI. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. includes web functional testing capabilities. HTML. JSP. Supports keyword-driven testing. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. CGI. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. robust handling of page modifications. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. retry on error.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. HTML forms. run-time debugging features. SSL. HtmlUnit etc. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. Can export created . tuning. etc. Freeware. supports ASP. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet. Works with Internet Explorer. HTML-based test result reports can be generated. and loop. that includes a web functional testing module. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. Free and professional versions available. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. autocomplete. QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. Multilingual for Asian. records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate.DLL and . and Test Writing Assistant . PHP. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. Scripting uses Jython. built-in exception handling and reporting facility. ASP. Secure recording on password fields. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. Page 29 of 60 . AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. servlets.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process.

(300+ commands). Free including source code. and Runner executes the test case document. C++ or C++/MFC. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. with its HTML objects recognition. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. LLC. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. Maker creates test case documents. Special validation points. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. and other typical business web application features. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. but also adds mock objects. Includes an Intelligent. form entry and submission. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. 90-day evaluation copy available. etc. Flash. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. branching statements. animated bitmaps. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. Page 30 of 60 . validation of table contents.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. scripts have to be developed manually. playback window/size can be different than in capture. etc. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. Active-X controls. This includes web page navigation. Handles Applets. and a Data-Driven. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. Fuzzy matching capabilities. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. such as bitmap or text matching. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). can be inserted during a recording. cookie testing and form submission. STC Master and STC Master Service. until recording capabilities are added.

Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. tab/comma delimited file formats. screen names. Create scenarios using the point and click interface. Includes capability for automated scripting. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. Easy development and maintenance . This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. For Windows platforms. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy. Supports HTTPS/SSL. data driven scenarios. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. extensible IDE). broken links and the structure of the crawled web. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its need to keep track of GUI maps for each window. Free Demo and Test Script available. dynamic Web applications. includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler.. For Windows. Perl dbi database access. break points and response introspection. Free for most uses.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. Written in ActivePerl. reporting various metrics. has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. or logic associated with the engine.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model.GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC. many Perl cpan library functions. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. and more. Utilizes Collections. and generates a detailed test report. Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined. Multi-platform written in Java. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications. source code avalable. all without changing tool. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. Methods. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame. etc). and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. testware architecture (object names. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation .

thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements. from SourceForge. Works as a proxy server. JavaScript. including form submission. Jython is used as the scripting language. Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. Linux. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. script testing and information gathering. dynamic testing. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based Source Development Network. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. written in Java. and web-based applications. load. CSS.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins. 508 compliance. Works by remote controlling the browser. Records any combination of browsing. content validation. For Windows and MSIE. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit. WebKing Web site functional. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. Java. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality checking. or containers of forms. basic http authentication. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. databases. and JUnit is used as the testing library. and webserver load and capacity analysis. Solaris. page performance tuning. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. cookies and automatic page redirection. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. can enforce over 200 HTML. HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. an XML DOM. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. clicking. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. Utilizes multiple validation methods. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. tables. Can handle data input from text files. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. and form filling. For Windows. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts. or XML. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. for easier script maintenance. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting.

XML. etc. Handles ActiveX. and other applications. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. test process management capabilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. and IDE for developing. HTML. and debugging scripts. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . test plans. ERP. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. in order to induce component crashes.) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . test planning and management. Java or traditional client/server-based applications. network appliances. recovery system for unattended testing. Enables data-driven testing. Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests. etc. includes support for testing Web. PDAs and cell phones. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws.6. Evaluation version available. proxies. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web. includes support for testing Web. Java beans.NET. and to validate compliance with security requirements. direct database access and validation. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. editing. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. hanging. Java. and more. protocol analyzers. C++. compiling. DOMbased testing and validation. browsers. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. Features include: test creation and customization. etc. DHTML. Java. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. produces defect analyses. For Windows and Linux. and record/playback. ERP.NET and J2EE applications. and web-based applications. running. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks. choice of scripting languages and editors. 5. Java. . (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. scripting language. etc.

Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. asset management. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. inside and outside the firewall. can audit UNIX. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. updated bi-monthly. CVE standards support. and browser checkup tool. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. data theft or system destruction. websites. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. Runs on Macintosh. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. routers. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. Freeware. firewalls. remediation management of vulnerabilities.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. real-time IDS event analysis. Mac. Inc. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. plug-in facility for third party apps. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. remote self scan and API facilities. based on the SATAN model. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Scheduled vulnerability scanning. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. network security scan.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. SANS/ISTS certified.

Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. Updated regularly. web server requests-per-second benchmark. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. denial-of-service for individual machines. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. Learns about network as it scans. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Runs on many UNIX flavors. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. CVE compatible. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. open-source remote network security auditing tool. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. by Renaud Deraison. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. product runs on Windows. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. and a wide variety of other tests. Single machine or full network scans. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . Nessus Security Scanner Free. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Customizable reporting. Works with a variety of operating systems. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Port scans. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. Includes DoS testing. reports specify severity levels of problems.

Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. remediation information. workstations. printers. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. scanners. Page 36 of 60 . etc. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. what services (ports) they are offering. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. DMZ and externally visible assets. electronic law. routers. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. Available as a hardware appliance. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. servers. organized by subject. etc. firewalls. or managed service. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. routers. Provides flexible risk management reports. intrusion detection resources. prepares remediation advice.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. operating systems. etc. intrusion detection tools. etc. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. publications. software product. desktops. hubs. and many other characteristics. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities.

Similar managed service also available. Desktop product for multiple platforms. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. Includes link checker. site scores. promoting. FPT/publishing.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. combining site content. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. and Web Governance. WYSIWYG editor. Inc.) 5. (Includes various types of security tools. and site monitoring capabilities. and online service available. Free and professional versions available. analyzing web sites. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. and OS's. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . server management and optimization tools. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. Information Assurance.7. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Inc. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. not just for testing. service types.. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. for maintaining.. Limitedcapability free version also available. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. combined utilities/tools. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. database servers. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. works with a variety of web servers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. Accessibility. traffic analysis. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base.

sends email notification if site is slow or down. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. real-time executive dash board. server. click path analysis. for performance and availability monitoring. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. network errors. isolation. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. bandwidth usage. and popup. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . etc. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. and repair. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. response errors. applications. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. automatically reboot servers. page aborts. services. net send. SMS. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. capabilities include notifications via email. For Windows. suited to large systems. and more. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. restart services. response times. from AllScoop.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. etc. pagers. and diagnostics. restart apps and services. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. page sizes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. Alerts via email. run scripts. visitor segmentation. network management. Captures and monitors real user sessions. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. including server errors. and network. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd.

HTML and GIF optimization. Free for use on small sites. template-based dynamically-created content. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. Statistical Reports. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). additional features include manual or customizable automated control. Database Backup. spatial relationships between products. PHP-Code Insertion. All can be integrated without writing code. and more. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . low cost for large sites. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. scheduler. detecting. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. load testing. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. Message Board. based on database-driven. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. verifying content and functional integrity. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. upload resuming. link verification. site cleanup. WYSIWYG editor. and a robust API. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Provides complete software developers environment. User Administration. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. Multilingualism. high-level functions save template coding time. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. Installer easily installs system on your server. Works on multiple for web site updating. etc. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Search. Dynamic Menu. drag-and-drop. such as option compatibilities on a single product.

Basic accounts are free. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. and more. Can automatically run external programs. HTML encryptor/optimizer. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages. Enables collaboration. text editor. prices. integration with a variety of servers. . administration. etc. renaming the files to match the convention. authoring tools. Runs with a variety of platforms. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. styles. approval workflow.. e-commerce site designer/generator. activity tracking. Alerts by cell phone. then Page 40 of 60 . templates. web servers. searchability. security. customer relationship management. site mapper. browser-based. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. spell checker. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. pager. invalid chars). Easy to install. and log events. image handling. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp. more. stories. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP. globalization. e-commerce. business process automation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. and more. support for more than 50 document formats. link checker. etc. Update news flashes. accessibility. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. notifications. Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. length.V. security. HTML validator. version control. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. payment processing. site spider. and DB servers. image mapper. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. multi-lingual support. broken links. product info. and website standards compliance.capabilites/support include scalability. Works with content from any platform or application. For Windows. e-mail. advertisements. HTML editor. privacy compliance.

services for capturing. workflow. documents. Mac. digital assets. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. production. For Windows. and customizable workflow. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. tracking of revisions. editing. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. and archiving. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. anticipate capacity shortfalls. portals and scanned images. reuse and access. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. security.. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. deploying. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. including creation. Page 41 of 60 . conversion services. Inc. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. index/search. For Mac or Windows. replication and administration. Enables services such as library services. management of workflow. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. and manage and report on service level agreements. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. staging. where all content and content types are stored for management. isolate. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Manages Web content. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. publishing. version control. based on native XML and XSL technologies. personalization. content development.

downloading and online editing of files. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. support more than 50 host file systems. on web server and Windows client. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages. for Windows. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. click paths. improve search engine ranks. XML. extranet and portal sites. PERL. checks search engine placement including position. XHTML and XML authors to edit. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. preview and publish web pages. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. Requires UNIX. SSI. can specify search depth. Searches top engines for keywords. format. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. lookup help. upload. submit URL's. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. From Monocle Solutions. and update websites. automatically resume interrupted transfers. FTP Workspace for uploading. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. XHTML. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. rank on page. Ruby. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. intranet. server-side and live preview modes. For designed to help HTML. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. Requires MSIE and Windows. validate.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. full-featured editor from Chami. Perl. searches for keywords. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. dragand-drop files. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. meta tag creator. Includes internal. external. Python. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. and much more. JavaScript. Java. XSL. page. Requires MSIE. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. CSS. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities. manage.

link analysis and quality control. network management. management.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. server failure detection. For Windows. real-time server monitoring of server response time. etc. logging capabilities. For Windows. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. Interwoven Team Site Web development. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. e-mail submission of web content. E-mail/pager notifications. Page 43 of 60 . and e-mail notifications. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. access control. server management. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. UNIX. metrics. number of pending requests. OS's. requires Windows and MSIE. monitoring and recovery. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. Evaluation copy available. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. HTML validation. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. works with many servers. version control. For MS and Netscape web servers. and publishing control tool. link problems. Web based interface for load balancing administration. content management and site visualization. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. For Windows. alerting. for customizable automated site mapping. standards-based environment. and platforms. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. logging. monitoring. For Windows. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. link checking.

etc. administration.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. Support for managing content stored in databases. API's. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. image tag checker. Server side compatible with many available web servers. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. scheduled and on-demand reporting. etc. Visual site structure editor. includes site management capabilities. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. customizable reports. link checker. spell checker. publishing. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. has updateable rulebase. and static files. For Windows. browser interface. Includes automated deployment. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. thumbnail viewer. layout editor. Validates against various HTML versions. For Windows. browser extensions. and servers. graphics management. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. security. Includes version control. databases. links. Meta manager. error info is linked to error in html. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. For Windows. variable lock controls. management. provides notifications of problems. global search-and-replace. Page 44 of 60 . link checking. file uploading. logs. comparison capabilitie. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. For Windows and Unix. HTML-to-Text converter. Date stamper. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. connections. Link checker. From Talicom. XML repositories. file edit merging. For Windows or Unix. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. and maintenance. and encryption capabilities. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions.. staging/publishing control.

A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. SiteTimer service . Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. URL2image. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . and compress the result into a very small file to replay.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. examine server's HTTP headers. system resource usage. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. and MS Excel for charting and Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. upload to a bug tracking system. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. from TechSmith Corp. analyzing and sharing of usability data. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. can specify the screen width(s). A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. more. from how it breaks down the HTML. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . to which links it extracts. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. and share with others. Perl. for automated recording. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. Consists of 3 components.8. For anyone interested in css. system operations in 7 different categories. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. For Windows. web standards and elastic design. Free. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. and system configuration information. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more.

). system file listings. manage and monitor throughput. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Professional. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . etc. Includes CPU. Sandra 'System ANalyser. and other versions available in multiple languages. memory details. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. services. and much more. component details.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. for Windows. processes. Services information. more. virtual memory settings. Provides performance enhancing tips. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. data creation or capture and replay. physical memory information. Free. loaded modules. and delay. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. tune-up wizard. modules. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. drives.NET event-based scripting subsystem. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. set breakpoints. processor information. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Network Adaptor Information. XML. etc. mainboard. device drivers. ports. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. loss. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. html. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. etc. Free. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. OS version. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. environment settings.) in small text files. ODBC sources. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities.

any operating system. Linux. Can be used on user's workstations. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. Page 47 of 60 . Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source.E. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". Inc. filters. and XML switches. Linux RPMs. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Windows (on-demand). or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. available as on-line service. Can log captures to disk. testing. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. or source code. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. For Enables enhancement of QA. binaries and source available. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. robustness. For Windows. Macintosh. analogous to running an MRI scan. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. packet losses. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. compliance. freeware. originally designed for testing networking protocols. Free 90-day trial. delays. and other quality factors. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. binaries. and multipath effects. any version. It allows the user to peek inside I. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. with GUI. in most versions of every browser ever released. caching proxies. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. security. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server.

or WinDump. and various graphs. and generating test scripts. such as those produced by tcpdump. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. Ethernet. etc. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. Also available: MITS. Works with all text-based IP protocols. freeware. Runs on Windows platforms. For automated testing of Web. For windows. etc). link validation. HP Net Metrix. retransmissions. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. Can crawl a site and report errors. client/server. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. window advertisements. FTP. Freeware.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. Runs on Windows. and any network. MITs. any message definitions. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. bytes. Overall Site Quality. Inc. freeware. Searchability. Page 48 of 60 . contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). snoop. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. Available for various UNIX flavors. and mainframe applications. and as source code. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. and segments sent and received. mailboxes. for Windows. round trip times.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. throughput.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). etherpeek.

Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. Windows. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction. T-SQL. URL. MTS. etc. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time.S. Runs on Solaris or Linux. performance for each server. T-SQL. NIST. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest. Freeware. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. DLL.0/1. written in any language ( ASP. CFML ). For UNIX. errors. produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds.9/1. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. VJ. XHTML. For Windows. Govt. client. XML. Thread. Visual C++. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . ActiveX Exe. CSS. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP.1. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U. allows for entry of custom headers. COM. Page 49 of 60 . COM+. comparison to SLA's. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. VC++. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text. VB. not just samples. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. Delphi. Windows. and HTML. time period. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. handles HTTP 0. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques. without ever attaching to process. Source code available. For UNIX.

What is software 'quality'? 13. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. What's an 'inspection'? 10. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6.monitoring and improving the process. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. It is oriented to 'detection'. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. Why does software have bugs? 6. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. then D should happen'). What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. What is 'good code'? 14. 3. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is verification and Validation? 8. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. Testing FAQ 1. and does C. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . What is the 'software life cycle'? 17.) 2. It is oriented to 'prevention'. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1.

and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. the worst power system failure in North American history. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. portions of the project could be salvaged. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems.S. if any. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. Studies were under way to determine which. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. A major U. government IT systems project. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. In early 2004. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed.S. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. according to mid-2004 news reports. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. According to news reports in April of 2004. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. According to the report.

Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.000+ students. effects on other projects. like anyone else. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. client-server and distributed applications. enormous relational databases. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) .programmers. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. rescheduling of engineers. 4. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. can make mistakes. hardware requirements that may be affected. the district's CIO was fired. Software complexity . public school district with 100. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages.S. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999.S. In early 2000. and didn't to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). 5. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . data communications. was delivered late. futures exchange. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .S. Multi-tiered applications. or may understand and request them anyway .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. Among other tasks. Programming errors . Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected.redesign. etc. problems included 10.000 customers. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. preventing problems is lowvisibility.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process.

often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. the result is bugs. Poorly documented code . Where the risk is lower. depending on the type of customers and projects. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take.visual tools. often requiring a lot of guesswork. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. developers. complete. and testers. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. resulting in added bugs. with a goal of clear. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. Software development tools . When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. feedback to developers.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. In this case. etc. In some fast-changing business environments. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. managers. In fact. step-at-a-time process. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. maintainable code. scripting tools. Time pressures . it should be hard to read'). and ensuring adequate communications among customers. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. compilers. understandable. For small groups or projects. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. also in Part 2 of the FAQ.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. mistakes will be made. 6. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. egos . management must understand the resulting risks. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. the result is bugs. class libraries.

Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. done by programmers or by testers. paths.the most 'micro' scale of testing. not to fix anything. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. and specifications.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. most problems will be found during this preparation. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. The 'parts' can be code modules. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. branches. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. code. White box testing . or that test drivers be developed as needed. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. issues lists.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. Incremental integration testing .testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. This can be done with checklists. conditions. individual applications. to test particular functions or code modules.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. walkthroughs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. client and server applications on a network. reader. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. and a recorder to take notes. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. plans. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. 8. requirements. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. Unit testing . requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. 7. Little or no preparation is usually required. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. 10. Integration testing . and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. 9. and inspection meetings. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . • • Page 54 of 60 . The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. (b) design inspections and code inspections.

or systems if appropriate. Page 55 of 60 . or interacting with other hardware. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. For example. this type of testing should be done by testers.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. or other catastrophic problems. and other techniques can be used.testing for 'user-friendliness'. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed.similar to system testing. etc. applications. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs.testing an application under heavy loads. may require sophisticated testing techniques. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. Failover testing . especially near the end of the development cycle. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. such as interacting with a type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. Clearly this is subjective. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. Sanity testing or smoke testing .typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. willful damage. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.) System testing . the 'macro' end of the test scale. End-to-end testing . Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. User after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. or corrupting databases. Performance testing . covers all combined parts of a system. or upgrade install/uninstall processes. input of large numerical values. Compatability testing . Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc.testing how well a system recovers from crashes.testing of full. Load testing . such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . surveys. video recording of user type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. large complex queries to a database system. etc. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. Stress testing . Functional testing . hardware testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. Recovery testing . Acceptance testing . Regression testing . Install/uninstall testing . environment. using network communications. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. partial. bogging down systems to a crawl. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. Usability testing .

If changes are necessary. and be prepared to explain consequences. not by programmers or prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. promote teamwork and cooperation. re-test after fixes or changes.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. Communication . networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. User acceptance testing .similar to exploratory testing.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. Realistic schedules . Proper implementation requires large computational resources. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements .testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. testing.preferably electronic. If possible. cohesive. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. attainable.often taken to mean a creative. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . not by programmers or testers. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. design. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. For example.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. re-testing. culture.allow adequate time for planning. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful.e-mail. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. Alpha testing . testers may be learning the software as they test it. Comparison testing . minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing.. not paper.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. Beta testing . • • • • Page 56 of 60 . etc. detailed. complete. changes. groupware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing .start testing early on. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. Ad-hoc testing . intranet capabilities. make extensive use of group communication tools .testing driven by an understanding of the environment. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. Adequate testing . insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. 11. Typically done by end-users or others. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. bug fixing.clear. Typically done by end-users or others. Context-driven testing . and intended use of software. In 'agile'-type environments. Mutation testing . and documentation.

) In adding comments. stockholders. Function and method sizes should be minimized. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. One code statement per line. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . indentations. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. customer acceptance testers.use both upper and lower case. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line).the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. less than 50 lines is preferable. is bug free. etc. future software maintenance engineers. delivered on time and within budget. meets requirements and/or expectations. Use descriptive variable names . A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. and is maintainable.use both upper and lower case. quality is obviously a subjective term. There are also various theories and metrics. or what is too many or too few rules. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). Organize code for readability. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. the development organization's. etc. 'Peer reviews'. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. be consistent in naming conventions. be consistent in naming conventions. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. customer management. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. Use whitespace generously .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. naming conventions. and is readable and maintainable. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . • 13. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. magazine columnists. Use descriptive function and method names . 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. However. etc. less than 100 lines of code is good. For C and C++ coding. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code.vertically and horizontally. customer contract officers. avoid abbreviations. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. No matter how small. use of brackets. avoid abbreviations.

and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. make liberal use of exception handlers. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. • • • 15. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. successes may not be repeatable. successful practices can be repeated. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. and works correctly when implemented. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. easily modifiable. and maintainable. Level 2 . Defense Department to help improve software development processes. requirements project tracking. However. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. Level 3 . realistic planning. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. understandable.S. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. Level 1 . Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear.For programs that have a user interface. For C++.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). keep class methods small. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. 14. Few if any processes in place. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). developed by the SEI.) For C++. initiated by the U. For C++.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. periodic panics.characterized by chaos. Defense Department contractors. and configuration management processes are in place. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration').S. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 .

requirements analysis. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. documentation planning. 39% at 2. development. retesting.iso.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . ITIL.among other things. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). and other aspects.asq. the primary industrial standards body in the U. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).Quality Management Systems: Requirements. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. not just software. functional design. Also see http://www. and other processes. Level 4 . coding.. 32% of organizations were U. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' .S. In the U. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . servicing. Of those. It includes aspects such as initial concept. and 0. processes. 17. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. maintenance. after which a complete reassessment is required. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. 27% were rated at Level 1. and CobiT. Project performance is predictable.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. and others. design. testing. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance.S. indicates only that documented processes are followed. Bootstrap. To be ISO 9001 certified. It covers documentation.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. 23% at 2. 1018 organizations were assessed. installation. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. (c)Q9004-2000 . 16.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel.the focus is on continuous process improvement. testing. 2% at 4. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. Level 5 . MOF. TickIT. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. 6% at 4. (b)Q90002000 .ch/ for the latest information. and products.S. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. test planning. and quality is consistently high. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). 62% were at Level 1. internal design.4% at 5. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . document preparation. and 5% at 5. For those rated at Level 1. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . 13% at 3. phase-out.metrics are used to track productivity. 23% at 3. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). federal contractors or agencies.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. integration. production.

the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions.since they are separate from the test drivers. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. condition coverage. etc.for test case management. Load/performance test tools . Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. documentation management. path coverage. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. and configuration management. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding.monitor code complexity. development.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. or some underlying code in the application is changed. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. If new buttons are added. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . etc. adherence to standards.) can be a difficult task. Memory analyzers . This approach can enable more efficient control. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. dialog box choices. buttons. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. Other tools . etc. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. Additionally. and for all types of platforms. etc. bug reporting.vyomworld. documentation. Web test tools .com/testing/. a web site's interactions are secure. For example. HTML code usage is correct. logs. the primary being: http://www. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. etc.such as via a spreadsheet . or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. Page 60 of 60 . For larger projects. data. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. Coverage analyzers . client-side and server-side programs check that links are valid. This document is for internal purposes only. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box').

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