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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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Types of Testing 2. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. portability. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". 2. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. maintainability and usability. structural. opaque-box. clear box and open box testing. functional. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. and all visible code must also be readable. With that in mind. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. Unlike black box testing.1. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Synonyms for white-box include: structural.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. 2. stability. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation.2. There are many approaches to software testing. glass-box and clear-box. and closed-box. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. Page 4 of 60 . Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box.
This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. 2. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.3.3. Page 5 of 60 . The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible.1. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.4. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing).3. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. 2.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. 2.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use.3. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether.2. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.3. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. 2. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. system testing. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". etc.) can use any test design methods. but it's still discouraged. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.3. Unit Testing In computer programming. In practice. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate.
This results in loosely coupled code. These "design items". the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. 2. i. As a result. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. for example. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. Page 6 of 60 . testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities.4. 2. This is a mistake. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. Therefore. in order to test the class. groups them in larger aggregates. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database.5. By definition. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. assemblages (or groups of units). individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface.e.4. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. In addition.6. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. 2.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes.1. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates.3. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly.3. it will not catch integration errors. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. across procedure calls or process activations.
if it is made to respond faster. i. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. that while the average response time might be acceptable.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. will result in the overall system running faster. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. In the diagnostic case. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system.5. 2.5. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested.g. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 .5. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is.2. Performance Testing In software engineering. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. It can compare two systems to find which performs better.1. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. e. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes.e. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. etc. In performance testing. Various tools. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing.. response time. However. Performance testing can serve different purposes. Usually.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. given as number of users vs. are available to perform such tests.
a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests.6.3.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. 2. etc. router configuration. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally.5. often to a breaking point. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. For example. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. where they had found the system spent most of its time. and even done in different parts of the country. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. Analyzing the results.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. in order to observe the results. network overhead. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. either pass/fail. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. database access times. It can also be done in-house. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). Performance testing can be performed across the web. deployment of server instrumentation. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. 2. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics.
manipulating parts. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. i. software testing.7. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. a computer interface. If usability testing uncovers difficulties.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. to discover errors and areas of improvement. then developers should improve the design and test it again.1. Data theft. Stress testing a subset of load testing. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. or interpreting feedback. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2.e. a document. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. performance testing. Downtime. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. or a device) for its intended purpose. Also see testing.7. bots. compromising usability and functionality.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. 2. Data corruption and application Defacement. During usability testing. usability testing measures the usability of the object." Page 9 of 60 . including making things work with people. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. 2. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page.8.
when testing instructions for assembling a toy. so that developers can see problem areas. Rather. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened.10. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. paper prototypes. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. For example. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. Page 10 of 60 . Instruction phrasing. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. For example. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process.11. it will work just the same in production. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. In the pharmaceutical field. ideally. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. 2. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system.9. Stability Testing In software testing. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. or realistic situation. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use.). The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. and ask him or her to undertake this task. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. and what people like. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. 2. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. and pre. to which the system should conform. illustration quality. Users of the system will perform these tests which. "Do you understand this?". 2. software will not run etc.
Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product.13.14. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. 2. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. Alfa Testing In software development. In distributed systems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. Page 11 of 60 . testing is usually required before release to the general public. 2. A beta release is very close to the final release. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. Beta Testing Many a time. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. Ideally. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. 2. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly.12. This technique is known as black box testing. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence.
should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. Regression testing takes. New York. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). as its input. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. 1990. and as such. as its input. and as such. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete.). The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Page 12 of 60 . all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). System testing takes. NY. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. As a rule. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle.). integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. NY. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. During this testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. 1990. 2. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.15. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing.16. 2. As a rule. New York. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries.
and (e) easy to evaluate. and its expected result. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. Test Cases. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. A test case is usually a single step. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. and descriptions. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. database or other common repository. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. (d) complex. and regression testing. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan.17. test category. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. Suits. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests.18. Page 13 of 60 . or even a test scenario. test step or order of execution number. 2. In a database system. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. spreadsheet. along with various additional pieces of information. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. (c) credible. They may also be called a test script. The optional fields are a test case ID. depth. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. system. related requirement(s). It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. and descriptions of the following tests. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. author. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. operating system and browser versions.
. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. 2. does the product conform to the specifications. 2. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. Defect Tracking In engineering. symbolic state space enumeration. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). using formal methods.e. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. processalgebraic methods.. E. cryptographic protocols. (by inspection. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.20. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. but not the same as session-based testing. does the product do what the user really requires. 2. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. and abstractions of general software components. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. combinatorial circuits. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. or recording feedback from customers).19. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. and tracking them to closure.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. abstraction refinement. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. testing.e. Petri nets.20. Page 14 of 60 ..g. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. Validation is the complementary aspect. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. timed automata and hybrid automata. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. digital circuits with internal memory.1. abstract interpretation. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle.
and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. rather than behaving correctly. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data..1. such as relational databases. 2. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. If the program fails (for example. Thus. 2. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them.21. so that if the computer fails dramatically.21. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter.2. For this reason. or by failing in-built code assertions). However. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. the test data is preserved. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique.21. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. by crashing. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). rather than a direct measure.e. For example. then there are defects to correct. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. • Database inputs are from tabular data. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. usually before applying it to the software. i. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. 2.
without even crude validation. 2. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue.3. However. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. By using all of these techniques in combination. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. or conforms to actual production data.5.21. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 .4. not handling every possible binary value. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. 2. decode every possible binary value. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. and then ignore impossible requests.21. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. Database fuzz is controversial.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. 2.21. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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test environment. It provides a repeatable.1. test tracking. problem/bug tracking. those responsible for tasks.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. software. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. and determine scope and limitations of tests. etc. system. 4. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. integration.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. functional design. set up test tracking processes. usability tests. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. boundary value analyses. coverage analyzers. reporting requirements. etc. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. Determine test approaches and methods . functional. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. set priorities. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. timelines.unit. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. set up logging and archiving processes.1.10. etc. load. etc. communications. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. change processes. test cases. required standards and processes (such as release processes.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides.
ID. Bug identifier (number. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). platform. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible.g. objective. input data requirements. If a problem-tracking system is in place. module. and expected results. it should encapsulate these processes. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . fixes should be re-tested. After the problem is resolved.) The application name or identifier and version The function. action. or event and an expected response. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. screen. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. 'Released for Retest'. 'New'. get an idea of it's severity.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. test case name. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. steps. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly.) Current bug status (e. system. and reproduce it if necessary.. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. For this reason. etc. etc. object. etc. feature. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. test conditions/setup.
developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. management must understand the resulting risks.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. Programming errors . until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. enormous relational databases. Time pressures . data communications.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Egos . work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out.redesign. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . Software complexity . the result is bugs.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. In this case. often requiring a lot of guesswork. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. the result is bugs. client-server and distributed applications. rescheduling of engineers.programmers. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. effects on other projects. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. Windows-type interfaces. can make mistakes. or may understand and request them anyway . and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Changing requirements . For instance. testers need to know when retesting is needed. mistakes will be made.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. like anyone else. etc. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Poorly documented code . In some fast-changing business environments. hardware requirements that may be affected. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .
visual tools. compilers. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. Includes: Unit Tester. Software development tools . Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. scripting tools. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. without implementing test clients. Testing Tools and Software 5. regression. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage.1. profiler. 5. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. scripting capabilities. EJBs. resulting in added bugs.). it should be hard to read'). user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. etc. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Recorded GUI elements. Filters. and server application's modules. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Enables test case and test script development without programming. Includes a natural user interface. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. metrics. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. etc. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. RMI.2. Extensive documentation. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. In fact.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. Test private and protected functions. understandable code. GJTester Java unit. Code Analyzer. Tag Libs. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . tuning. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. and other server technologies as well. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Useful for testing CORBA. class libraries. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology.
It uses JUnit and extends it. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation.Robot class. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Contains Page 24 of 60 . Integrates with Ant and JUnit. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. using Ant. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. TEXT) or custom report generation. HTML. or from the command line. a script editor/recorder. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Typically use within your IDE. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. LaTex. JUnit . JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Free . for which JUnit may be sufficient). predefined (XML. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. etc) through an in-container approach. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. From Apache Software Foundation. licensed under the BSD License.awt.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. CSV.
and C++ applications. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. JMSAssert. etc. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. . a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. text typing. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. compiler-style output. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . control flow analysis and diagramming. button pushing. Inc.. package. JBuilder. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. JCover test coverage analyzer. JSynTest. and dependencies for Java. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. application. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. source distribution. file. highly scalable. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua.e. components. package and produces reports in multiple formats. or jar file. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. Fifty different audits and metrics. Coverage difference comparison between runs. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. and other IDE's. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. PDF. etc. Coverage API provided. Shows all dependencies. C. configurable. classes. tree node expanding. JBrowser class browser. at all levels and between all levels. Gathers coverage measures of branches. View coverage data in XML. Halstead Measures. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. for speed. statements. Works with source or compiled files.. virtual machines. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. methods. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. Cyclomatic Number. JEvolve. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. PerformaSure Low-overhead.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i.. etc. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). HTML.). method. class. or via a Swing GUI.
Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. and race conditions. Integrates with several Java IDE's. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. complexity. Halstead Software Science metrics. stalls. coverage analysis. OptimizeIt Profiler. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). thread and event analysis. thread debugger. procedural. Has online advisor for quality improvement. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. includes Java support. maintainability. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. JProfiler freeware version available. OS. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. servlets. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. Check listed web sites for current information. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. and applications. testability. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. management. or are planning to add such capabilities.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. and clarity. and network metrics. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics.) Page 26 of 60 . Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. and size metrics related to reusability. or load testing of java applets. written in Java. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java.
Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. detects and reports redirected URL. employs a simple. free trial period available. and FTP protocols. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. updates links to moved and renamed files. Export to text. Runs as often as every hour. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. DNS servers and SSL certificates. For Windows. familiar interface for managing files. HTTPS. For Windows. such as internal and external links. Site Map. customizable reports. evaluation version available. includes FTP link checking. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. CSV. Excel. For Windows platforms. several report formats available. RTF. 3-click process. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. supports SSL websites. HTML. Handles HTTP. domain names. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. multiple page list and site list capabilities. Page 27 of 60 . finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. for Windows. fixes broken links with an easy. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. can be automatically scheduled. For Windows. or as infrequent as once a week. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software.3. free version or low-cost pro version. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software.. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. used to test and validate critical website components.
PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. but old versions still available as freeware. ability to check password-protected areas. 5.0 or 3. reports URLs changed since last checked. ID/Password entries. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. support for all standard server-side image maps. Mac. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. link checker. Not updated in recent years. Not updated in recent years. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. unauthorized-access. Available as source code or binaries. Windows. Windows. timeouts. for UNIX and PERL. binary avaialable for Linux. It helps users to create. Churchyard. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. configurable. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. organize and Page 28 of 60 . HTML syntax error checking. page size analysis. originally by Dave Raggett. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget.net. relocations. formatting disorganized editing. randomized order checking. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. released under IBM's Common Public License. For all UNIX flavors. Handles one URL at a time. test resumption at interruption point. and finding problem HTML areas. 5. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. Has not been updated in recent years.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. by Francois Pottier. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. results can be exported to database. For Windows. site has much documentation and related info. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. Available as source code. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links.'s link checker/site mapping tool. For Windows. Results stored in database. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. 'what's new' reporting. Discontinued. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. capabilities include specified URL exclusions.5. doc-not-found. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider.4. allowing for customizable queries and reports.
SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. playback window/size can be different than in capture. and Runner executes the test case document. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. scripts have to be developed manually. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Special validation points. with its HTML objects recognition. Includes an Intelligent. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Page 30 of 60 . Active-X controls. branching statements. and a Data-Driven. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. LLC. Fuzzy matching capabilities. Maker creates test case documents. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. but also adds mock objects. Handles Applets. C++ or C++/MFC. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. 90-day evaluation copy available. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. This includes web page navigation. etc. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. validation of table contents. cookie testing and form submission. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. (300+ commands). and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. and other typical business web application features. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. animated bitmaps. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). STC Master and STC Master Service. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. can be inserted during a recording. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. until recording capabilities are added. form entry and submission. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. Free including source code. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Flash. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. such as bitmap or text matching. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. etc.
Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Mac. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. firewalls. based on the SATAN model. data theft or system destruction. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. Inc. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. and browser checkup tool. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. routers. network security scan. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. SANS/ISTS certified. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. websites. updated bi-monthly. plug-in facility for third party apps. remediation management of vulnerabilities. real-time IDS event analysis. CVE standards support. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. inside and outside the firewall. remote self scan and API facilities.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. Runs on Macintosh. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . asset management. Freeware. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . can audit UNIX.
Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. Customizable reporting. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. by Renaud Deraison. Works with a variety of operating systems. Limited free or full licensed versions available. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. Updated regularly. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. reports specify severity levels of problems. denial-of-service checks. web server requests-per-second benchmark. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . Nessus Security Scanner Free.com for individual machines. Port scans. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. Learns about network as it scans. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. CVE compatible. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. Single machine or full network scans. open-source remote network security auditing tool. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. Includes DoS testing. product runs on Windows. and a wide variety of other tests. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . Runs on many UNIX flavors. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability.
or managed service. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. firewalls. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. prepares remediation advice. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. routers. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. remediation information. desktops. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. what services (ports) they are offering. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. hubs. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. intrusion detection tools. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. routers. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. etc. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. and many other characteristics. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. DMZ and externally visible assets. Available as a hardware appliance. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. Page 36 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. etc. Provides flexible risk management reports. printers. organized by subject. software product. scanners. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. servers. publications. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. electronic law. etc. etc. workstations. intrusion detection resources. operating systems. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests.
Free and professional versions available.org. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. site scores.7. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. WYSIWYG editor. and OS's. database servers.. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . analyzing web sites. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. traffic analysis. (Includes various types of security tools. Limitedcapability free version also available. and online service available. Accessibility.. promoting. and site monitoring capabilities. and Web Governance.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. Similar managed service also available. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. for maintaining. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. Information Assurance. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. works with a variety of web servers. Inc. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. service types. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. server management and optimization tools.) 5. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. combined utilities/tools. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. FPT/publishing. not just for testing. Includes link checker. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. Desktop product for multiple platforms. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. Inc. combining site content.
network errors. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. applications. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. suited to large systems. page sizes. and more. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. and network. server.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. etc. page aborts. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. net send. Captures and monitors real user sessions. click path analysis. automatically reboot servers. pagers. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. and repair. restart services. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. from AllScoop. response errors. capabilities include notifications via email. response times. SMS. real-time executive dash board. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. run scripts. services. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. and popup. isolation. etc. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. and diagnostics. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. sends email notification if site is slow or down. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. network management. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . for performance and availability monitoring. bandwidth usage. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. restart apps and services. Alerts via email. For Windows. including server errors. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. visitor segmentation. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility.
site cleanup. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. etc. such as option compatibilities on a single product. WYSIWYG editor. HTML and GIF optimization. Database Backup. Statistical Reports. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. scheduler. detecting. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. User Administration. high-level functions save template coding time. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. Installer easily installs system on your server. Search. low cost for large sites. Free for use on small sites. and more. Works on multiple platforms. PHP-Code Insertion. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. additional features include manual or customizable automated control.com for web site updating. upload resuming. template-based dynamically-created content. verifying content and functional integrity. link verification. spatial relationships between products. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. Provides complete software developers environment. drag-and-drop.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. All can be integrated without writing code. load testing. based on database-driven. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Message Board. Dynamic Menu. and a robust API. Multilingualism. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC.
Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software.. For Mac or Windows. services for capturing. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. Manages Web content. index/search. version control. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. Enables services such as library services. and archiving. management of workflow. replication and administration. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. Page 41 of 60 . anticipate capacity shortfalls. workflow. production. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. For Windows. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). Enables scheduling of content refreshes. portals and scanned images. Inc. conversion services. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. where all content and content types are stored for management. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. including creation. deploying. based on native XML and XSL technologies. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. staging. Mac.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. security. isolate. publishing. personalization. and manage and report on service level agreements. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. documents. content development. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. tracking of revisions. editing. reuse and access. and customizable workflow. digital assets.
PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. Evaluation copy available. management. standards-based environment. Page 43 of 60 . HTML validation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. monitoring. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. monitoring and recovery. content management and site visualization. metrics. alerting. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. server failure detection. and e-mail notifications. works with many servers. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. real-time server monitoring of server response time. For Windows. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. access control. For Windows. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. e-mail submission of web content. link checking. OS's. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. link analysis and quality control. version control. number of pending requests. server management. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. Interwoven Team Site Web development. Web based interface for load balancing administration. For MS and Netscape web servers. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. logging. E-mail/pager notifications. logging capabilities. and platforms. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. link problems. UNIX. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. etc. network management. for customizable automated site mapping. For Windows. and publishing control tool. For Windows. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. requires Windows and MSIE.
and servers. security. HTML-to-Text converter. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. Visual site structure editor. thumbnail viewer. XML repositories. provides notifications of problems. link checking. Support for managing content stored in databases. For Windows. graphics management. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. and static files. management. Includes automated deployment. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. spell checker. scheduled and on-demand reporting. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Date stamper. etc. Page 44 of 60 . Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. Server side compatible with many available web servers. variable lock controls. etc. For Windows. databases. global search-and-replace. API's. image tag checker. Meta manager. administration. file edit merging. customizable reports. publishing. From Talicom. Link checker. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. layout editor. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. links. comparison capabilitie.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance.. Includes version control. staging/publishing control. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. error info is linked to error in html. file uploading. link checker. and maintenance. For Windows. and encryption capabilities. Validates against various HTML versions. includes site management capabilities. connections. For Windows or Unix. logs. For Windows and Unix. has updateable rulebase. browser extensions. browser interface.
check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. upload to a bug tracking system. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. analyzing and sharing of usability data. SiteTimer service . Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. For anyone interested in css. URL2image.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. from how it breaks down the HTML. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. system resource usage. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. for automated recording.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. and system configuration information. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer .com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. and share with others. Perl.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. more. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. examine server's HTTP headers. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. from TechSmith Corp. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. to which links it extracts.8. For Windows. web standards and elastic design. Free. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. can specify the screen width(s). Consists of 3 components. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . and MS Excel for charting and modeling. system operations in 7 different categories. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders.
etc. XML.). Professional. Free. Services information. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . ports. Free. data creation or capture and replay. ODBC sources. mainboard. virtual memory settings. services. Includes CPU. environment settings. drives. system file listings. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. memory details. set breakpoints. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. processor information. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Network Adaptor Information. physical memory information. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. more. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. tune-up wizard. and much more.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. and other versions available in multiple languages. device drivers. loaded modules.) in small text files. for Windows. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. component details. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. etc. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Provides performance enhancing tips. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Sandra 'System ANalyser. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. processes. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. loss. html. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. modules. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. etc. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. manage and monitor throughput. and delay. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware.NET event-based scripting subsystem. OS version. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc.
SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. or source code. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. Enables enhancement of QA. Linux. any operating system. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. Macintosh. testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. with GUI. compliance. Windows (on-demand). and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. Page 47 of 60 . Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Can log captures to disk. For Windows. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. For Windows. in most versions of every browser ever released. originally designed for testing networking protocols. packet losses. freeware. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. analogous to running an MRI scan. Linux RPMs. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. and other quality factors. Inc. available as on-line service. Free 90-day trial. delays. binaries.E. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. filters. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. robustness.com. any version. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. binaries and source available. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. and XML switches. It allows the user to peek inside I. and multipath effects. caching proxies. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". security. Can be used on user's workstations.
GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. and various graphs. For windows. FTP. round trip times. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. Overall Site Quality. and any network. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. window advertisements. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. Works with all text-based IP protocols. and generating test scripts. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. Runs on Windows platforms. Also available: MITS. and as source code. and segments sent and received. for Windows. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. retransmissions. client/server. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). Can crawl a site and report errors. Searchability. Inc. MITs. any message definitions. etherpeek. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. such as those produced by tcpdump. mailboxes. Ethernet. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. Freeware. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. and mainframe applications. freeware. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. For automated testing of Web. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. etc). link validation. freeware.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). snoop. throughput. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. Runs on Windows. or WinDump. Available for various UNIX flavors. etc. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. Page 48 of 60 . HP Net Metrix.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. bytes. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. can also programmatically fix most common errors found.
What kinds of testing should be considered? 11.monitoring and improving the process. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. What is 'good code'? 14. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. It is oriented to 'detection'. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. 3.) 2. and does C. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What is verification and Validation? 8. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What is software 'quality'? 13. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. It is oriented to 'prevention'. Why does software have bugs? 6. What's an 'inspection'? 10. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. then D should happen'). (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. Testing FAQ 1. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1.
according to mid-2004 news reports. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. if any. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank.S. the worst power system failure in North American history. portions of the project could be salvaged. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system.S. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. Studies were under way to determine which. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. government IT systems project. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. According to the report. In early 2004. A major U. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. According to news reports in April of 2004. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code.
the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. 4. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. like anyone else. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. Among other tasks. effects on other projects. enormous relational databases. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). In early 2000.programmers. problems included 10.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. and didn't work. Programming errors . which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. Multi-tiered applications. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. can make mistakes. was delivered late. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills.S.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. rescheduling of engineers. hardware requirements that may be affected. public school district with 100. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. 5. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord.000+ students.redesign. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors.S. data communications. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 .000 customers. or may understand and request them anyway .000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. preventing problems is lowvisibility. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.S. futures exchange. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. client-server and distributed applications. Software complexity . the district's CIO was fired. etc.
etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. class libraries. and testers. For small groups or projects. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. In some fast-changing business environments. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. maintainable code. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . with a goal of clear. often requiring a lot of guesswork. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. In this case. Software development tools . and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . resulting in added bugs. the result is bugs.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. developers. Time pressures . feedback to developers. depending on the type of customers and projects.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. it should be hard to read'). and ensuring adequate communications among customers. complete. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. compilers. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP.visual tools. mistakes will be made. egos . In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. management must understand the resulting risks. managers. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. In fact. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. Poorly documented code .it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. Where the risk is lower. scripting tools. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. understandable. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. 6. the result is bugs. step-at-a-time process.
client and server applications on a network.the most 'micro' scale of testing. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. plans. Integration testing . issues lists. White box testing . typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. Tests are based on coverage of code statements.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. or that test drivers be developed as needed. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. paths. 8. done by programmers or by testers. This can be done with checklists. to test particular functions or code modules. • • Page 54 of 60 . conditions. Unit testing . Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. and specifications. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. 9. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. (b) design inspections and code inspections. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Little or no preparation is usually required. branches. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. 10. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. Incremental integration testing . Tests are based on requirements and functionality. not to fix anything. individual applications.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. most problems will be found during this preparation. and inspection meetings. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. and a recorder to take notes. 7. The 'parts' can be code modules. requirements. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing .testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. code. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. reader. walkthroughs.
using network communications. or corrupting databases. video recording of user sessions. For example. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.testing of full. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. hardware failures. such as interacting with a database. Usability testing . Clearly this is subjective. Performance testing . This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. etc. or systems if appropriate.testing for 'user-friendliness'. Functional testing .similar to system testing. partial.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. User interviews. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Page 55 of 60 . the 'macro' end of the test scale. Failover testing . or upgrade install/uninstall processes. Regression testing . Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. large complex queries to a database system. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. input of large numerical values.testing an application under heavy loads. or other catastrophic problems. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. or interacting with other hardware.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. this type of testing should be done by testers. willful damage.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Stress testing . especially near the end of the development cycle.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. surveys.testing how well a system recovers from crashes.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails.) System testing .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. covers all combined parts of a system. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. Install/uninstall testing .re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. etc.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. Sanity testing or smoke testing . Acceptance testing . Load testing . applications. Compatability testing . may require sophisticated testing techniques. environment. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. bogging down systems to a crawl.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Recovery testing . and other techniques can be used. End-to-end testing .
In 'agile'-type environments. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. If possible. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. changes.start testing early on. re-testing.e-mail.clear. detailed. not paper. 11. Typically done by end-users or others. groupware. testing. and intended use of software. If changes are necessary. Alpha testing . plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. Comparison testing . Adequate testing . informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. and documentation. re-test after fixes or changes. attainable.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. User acceptance testing .often taken to mean a creative. promote teamwork and cooperation.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun.. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . etc. Context-driven testing .testing of an application when development is nearing completion.allow adequate time for planning. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . bug fixing. Mutation testing . cohesive. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. Ad-hoc testing . Realistic schedules . complete. Beta testing . For example.similar to exploratory testing. and be prepared to explain consequences. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out.preferably electronic. intranet capabilities. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. testers may be learning the software as they test it. not by programmers or testers. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . Proper implementation requires large computational resources. design. make extensive use of group communication tools . they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. not by programmers or testers. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release.testing driven by an understanding of the environment. culture. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. Typically done by end-users or others. Communication .
these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). be consistent in naming conventions. • 13. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. be consistent in naming conventions. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line).) In adding comments. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. avoid abbreviations. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. stockholders. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools.vertically and horizontally.use both upper and lower case. less than 50 lines is preferable. For C and C++ coding. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. avoid abbreviations. and is maintainable.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. etc. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. indentations. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. delivered on time and within budget. or what is too many or too few rules. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. less than 100 lines of code is good. etc. Function and method sizes should be minimized. customer acceptance testers. There are also various theories and metrics. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. is bug free. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. Organize code for readability. Use descriptive function and method names . What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. and is readable and maintainable. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . However. use of brackets. quality is obviously a subjective term.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. customer management. customer contract officers. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. the development organization's. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. etc. No matter how small. future software maintenance engineers. 'Peer reviews'. meets requirements and/or expectations. Use descriptive variable names . One code statement per line.use both upper and lower case. naming conventions. Use whitespace generously . magazine columnists.
Level 2 . understandable. Defense Department contractors. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things.software project tracking. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading.characterized by chaos. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability.For programs that have a user interface. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . Defense Department to help improve software development processes. and configuration management processes are in place. developed by the SEI. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. make liberal use of exception handlers.S. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. However. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. Level 3 .) For C++. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors.S. realistic planning. Few if any processes in place. successes may not be repeatable. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. keep class methods small. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. successful practices can be repeated. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. • • • 15. 14. For C++. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. requirements management. initiated by the U. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. periodic panics. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. For C++.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). and works correctly when implemented. easily modifiable. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. Level 1 . many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. and maintainable.
(b)Q90002000 . after which a complete reassessment is required. Of those. 2% at 4. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829)..Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. development.the focus is on continuous process improvement. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. design. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. In the U. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). and 5% at 5. 62% were at Level 1. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. servicing.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. and 0. MOF. processes. ITIL. internal design.4% at 5. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. and quality is consistently high. coding. and other aspects.S. not just software. Trillium. document preparation. Project performance is predictable. 23% at 2. Level 5 . test planning. federal contractors or agencies. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). It includes aspects such as initial concept. Bootstrap.metrics are used to track productivity. For those rated at Level 1. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE.iso.Quality Management Systems: Requirements.ch/ for the latest information.it indicates only that documented processes are followed. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. production. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. and other processes. installation. 23% at 3.asq. testing. integration. requirements analysis.S. and CobiT. documentation planning. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . 17. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. (c)Q9004-2000 . the primary industrial standards body in the U. Level 4 . the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. phase-out. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . retesting. 13% at 3. 27% were rated at Level 1. 16. TickIT. functional design.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . and others. 39% at 2. maintenance.among other things. Also see http://www. and products.S. testing. To be ISO 9001 certified.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. 6% at 4. updates. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. 1018 organizations were assessed. 32% of organizations were U. It covers documentation.
Other tools . This approach can enable more efficient control.) can be a difficult task. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. Web test tools . Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. the primary being: http://www. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. data. condition coverage. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. client-side and server-side programs work.such as via a spreadsheet . The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test.to check that links are valid. Coverage analyzers . The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box').for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. etc. development. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. and for all types of platforms. For larger projects. Additionally. Page 60 of 60 . Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing.com/testing/. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. and configuration management. For example. or some underlying code in the application is changed.since they are separate from the test drivers. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. bug reporting. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects.vyomworld. logs.monitor code complexity. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. If new buttons are added.for test case management. etc. HTML code usage is correct. documentation. documentation management. etc. Load/performance test tools . path coverage. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. Memory analyzers . a web site's interactions are secure. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. This document is for internal purposes only. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers . the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. etc. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . buttons. adherence to standards. dialog box choices.