This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
Page 1 of 60
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
Page 2 of 60
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
Page 3 of 60
The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. Unlike black box testing. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. clear box and open box testing. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. opaque-box. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. maintainability and usability. functional. With that in mind. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. structural. and all visible code must also be readable. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION.2. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. There are many approaches to software testing. Page 4 of 60 . This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. 2. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". and closed-box. completeness and quality of developed computer software. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. glass-box and clear-box. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces.1. stability. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Types of Testing 2. portability. 2.
3. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code.1. 2. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. In practice. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.2.4. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden.3. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. Page 5 of 60 . This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.3. but it's still discouraged. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. etc.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.3.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". 2.3. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. 2. system testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. Unit Testing In computer programming. 2.) can use any test design methods. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.3. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach.
3. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. Page 6 of 60 .1. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. for example.3. assemblages (or groups of units). and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. Therefore. groups them in larger aggregates. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database.5. By definition. in order to test the class. As a result. performance problems and any other system-wide issues.6. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. it will not catch integration errors. 2.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. across procedure calls or process activations. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. In addition. i.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. These "design items". Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. 2. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object.4. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs.e. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. This is a mistake.4. This results in loosely coupled code. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing.
g. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. if it is made to respond faster. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load.5.5. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path.2. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. Performance testing can serve different purposes.5. In performance testing. 2. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. Performance Testing In software engineering..1. In the diagnostic case. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. will result in the overall system running faster. response time.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. Usually. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . given as number of users vs. etc. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. that while the average response time might be acceptable. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. Various tools.e. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. However. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. e. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. i. are available to perform such tests.
although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks.3. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. Performance testing can be performed across the web. either pass/fail. 2. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. where they had found the system spent most of its time. Analyzing the results. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. deployment of server instrumentation. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. database access times. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. often to a breaking point. etc. It can also be done in-house. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. network overhead. 2. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. For example. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem.6. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . in order to observe the results.5. router configuration. and even done in different parts of the country. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users).Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’.
a computer interface. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. or interpreting feedback. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page." Page 9 of 60 . 2.7. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. During usability testing. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs.7. then developers should improve the design and test it again. or a device) for its intended purpose. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. manipulating parts. If usability testing uncovers difficulties.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. 2.e. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. usability testing measures the usability of the object. bots. Data corruption and application Defacement. Downtime. performance testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. to discover errors and areas of improvement. Stress testing a subset of load testing. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. compromising usability and functionality. Also see testing. Data theft. i. including making things work with people. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles.1.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible.8. software testing. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. a document.
For example. it will work just the same in production.11. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. to which the system should conform. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. In the pharmaceutical field. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. Stability Testing In software testing. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. 2. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. 2. ideally. and ask him or her to undertake this task. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. Users of the system will perform these tests which. software will not run etc. and what people like.).10. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. paper prototypes. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. illustration quality. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. or realistic situation. "Do you understand this?".9. and pre. Rather. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. For example. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. Page 10 of 60 . Instruction phrasing. 2. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. so that developers can see problem areas.
testing is usually required before release to the general public.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. This technique is known as black box testing. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. A beta release is very close to the final release. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same.13. In distributed systems. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. Ideally. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software.12. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. 2. Beta Testing Many a time.14. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. 2. Alfa Testing In software development. 2. Page 11 of 60 .
Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. Regression testing takes. System testing takes. As a rule. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. and as such. During this testing. as its input. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. 2.15. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. 2. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. New York. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. NY. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. 1990. 1990. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. As a rule. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. New York. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware.). as its input. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s).16. NY. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. and as such. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.). System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Page 12 of 60 .
along with various additional pieces of information. and (e) easy to evaluate. author. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. operating system and browser versions. Page 13 of 60 . and its expected result.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. and regression testing. database or other common repository.18. or even a test scenario. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. spreadsheet.17. Test Cases. The optional fields are a test case ID. In a database system. Suits. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. 2. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. (c) credible. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. and descriptions. system. depth. They may also be called a test script. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. A test case is usually a single step. (d) complex. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. and descriptions of the following tests. test category. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. test step or order of execution number. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. related requirement(s).
cryptographic protocols.. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. Validation is the complementary aspect. does the product do what the user really requires. 2. and tracking them to closure. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. 2.20.e. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM).19. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. timed automata and hybrid automata. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. symbolic state space enumeration. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). Defect Tracking In engineering. abstract interpretation. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. digital circuits with internal memory.. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration.g. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. using formal methods. Page 14 of 60 . abstraction refinement. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions.1. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. E. (by inspection. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. but not the same as session-based testing. does the product conform to the specifications. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. Petri nets.20. processalgebraic methods. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. 2. or recording feedback from customers). and abstractions of general software components.. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. testing. combinatorial circuits.e.
2. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. Thus. by crashing.e. 2. For this reason. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs.. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically.1.21. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. or by failing in-built code assertions). Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. then there are defects to correct. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find.21. so that if the computer fails dramatically. such as relational databases. usually before applying it to the software. i.21. 2. rather than a direct measure. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. rather than behaving correctly. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. 2. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. If the program fails (for example. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. the test data is preserved. For example. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. • Database inputs are from tabular data. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. However. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system.
3. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values.21. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. and then ignore impossible requests. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. By using all of these techniques in combination.21. 2. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures.4. 2. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. not handling every possible binary value. However. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. Database fuzz is controversial.21. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states.5. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. without even crude validation. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . or conforms to actual production data. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. decode every possible binary value.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. 2.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
• • •
In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
• • •
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
• • • • • •
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
Page 17 of 60
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
Page 18 of 60
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
Page 19 of 60
Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. 4. problem/bug tracking. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents.1. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. boundary value analyses. communications. load. coverage analyzers. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. required standards and processes (such as release processes. It provides a repeatable. etc.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. software.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. change processes. those responsible for tasks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. test tracking. set up test tracking processes.unit. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. Determine test approaches and methods . test environment. reporting requirements. set up logging and archiving processes. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 .1. and determine scope and limitations of tests. system. functional design. etc. etc. test cases. etc. timelines. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects.10. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. set priorities. integration. functional. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. usability tests. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be.
objective.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. After the problem is resolved. etc. 'Released for Retest'. action. and reproduce it if necessary. system. it should encapsulate these processes. Bug identifier (number. or event and an expected response. If a problem-tracking system is in place. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 .g. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. ID. screen.) The application name or identifier and version The function. test conditions/setup. etc. steps. input data requirements. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. object. and expected results.. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. feature. platform. fixes should be re-tested. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. etc.) Current bug status (e. get an idea of it's severity. module. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. test case name. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. For this reason. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). 'New'.
and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. effects on other projects. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . Windows-type interfaces. or may understand and request them anyway .the customer may not understand the effects of changes. management must understand the resulting risks. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. testers need to know when retesting is needed. enormous relational databases. data communications. can make mistakes. the result is bugs. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. In this case. In some fast-changing business environments. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. Software complexity . mistakes will be made. Egos .it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. often requiring a lot of guesswork.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). the result is bugs. For instance. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. Programming errors .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. Poorly documented code . known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. hardware requirements that may be affected. client-server and distributed applications.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that.programmers. Time pressures . rescheduling of engineers. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. Changing requirements . and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. like anyone else. etc.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.redesign.
etc. Tag Libs. GJTester Java unit.2. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Extensive documentation. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write.visual tools.1. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. etc. metrics. Recorded GUI elements. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. scripting capabilities. profiler. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. Includes: Unit Tester. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. it should be hard to read'). RMI. class libraries. tuning.). understandable code. and other server technologies as well. Code Analyzer. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. and server application's modules. Includes a natural user interface. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. without implementing test clients. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. regression. Filters. resulting in added bugs. Software development tools . Enables test case and test script development without programming. EJBs. 5. scripting tools. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. In fact. Testing Tools and Software 5. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . Test private and protected functions. compilers. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. Useful for testing CORBA. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage.
for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. licensed under the BSD License. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules.awt. predefined (XML. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. From Apache Software Foundation. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. or from the command line. JUnit .available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. TEXT) or custom report generation. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. Contains Page 24 of 60 . which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. for which JUnit may be sufficient). using Ant. It uses JUnit and extends it. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). HTML. LaTex. etc) through an in-container approach. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. CSV. Free . a script editor/recorder. Typically use within your IDE. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Provides recording and playback capabilities.Robot class. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Enables quick composition of a performance test suite.
J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. PDF. package and produces reports in multiple formats. configurable. JSynTest. Fifty different audits and metrics. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. etc. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . and C++ applications. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. and dependencies for Java. JEvolve. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. method. JCover test coverage analyzer. methods. highly scalable. Cyclomatic Number. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. source distribution. or via a Swing GUI. control flow analysis and diagramming.e. tree node expanding. JBrowser class browser. button pushing. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. HTML. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. package. statements. JMSAssert. compiler-style output. file. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. Gathers coverage measures of branches. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. View coverage data in XML. at all levels and between all levels. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. Shows all dependencies. Halstead Measures. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. C. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software.. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. virtual machines. class.). or jar file. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. Works with source or compiled files. Coverage difference comparison between runs. application. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. for speed. Available as binary distribution (including documentation).. etc. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. and other IDE's. . Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. Coverage API provided. Inc. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth.. etc. text typing. PerformaSure Low-overhead. JBuilder. components. classes. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited.
Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. and race conditions. or are planning to add such capabilities. and applications. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. includes Java support. thread and event analysis. JProfiler freeware version available. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. management. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. complexity. Integrates with several Java IDE's. and network metrics. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. and size metrics related to reusability. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. Halstead Software Science metrics.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. OptimizeIt Profiler. Check listed web sites for current information.) Page 26 of 60 . Has online advisor for quality improvement. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. servlets. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. and clarity. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). stalls. maintainability. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. or load testing of java applets. thread debugger. coverage analysis. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. procedural. testability. OS. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. written in Java. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool.
Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. familiar interface for managing files. detects and reports redirected URL. free version or low-cost pro version. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. supports SSL websites. Export to text. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. DNS servers and SSL certificates. evaluation version available. includes FTP link checking. CSV. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. multiple page list and site list capabilities. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. HTTPS. Page 27 of 60 . finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors.. For Windows platforms. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. Excel. updates links to moved and renamed files. for Windows. can be automatically scheduled. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. HTML. For Windows. free trial period available.3. such as internal and external links. RTF. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. several report formats available. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. Site Map. For Windows. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. used to test and validate critical website components. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. and FTP protocols. Runs as often as every hour. customizable reports. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. fixes broken links with an easy. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. For Windows. or as infrequent as once a week. Handles HTTP. domain names. 3-click process. employs a simple. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics.
5. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. results can be exported to database. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. 'what's new' reporting. Windows.'s link checker/site mapping tool. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. Discontinued. Mac.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. ID/Password entries. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. doc-not-found. ability to check password-protected areas. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix.0 or 3. but old versions still available as freeware. Windows. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. HTML syntax error checking. for UNIX and PERL.5. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. page size analysis. organize and Page 28 of 60 . capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. 5. allowing for customizable queries and reports. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. For all UNIX flavors. Not updated in recent years. For Windows. Churchyard. Not updated in recent years. reports URLs changed since last checked. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. configurable. support for all standard server-side image maps. formatting disorganized editing. originally by Dave Raggett. Results stored in database. relocations. unauthorized-access. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. Available as source code. timeouts. Available as source code or binaries.net. by Francois Pottier.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Has not been updated in recent years. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. randomized order checking. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. It helps users to create. link checker. and finding problem HTML areas. For Windows. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). released under IBM's Common Public License. Handles one URL at a time. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. binary avaialable for Linux. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites.4. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. site has much documentation and related info. test resumption at interruption point.
Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. and Runner executes the test case document. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. and other typical business web application features. with its HTML objects recognition. and a Data-Driven. such as bitmap or text matching. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. playback window/size can be different than in capture. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. Maker creates test case documents. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. C++ or C++/MFC. LLC. 90-day evaluation copy available. branching statements. can be inserted during a recording. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. but also adds mock objects. Fuzzy matching capabilities. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Includes an Intelligent. Handles Applets. Free including source code. STC Master and STC Master Service. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. etc. cookie testing and form submission. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. Page 30 of 60 . animated bitmaps. This includes web page navigation. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Active-X controls. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. scripts have to be developed manually. (300+ commands). automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. Flash. validation of table contents. form entry and submission. etc. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. until recording capabilities are added. Special validation points. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge.
can audit UNIX. data theft or system destruction. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. remediation management of vulnerabilities. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. websites. and browser checkup tool. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. inside and outside the firewall. based on the SATAN model. firewalls. updated bi-monthly. network security scan. Mac. remote self scan and API facilities.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Scheduled vulnerability scanning. plug-in facility for third party apps. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. SANS/ISTS certified. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. asset management. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Inc. Freeware. Runs on Macintosh. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. routers. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. CVE standards support. real-time IDS event analysis. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations.
Single machine or full network scans. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Includes DoS testing. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. by Renaud Deraison. web server requests-per-second benchmark. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. Works with a variety of operating systems. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. open-source remote network security auditing tool. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. Customizable reporting. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. denial-of-service checks. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Nessus Security Scanner Free. Learns about network as it scans. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . product runs on Windows. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. Runs on many UNIX flavors. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. reports specify severity levels of problems. Updated regularly.com for individual machines. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. Port scans. CVE compatible. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. Can scan a variety of operating systems. and a wide variety of other tests. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation.
includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. DMZ and externally visible assets. routers. Page 36 of 60 . prepares remediation advice. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. etc. etc. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. routers. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. or managed service. etc. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. Provides flexible risk management reports. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. organized by subject. remediation information. intrusion detection tools. firewalls. what services (ports) they are offering. scanners. operating systems. and many other characteristics. printers. hubs. desktops. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. publications. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. electronic law. software product. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. intrusion detection resources. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. workstations. servers. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. Available as a hardware appliance. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. etc. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links.
works with a variety of web servers. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. and site monitoring capabilities. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. service types. not just for testing. and Web Governance.org. Information Assurance.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. site scores..roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. Similar managed service also available. promoting.. Inc. combined utilities/tools. (Includes various types of security tools. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. database servers. Accessibility. Inc. FPT/publishing.7. Includes link checker. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. Desktop product for multiple platforms. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . and OS's.) 5. traffic analysis. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. server management and optimization tools. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. for maintaining. Free and professional versions available. combining site content. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. Limitedcapability free version also available. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. and online service available. WYSIWYG editor. analyzing web sites.
click path analysis. bandwidth usage. pagers. response times. and diagnostics. run scripts. server. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. automatically reboot servers. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. page aborts. network errors. isolation. and repair. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. from AllScoop. etc. For Windows. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. Alerts via email. sends email notification if site is slow or down. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. including server errors. Captures and monitors real user sessions. services. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . suited to large systems. and popup. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . restart apps and services. applications. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. visitor segmentation. etc. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. response errors. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. net send. restart services. real-time executive dash board. page sizes. and network. capabilities include notifications via email. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. for performance and availability monitoring. network management. SMS.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. and more. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis.
such as option compatibilities on a single product. upload resuming. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. All can be integrated without writing code. template-based dynamically-created content. Statistical Reports. HTML and GIF optimization. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. verifying content and functional integrity. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. Search. etc. site cleanup. detecting. and a robust API. high-level functions save template coding time. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. PHP-Code Insertion. Free for use on small sites. Dynamic Menu. scheduler. spatial relationships between products. link verification. load testing. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Message Board. Provides complete software developers environment. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. Database Backup. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). and more. reporting and fixing problems before users see them.com for web site updating. WYSIWYG editor. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . User Administration.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. based on database-driven. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. Works on multiple platforms. Installer easily installs system on your server. low cost for large sites. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Multilingualism. drag-and-drop.
based on native XML and XSL technologies. index/search. security. For Mac or Windows. and manage and report on service level agreements. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. personalization. conversion services. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository.. management of workflow. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. services for capturing. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. version control. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. replication and administration. anticipate capacity shortfalls. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. content development. tracking of revisions. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. reuse and access. Inc. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. isolate. publishing. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. portals and scanned images. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. Page 41 of 60 . Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). including creation. deploying. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. production. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. workflow. and customizable workflow. Manages Web content. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. staging. For Windows. documents. Mac. editing. where all content and content types are stored for management. and archiving. Enables services such as library services. digital assets.
metrics. Interwoven Team Site Web development. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. server management. access control. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. E-mail/pager notifications. real-time server monitoring of server response time. network management. Page 43 of 60 . works with many servers. Web based interface for load balancing administration. alerting. logging capabilities. and publishing control tool. server failure detection. monitoring. HTML validation. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. requires Windows and MSIE. link analysis and quality control. monitoring and recovery. and e-mail notifications. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. For Windows. For Windows. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. For Windows. OS's. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. standards-based environment. e-mail submission of web content. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. for customizable automated site mapping. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. version control.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. link problems. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. logging. For MS and Netscape web servers. management. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. content management and site visualization. UNIX. link checking. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. number of pending requests. For Windows. Evaluation copy available. and platforms. etc.
For Windows. Includes automated deployment.. connections. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. Page 44 of 60 . file edit merging. For Windows or Unix. file uploading. graphics management. administration. and servers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. spell checker. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. browser extensions. image tag checker. links. customizable reports. etc. link checker. security. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. management. staging/publishing control. etc. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. browser interface. has updateable rulebase. provides notifications of problems. Meta manager. For Windows. logs. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. HTML-to-Text converter. databases. thumbnail viewer. includes site management capabilities. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. XML repositories. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. link checking. API's. and static files. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. layout editor. comparison capabilitie. For Windows and Unix. Link checker. Date stamper. Visual site structure editor. Server side compatible with many available web servers. For Windows. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. variable lock controls. scheduled and on-demand reporting. Validates against various HTML versions. and maintenance. publishing. From Talicom. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. and encryption capabilities. global search-and-replace. Includes version control. Support for managing content stored in databases. error info is linked to error in html.
TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. Free. SiteTimer service . EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC.8. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. and compress the result into a very small file to replay.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. system resource usage. system operations in 7 different categories. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. examine server's HTTP headers. and share with others. can specify the screen width(s). to which links it extracts. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. For Windows. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. URL2image. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. from how it breaks down the HTML. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. and system configuration information. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. upload to a bug tracking system. Perl. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. more.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. for automated recording. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. from TechSmith Corp.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. Consists of 3 components. analyzing and sharing of usability data. web standards and elastic design. For anyone interested in css.
Services information. system file listings. Free.NET event-based scripting subsystem. component details. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. data creation or capture and replay. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. physical memory information. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Professional. tune-up wizard. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. processor information. ports. memory details. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. virtual memory settings. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. mainboard. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . more. etc. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. Network Adaptor Information. device drivers. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. ODBC sources. modules. Includes CPU. loaded modules. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. etc. Provides performance enhancing tips.) in small text files. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. and much more. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. processes. drives. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. and delay. Sandra 'System ANalyser. services. OS version.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. and other versions available in multiple languages. html. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. loss. for Windows. Free. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. XML.). set breakpoints. environment settings. etc. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. manage and monitor throughput.
captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. Linux RPMs. any operating system. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. compliance.com. Free 90-day trial. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. testing. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. Page 47 of 60 . Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. robustness. Inc. caching proxies. Enables enhancement of QA. freeware. delays. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. security.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Macintosh. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. available as on-line service. Linux.E. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. analogous to running an MRI scan. Can be used on user's workstations. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. and multipath effects. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. It allows the user to peek inside I. binaries. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. For Windows. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. packet losses. any version. and XML switches. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. with GUI. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. For Windows. filters. originally designed for testing networking protocols. and other quality factors. binaries and source available. Windows (on-demand). Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. or source code. in most versions of every browser ever released. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. Can log captures to disk.
For automated testing of Web. such as those produced by tcpdump. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. snoop. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. window advertisements. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. client/server. retransmissions.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). freeware. and as source code. and segments sent and received. freeware. round trip times. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. and various graphs. bytes.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. MITs. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. For windows. etc). link validation. Also available: MITS. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. and generating test scripts. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. Runs on Windows platforms. FTP. Searchability. Runs on Windows. Available for various UNIX flavors. Ethernet. Overall Site Quality. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). any message definitions. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. Works with all text-based IP protocols. Can crawl a site and report errors. for Windows. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. and any network. and mainframe applications. Freeware. throughput. Page 48 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. etc. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. Inc. or WinDump. mailboxes. etherpeek. HP Net Metrix.
Why does software have bugs? 6. then D should happen'). It is oriented to 'prevention'. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What is software 'quality'? 13. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. What's an 'inspection'? 10. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What is verification and Validation? 8. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. 3. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4.) 2. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. and does C. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. Testing FAQ 1. It is oriented to 'detection'.monitoring and improving the process. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. What is 'good code'? 14. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process .
The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. A major U. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug.S. if any. according to mid-2004 news reports. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase.S. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. According to news reports in April of 2004. government IT systems project. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. According to the report. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. portions of the project could be salvaged. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. In early 2004. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. the worst power system failure in North American history. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. Studies were under way to determine which. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers.
telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. hardware requirements that may be affected. preventing problems is lowvisibility. futures exchange. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. etc. data communications. public school district with 100.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. In early 2000.000 customers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. Programming errors .S. and didn't work.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. problems included 10. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . like anyone else. can make mistakes. Multi-tiered applications. effects on other projects. enormous relational databases.programmers. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U.S. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . If there are many minor changes or any major changes. 4. Software complexity . the district's CIO was fired. rescheduling of engineers. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U.S.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Among other tasks. was delivered late. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. client-server and distributed applications. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.000+ students. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units.redesign. or may understand and request them anyway . 5.
understandable. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. mistakes will be made.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . Software development tools . maintainable code. scripting tools. 6. egos . management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. compilers. Time pressures . feedback to developers. it should be hard to read'). a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. In fact. complete. resulting in added bugs. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. developers. also in Part 2 of the FAQ.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. depending on the type of customers and projects.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. Where the risk is lower.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. the result is bugs. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. In this case. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. For small groups or projects. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. etc. often requiring a lot of guesswork. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. class libraries.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. step-at-a-time process. the result is bugs. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors.visual tools. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. Poorly documented code . with a goal of clear. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. and testers. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. In some fast-changing business environments. managers. management must understand the resulting risks. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP.
not to fix anything. branches. White box testing .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan.the most 'micro' scale of testing. This can be done with checklists. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. Little or no preparation is usually required. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. and a recorder to take notes. 9. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. and inspection meetings.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. or that test drivers be developed as needed. paths. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. requirements. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. client and server applications on a network. conditions. individual applications. (b) design inspections and code inspections. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. code. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. Integration testing . The 'parts' can be code modules. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . • • Page 54 of 60 . Unit testing .testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. and specifications. 8. Incremental integration testing . plans. reader. 10. issues lists.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. most problems will be found during this preparation. walkthroughs. 7. to test particular functions or code modules. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. done by programmers or by testers. Tests are based on coverage of code statements.
or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. Performance testing . if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.testing for 'user-friendliness'. willful damage.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. User interviews. video recording of user sessions. Sanity testing or smoke testing . using network communications. bogging down systems to a crawl. Load testing . and other techniques can be used. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. End-to-end testing . heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. Install/uninstall testing . Regression testing . partial.) System testing . Clearly this is subjective.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. Failover testing . this type of testing should be done by testers.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. covers all combined parts of a system. input of large numerical values. etc.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. surveys. or interacting with other hardware. Page 55 of 60 .similar to system testing. or systems if appropriate. applications.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. Acceptance testing . For example. especially near the end of the development cycle. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. Compatability testing . This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. may require sophisticated testing techniques. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. Functional testing .testing of full. or upgrade install/uninstall processes. or other catastrophic problems. environment. such as interacting with a database. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Recovery testing . the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state.testing an application under heavy loads. the 'macro' end of the test scale. large complex queries to a database system.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. hardware failures. Usability testing . It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. Stress testing . or corrupting databases. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. etc.
cohesive.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . Comparison testing . Realistic schedules .clear.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements .. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. design. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. User acceptance testing . Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. make extensive use of group communication tools . For example.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. not paper.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release.often taken to mean a creative.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. re-test after fixes or changes.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products.e-mail.preferably electronic. detailed. culture. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. testing. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Typically done by end-users or others. not by programmers or testers. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. testers may be learning the software as they test it. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . re-testing. If changes are necessary.testing driven by an understanding of the environment.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. attainable. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. Beta testing . 11. and be prepared to explain consequences. etc.similar to exploratory testing. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. changes. and intended use of software. and documentation. groupware. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. If possible. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. promote teamwork and cooperation. Adequate testing . Mutation testing . complete. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. Communication . insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. Context-driven testing .allow adequate time for planning. not by programmers or testers. bug fixing. intranet capabilities.start testing early on. Alpha testing . This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. Typically done by end-users or others. Ad-hoc testing . In 'agile'-type environments.
and is readable and maintainable. Use descriptive function and method names . less than 50 lines is preferable. etc. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. less than 100 lines of code is good. and is maintainable. be consistent in naming conventions. use of brackets. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. 'Peer reviews'. indentations. future software maintenance engineers. However. stockholders. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity.vertically and horizontally. be consistent in naming conventions. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. There are also various theories and metrics.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . but everyone has different ideas about what's best. Function and method sizes should be minimized. customer contract officers.use both upper and lower case. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. Use whitespace generously . Use descriptive variable names . What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. For C and C++ coding. magazine columnists. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). • 13. One code statement per line. is bug free. quality is obviously a subjective term. avoid abbreviations. customer management. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. etc.) In adding comments. delivered on time and within budget. the development organization's. or what is too many or too few rules. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. meets requirements and/or expectations. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. Organize code for readability. customer acceptance testers.use both upper and lower case. avoid abbreviations. No matter how small. naming conventions.
many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. understandable. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation.For programs that have a user interface. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. 14. and maintainable. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. make liberal use of exception handlers. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. • • • 15. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. and works correctly when implemented. successes may not be repeatable. For C++. developed by the SEI. initiated by the U. realistic planning. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'.) For C++. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . However. and configuration management processes are in place.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). Defense Department contractors. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. Level 2 .S. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University.software project tracking. easily modifiable.characterized by chaos. periodic panics. Few if any processes in place. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. Level 3 . What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. Level 1 . and if reasonably applied can be helpful. keep class methods small. requirements management.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). successful practices can be repeated.S. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. For C++.
testing. 16..iso.the focus is on continuous process improvement. (c)Q9004-2000 . testing. Also see http://www. 6% at 4. Trillium.S. servicing.metrics are used to track productivity. 13% at 3. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. design. internal design. documentation planning. 2% at 4.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. coding. 39% at 2. and products.S. (b)Q90002000 . maintenance. and other aspects. 23% at 3. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . It includes aspects such as initial concept. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. To be ISO 9001 certified. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . functional design. 17. and CobiT. 62% were at Level 1. and 5% at 5.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . In the U. MOF. Level 5 . installation. test planning.ch/ for the latest information. retesting.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. processes.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. document preparation.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. Bootstrap. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards.4% at 5.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. and other processes. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. production. updates. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. the primary industrial standards body in the U.asq. 23% at 2.among other things. Of those. 32% of organizations were U. federal contractors or agencies. ITIL. phase-out. requirements analysis. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. integration. Level 4 . 1018 organizations were assessed. For those rated at Level 1.S. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). not just software.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). after which a complete reassessment is required. and others. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . It covers documentation. Project performance is predictable. and quality is consistently high. development. TickIT. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730).it indicates only that documented processes are followed. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. and 0. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. 27% were rated at Level 1.
logs. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. buttons.such as via a spreadsheet . HTML code usage is correct. Additionally. dialog box choices.) can be a difficult task. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .to check that links are valid. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. etc. For example. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. documentation management. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. and for all types of platforms. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool.since they are separate from the test drivers. If new buttons are added. documentation.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts.monitor code complexity. This document is for internal purposes only. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. etc.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. a web site's interactions are secure. etc. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. Load/performance test tools . path coverage. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type.com/testing/. etc. condition coverage. Other tools . client-side and server-side programs work. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. Memory analyzers . This approach can enable more efficient control. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. and configuration management.for test case management. Page 60 of 60 .vyomworld. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. development. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. For larger projects. adherence to standards. etc. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. Coverage analyzers .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. data. or some underlying code in the application is changed. the primary being: http://www.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. bug reporting. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. Web test tools .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.