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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. completeness and quality of developed computer software. functional.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. and closed-box. 2. maintainability and usability. glass-box and clear-box. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. Unlike black box testing. With that in mind. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. Page 4 of 60 . The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data.1. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. stability. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. Types of Testing 2. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. 2. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. structural. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. clear box and open box testing. There are many approaches to software testing.2. opaque-box. portability. and all visible code must also be readable. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it".
It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.3. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design.) can use any test design methods.3. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct.3. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". Unit Testing In computer programming.2. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate.3. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. Page 5 of 60 . 2. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.4. etc. 2.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. 2. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. system testing. In practice.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. but it's still discouraged. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. 2. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 220.127.116.11. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.
This results in loosely coupled code.4.e. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.3. in order to test the class. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. As a result. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program.5. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly.6.4. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. These "design items". 2. Therefore. 2. groups them in larger aggregates. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. i. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. In addition. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. it will not catch integration errors. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface. assemblages (or groups of units). thus minimizing dependencies in the system. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. This is a mistake.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. across procedure calls or process activations. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. for example. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. Page 6 of 60 . By definition. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities.1.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.3. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. 2.
5. given as number of users vs. In the diagnostic case. Performance Testing In software engineering. etc. response time..5. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. However.2. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. if it is made to respond faster. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. Usually. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. will result in the overall system running faster. Various tools. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time.g. are available to perform such tests.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. In performance testing.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. i. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition.e. that while the average response time might be acceptable. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. e. 2. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing.5. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. Performance testing can serve different purposes. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum.1.
since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. Analyzing the results.3. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. and even done in different parts of the country. 2. where they had found the system spent most of its time. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. deployment of server instrumentation. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. router configuration. It can also be done in-house. often to a breaking point. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. For example.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. database access times. 2. etc. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks.5. either pass/fail. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). network overhead. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. in order to observe the results.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity.6. Performance testing can be performed across the web.
compromising usability and functionality. Data theft. including making things work with people. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. Downtime. usability testing measures the usability of the object. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". bots.7. Stress testing a subset of load testing. During usability testing.8. performance testing. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. 2. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. or interpreting feedback. Data corruption and application Defacement. then developers should improve the design and test it again. or a device) for its intended purpose.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. i." Page 9 of 60 . a document. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. to discover errors and areas of improvement.7. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. a computer interface. Also see testing. 2.e. software testing. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. manipulating parts. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles.1.
2. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. Users of the system will perform these tests which. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. Instruction phrasing.11. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. "Do you understand this?".9.). paper prototypes. Page 10 of 60 . For example. For example. and ask him or her to undertake this task. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended.10. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. 2. illustration quality. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. to which the system should conform. and pre. Stability Testing In software testing. Rather. it will work just the same in production. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. In the pharmaceutical field. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. 2. ideally. software will not run etc.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. or realistic situation. so that developers can see problem areas. and what people like.
The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. Ideally.12. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. 2. In distributed systems. Page 11 of 60 . Alfa Testing In software development. 2.14. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. This technique is known as black box testing.13.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. A beta release is very close to the final release. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. Beta Testing Many a time. 2. testing is usually required before release to the general public.
and as such. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). 2. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. Page 12 of 60 . 1990. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.). As a rule. 2. System testing is testing conducted on a complete.16. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.15. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. 1990. and as such. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. NY. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE.). IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. As a rule. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. System testing takes. NY. as its input. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Regression testing takes. New York. During this testing. New York. as its input. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing.
system. or even a test scenario. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. related requirement(s). These steps can be stored in a word processor document. depth. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. test step or order of execution number. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. operating system and browser versions. along with various additional pieces of information. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. and (e) easy to evaluate. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. (c) credible. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. A test case is usually a single step. author. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps.17. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities.18. and descriptions.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. and regression testing. 2. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. They may also be called a test script. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. (d) complex. Suits. spreadsheet. and its expected result. test category. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. Page 13 of 60 . In a database system. database or other common repository. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. and descriptions of the following tests. Test Cases. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. The optional fields are a test case ID. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results.
for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. 2. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. does the product conform to the specifications. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. using formal methods. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. combinatorial circuits. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. Validation is the complementary aspect. and abstractions of general software components.20. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i.. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. (by inspection. Petri nets. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. 2. and tracking them to closure.. symbolic state space enumeration. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. or recording feedback from customers).e. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically..e. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i.g. 2. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. but not the same as session-based testing. processalgebraic methods. E. timed automata and hybrid automata. testing. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). digital circuits with internal memory. cryptographic protocols. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.20.19. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. does the product do what the user really requires. Page 14 of 60 . Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. abstract interpretation. abstraction refinement. Defect Tracking In engineering. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task.1.
Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. 2. or by failing in-built code assertions).2. such as relational databases. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. 2. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. usually before applying it to the software. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?").e. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. rather than behaving correctly. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . by crashing. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. rather than a direct measure. 2. Thus. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. then there are defects to correct.21. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. the test data is preserved.1. For this reason.21. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. i. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. so that if the computer fails dramatically. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs.. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. • Database inputs are from tabular data. For example. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. However. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. If the program fails (for example.21.
without even crude validation. 2.4. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun.21. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database.3. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. Database fuzz is controversial. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. By using all of these techniques in combination. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. not handling every possible binary value. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. and then ignore impossible requests. 2. or conforms to actual production data.5. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. decode every possible binary value. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. 2.21. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. However. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases.21.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. and determine scope and limitations of tests. Determine test approaches and methods .1. test cases.unit. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development.10. set up test tracking processes. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. set up logging and archiving processes. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. usability tests. Obtain budget and schedule requirements.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. those responsible for tasks. functional design. system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. reporting requirements. functional. required standards and processes (such as release processes. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. set priorities. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. change processes. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. coverage analyzers. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. etc. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. load. boundary value analyses. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. problem/bug tracking. test environment. etc.1. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 .) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. etc. test tracking. timelines. It provides a repeatable. integration. software. etc. communications. 4. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements.
What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. get an idea of it's severity.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. 'New'.. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . Bug identifier (number. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. ID. module. 'Released for Retest'. test case name. object. platform. test conditions/setup.) Current bug status (e. and expected results. After the problem is resolved. etc. it should encapsulate these processes. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly.) The application name or identifier and version The function. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. screen.g. etc. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. action. system. objective. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). or event and an expected response. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. fixes should be re-tested. For this reason. and reproduce it if necessary. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. input data requirements. etc. steps. If a problem-tracking system is in place. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. feature.
Time pressures . data communications.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. Poorly documented code . mistakes will be made. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. hardware requirements that may be affected. Egos .scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. client-server and distributed applications. effects on other projects. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. can make mistakes. or may understand and request them anyway . If there are many minor changes or any major changes. For instance. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. the result is bugs. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Programming errors . In some fast-changing business environments. the result is bugs. rescheduling of engineers. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. Windows-type interfaces. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. enormous relational databases. management must understand the resulting risks. Changing requirements .the customer may not understand the effects of changes.redesign. In this case. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. Software complexity . etc. often requiring a lot of guesswork. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . like anyone else. testers need to know when retesting is needed.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages.programmers.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.
without implementing test clients. regression. etc. GJTester Java unit.visual tools. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. and other server technologies as well. Includes: Unit Tester. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Tag Libs. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. 5. scripting capabilities. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. EJBs. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. In fact. resulting in added bugs. Testing Tools and Software 5.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. tuning. Filters.). presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep.1. compilers. scripting tools. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. Code Analyzer. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. and server application's modules. Test private and protected functions. understandable code. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. it should be hard to read'). Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. RMI. metrics. Includes a natural user interface. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. Enables test case and test script development without programming. class libraries. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. Software development tools . Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. profiler. Useful for testing CORBA.2. etc. Recorded GUI elements. Extensive documentation.
From Apache Software Foundation. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge.Robot class. Contains Page 24 of 60 . licensed under the BSD License. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. using Ant. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. Typically use within your IDE. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. predefined (XML. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License.awt. HTML. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). LaTex. CSV. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. Free . Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. JUnit .Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. for which JUnit may be sufficient). jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. or from the command line. Provides recording and playback capabilities. a script editor/recorder. TEXT) or custom report generation. It uses JUnit and extends it. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. etc) through an in-container approach. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code.
J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. classes. tree node expanding. and C++ applications. JBrowser class browser.e. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. and other IDE's. package. JCover test coverage analyzer. Shows all dependencies. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. etc. . methods.. Gathers coverage measures of branches. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle.). application. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. Works with source or compiled files. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . Inc.. control flow analysis and diagramming. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. for speed. etc. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis.. method. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. configurable. virtual machines. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. button pushing. or via a Swing GUI. source distribution. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. compiler-style output. Coverage difference comparison between runs. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. JMSAssert. Fifty different audits and metrics. C. PDF. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. Coverage API provided. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. and dependencies for Java. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. Halstead Measures. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. text typing. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. JBuilder. View coverage data in XML. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. etc. components. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. statements. HTML. class. JEvolve. at all levels and between all levels. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. or jar file. JSynTest. package and produces reports in multiple formats. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. file. PerformaSure Low-overhead. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. highly scalable.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. Cyclomatic Number.
code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. or load testing of java applets. OptimizeIt Profiler. coverage analysis. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. servlets. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. Halstead Software Science metrics. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. and race conditions. Has online advisor for quality improvement. complexity. includes Java support. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. thread and event analysis. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. and clarity. JProfiler freeware version available. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. testability. Integrates with several Java IDE's. and size metrics related to reusability. and applications. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. and network metrics. maintainability. Check listed web sites for current information. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. stalls. thread debugger. procedural. OS. management.) Page 26 of 60 . written in Java. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. or are planning to add such capabilities.
provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. RTF. Page 27 of 60 . and FTP protocols. detects and reports redirected URL. Runs as often as every hour. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. Site Map. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. CSV. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. can be automatically scheduled. or as infrequent as once a week. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. includes FTP link checking. For Windows. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. used to test and validate critical website components. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. free version or low-cost pro version. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. such as internal and external links. Handles HTTP. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. evaluation version available. HTML. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. customizable reports. For Windows. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. free trial period available. domain names. employs a simple. supports SSL websites.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. Export to text. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software.3. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors.. updates links to moved and renamed files. For Windows platforms. for Windows. multiple page list and site list capabilities. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. HTTPS. Excel. DNS servers and SSL certificates. several report formats available. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. For Windows. familiar interface for managing files. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. fixes broken links with an easy. 3-click process.
5. For all UNIX flavors. reports URLs changed since last checked. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. relocations.net. 5. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. ID/Password entries. organize and Page 28 of 60 .5. timeouts. For Windows. For Windows. Results stored in database. link checker. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. by Francois Pottier. Churchyard. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. It helps users to create. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. originally by Dave Raggett. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. page size analysis. formatting disorganized editing. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. Mac. for UNIX and PERL. 'what's new' reporting. Not updated in recent years. site has much documentation and related info. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. allowing for customizable queries and reports. Windows. test resumption at interruption point. released under IBM's Common Public License. Has not been updated in recent years. Available as source code or binaries.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking.'s link checker/site mapping tool. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case.0 or 3.4. binary avaialable for Linux. Discontinued. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. configurable. and finding problem HTML areas. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. Windows. but old versions still available as freeware. doc-not-found. Available as source code. results can be exported to database. randomized order checking. HTML syntax error checking. For automatic fixing of HTML errors.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. unauthorized-access. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. support for all standard server-side image maps. Not updated in recent years. Handles one URL at a time. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. ability to check password-protected areas. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags.
until recording capabilities are added. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. branching statements. validation of table contents. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. Page 30 of 60 . LLC. etc. playback window/size can be different than in capture. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. STC Master and STC Master Service. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). and other typical business web application features. C++ or C++/MFC. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Maker creates test case documents. etc. 90-day evaluation copy available. such as bitmap or text matching. and Runner executes the test case document. animated bitmaps. Handles Applets. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. scripts have to be developed manually. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. but also adds mock objects. with its HTML objects recognition. form entry and submission. Free including source code. Fuzzy matching capabilities. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Active-X controls. cookie testing and form submission. Includes an Intelligent. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. Flash. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. Special validation points. and a Data-Driven. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. (300+ commands). Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. This includes web page navigation. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. can be inserted during a recording.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering.
real-time IDS event analysis. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. routers. websites. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. Mac. data theft or system destruction. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. network security scan. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. CVE standards support. Freeware. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. firewalls. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. SANS/ISTS certified. asset management. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. can audit UNIX. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. and browser checkup tool. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. remediation management of vulnerabilities. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. updated bi-monthly. Runs on Macintosh. remote self scan and API facilities. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Inc. inside and outside the firewall. plug-in facility for third party apps. based on the SATAN model. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program .
denial-of-service checks. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. Learns about network as it scans. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. CVE compatible. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool.com for individual machines. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. by Renaud Deraison. Works with a variety of operating systems. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . Customizable reporting. Single machine or full network scans. Port scans. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . web server requests-per-second benchmark. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. Includes DoS testing. and a wide variety of other tests. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. Limited free or full licensed versions available. open-source remote network security auditing tool. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. product runs on Windows. Updated regularly. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. Nessus Security Scanner Free. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Runs on many UNIX flavors.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. reports specify severity levels of problems.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Can scan a variety of operating systems. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories.
CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. or managed service. operating systems. firewalls. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. intrusion detection resources. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. what services (ports) they are offering. scanners. Available as a hardware appliance. hubs. routers. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. etc. Provides flexible risk management reports. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. electronic law. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. remediation information. desktops. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. etc. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. DMZ and externally visible assets. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. and many other characteristics. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. software product. routers. prepares remediation advice. etc. publications. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. etc. servers. printers. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. Page 36 of 60 . intrusion detection tools. workstations. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. organized by subject.
WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. database servers.. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. WYSIWYG editor. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 .org. combined utilities/tools. Desktop product for multiple platforms. traffic analysis.7. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions.) 5. not just for testing. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. Similar managed service also available. promoting. service types. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Free and professional versions available. server management and optimization tools.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. (Includes various types of security tools. Limitedcapability free version also available. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. for maintaining. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. Accessibility. and online service available. and OS's. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Inc. and site monitoring capabilities. combining site content.. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. works with a variety of web servers. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. analyzing web sites. Information Assurance. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. FPT/publishing. Includes link checker. Inc. site scores. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. and Web Governance. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base.
and network. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring .Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. restart apps and services. click path analysis. services. network management. Alerts via email. for performance and availability monitoring. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. visitor segmentation. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. etc. run scripts. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. response errors. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. page aborts. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . real-time executive dash board. bandwidth usage. applications. response times. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. capabilities include notifications via email. automatically reboot servers. including server errors. sends email notification if site is slow or down. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. net send. page sizes. pagers. and diagnostics. For Windows. SMS. and popup. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. Captures and monitors real user sessions. and more. network errors. etc. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. server. suited to large systems. isolation. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. restart services. from AllScoop. and repair.
additional features include manual or customizable automated control. Works on multiple platforms. template-based dynamically-created content. upload resuming. such as option compatibilities on a single product. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. Multilingualism. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. based on database-driven. Installer easily installs system on your server. and more. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. WYSIWYG editor. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Dynamic Menu. link verification.com for web site updating. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. Search. Provides complete software developers environment. site cleanup.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. low cost for large sites. PHP-Code Insertion. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. HTML and GIF optimization. spatial relationships between products. drag-and-drop. Statistical Reports. User Administration. load testing. high-level functions save template coding time. All can be integrated without writing code. etc. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. Message Board. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . reporting and fixing problems before users see them. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Database Backup. verifying content and functional integrity. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. scheduler. detecting. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. Free for use on small sites. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. and a robust API.
security. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. and customizable workflow.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. editing. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. digital assets. deploying. For Windows. based on native XML and XSL technologies. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository.. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. publishing. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). Page 41 of 60 . where all content and content types are stored for management. index/search. services for capturing. staging. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. including creation. For Mac or Windows. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. workflow. tracking of revisions. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. isolate. Inc. conversion services. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. Mac. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. management of workflow. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. Manages Web content. and manage and report on service level agreements. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. anticipate capacity shortfalls. documents. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. Enables services such as library services. reuse and access. version control. portals and scanned images. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. personalization. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. content development. and archiving. replication and administration. production.
For Windows. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. and publishing control tool. logging capabilities. For Windows. HTML validation. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. for customizable automated site mapping. server failure detection. For Windows. E-mail/pager notifications. and e-mail notifications. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. network management. alerting. works with many servers. etc. Page 43 of 60 . allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. version control. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. For MS and Netscape web servers. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. requires Windows and MSIE. logging. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. e-mail submission of web content. monitoring and recovery. link problems. standards-based environment. real-time server monitoring of server response time. link checking. number of pending requests. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. access control. and platforms. For Windows. link analysis and quality control. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. content management and site visualization. server management.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. management. OS's. monitoring. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. metrics. Web based interface for load balancing administration. UNIX. Evaluation copy available. Interwoven Team Site Web development. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration.
Runs on servers and monitors server performance. API's. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. etc. scheduled and on-demand reporting. browser interface. logs. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. and servers. variable lock controls. From Talicom. XML repositories.. Includes automated deployment. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. provides notifications of problems. administration. image tag checker. connections. For Windows. Validates against various HTML versions. etc. Date stamper. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. comparison capabilitie. thumbnail viewer. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. and static files. browser extensions. spell checker. management. publishing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. error info is linked to error in html. Link checker. staging/publishing control. Server side compatible with many available web servers. and maintenance. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. Meta manager. HTML-to-Text converter. customizable reports. layout editor. For Windows or Unix. link checking. file edit merging. security. links. includes site management capabilities. and encryption capabilities. Visual site structure editor. has updateable rulebase. For Windows. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. For Windows and Unix. global search-and-replace. graphics management. databases. link checker. file uploading. Support for managing content stored in databases. Includes version control. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. Page 44 of 60 . HTML PowerTools HTML validator. For Windows.
for automated recording. examine server's HTTP headers. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. more. URL2image. Free.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. web standards and elastic design. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. SiteTimer service .com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. For Windows. can specify the screen width(s). Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. Consists of 3 components. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. upload to a bug tracking system. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. Perl.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. from how it breaks down the HTML. from TechSmith Corp. system resource usage. to which links it extracts. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. analyzing and sharing of usability data. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. system operations in 7 different categories. For anyone interested in css. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. and share with others.8. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. and system configuration information. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer .
processes. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. Professional. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. Network Adaptor Information. virtual memory settings. manage and monitor throughput. device drivers. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. Includes CPU. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. modules. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. and other versions available in multiple languages. OS version. more. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. etc. loss. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. ports. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Sandra 'System ANalyser. and delay. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. etc. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. html. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. drives. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . loaded modules. environment settings.) in small text files.NET event-based scripting subsystem. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. set breakpoints. and much more. ODBC sources. for Windows. services. system file listings. physical memory information. etc. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. Free.). tune-up wizard. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Provides performance enhancing tips. Free. mainboard. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. component details. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. XML. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. processor information. Services information. data creation or capture and replay. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. memory details.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler.
binaries. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. compliance. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. Free 90-day trial. and multipath effects. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. security. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. and other quality factors.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore.E. analogous to running an MRI scan. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. originally designed for testing networking protocols. For Windows. Can log captures to disk. filters. testing. delays. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. binaries and source available. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. It allows the user to peek inside I. and XML switches. any operating system. Linux RPMs. available as on-line service. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. caching proxies. with GUI. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent".com. freeware. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Linux. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. in most versions of every browser ever released. Windows (on-demand). robustness. Macintosh. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. packet losses. Page 47 of 60 . For Windows. any version. or source code. Can be used on user's workstations. Inc. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. Enables enhancement of QA. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility.
mailboxes. Also available: MITS. Works with all text-based IP protocols. window advertisements. Overall Site Quality. and as source code. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. Runs on Windows. any message definitions. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. etc. retransmissions. and generating test scripts. freeware. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. etc). HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. throughput. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. Inc. MITs. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. snoop. such as those produced by tcpdump. HP Net Metrix. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. round trip times. freeware. for Windows. Available for various UNIX flavors. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. etherpeek. Freeware. link validation. or WinDump. Ethernet. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. Page 48 of 60 . This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. For windows. and any network. FTP. For automated testing of Web. bytes.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. and mainframe applications.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. and various graphs. client/server. Searchability. Runs on Windows platforms.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. and segments sent and received. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. Can crawl a site and report errors.
Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. 3. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. and does C. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . Testing FAQ 1. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. What is verification and Validation? 8. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. Why does software have bugs? 6. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. It is oriented to 'prevention'. What's an 'inspection'? 10.) 2. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What is software 'quality'? 13. What is 'Software Testing'? 3.monitoring and improving the process. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. It is oriented to 'detection'. What is 'good code'? 14. then D should happen'). What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7.
The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. According to the report. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. A major U. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. portions of the project could be salvaged.S. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. according to mid-2004 news reports. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. if any. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. Studies were under way to determine which. According to news reports in April of 2004. the worst power system failure in North American history. In early 2004. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004.S. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. government IT systems project. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers.
public school district with 100. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U.redesign. problems included 10. data communications. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. In early 2000. etc. 4.000+ students. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. Software complexity . Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . like anyone else.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. hardware requirements that may be affected. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Among other tasks. Programming errors . 5.S. effects on other projects. or may understand and request them anyway . This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills.000 customers. enormous relational databases. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. futures exchange. Multi-tiered applications.S. can make mistakes. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. rescheduling of engineers. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. client-server and distributed applications.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.S. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. the district's CIO was fired. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. preventing problems is lowvisibility. was delivered late. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. and didn't work.programmers.
How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. managers. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. In some fast-changing business environments. feedback to developers. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. maintainable code. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . A lot will depend on team leads or managers. step-at-a-time process. In fact. 6. scripting tools. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. mistakes will be made. with a goal of clear. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. it should be hard to read').see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. For small groups or projects. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. the result is bugs. complete. egos . often requiring a lot of guesswork. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. Where the risk is lower. In this case. the result is bugs. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 .it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. understandable. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. depending on the type of customers and projects. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. class libraries. Poorly documented code . often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. etc. Software development tools . Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. compilers. management must understand the resulting risks. Time pressures . resulting in added bugs.visual tools. developers. and testers.
requirements. and a recorder to take notes. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. Tests are based on requirements and functionality.the most 'micro' scale of testing. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. This can be done with checklists. Integration testing . Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. branches. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. 9. done by programmers or by testers. individual applications.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. not to fix anything.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. 7. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. conditions. 8. Unit testing . Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. client and server applications on a network. paths. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing .testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. and specifications. most problems will be found during this preparation. issues lists. Little or no preparation is usually required. reader. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. (b) design inspections and code inspections. code.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. or that test drivers be developed as needed. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. and inspection meetings. 10. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. White box testing . typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. walkthroughs. • • Page 54 of 60 . The 'parts' can be code modules. Incremental integration testing . Tests are based on coverage of code statements. to test particular functions or code modules. plans. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed.
covers all combined parts of a system.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. Stress testing . Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. Functional testing .term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. or upgrade install/uninstall processes. Acceptance testing .testing for 'user-friendliness'. User interviews. this type of testing should be done by testers. bogging down systems to a crawl. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. Failover testing .typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. Sanity testing or smoke testing . especially near the end of the development cycle.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. using network communications. and other techniques can be used. etc. hardware failures.testing how well a system recovers from crashes. surveys. Load testing . input of large numerical values.testing an application under heavy loads. Recovery testing . Clearly this is subjective. Compatability testing . or systems if appropriate. may require sophisticated testing techniques.testing of full. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. applications. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. or other catastrophic problems.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. such as interacting with a database. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. willful damage. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. or corrupting databases. Performance testing .final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . environment. or interacting with other hardware. etc. Regression testing . or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. large complex queries to a database system.) System testing .similar to system testing. Usability testing . if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. For example. Install/uninstall testing . Page 55 of 60 . partial.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. the 'macro' end of the test scale. End-to-end testing . video recording of user sessions.
make extensive use of group communication tools . networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. Adequate testing . If possible. and documentation. Beta testing .require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. detailed. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing .clear. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. groupware. promote teamwork and cooperation. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. In 'agile'-type environments. Context-driven testing .. intranet capabilities. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . cohesive. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. complete. bug fixing.often taken to mean a creative. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. Typically done by end-users or others. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. Typically done by end-users or others. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations.similar to exploratory testing. Ad-hoc testing . 11.e-mail. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. not by programmers or testers. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . re-test after fixes or changes. testing. • • • • Page 56 of 60 .preferably electronic. If changes are necessary. Alpha testing . Communication .testing driven by an understanding of the environment. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. Realistic schedules . attainable. and be prepared to explain consequences.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. etc. User acceptance testing . and intended use of software.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game.start testing early on. changes. Mutation testing .a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. design. re-testing. not by programmers or testers. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases.allow adequate time for planning.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. culture. For example. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . not paper. Comparison testing . testers may be learning the software as they test it.
use both upper and lower case. Function and method sizes should be minimized. Organize code for readability.vertically and horizontally. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. indentations. the development organization's. meets requirements and/or expectations. naming conventions. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users.use both upper and lower case. be consistent in naming conventions. and is maintainable. be consistent in naming conventions. use of brackets. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. Use whitespace generously . One code statement per line. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). Use descriptive variable names . No matter how small. and is readable and maintainable. or what is too many or too few rules. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. less than 50 lines is preferable. avoid abbreviations. quality is obviously a subjective term. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. etc.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). stockholders. customer acceptance testers. magazine columnists. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. etc. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . future software maintenance engineers. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. However. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. such as McCabe Complexity metrics.) In adding comments. Use descriptive function and method names . 'Peer reviews'. • 13. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. customer contract officers. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. For C and C++ coding. There are also various theories and metrics. avoid abbreviations. customer management. less than 100 lines of code is good. delivered on time and within budget. is bug free.
but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. successes may not be repeatable. Level 2 . It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. Defense Department contractors. keep class methods small. easily modifiable. For C++. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. developed by the SEI. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. 14. make liberal use of exception handlers. and works correctly when implemented. Level 1 . However. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. periodic panics. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. requirements management. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. understandable.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. and maintainable. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors.software project tracking. Level 3 . Minimize use of multiple inheritance. realistic planning. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects.For programs that have a user interface.characterized by chaos. and configuration management processes are in place. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading.S. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear.) For C++. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. For C++.S. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. Few if any processes in place. initiated by the U. successful practices can be repeated. • • • 15. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). Defense Department to help improve software development processes.
It includes aspects such as initial concept. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . not just software. For those rated at Level 1. In the U.. (b)Q90002000 . TickIT. retesting. testing.it indicates only that documented processes are followed. testing. Bootstrap.S. MOF. phase-out. the primary industrial standards body in the U.4% at 5. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. Level 5 .S.iso. To be ISO 9001 certified. 13% at 3. 17. servicing. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). documentation planning. Trillium.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. and certification is typically good for about 3 years.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. installation.asq. 27% were rated at Level 1. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . ITIL. 2% at 4. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . and 5% at 5. It covers documentation. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . and other processes. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations.among other things.ch/ for the latest information. Also see http://www. document preparation. requirements analysis.metrics are used to track productivity. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. and quality is consistently high. 62% were at Level 1. and 0. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. 23% at 2. and CobiT. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'.the focus is on continuous process improvement.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. functional design. 39% at 2.S. coding. 1018 organizations were assessed. test planning. Level 4 . 23% at 3. and other aspects. 6% at 4.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. integration. 16. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). Project performance is predictable. development. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. production. federal contractors or agencies. and others. and products. 32% of organizations were U. updates. after which a complete reassessment is required. design.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. (c)Q9004-2000 . maintenance. internal design. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. processes. Of those.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' .
documentation management. This approach can enable more efficient control. Additionally. development. data. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. and for all types of platforms. and may be oriented to code statement coverage.com/testing/. path coverage. If new buttons are added. Coverage analyzers .such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices.to check that links are valid. For example. logs. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases.for test case management. or some underlying code in the application is changed.vyomworld. the primary being: http://www. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable.) can be a difficult task. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. a web site's interactions are secure. buttons.monitor code complexity.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. Memory analyzers .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. Web test tools . documentation. condition coverage. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. HTML code usage is correct. etc. bug reporting. adherence to standards. etc. Load/performance test tools . client-side and server-side programs work. etc. and configuration management. etc. dialog box choices. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. This document is for internal purposes only. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. Other tools . Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. For larger projects. Page 60 of 60 . Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. etc.such as via a spreadsheet .since they are separate from the test drivers.
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