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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. With that in mind. and closed-box. structural. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. and all visible code must also be readable. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do.2. clear box and open box testing. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". portability. 2. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. 2. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. maintainability and usability. glass-box and clear-box. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1.1. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. stability. Types of Testing 2. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. completeness and quality of developed computer software. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. There are many approaches to software testing. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. opaque-box. functional. Unlike black box testing. Page 4 of 60 .
etc. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. 2. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. system testing. Unit Testing In computer programming. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy.) can use any test design methods. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.1.3. 2. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. Page 5 of 60 . Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. 2.3.3. but it's still discouraged. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible.3. 2. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate.2. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.3. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.3.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. In practice.4. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach.
across procedure calls or process activations. i. 2. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. 2. Therefore. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. By definition.5.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages.1. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. it will not catch integration errors. in order to test the class. for example. 2. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing.4.3. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. This results in loosely coupled code. These "design items". testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. This is a mistake.3. Page 6 of 60 . As a result. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. In addition. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. assemblages (or groups of units).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface.6. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly.e. groups them in larger aggregates. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection.4.
g. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2.5.5. etc. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. Various tools. given as number of users vs. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. In the diagnostic case. if it is made to respond faster. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. will result in the overall system running faster. that while the average response time might be acceptable. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which.e.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use.5.. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. are available to perform such tests. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path.2. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. In performance testing. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script.1. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. 2. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. response time. Usually. However. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. Performance Testing In software engineering. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. i. Performance testing can serve different purposes. e.
It can also be done in-house. etc.3. Performance testing can be performed across the web. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. in order to observe the results. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. and even done in different parts of the country.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. either pass/fail. Analyzing the results. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). often to a breaking point. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. where they had found the system spent most of its time. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally.6. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). 2. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. network overhead. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. router configuration. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. 2.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. deployment of server instrumentation. For example. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating.5. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. database access times.
whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. 2. bots. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. During usability testing. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. including making things work with people. usability testing measures the usability of the object. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. Downtime. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. to discover errors and areas of improvement. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. or a device) for its intended purpose. Stress testing a subset of load testing.7. performance testing.e. i. 2.8.1. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads.7. or interpreting feedback.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. software testing. a computer interface. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. Data corruption and application Defacement." Page 9 of 60 . such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. manipulating parts. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". Also see testing. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. then developers should improve the design and test it again.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. compromising usability and functionality. Data theft. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. a document.
For example. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. software will not run etc. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. and pre. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. to which the system should conform. Page 10 of 60 . so that developers can see problem areas.). usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. "Do you understand this?". Instruction phrasing. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. illustration quality. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. Stability Testing In software testing. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use.9. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. paper prototypes. 2. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. 2. Users of the system will perform these tests which. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario.10. For example.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. Rather. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. or realistic situation. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. In the pharmaceutical field. and ask him or her to undertake this task. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash.11. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. 2. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. it will work just the same in production. ideally. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. and what people like.
the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. 2. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. This technique is known as black box testing. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. Page 11 of 60 . This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. Alfa Testing In software development.12. testing is usually required before release to the general public. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. 2. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. A beta release is very close to the final release. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. Beta Testing Many a time. Ideally.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. In distributed systems. 2. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used.14.13. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same.
all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any.). The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Page 12 of 60 . System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. As a rule. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. During this testing. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). 2.). New York. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. NY. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. 1990. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. New York. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. 2. Regression testing takes. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). and as such. NY. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.16. System testing takes. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. as its input.15. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. 1990. As a rule. and as such. as its input. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.
you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. system. The optional fields are a test case ID. Suits. operating system and browser versions. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit.17. related requirement(s). The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. author. and (e) easy to evaluate. or even a test scenario. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. 2. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. along with various additional pieces of information. (d) complex. and descriptions. spreadsheet. and descriptions of the following tests. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. They may also be called a test script. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. A test case is usually a single step. and regression testing. In a database system.18. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. test step or order of execution number. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. test category. depth. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. (c) credible. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. Page 13 of 60 . database or other common repository. Test Cases. and its expected result.
Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. abstraction refinement.20. E. or recording feedback from customers). The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. timed automata and hybrid automata. does the product do what the user really requires. 2. (by inspection. 2.1. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. using formal methods. processalgebraic methods. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. and tracking them to closure. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. digital circuits with internal memory. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. Page 14 of 60 . 2. symbolic state space enumeration.e. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V.g. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. combinatorial circuits. cryptographic protocols. testing... Defect Tracking In engineering.20. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. and abstractions of general software components. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics..19.e. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). but not the same as session-based testing. does the product conform to the specifications. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. abstract interpretation. Petri nets. Validation is the complementary aspect. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM).
Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. 2. i. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. or by failing in-built code assertions). There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . then there are defects to correct. by crashing. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). rather than a direct measure. If the program fails (for example.1. so that if the computer fails dramatically. • Database inputs are from tabular data. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find.21. 2.. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. such as relational databases. Thus. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. For this reason. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. For example.e. usually before applying it to the software. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio.21.21. the test data is preserved. rather than behaving correctly. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. 2.2. However. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically.
2. software must validate all fields of every queue entry.5. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases.3. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. not handling every possible binary value. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. 2. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. Database fuzz is controversial. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. However. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. decode every possible binary value. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. 2. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. or conforms to actual production data.4.21. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. without even crude validation. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash.21.21. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. By using all of these techniques in combination. and then ignore impossible requests.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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comprehensive definition of a testing campaign.unit. etc.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects.1. test environment. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. and determine scope and limitations of tests. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. load. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. Determine test approaches and methods . A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. etc. timelines. change processes. set priorities. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. software. test cases. required standards and processes (such as release processes. problem/bug tracking. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. 4. boundary value analyses. reporting requirements. set up logging and archiving processes. etc.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools.10. usability tests. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. communications. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. system. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. test tracking.1. It provides a repeatable. those responsible for tasks. etc. set up test tracking processes. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. functional design. functional. coverage analyzers. integration.
feature. etc. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). etc. If a problem-tracking system is in place. 'Released for Retest'. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . where the bug occurred Environment specifics.) The application name or identifier and version The function. input data requirements. test case name. 'New'. ID. or event and an expected response. module. platform. it should encapsulate these processes. steps. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. action. etc. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. objective. screen.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. After the problem is resolved. fixes should be re-tested. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. get an idea of it's severity. test conditions/setup. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. For this reason. system. and reproduce it if necessary.) Current bug status (e. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. Bug identifier (number. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application.. object.g. and expected results.
and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Software complexity . client-server and distributed applications.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. often requiring a lot of guesswork. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. the result is bugs. mistakes will be made. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. enormous relational databases.redesign. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. rescheduling of engineers. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. Time pressures . Windows-type interfaces. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.programmers. Egos . For instance.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. testers need to know when retesting is needed. can make mistakes. the result is bugs. Programming errors . effects on other projects. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . or may understand and request them anyway . In some fast-changing business environments. data communications. management must understand the resulting risks. like anyone else. etc.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. hardware requirements that may be affected. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 .the customer may not understand the effects of changes. Poorly documented code . In this case.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. Changing requirements . Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.
without implementing test clients.2. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. Includes: Unit Tester.). and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. resulting in added bugs. Code Analyzer. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. tuning. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 .visual tools. understandable code. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing.1. Software development tools . Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. scripting tools. and server application's modules. metrics. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. Useful for testing CORBA. regression. class libraries. 5. compilers. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. Test private and protected functions. Extensive documentation. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. etc. Filters. Testing Tools and Software 5. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. Enables test case and test script development without programming. RMI. profiler. EJBs. it should be hard to read'). Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Tag Libs. Includes a natural user interface. GJTester Java unit. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. etc. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. In fact. Recorded GUI elements. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. and other server technologies as well. scripting capabilities. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep.
licensed under the BSD License.Robot class. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. etc) through an in-container approach. a script editor/recorder. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. Free . for which JUnit may be sufficient). jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. TEXT) or custom report generation. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). JUnit . Typically use within your IDE. It uses JUnit and extends it. CSV. using Ant.awt. From Apache Software Foundation.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. HTML. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. LaTex. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. or from the command line. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. predefined (XML. Contains Page 24 of 60 . JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation).
file. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. JCover test coverage analyzer. JBuilder. package. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. configurable.e. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. JEvolve. PerformaSure Low-overhead. statements. virtual machines. . J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. Gathers coverage measures of branches. and dependencies for Java. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. HTML. Inc. compiler-style output. methods. at all levels and between all levels.. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms.. JBrowser class browser. control flow analysis and diagramming. application. PDF. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. View coverage data in XML. Works with source or compiled files. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. tree node expanding. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. package and produces reports in multiple formats. JSynTest. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. highly scalable. Halstead Measures. class. etc. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. C. or via a Swing GUI. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. etc. JMSAssert. for speed. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. or jar file. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. Cyclomatic Number.. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. Coverage API provided. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. Shows all dependencies. button pushing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. source distribution. Fifty different audits and metrics. and other IDE's. method. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE.). Coverage difference comparison between runs. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. classes. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. text typing. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. etc. components. and C++ applications.
OptimizeIt Profiler. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. thread and event analysis. procedural. stalls. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. management. and applications. maintainability. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools.) Page 26 of 60 . Has online advisor for quality improvement. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. JProfiler freeware version available. includes Java support. coverage analysis. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. thread debugger. Check listed web sites for current information. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. and network metrics. OS. or are planning to add such capabilities. testability. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. and size metrics related to reusability. servlets. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. complexity. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. Integrates with several Java IDE's. and race conditions. or load testing of java applets. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. written in Java. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. Halstead Software Science metrics. and clarity.
domain names. Runs as often as every hour. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. supports SSL websites. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. For Windows. free version or low-cost pro version. such as internal and external links. Handles HTTP. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. used to test and validate critical website components. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. For Windows platforms. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. RTF. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. and FTP protocols.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. fixes broken links with an easy. evaluation version available. Site Map. Export to text. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. For Windows. updates links to moved and renamed files. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. For Windows. employs a simple.. familiar interface for managing files. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. or as infrequent as once a week. CSV. for Windows. DNS servers and SSL certificates. several report formats available. detects and reports redirected URL. 3-click process. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. can be automatically scheduled. includes FTP link checking. free trial period available. Page 27 of 60 . multiple page list and site list capabilities. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. HTTPS. customizable reports. Excel. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites.3. HTML. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software.
by Francois Pottier. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. formatting disorganized editing. Churchyard. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Discontinued. Handles one URL at a time.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. configurable. randomized order checking. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. For all UNIX flavors. released under IBM's Common Public License. allowing for customizable queries and reports. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. reports URLs changed since last checked. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. ability to check password-protected areas. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software.4. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. HTML syntax error checking. Available as source code or binaries. site has much documentation and related info. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. test resumption at interruption point. For Windows. 5. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. Results stored in database. link checker. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Mac. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). It helps users to create. Windows. 'what's new' reporting. relocations. doc-not-found. Not updated in recent years. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. and finding problem HTML areas. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. results can be exported to database. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. ID/Password entries. organize and Page 28 of 60 . originally by Dave Raggett. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. binary avaialable for Linux. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking.'s link checker/site mapping tool.0 or 3.5. Has not been updated in recent years. Not updated in recent years. For Windows. for UNIX and PERL. unauthorized-access. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code.net. timeouts. support for all standard server-side image maps. page size analysis. 5. Available as source code. but old versions still available as freeware. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. Windows.
The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. scripts have to be developed manually. cookie testing and form submission. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. but also adds mock objects. LLC. Page 30 of 60 . form entry and submission. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. animated bitmaps. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Includes an Intelligent. Free including source code. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). and a Data-Driven. validation of table contents. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. and Runner executes the test case document. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. etc. Handles Applets. until recording capabilities are added. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Active-X controls. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. playback window/size can be different than in capture. (300+ commands). Fuzzy matching capabilities. C++ or C++/MFC. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. This includes web page navigation. 90-day evaluation copy available. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. with its HTML objects recognition.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. Maker creates test case documents. such as bitmap or text matching. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. Flash. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. etc. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. STC Master and STC Master Service. can be inserted during a recording. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. Special validation points. branching statements. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. and other typical business web application features. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included.
including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. data theft or system destruction. remediation management of vulnerabilities. Freeware. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. based on the SATAN model. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. real-time IDS event analysis. asset management. plug-in facility for third party apps. inside and outside the firewall.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. SANS/ISTS certified. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. remote self scan and API facilities. routers. Mac. firewalls. network security scan. updated bi-monthly. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. can audit UNIX. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. websites. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. Runs on Macintosh. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. and browser checkup tool. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Inc. CVE standards support. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations.
Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. web server requests-per-second benchmark. Single machine or full network scans. open-source remote network security auditing tool. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. reports specify severity levels of problems. Port scans. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. Limited free or full licensed versions available. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. Learns about network as it scans. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. Can scan a variety of operating systems. product runs on Windows. denial-of-service checks. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. Includes DoS testing. Nessus Security Scanner Free. Customizable reporting. Runs on many UNIX flavors. Works with a variety of operating systems. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. Updated regularly. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources.com for individual machines. and a wide variety of other tests. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. by Renaud Deraison. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . CVE compatible. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 .
intrusion detection resources. desktops. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. printers. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. Available as a hardware appliance. scanners. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. Provides flexible risk management reports. prepares remediation advice. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. remediation information. electronic law. publications.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. and many other characteristics. firewalls. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. etc. what services (ports) they are offering. software product. routers. DMZ and externally visible assets. organized by subject. routers. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. intrusion detection tools. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. servers. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. operating systems. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. or managed service. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. Page 36 of 60 . workstations. hubs. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. etc. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. etc. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. etc.
server management and optimization tools. and Web Governance.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. site scores. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. traffic analysis. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. not just for testing. Limitedcapability free version also available. database servers. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 .org. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software.7. for maintaining. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. FPT/publishing. Information Assurance.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. Free and professional versions available. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. Accessibility.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. and site monitoring capabilities. service types. combining site content. analyzing web sites. and OS's. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. combined utilities/tools.. (Includes various types of security tools.. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. Inc. and online service available. Inc. works with a variety of web servers. Includes link checker. Desktop product for multiple platforms. WYSIWYG editor. Similar managed service also available. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. promoting.) 5. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy.
and diagnostics. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. for performance and availability monitoring. etc. sends email notification if site is slow or down. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. net send. visitor segmentation. suited to large systems. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. and more. page sizes. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. server. applications.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. real-time executive dash board. network management. Captures and monitors real user sessions. For Windows. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. run scripts. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. automatically reboot servers. network errors. and popup. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . capabilities include notifications via email. etc. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. response errors. click path analysis. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. and network. including server errors. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. response times. pagers. page aborts. from AllScoop. Alerts via email. SMS. restart apps and services. and repair. services. restart services. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. isolation. bandwidth usage.
template-based dynamically-created content. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. Works on multiple platforms.com for web site updating. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Installer easily installs system on your server. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). etc. upload resuming. low cost for large sites. User Administration. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. detecting. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. Multilingualism. Dynamic Menu. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . based on database-driven. high-level functions save template coding time. verifying content and functional integrity. such as option compatibilities on a single product. drag-and-drop. scheduler. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. Database Backup. spatial relationships between products. and more. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. All can be integrated without writing code. PHP-Code Insertion. load testing. Message Board. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. Search. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Provides complete software developers environment.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. HTML and GIF optimization. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. Statistical Reports. link verification. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. site cleanup. and a robust API. WYSIWYG editor. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Free for use on small sites. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology.
management of workflow. For Windows. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. services for capturing. based on native XML and XSL technologies. For Mac or Windows. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. and manage and report on service level agreements. Enables services such as library services. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP.. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. version control. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. reuse and access. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. deploying. content development.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. anticipate capacity shortfalls. isolate. Manages Web content. workflow. and archiving. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. Inc. index/search. editing. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. where all content and content types are stored for management. digital assets. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). including creation. staging. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. tracking of revisions. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. publishing. security. Mac. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. conversion services. personalization. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. and customizable workflow. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. portals and scanned images. documents. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. replication and administration. Page 41 of 60 . production.
E-mail/pager notifications. HTML validation. etc. Page 43 of 60 . UNIX. real-time server monitoring of server response time. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. requires Windows and MSIE. link analysis and quality control. e-mail submission of web content. and platforms. server failure detection. for customizable automated site mapping. monitoring. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. For Windows. link checking. version control. and e-mail notifications. standards-based environment. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. content management and site visualization. logging capabilities. For MS and Netscape web servers. access control. Evaluation copy available. Web based interface for load balancing administration.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. management. and publishing control tool. link problems. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. metrics. works with many servers. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. For Windows. number of pending requests. network management. For Windows. logging. OS's. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. For Windows. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. monitoring and recovery. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. server management. alerting. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. Interwoven Team Site Web development.
staging/publishing control. For Windows. Visual site structure editor. graphics management. customizable reports. etc. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. logs. thumbnail viewer. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. For Windows. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. management. For Windows or Unix. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. XML repositories. link checker. For Windows and Unix. Includes version control. For Windows. databases. API's. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. Server side compatible with many available web servers. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. Page 44 of 60 . global search-and-replace. Date stamper. includes site management capabilities. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. image tag checker. administration. file uploading.. error info is linked to error in html. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Includes automated deployment. layout editor. browser extensions. publishing. Support for managing content stored in databases. browser interface. From Talicom. Meta manager. and encryption capabilities. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. provides notifications of problems. variable lock controls. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. Link checker. and static files. page in screen is validated with results displayed below.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. link checking. spell checker. Validates against various HTML versions. scheduled and on-demand reporting. comparison capabilitie. security. has updateable rulebase. HTML-to-Text converter. etc. file edit merging. and servers. links. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. connections. and maintenance.
Perl. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. and MS Excel for charting and modeling.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. from how it breaks down the HTML. Consists of 3 components. system operations in 7 different categories. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. web standards and elastic design.8. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. upload to a bug tracking system. Free. to which links it extracts. analyzing and sharing of usability data. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. for automated recording. examine server's HTTP headers. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. more. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. and system configuration information. system resource usage. For anyone interested in css. SiteTimer service . and share with others. from TechSmith Corp. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. can specify the screen width(s). it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. URL2image. For Windows. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations.
and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. XML. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. for Windows. set breakpoints. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. Includes CPU. component details. Sandra 'System ANalyser. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. manage and monitor throughput. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. etc.) in small text files. processes. loss. ODBC sources. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. device drivers. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. Services information. and much more. and other versions available in multiple languages. drives. tune-up wizard. Network Adaptor Information. system file listings. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. physical memory information. processor information. OS version. and delay. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. services.). etc. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. loaded modules. virtual memory settings. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals.NET event-based scripting subsystem. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. memory details. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. html. Professional. modules. data creation or capture and replay. Provides performance enhancing tips. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. ports. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Free. etc. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Free. environment settings. more. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. mainboard.
robustness. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations.com. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. Linux RPMs. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. delays. available as on-line service. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. compliance. caching proxies. Page 47 of 60 . binaries and source available. testing. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. For Windows. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. and other quality factors. Macintosh. with GUI. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. and multipath effects.E. Can be used on user's workstations. It allows the user to peek inside I. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. security. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. Inc. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. filters. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. or source code.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. For Windows. Enables enhancement of QA. Can log captures to disk. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. analogous to running an MRI scan. Free 90-day trial. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. freeware. packet losses. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. any version. binaries. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. Linux. and XML switches. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. in most versions of every browser ever released. Windows (on-demand). originally designed for testing networking protocols. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. any operating system.
For automated testing of Web. Runs on Windows platforms. Inc.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. Searchability. Works with all text-based IP protocols. and any network. etc).comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. such as those produced by tcpdump. Can crawl a site and report errors. freeware. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. and as source code. link validation. Available for various UNIX flavors. and generating test scripts. any message definitions. Runs on Windows. window advertisements. round trip times. For windows. Ethernet. HP Net Metrix. and various graphs. FTP. client/server. etc. retransmissions. or WinDump. etherpeek. freeware. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. throughput. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. Also available: MITS. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. and mainframe applications. MITs. Overall Site Quality. for Windows. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. and segments sent and received.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. snoop. Page 48 of 60 . bytes. Freeware. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. mailboxes. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft.
and does C.) 2. It is oriented to 'detection'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . What is 'good code'? 14. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. Testing FAQ 1. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. What is verification and Validation? 8. then D should happen'). Why does software have bugs? 6. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. 3. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. What is software 'quality'? 13. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. It is oriented to 'prevention'. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What's an 'inspection'? 10. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together.monitoring and improving the process.
The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. In early 2004. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . according to mid-2004 news reports. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. the worst power system failure in North American history. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. portions of the project could be salvaged. Studies were under way to determine which. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool.S. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. government IT systems project. if any.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. According to news reports in April of 2004. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances.S. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. A major U. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. According to the report. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation.
work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out.000+ students. 5. effects on other projects. futures exchange. problems included 10. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. like anyone else. and didn't work. Software complexity .000 customers. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. Among other tasks.programmers. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord.S. etc.redesign. or may understand and request them anyway . 4. can make mistakes. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . client-server and distributed applications. the district's CIO was fired.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. rescheduling of engineers. data communications. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. hardware requirements that may be affected. enormous relational databases. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. Multi-tiered applications.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . public school district with 100. preventing problems is lowvisibility. In early 2000.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. was delivered late.S.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications.S. Programming errors . This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70.
visual tools.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. managers. In fact.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. management must understand the resulting risks. the result is bugs. Poorly documented code . resulting in added bugs. mistakes will be made. scripting tools. and testers. 6.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. Time pressures . In some fast-changing business environments. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. compilers. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. developers. depending on the type of customers and projects. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. Software development tools . often requiring a lot of guesswork. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. understandable. In this case. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. etc. complete. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. maintainable code. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. the result is bugs. feedback to developers. with a goal of clear. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. it should be hard to read'). egos . often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . For small groups or projects. step-at-a-time process. Where the risk is lower. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . class libraries. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'.
or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. code. reader. paths. Unit testing . client and server applications on a network. issues lists. plans. Incremental integration testing .based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. conditions. 10. branches. (b) design inspections and code inspections. not to fix anything. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. White box testing . typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. and specifications. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. The 'parts' can be code modules. walkthroughs. 9. This can be done with checklists. most problems will be found during this preparation. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . 8.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. done by programmers or by testers.the most 'micro' scale of testing. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. individual applications. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. • • Page 54 of 60 . Tests are based on requirements and functionality. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Integration testing . or that test drivers be developed as needed. Little or no preparation is usually required. 7. to test particular functions or code modules.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. and inspection meetings. requirements. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. and a recorder to take notes.
or systems if appropriate. this type of testing should be done by testers. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. surveys.testing for 'user-friendliness'.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. For example.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. Page 55 of 60 . This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. hardware failures. Usability testing .term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. environment. etc. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. or other catastrophic problems. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Failover testing . or interacting with other hardware. video recording of user sessions. End-to-end testing . using network communications.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . or corrupting databases. such as interacting with a database. bogging down systems to a crawl.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Load testing .testing an application under heavy loads. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. Compatability testing . input of large numerical values.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. Clearly this is subjective.similar to system testing. Acceptance testing . heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. may require sophisticated testing techniques. Performance testing .testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. or upgrade install/uninstall processes. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. Sanity testing or smoke testing . Install/uninstall testing . especially near the end of the development cycle. large complex queries to a database system.) System testing . It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. User interviews.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. Stress testing .testing how well a system recovers from crashes. partial. covers all combined parts of a system. Regression testing . willful damage. applications. etc.testing of full. the 'macro' end of the test scale. Functional testing . the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. Recovery testing .black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. and other techniques can be used.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment.
re-testing. changes. Typically done by end-users or others.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. Communication .similar to exploratory testing.testing driven by an understanding of the environment. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. re-test after fixes or changes. Typically done by end-users or others. Ad-hoc testing . attainable. Alpha testing .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . make extensive use of group communication tools . If possible..determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on.often taken to mean a creative. design. cohesive. For example. culture. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements .require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate.preferably electronic. not by programmers or testers. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. groupware. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. not by programmers or testers. not paper. and intended use of software.clear. Mutation testing . complete. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. User acceptance testing . bug fixing. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . intranet capabilities.start testing early on. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible .comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. In 'agile'-type environments. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing.allow adequate time for planning. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. Comparison testing .testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Realistic schedules . testing. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. and be prepared to explain consequences. promote teamwork and cooperation. etc. Adequate testing . the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. If changes are necessary. detailed. Beta testing . informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases.e-mail. and documentation. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. Context-driven testing . testers may be learning the software as they test it. 11. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected.
A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free.) In adding comments. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. etc. the development organization's. Function and method sizes should be minimized. magazine columnists.use both upper and lower case. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. etc. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. • 13. Use descriptive function and method names . etc. use of brackets. No matter how small. future software maintenance engineers. 'Peer reviews'. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. meets requirements and/or expectations. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. Use whitespace generously . is bug free. customer management. avoid abbreviations. indentations. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. and is maintainable. For C and C++ coding. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. quality is obviously a subjective term. stockholders. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. or what is too many or too few rules. naming conventions. However. Use descriptive variable names . use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). less than 100 lines of code is good. be consistent in naming conventions. There are also various theories and metrics. and is readable and maintainable. delivered on time and within budget. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. less than 50 lines is preferable. customer contract officers. avoid abbreviations. customer acceptance testers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. be consistent in naming conventions. One code statement per line. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line).vertically and horizontally. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max.use both upper and lower case. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . Organize code for readability.
to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. realistic planning. However. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. keep class methods small. easily modifiable. 14. Level 1 . CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. successes may not be repeatable. and configuration management processes are in place. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. successful practices can be repeated. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. • • • 15.characterized by chaos. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). Defense Department contractors. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. developed by the SEI. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. make liberal use of exception handlers.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. Few if any processes in place. initiated by the U. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements.software project tracking.S. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. periodic panics. and works correctly when implemented. Level 3 . and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading.For programs that have a user interface. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. Level 2 . and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects.) For C++. For C++. For C++. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . understandable. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). and maintainable. requirements management.S.
Level 5 . and 5% at 5. 39% at 2. 62% were at Level 1. 32% of organizations were U. production.the focus is on continuous process improvement. (b)Q90002000 .Quality Management Systems: Requirements. ITIL. federal contractors or agencies. integration. Trillium. documentation planning. and other processes. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. To be ISO 9001 certified. retesting.among other things. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. development. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. installation. functional design. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . It includes aspects such as initial concept. Of those. (c)Q9004-2000 . after which a complete reassessment is required. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . For those rated at Level 1. and products. not just software.metrics are used to track productivity. coding. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . 27% were rated at Level 1. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. and 0. Bootstrap. MOF. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. TickIT. and others. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). a third-party auditor assesses an organization.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. 13% at 3. and quality is consistently high.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . and other aspects. document preparation. Project performance is predictable. requirements analysis. internal design. the primary industrial standards body in the U.ch/ for the latest information. and CobiT. 1018 organizations were assessed. 16. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 .S.it indicates only that documented processes are followed.asq. 2% at 4. 23% at 2. testing.. 6% at 4. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality). In the U. servicing. test planning.4% at 5. 17. Also see http://www. maintenance. It covers documentation.S. 23% at 3.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance.S. Level 4 . updates.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary.iso. testing.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. phase-out. processes. design. and certification is typically good for about 3 years.
Load/performance test tools . documentation management. For example. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .for test case management. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices.since they are separate from the test drivers. Additionally. documentation. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. etc. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . If new buttons are added.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. This approach can enable more efficient control. condition coverage. dialog box choices. For larger projects. Memory analyzers . adherence to standards. etc. Coverage analyzers .for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. a web site's interactions are secure.to check that links are valid. client-side and server-side programs work. etc.com/testing/. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. etc. bug reporting. or some underlying code in the application is changed. Other tools .such as via a spreadsheet . the primary being: http://www.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects.) can be a difficult task. This document is for internal purposes only. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. path coverage. development. HTML code usage is correct. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool.monitor code complexity. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. Page 60 of 60 . and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. data. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. buttons. and for all types of platforms. logs. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. Web test tools .these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. etc. and configuration management. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it.vyomworld.