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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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glass-box and clear-box. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box".2. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. Unlike black box testing. completeness and quality of developed computer software. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. clear box and open box testing. maintainability and usability. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. functional. and all visible code must also be readable. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. With that in mind. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. Page 4 of 60 . White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. 2. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. 2. portability. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. There are many approaches to software testing. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. structural. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. stability. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. Types of Testing 2. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria.1. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. opaque-box. and closed-box. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one.
but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. 2.3. 2. 2.4.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented.3.1. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs.3.3. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly.2. etc. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. Page 5 of 60 . 2. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested.3. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. but it's still discouraged. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. system testing. Unit Testing In computer programming. In practice.3. Note that any level of testing (unit testing. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct.) can use any test design methods.
Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. 2. it will not catch integration errors. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. Therefore. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface.3.5.4. These "design items". performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. for example. This results in loosely coupled code. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing.4. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database. groups them in larger aggregates.e. By definition. across procedure calls or process activations. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. This is a mistake.1. i. in order to test the class. Page 6 of 60 . 2. performance problems and any other system-wide issues.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. As a result. 2. In addition.6. assemblages (or groups of units).Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly.3.
will result in the overall system running faster. However. Performance Testing In software engineering.2. if it is made to respond faster. given as number of users vs. 2. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. response time. Various tools. i. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing.5. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time.g. Performance testing can serve different purposes.1. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum.e. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. etc.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. that while the average response time might be acceptable.. Usually. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. e. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition.5. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. are available to perform such tests. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. In performance testing. In the diagnostic case.5.
Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. router configuration. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. either pass/fail. Analyzing the results. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Performance testing can be performed across the web. 2.3. often to a breaking point. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. deployment of server instrumentation. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity.5. network overhead. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. 2. in order to observe the results. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. and even done in different parts of the country. For example. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. where they had found the system spent most of its time. database access times. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . It can also be done in-house. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform).6. etc.
including making things work with people. or interpreting feedback. bots. compromising usability and functionality. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. Downtime. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. Data corruption and application Defacement.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. Also see testing. performance testing. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. Stress testing a subset of load testing. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. then developers should improve the design and test it again. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. usability testing measures the usability of the object. 2.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. software testing. i.7.7. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts.e. manipulating parts. During usability testing. a document. 2. Data theft. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. a computer interface. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. to discover errors and areas of improvement. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions." Page 9 of 60 .8. or a device) for its intended purpose.1. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -.
In the pharmaceutical field. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. paper prototypes. and what people like. Users of the system will perform these tests which. and pre. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use.). stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. and ask him or her to undertake this task. or realistic situation. "Do you understand this?". For example. For example. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. 2. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. 2. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. illustration quality.9. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts.11. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. so that developers can see problem areas. it will work just the same in production.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. Page 10 of 60 . and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. Stability Testing In software testing. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. Rather. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. ideally. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. software will not run etc. when testing instructions for assembling a toy.10. Instruction phrasing. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. to which the system should conform.
This technique is known as black box testing. Page 11 of 60 . A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. Alfa Testing In software development.14. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment.12. In distributed systems. Ideally. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. 2. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. 2. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful.13. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. A beta release is very close to the final release. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. 2. testing is usually required before release to the general public. Beta Testing Many a time.
as its input. New York. as its input. 1990. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. 1990. Page 12 of 60 .15. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. Regression testing takes. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. As a rule. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. 2. and as such. NY. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. During this testing. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole.16. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. New York. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. NY. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. 2. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. and as such. As a rule.). System testing takes. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.). According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary.
Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. spreadsheet. Test Cases. along with various additional pieces of information. (c) credible. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. depth. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. They may also be called a test script. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. system. database or other common repository. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps.17. and descriptions of the following tests. and descriptions. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. Page 13 of 60 .18. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. and (e) easy to evaluate. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. or even a test scenario. Suits. (d) complex. A test case is usually a single step.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. related requirement(s). In a database system. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. and regression testing. test category. and its expected result. The optional fields are a test case ID. author. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. operating system and browser versions. 2. test step or order of execution number. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities.
2. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. Defect Tracking In engineering. abstraction refinement. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. does the product conform to the specifications.e. and tracking them to closure.19.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task.. but not the same as session-based testing. timed automata and hybrid automata. and abstractions of general software components.. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). Petri nets..g. 2. testing. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. abstract interpretation. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing.e. cryptographic protocols.20. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. Page 14 of 60 . for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. or recording feedback from customers). (by inspection. processalgebraic methods. symbolic state space enumeration. does the product do what the user really requires. Validation is the complementary aspect. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM).20. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. E. using formal methods. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.1. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. 2. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. combinatorial circuits. digital circuits with internal memory.
The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness.1. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple.21. i. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. 2. 2. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find.e. rather than behaving correctly. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. by crashing. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. Thus. For example. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior.2.21. the test data is preserved. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. • Database inputs are from tabular data. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?").Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system.. 2. or by failing in-built code assertions). developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. then there are defects to correct. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. rather than a direct measure. so that if the computer fails dramatically. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. If the program fails (for example.21. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. For this reason. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. However. usually before applying it to the software. such as relational databases.
To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases.4. 2. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue.21. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. not handling every possible binary value. or conforms to actual production data. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun.21. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. and then ignore impossible requests. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. 2. software must validate all fields of every queue entry.3. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains.5. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. without even crude validation.21. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. 2. decode every possible binary value. Database fuzz is controversial. By using all of these techniques in combination. However. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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load. integration. test cases. problem/bug tracking. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. etc. set priorities. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. boundary value analyses. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . set up test tracking processes. test environment. usability tests. etc.10. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. timelines. set up logging and archiving processes. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. functional design. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. It provides a repeatable. system. and determine scope and limitations of tests. test tracking. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. software.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. functional.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. those responsible for tasks. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. coverage analyzers.1. reporting requirements. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. Determine test approaches and methods . communications.1. required standards and processes (such as release processes. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. etc. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. etc. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. change processes. 4.unit.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects.
used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. input data requirements. test case name. get an idea of it's severity. screen. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. etc. and reproduce it if necessary. steps. After the problem is resolved. action. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. objective.) Current bug status (e. module. platform. or event and an expected response. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. If a problem-tracking system is in place. feature.) The application name or identifier and version The function.. and expected results. Bug identifier (number. etc. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. ID. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. etc. fixes should be re-tested.g. it should encapsulate these processes. system. 'New'. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. test conditions/setup. object. 'Released for Retest'. For this reason.
we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). or may understand and request them anyway .the customer may not understand the effects of changes. client-server and distributed applications. data communications. the result is bugs. testers need to know when retesting is needed. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. In this case. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 .redesign.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Poorly documented code . and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. management must understand the resulting risks. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . the result is bugs. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. hardware requirements that may be affected. enormous relational databases. can make mistakes. Windows-type interfaces. rescheduling of engineers. etc. For instance. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. Changing requirements . Egos . until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. Programming errors . and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. effects on other projects. Time pressures . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. like anyone else. Software complexity .people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. In some fast-changing business environments. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information.programmers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. mistakes will be made. often requiring a lot of guesswork. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes.
1.). resulting in added bugs. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. Useful for testing CORBA. GJTester Java unit. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use.2. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. without implementing test clients. class libraries. profiler. regression. tuning.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. Recorded GUI elements. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. etc. it should be hard to read'). and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Tag Libs. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. Extensive documentation. In fact. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure. scripting tools. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. compilers. Test private and protected functions. Software development tools .visual tools. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. RMI. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. 5. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. understandable code. Includes: Unit Tester. and server application's modules. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. etc. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. EJBs. Enables test case and test script development without programming. scripting capabilities. Includes a natural user interface. and other server technologies as well. metrics. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. Filters. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Testing Tools and Software 5. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Code Analyzer.
LaTex. a script editor/recorder. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Provides recording and playback capabilities. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. etc) through an in-container approach. licensed under the BSD License. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. or from the command line. for which JUnit may be sufficient). using Ant. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers.awt. CSV.Robot class. From Apache Software Foundation. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. It uses JUnit and extends it. JUnit . (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot').Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Free . Typically use within your IDE. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. predefined (XML. TEXT) or custom report generation. Contains Page 24 of 60 . for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. HTML. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules.
it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE.). Gathers coverage measures of branches. statements. virtual machines. tree node expanding. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. or via a Swing GUI. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. JBrowser class browser. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. methods. or jar file. button pushing. Fifty different audits and metrics. Halstead Measures. JMSAssert. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. Cyclomatic Number. etc. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. Inc. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. . JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. file. Coverage difference comparison between runs. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. and dependencies for Java. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. method. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications.. Shows all dependencies. text typing. highly scalable. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. for speed. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. PDF. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. JEvolve. C. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. control flow analysis and diagramming. JBuilder. Coverage API provided. HTML. Works with source or compiled files. compiler-style output. components. JCover test coverage analyzer. View coverage data in XML. configurable. and C++ applications..e. classes. package and produces reports in multiple formats.. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . JSynTest. at all levels and between all levels. and other IDE's. application. source distribution. class. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. PerformaSure Low-overhead. package. etc.
procedural. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. and size metrics related to reusability. Integrates with several Java IDE's. and applications. includes Java support. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. OS. coverage analysis.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. testability. OptimizeIt Profiler. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. or load testing of java applets. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. Check listed web sites for current information. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear).) Page 26 of 60 . LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. thread and event analysis. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. maintainability. servlets. and clarity. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. thread debugger. JProfiler freeware version available. management. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. and network metrics. and race conditions. Has online advisor for quality improvement. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. stalls. complexity. Halstead Software Science metrics. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. written in Java. or are planning to add such capabilities.
DNS servers and SSL certificates.. HTTPS. Export to text. can be automatically scheduled. For Windows. employs a simple. Runs as often as every hour. HTML. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. For Windows. domain names. For Windows platforms. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. updates links to moved and renamed files. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. customizable reports. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. Excel. Handles HTTP. used to test and validate critical website components. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. 3-click process. such as internal and external links. familiar interface for managing files.3. supports SSL websites. Site Map. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. multiple page list and site list capabilities. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. For Windows. fixes broken links with an easy. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. and FTP protocols. CSV. RTF. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. includes FTP link checking. free trial period available. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. Page 27 of 60 . several report formats available. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. free version or low-cost pro version. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. evaluation version available. or as infrequent as once a week. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. for Windows. detects and reports redirected URL.
HTML syntax error checking. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. doc-not-found.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. ID/Password entries. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. test resumption at interruption point. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. originally by Dave Raggett. Available as source code. For Windows. Discontinued. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. configurable. organize and Page 28 of 60 . Has not been updated in recent years. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. by Francois Pottier. Mac.0 or 3. support for all standard server-side image maps. relocations. For all UNIX flavors. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. Available as source code or binaries. for UNIX and PERL. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. binary avaialable for Linux. 5. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. timeouts. reports URLs changed since last checked. Not updated in recent years. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). Distributed under Gnu General Public License. ability to check password-protected areas. unauthorized-access. results can be exported to database. page size analysis. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links.5. Handles one URL at a time. but old versions still available as freeware. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports.4. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. 'what's new' reporting. Windows.net. and finding problem HTML areas. Churchyard. site has much documentation and related info. allowing for customizable queries and reports. Windows.'s link checker/site mapping tool. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. formatting disorganized editing. link checker. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. 5. Not updated in recent years. released under IBM's Common Public License. It helps users to create. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. Results stored in database. For Windows. randomized order checking.
Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. branching statements. scripts have to be developed manually. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. with its HTML objects recognition. such as bitmap or text matching. validation of table contents. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Active-X controls. etc. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. etc. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). and other typical business web application features. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. until recording capabilities are added. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. playback window/size can be different than in capture. Free including source code. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. 90-day evaluation copy available. but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. STC Master and STC Master Service. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. and Runner executes the test case document. Handles Applets. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. but also adds mock objects. LLC. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. Maker creates test case documents. animated bitmaps. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. Flash. This includes web page navigation. Includes an Intelligent. Page 30 of 60 . Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. form entry and submission. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. Special validation points. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. C++ or C++/MFC. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. Fuzzy matching capabilities. cookie testing and form submission. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. and a Data-Driven. (300+ commands). can be inserted during a recording. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports.
an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). asset management. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. routers. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. real-time IDS event analysis. Mac. network security scan. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Runs on Macintosh. Inc. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. data theft or system destruction. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. can audit UNIX. remote self scan and API facilities. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. SANS/ISTS certified. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. updated bi-monthly. CVE standards support. plug-in facility for third party apps. and browser checkup tool. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Freeware. firewalls. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. based on the SATAN model. websites. inside and outside the firewall. remediation management of vulnerabilities.a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations.
Learns about network as it scans. by Renaud Deraison. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. CVE compatible. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios.com for individual machines. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. denial-of-service checks. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. Updated regularly. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. product runs on Windows. web server requests-per-second benchmark. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Includes DoS testing. reports specify severity levels of problems. Single machine or full network scans. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Can scan a variety of operating systems. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Runs on many UNIX flavors. open-source remote network security auditing tool. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. and a wide variety of other tests. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. Port scans. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. Works with a variety of operating systems. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. Customizable reporting. Nessus Security Scanner Free.
provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. Page 36 of 60 . what services (ports) they are offering. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. organized by subject. routers. desktops. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. or managed service. intrusion detection tools. scanners. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. servers. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. etc. DMZ and externally visible assets. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. intrusion detection resources. Provides flexible risk management reports. publications. electronic law. hubs. etc. printers. etc. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. Available as a hardware appliance. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. software product. remediation information. firewalls. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. prepares remediation advice.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. routers. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. and many other characteristics. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. workstations. etc. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. operating systems. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site.
) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. combined utilities/tools. Limitedcapability free version also available. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . WYSIWYG editor. and OS's. Similar managed service also available. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. service types. and online service available.) 5. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios.org. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. Accessibility. Inc. for maintaining.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. FPT/publishing. promoting. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. server management and optimization tools. database servers. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. combining site content. Free and professional versions available. Inc.. and site monitoring capabilities. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. not just for testing.7. Includes link checker. (Includes various types of security tools. site scores. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. Desktop product for multiple platforms. works with a variety of web servers. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. and Web Governance. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base.. analyzing web sites. traffic analysis. Information Assurance.
automatically reboot servers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. Alerts via email. visitor segmentation. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. Captures and monitors real user sessions. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. network errors. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. restart services. applications. page sizes. page aborts. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. from AllScoop. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. etc. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. and popup. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . net send. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. etc. For Windows.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. and more. response times. and network. and diagnostics. bandwidth usage. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . click path analysis. isolation. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. network management. server. for performance and availability monitoring. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. pagers. capabilities include notifications via email. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. response errors. SMS. including server errors. suited to large systems. sends email notification if site is slow or down. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. run scripts. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. services. and repair. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. real-time executive dash board. restart apps and services. Asset Manager to securely centralize images.
reporting and fixing problems before users see them. and more. Installer easily installs system on your server. All can be integrated without writing code. load testing. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. based on database-driven. WYSIWYG editor. Free for use on small sites. low cost for large sites.com for web site updating. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. scheduler. Provides complete software developers environment. Search. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. and a robust API. FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. site cleanup. Multilingualism. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. PHP-Code Insertion. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. spatial relationships between products. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. link verification. upload resuming. drag-and-drop. high-level functions save template coding time. template-based dynamically-created content. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. Message Board. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. verifying content and functional integrity. HTML and GIF optimization. detecting. etc. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Works on multiple platforms. such as option compatibilities on a single product. Statistical Reports. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. Database Backup. User Administration. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Dynamic Menu. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds.
personalization. version control. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. based on native XML and XSL technologies. editing. For Mac or Windows. Mac. and manage and report on service level agreements. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. Enables services such as library services. index/search. reuse and access. For Windows. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. security. deploying. Manages Web content. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. workflow. production. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. conversion services. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. documents. anticipate capacity shortfalls. staging. content development. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. digital assets. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. tracking of revisions. Page 41 of 60 . replication and administration. and customizable workflow. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. services for capturing.. where all content and content types are stored for management. management of workflow. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. and archiving. including creation. portals and scanned images. Inc. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. publishing. isolate. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites.
and publishing control tool. access control. management. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. For Windows. requires Windows and MSIE. e-mail submission of web content. standards-based environment. for customizable automated site mapping. OS's. For MS and Netscape web servers. HTML validation. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. E-mail/pager notifications. monitoring and recovery. Evaluation copy available. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. logging. For Windows. network management. alerting. logging capabilities. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. metrics. number of pending requests. and platforms. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. For Windows. link analysis and quality control. Interwoven Team Site Web development. works with many servers. server management. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. server failure detection. Web based interface for load balancing administration. Page 43 of 60 . monitoring. link checking. etc. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. UNIX. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. For Windows. and e-mail notifications. content management and site visualization. version control. real-time server monitoring of server response time. link problems. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software.
error info is linked to error in html. Server side compatible with many available web servers. variable lock controls. has updateable rulebase. etc. HTML-to-Text converter. management. Includes version control. Meta manager. thumbnail viewer. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. graphics management. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. customizable reports. For Windows and Unix. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. Support for managing content stored in databases. layout editor. Validates against various HTML versions. logs. image tag checker. administration. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. Link checker. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. spell checker. For Windows. links. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. global search-and-replace. scheduled and on-demand reporting. Page 44 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. connections. Date stamper. Includes automated deployment. browser extensions. databases. and encryption capabilities. etc. API's. For Windows. link checker. For Windows. security. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. and maintenance. comparison capabilitie. Includes published API for creating custom monitors.. and static files. XML repositories. file edit merging. For Windows or Unix. provides notifications of problems. and servers. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. Visual site structure editor. browser interface. file uploading. includes site management capabilities. link checking. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. From Talicom. staging/publishing control. publishing. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool.
Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video.8. Consists of 3 components.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. URL2image. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. web standards and elastic design. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. and system configuration information. system operations in 7 different categories. upload to a bug tracking system. For Windows. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . and compress the result into a very small file to replay.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. more. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. For anyone interested in css. system resource usage. analyzing and sharing of usability data. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. Perl. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. to which links it extracts. SiteTimer service . A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. examine server's HTTP headers. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. from how it breaks down the HTML.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. for automated recording. Free. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more. from TechSmith Corp. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. and share with others. can specify the screen width(s).
Provides performance enhancing tips. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. Includes CPU. XML. data creation or capture and replay. and much more. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. ports. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. Network Adaptor Information. drives. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. tune-up wizard. ODBC sources. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. manage and monitor throughput. etc. virtual memory settings. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. environment settings. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. physical memory information. Sandra 'System ANalyser. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Free. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. device drivers. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Professional. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. processes.). can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. html.) in small text files. OS version. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. more. and delay. etc.NET event-based scripting subsystem. loss. Services information. and other versions available in multiple languages. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. Free. services. memory details. system file listings. set breakpoints. mainboard. etc. processor information. loaded modules. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. for Windows. component details.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. modules.
analogous to running an MRI scan. It allows the user to peek inside I. Enables enhancement of QA. For Windows. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. binaries. Page 47 of 60 . especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications.E. Macintosh. in most versions of every browser ever released. Can log captures to disk. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. Inc. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. caching proxies. testing. delays. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. freeware. compliance. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. or source code. and multipath effects. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Linux RPMs. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. Can be used on user's workstations. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Free 90-day trial. Windows (on-demand). with GUI. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. any version. binaries and source available. and XML switches. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Linux. available as on-line service. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. robustness. security. filters.com. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. originally designed for testing networking protocols. and other quality factors. any operating system. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. packet losses.
The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. client/server. For windows. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. Inc. Page 48 of 60 . or WinDump. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. Ethernet. retransmissions. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. For automated testing of Web.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. such as those produced by tcpdump. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. and generating test scripts. and mainframe applications. link validation. Works with all text-based IP protocols. FTP. Can crawl a site and report errors. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. Overall Site Quality. etc).) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). and segments sent and received. window advertisements. and any network. and as source code. snoop. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). bytes. Also available: MITS. and various graphs. Searchability. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. any message definitions. mailboxes. MITs. etherpeek. etc. for Windows. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. round trip times. Runs on Windows platforms. freeware. Runs on Windows. Available for various UNIX flavors. freeware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. HP Net Metrix. throughput. can also programmatically fix most common errors found. Freeware. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document.
It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. It is oriented to 'detection'. What is software 'quality'? 13. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What's an 'inspection'? 10.) 2. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. It is oriented to 'prevention'. What is 'good code'? 14. Testing FAQ 1. 3. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. and does C. Why does software have bugs? 6. What is verification and Validation? 8. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. then D should happen'). What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12.monitoring and improving the process. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should.
News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. According to news reports in April of 2004. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. portions of the project could be salvaged. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug.S. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. government IT systems project.S.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. A major U. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. According to the report. Studies were under way to determine which. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. the worst power system failure in North American history. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. according to mid-2004 news reports. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. In early 2004. if any. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders.
Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication .the enduser may not understand the effects of changes.S.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. 4. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. 5. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. was delivered late.S. rescheduling of engineers.S. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission.redesign.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units. preventing problems is lowvisibility. hardware requirements that may be affected. Programming errors . This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. In early 2000. effects on other projects. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Among other tasks.000+ students. public school district with 100. Multi-tiered applications. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. data communications. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. etc.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Software complexity . and didn't work.000 customers. can make mistakes. or may understand and request them anyway . enormous relational databases. client-server and distributed applications. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills.programmers. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. the district's CIO was fired. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. futures exchange. like anyone else. problems included 10.
and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. feedback to developers. the result is bugs. In this case. mistakes will be made. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. and testers. Software development tools . In fact.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. with a goal of clear. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. For small groups or projects. management must understand the resulting risks. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. resulting in added bugs. the result is bugs. often requiring a lot of guesswork. In some fast-changing business environments. Time pressures .scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. understandable. Where the risk is lower. 6. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. managers. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented.visual tools. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . Poorly documented code . etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. developers. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . maintainable code. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. egos . compilers.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. complete. it should be hard to read'). also in Part 2 of the FAQ. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. depending on the type of customers and projects. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. step-at-a-time process. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. class libraries. scripting tools. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take.
Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. most problems will be found during this preparation. and specifications. done by programmers or by testers. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. conditions. 8. This can be done with checklists. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. Unit testing . Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. Incremental integration testing .testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. White box testing . 10. (b) design inspections and code inspections. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. or that test drivers be developed as needed. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. code. Little or no preparation is usually required. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. individual applications. and inspection meetings. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . requirements. issues lists. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. Integration testing . paths. walkthroughs.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. plans. and a recorder to take notes. client and server applications on a network. • • Page 54 of 60 . The 'parts' can be code modules. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. to test particular functions or code modules. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. reader. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. 7.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code.the most 'micro' scale of testing.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. 9. branches. not to fix anything.
large complex queries to a database system. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. Recovery testing . and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. or corrupting databases. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. or interacting with other hardware. and other techniques can be used.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. Stress testing . bogging down systems to a crawl. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing. environment. applications. Sanity testing or smoke testing . using network communications. etc. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. willful damage. or other catastrophic problems. Clearly this is subjective. partial. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. Failover testing .final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. For example.testing of full.testing an application under heavy loads. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. especially near the end of the development cycle. video recording of user sessions. User interviews. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. may require sophisticated testing techniques. Performance testing . surveys. etc. or upgrade install/uninstall processes. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. such as interacting with a database. Load testing . or systems if appropriate.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. this type of testing should be done by testers. Acceptance testing .testing how well a system recovers from crashes.testing for 'user-friendliness'. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. the 'macro' end of the test scale. Compatability testing . hardware failures. Functional testing . involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. End-to-end testing .) System testing .black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. Install/uninstall testing . Usability testing . covers all combined parts of a system.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. Page 55 of 60 . input of large numerical values.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing .term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing.similar to system testing. Regression testing .
they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Adequate testing . detailed.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. bug fixing. culture. Ad-hoc testing . Context-driven testing .testing of an application when development is nearing completion. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on.e-mail. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . promote teamwork and cooperation. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. attainable. intranet capabilities. changes. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. and be prepared to explain consequences. 11. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun.often taken to mean a creative. and intended use of software. testers may be learning the software as they test it. Typically done by end-users or others. cohesive. not paper. not by programmers or testers.similar to exploratory testing.start testing early on.allow adequate time for planning. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. Comparison testing . Communication . insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date .testing driven by an understanding of the environment. Alpha testing . Realistic schedules . What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . User acceptance testing . but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. groupware. If changes are necessary. complete. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. not by programmers or testers.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. make extensive use of group communication tools . etc. Mutation testing .clear.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . design. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. Beta testing .require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. In 'agile'-type environments. and documentation. Typically done by end-users or others. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. For example. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing .preferably electronic. testing. re-testing. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. If possible. re-test after fixes or changes. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary.. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations.
and is maintainable. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). such as McCabe Complexity metrics. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . the development organization's. avoid abbreviations. However. For C and C++ coding. customer management. delivered on time and within budget. customer acceptance testers. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. No matter how small. indentations. naming conventions. meets requirements and/or expectations. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. Use descriptive function and method names . One code statement per line. and is readable and maintainable. Use whitespace generously . etc. • 13.vertically and horizontally. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. be consistent in naming conventions. or what is too many or too few rules. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. Function and method sizes should be minimized. future software maintenance engineers. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. stockholders. use of brackets.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. etc. be consistent in naming conventions. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. less than 100 lines of code is good. magazine columnists. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. customer contract officers. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. quality is obviously a subjective term.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. etc. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. Organize code for readability. avoid abbreviations. is bug free. 'Peer reviews'. There are also various theories and metrics. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code.use both upper and lower case. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). but everyone has different ideas about what's best. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. Use descriptive variable names . an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 .) In adding comments.use both upper and lower case. less than 50 lines is preferable.
avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). and works correctly when implemented. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. Level 2 . to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. periodic panics. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. Minimize use of multiple inheritance. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. make liberal use of exception handlers. 14.software project tracking. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. For C++. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. Level 3 . less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. and configuration management processes are in place. Defense Department contractors. easily modifiable. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). Few if any processes in place.S. Level 1 . CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. successful practices can be repeated. For C++. keep class methods small. developed by the SEI. However. It is geared to large organizations such as large U.characterized by chaos. understandable. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. requirements management. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration').standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. • • • 15.For programs that have a user interface. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . successes may not be repeatable.S. initiated by the U.) For C++. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. realistic planning. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. and maintainable. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging.
servicing. test planning. In the U. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). (b)Q90002000 . 6% at 4.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . 13% at 3. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. 32% of organizations were U. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. MOF. phase-out.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary.S. and 5% at 5. TickIT.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel.ch/ for the latest information.metrics are used to track productivity. development. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. Also see http://www. and quality is consistently high. 62% were at Level 1.iso. and others. 17.asq. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).S. and other aspects. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). and certification is typically good for about 3 years. Of those. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. the primary industrial standards body in the U.it indicates only that documented processes are followed.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements. 2% at 4.the focus is on continuous process improvement. production.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. testing. ITIL. updates. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. Bootstrap. internal design. Project performance is predictable. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required.. 23% at 2. testing. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). and CobiT. 27% were rated at Level 1. retesting. Level 5 . 16. maintenance. and other processes. after which a complete reassessment is required. processes. 1018 organizations were assessed. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. 23% at 3.4% at 5. functional design. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . and products. To be ISO 9001 certified. and 0. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . document preparation. integration. (c)Q9004-2000 . What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. a third-party auditor assesses an organization.among other things. It includes aspects such as initial concept. It covers documentation. design. federal contractors or agencies. For those rated at Level 1. coding. documentation planning. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors.S. Level 4 . Trillium. 39% at 2. installation. not just software. requirements analysis.
the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. condition coverage. For larger projects. buttons. a web site's interactions are secure. or some underlying code in the application is changed. Load/performance test tools . etc. documentation management. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. Web test tools . The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool.vyomworld. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. Additionally.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. documentation. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. etc. The data and actions can be more easily maintained .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. data.) can be a difficult task.since they are separate from the test drivers. etc.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. For example. If new buttons are added. adherence to standards. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. etc. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. and for all types of platforms. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .such as via a spreadsheet . This document is for internal purposes only. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). client-side and server-side programs work. etc. path coverage. development. Other tools . and configuration management. logs. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. dialog box choices. the primary being: http://www.for test case management.to check that links are valid. Page 60 of 60 .these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. This approach can enable more efficient control.monitor code complexity. bug reporting. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. Coverage analyzers .com/testing/. Memory analyzers . HTML code usage is correct.
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