Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50

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Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. portability. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. Types of Testing 2. glass-box and clear-box. clear box and open box testing. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. Page 4 of 60 . White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION.2. With that in mind. Unlike black box testing. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". and all visible code must also be readable. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. structural. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. and closed-box.1. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. opaque-box. 2. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. There are many approaches to software testing. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". completeness and quality of developed computer software. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. maintainability and usability. stability. functional. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. 2. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria.

Page 5 of 60 . Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly.3.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use.4. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. Unit Testing In computer programming. 2.Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural". The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. but it's still discouraged. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate.3.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date.3. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. In practice. By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier.2. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing).3.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct.) can use any test design methods. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. 2.3. system testing. 2. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.3. 2. etc.1.

The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. Page 6 of 60 . In addition. This results in loosely coupled code. groups them in larger aggregates. individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. assemblages (or groups of units).3. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. for example. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection.4. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database.4.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2.5. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves. These "design items". 2. it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional. 2. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly. across procedure calls or process activations. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing. This is a mistake. in order to test the class. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing.3. Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. Therefore.e. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs.1. As a result. 2. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. i. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes. it will not catch integration errors.6. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. By definition.

coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes.1.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification.5. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested. if it is made to respond faster. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system. i. In performance testing.5. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . Performance Testing In software engineering. given as number of users vs. Usually. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning.g. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. 2. will result in the overall system running faster. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries.e. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which.2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. that while the average response time might be acceptable. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. In the diagnostic case. are available to perform such tests. e.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time. etc. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum. Performance testing can serve different purposes. However. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria.5. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities. no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. Various tools. It can compare two systems to find which performs better.. response time. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2.

For example. 2.6.3. Analyzing the results. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. router configuration. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. network overhead. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. Performance testing can be performed across the web. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’. deployment of server instrumentation. in order to observe the results. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. where they had found the system spent most of its time. often to a breaking point. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results. and even done in different parts of the country. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. It can also be done in-house. either pass/fail. database access times. 2. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests.5. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform).

such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. software testing. performance testing.8. then developers should improve the design and test it again. Stress testing a subset of load testing." Page 9 of 60 . the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. 2.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. Downtime.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. compromising usability and functionality. bots. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool".7. whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads. usability testing measures the usability of the object. Data theft. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. or interpreting feedback. 2. a document. manipulating parts. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. to discover errors and areas of improvement. or a device) for its intended purpose. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs. including making things work with people. i. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats.e.7. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. a computer interface. Data corruption and application Defacement. During usability testing. Also see testing. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks.1.

and what people like. a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. For example. Users of the system will perform these tests which.10.). and ask him or her to undertake this task. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. 2.9. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. 2. Instruction phrasing. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened.11. to which the system should conform. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. Page 10 of 60 . Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. so that developers can see problem areas. or realistic situation. ideally. 2. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. it will work just the same in production. In the pharmaceutical field. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. illustration quality.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. Rather. For example. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. Stability Testing In software testing. "Do you understand this?". Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system. and pre. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. software will not run etc.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested. paper prototypes.

In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing.12.13. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. Beta Testing Many a time. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. testing is usually required before release to the general public. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. 2. Alfa Testing In software development. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs. 2. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence. Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same.14. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. 2. Page 11 of 60 . A beta release is very close to the final release. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. Ideally. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. This technique is known as black box testing. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. In distributed systems.

integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). System testing takes. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing. 2. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements.15. Regression testing takes. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. As a rule. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing.16. 2. As a rule. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. Page 12 of 60 . and as such. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE.). as its input. NY. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. 1990. New York. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. as its input. New York. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. NY. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s). and as such.). 1990. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. During this testing. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware.

spreadsheet. or even a test scenario. and regression testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. operating system and browser versions. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. and its expected result. depth. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. author. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. Page 13 of 60 . system. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. Suits. (d) complex. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. database or other common repository. related requirement(s). A test case is usually a single step. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. test step or order of execution number. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. In a database system. test category. They may also be called a test script. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. and descriptions of the following tests. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware.18. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. Test Cases. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. and (e) easy to evaluate. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite.17. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. The optional fields are a test case ID. and descriptions. (c) credible. along with various additional pieces of information. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. 2.

digital circuits with internal memory. and abstractions of general software components. testing. or recording feedback from customers). Validation is the complementary aspect. and tracking them to closure. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i.g. combinatorial circuits.20. symbolic state space enumeration. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions.1. Defect Tracking In engineering. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction.19. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. 2. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM).e. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. timed automata and hybrid automata. abstraction refinement. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). but not the same as session-based testing. Page 14 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. E. using formal methods. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. cryptographic protocols.. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics..20. 2. (by inspection. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). abstract interpretation. does the product do what the user really requires.e. formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. 2. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. does the product conform to the specifications.. processalgebraic methods. Petri nets.

There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 . by crashing. For this reason. so that if the computer fails dramatically.1.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?"). such as relational databases. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. the test data is preserved. i. 2. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs.21. For example. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality.21. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. These usually have a budget to develop test tools.. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. • Database inputs are from tabular data. then there are defects to correct. 2. or by failing in-built code assertions).2. 2. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. rather than a direct measure. However.21. usually before applying it to the software. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for. Thus. If the program fails (for example. rather than behaving correctly.e.

Database fuzz is controversial.4. 2. not handling every possible binary value. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software.21.3. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. or conforms to actual production data. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. without even crude validation. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases. However. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. By using all of these techniques in combination. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. and then ignore impossible requests. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue.5. because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. decode every possible binary value. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space.21. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. 2. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash.21.

Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.

3. Manual Testing
3.1.
• • •

Facts
In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.

3.2.
• • •

Software Crisis
Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.

3.3.
• • • • • •

Software Myths
Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.

3.3.1.Management Myths

3.3.2.Developers Myths
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

3.3.3.Customer’s Myth
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.

3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.

3.4.

Software Quality Assurance:

The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.

3.4.1.Verification:
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.

3.4.2.Validation:
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.

3.5.
• • • •

Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential

3.6.

What makes a good Software QA engineer?

The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.

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Aditi Technologies

Basic Concepts of Software Testing

Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.

3.7.
• • • • • •

Testing:
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.

3.7.1.Why Testing?
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.

3.8.
• • • • • • • •

Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.

3.9.
• • •

Testing Techniques
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing

These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.

3.10.

Test Plan:

A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.

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A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans.1. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. integration. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. required standards and processes (such as release processes. functional design. reporting requirements. set priorities. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. test cases. communications. load. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 . obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. It provides a repeatable. usability tests. set up test tracking processes. timelines. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. change processes.1. problem/bug tracking. functional. those responsible for tasks. test tracking. system. and determine scope and limitations of tests. coverage analyzers.unit. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. Determine test approaches and methods . Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. software. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. set up logging and archiving processes. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. etc. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. boundary value analyses.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. etc. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. etc. Obtain budget and schedule requirements.10. etc. test environment. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. 4.

system.) Current bug status (e. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools). it should encapsulate these processes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. ID. etc. input data requirements. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly.g. objective. 'Released for Retest'. Bug identifier (number. etc. steps. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. and reproduce it if necessary. After the problem is resolved. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. and expected results.) The application name or identifier and version The function. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. test case name. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. feature. get an idea of it's severity. screen. test conditions/setup. 'New'. For this reason. If a problem-tracking system is in place. platform.. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . fixes should be re-tested. module. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. or event and an expected response. object. etc. where the bug occurred Environment specifics. action.

as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements).it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. the result is bugs. often requiring a lot of guesswork.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered. or may understand and request them anyway .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Poorly documented code . Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. like anyone else. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. testers need to know when retesting is needed. Egos . management must understand the resulting risks. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. etc. mistakes will be made. Time pressures . Programming errors . and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. hardware requirements that may be affected. In some fast-changing business environments. effects on other projects.redesign.programmers. the result is bugs. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . If there are many minor changes or any major changes. For instance. continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. Software complexity . data communications. Changing requirements . In this case. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. Windows-type interfaces. rescheduling of engineers. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . client-server and distributed applications.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. can make mistakes. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. enormous relational databases.

GJTester Java unit. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. Tag Libs. Software development tools . execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. Includes: Unit Tester. In fact. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. RMI. 5. etc. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. Code Analyzer.1. Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. scripting capabilities. compilers.). Extensive documentation. Filters. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure.2. and server application's modules. Useful for testing CORBA. Enables test case and test script development without programming. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. Includes a natural user interface. it should be hard to read'). EJBs. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. and other server technologies as well. Recorded GUI elements. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation. understandable code. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. Test private and protected functions. class libraries.visual tools. Testing Tools and Software 5.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. etc. scripting tools. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. metrics. tuning. resulting in added bugs. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. profiler. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . regression. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. without implementing test clients.

Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. for which JUnit may be sufficient). Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. It uses JUnit and extends it. etc) through an in-container approach. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. predefined (XML. HTML. From Apache Software Foundation. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. a script editor/recorder. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Provides recording and playback capabilities. JUnit . Free . Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation.Robot class. Typically use within your IDE. using Ant. or from the command line. LaTex. Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. TEXT) or custom report generation. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. Contains Page 24 of 60 . CSV. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). licensed under the BSD License.awt. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Integrates with Ant and JUnit.

Coverage API provided. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. for speed. virtual machines. source distribution. . J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. package and produces reports in multiple formats. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. methods. application. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. button pushing. compiler-style output. JCover test coverage analyzer. etc. Fifty different audits and metrics. or via a Swing GUI. JBuilder. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. tree node expanding. JMSAssert. Halstead Measures.. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 .e.. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming. class. statements. integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. PerformaSure Low-overhead. Cyclomatic Number. classes. Coverage difference comparison between runs. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. C.. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options. Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. file. highly scalable. Shows all dependencies. Gathers coverage measures of branches. PDF. JBrowser class browser. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. etc. or jar file. and C++ applications. Inc. configurable. JEvolve. JSynTest. and dependencies for Java. View coverage data in XML. HTML. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. text typing. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. Works with source or compiled files. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. etc. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. components. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization.). Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. at all levels and between all levels. method. and other IDE's. package. control flow analysis and diagramming.

and size metrics related to reusability. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. Halstead Software Science metrics. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. complexity. maintainability. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. coverage analysis. JProfiler freeware version available. or load testing of java applets. and race conditions. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. OptimizeIt Profiler. and network metrics.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. testability. includes Java support.) Page 26 of 60 . management. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. servlets. Integrates with several Java IDE's. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. thread debugger. thread and event analysis. and clarity. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. OS. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. procedural. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. and applications. and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). Check listed web sites for current information. stalls. or are planning to add such capabilities. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. Has online advisor for quality improvement. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. written in Java.

ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language. evaluation version available. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. multiple page list and site list capabilities. CSV. Handles HTTP. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. for Windows. can be automatically scheduled. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics.. Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool. Excel. fixes broken links with an easy. customizable reports.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. DNS servers and SSL certificates. Site Map. supports SSL websites. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. For Windows. HTTPS. HTML. used to test and validate critical website components.3. 3-click process. domain names. For Windows. employs a simple. several report formats available. detects and reports redirected URL. RTF. Export to text. such as internal and external links. or as infrequent as once a week. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. free version or low-cost pro version. includes FTP link checking. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. and FTP protocols. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. free trial period available. familiar interface for managing files. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files. For Windows platforms. updates links to moved and renamed files. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. Page 27 of 60 . Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. For Windows. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. Runs as often as every hour.

but old versions still available as freeware.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. site has much documentation and related info. released under IBM's Common Public License.5. for UNIX and PERL. 5. For Windows. Available as source code or binaries. It helps users to create. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. and finding problem HTML areas. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). For Windows. Handles one URL at a time. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. HTML syntax error checking. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. results can be exported to database.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. Windows. configurable.'s link checker/site mapping tool. test resumption at interruption point. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software. organize and Page 28 of 60 . Discontinued. allowing for customizable queries and reports. Has not been updated in recent years. Results stored in database. ID/Password entries. 5. page size analysis. originally by Dave Raggett. Not updated in recent years. Available as source code. doc-not-found. relocations. formatting disorganized editing. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. ability to check password-protected areas.0 or 3. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. Mac. randomized order checking. For all UNIX flavors. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget.net. reports URLs changed since last checked. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. by Francois Pottier. 'what's new' reporting. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Distributed under Gnu General Public License. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. timeouts.4. link checker. Churchyard. support for all standard server-side image maps. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. Not updated in recent years. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. Windows. binary avaialable for Linux. unauthorized-access. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking.

HTML. Free and professional versions available. Page 29 of 60 . provision to add GUI. files. QEngine Test tool from AdventNet enables functional testing of Web sites and Web-based applications. Can export created . HTML-based test result reports can be generated. JSP. that includes a web functional testing module. and monitoring products from AppPefect Corp. Records browser interaction by element instead of screen coordinates. Includes a test runner with GUI interface. Page objects navigator allows browsing of hierarchy of web objects in a page. cookies. actiWate Java-based Web application testing environment from Actimind Inc. but with extended API). records using page elements controls symbolically rather than with raw screen coordinate. QEngine Web Test Studio Web functional test tool from AdventNet. For Windows and MSIE. Test data from any database or Excel spreadsheet can be mapped to enter values automatically into HTML form controls. KUMO Editor Toolset from Softmorning LTD for creation and editing of web macros and automated web tests. Enables creation of scenarios from spreadsheets. Multilingual for Asian. Supports multiple OS's and browsers. Shareware for Windows/MSIE. retry on error. Advanced framework for writing test scripts in Java (similar to open-source frameworks like HttpUnit. Secure recording on password fields. Can be used to unit test any individual component with an HTTP interface (JSP. CGI. Database and File checkpoints and verify database tables. etc. robust handling of page modifications. Includes syntax-coloring editor with intellisense. Works with Internet Explorer.DLL and . supports ASP. PHP. tuning.) or it can be used to create a suite of HTTP level functional or regression tests. servlets. integrates with a variety of IDE's. ASP. and Test Writing Assistant . built-in exception handling and reporting facility. Macro recorder transforms any click to a C# directive. Implemented in JavaScript for the Windows XP platform with Internet Explorer. includes web functional testing capabilities.EXE files to enable running web macros on demand and integration into other software frameworks. Supports handling dynamic content created by JavaScript. HTML forms. eastern and western European languages. WebInject Open source tool in PERL for automated testing of web applications and services. fail definitions can be specified for each step of the automated workflow via JavaScript. and loop. Supports keyword-driven testing. Includes Script Editor. Freeware. automatic recording of any Web browser events and translates into an Python editable scripts. SSL. Application Map Editor to view and edit the map object properties.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing execute functional unit tests.Web browser plug-in module to assist the test writing process. Works with a variety of browsers and OS's. data-driven Test wizard to fetch script data from external source. Scripting uses Jython. autocomplete. HtmlUnit etc. JavaScript's Document Object Model enables full access to all document elements. page titles and HTML element properties. run-time debugging features. Record and playback capability. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. Test Complete Enterprise Automated test tool from AutomatedQA Corp. JStudio SiteWalker Test tool from Jarsch Software Studio allows capture/replay recording.

Special validation points. Maker creates test case documents. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. LLC. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. cookie testing and form submission. scripts have to be developed manually. C++ or C++/MFC. STC Master and STC Master Service. Includes an Intelligent. Fuzzy matching capabilities. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. until recording capabilities are added. Active-X controls. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. validation of table contents. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. such as bitmap or text matching. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. animated bitmaps. 90-day evaluation copy available. with its HTML objects recognition. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. and a Data-Driven. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. can be inserted during a recording. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. branching statements. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). has some JWebUnit functionality as well. etc. Handles Applets. (300+ commands). The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements. Page 30 of 60 . but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. This includes web page navigation. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. playback window/size can be different than in capture. but also adds mock objects. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. etc. form entry and submission. Flash. Free including source code. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. and Runner executes the test case document. and other typical business web application features.

broken links and the structure of the crawled web. screen names. Includes capability for automated scripting. For Windows. and generates a detailed test report. data driven scenarios. Multi-platform written in Java. Testers enter test data into a spreadsheet used to populate objects that appear for the particular test scenario defined. HTTP-WebTest A Perl module which runs tests on remote URLs or local Web files containing Perl/JSP/HTML/JavaScript/etc. Written in ActivePerl. The Web Crawler is useful for verifying consistency of a static web structure. source code avalable. allowing inheritance of all Perl functionality including regular expressions. Supports unlimited set of ODBC-compatible data sources as well as MS Excel. Supports HTTPS/SSL. Solex Web application testing tool built as a plug-in for the Eclipse IDE (an open. Records HTTP messages by acting as a Web proxy.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing MITS. Easy development and maintenance . break points and response introspection. PureTest Free tool from Minq Software AB. Plugins can define test types and provide additional report capabilities. testware architecture (object names. tab/comma delimited file formats. reporting various metrics. Badboy Tool from Bradley Software to aid in building and testing dynamic web based applications.'Simple Automated Module For Internet Explorer'. includes an HTTP Recorder and Web Crawler. and assertions to responses in order to validate a scenario during its playback.. recorded sessions can be saved as XML and reopened later. HTTP requests and responses are fully displayed in order to inspect and customize their content. QA Wizard Automated functional web test tool from Seapine Software. Methods. Allows the attachment of extraction or replacement rules to any HTTP message content. Perl module that allows a user to automate use of IE via Perl scripts. Allows creation of completely new test scenarios without ever having performed that test before. has an intelligent state machine engine that makes real-time decisions for navigating through the GUI portion of an application. Free for most uses. Free Demo and Test Script available. allowing creation of more scripts in less time. Includes a scenario debugger including single step. PAMIE Free open-source 'Python Automated Module For Internet Explorer' Allows control of an instance of MSIE and access to it's methods though OLE automation . This module can be used "as-is" or its functionality can be extended using plugins. It can test thousands of test scenarios without use of any scripts. Uses IE's built in COM object which provides a reference to the DOM for each browser window or frame. Advanced object binding reduces script changes when Web-based apps change. Includes a Task API for building custom test tasks. SAMIE Free tool designed for QA engineers . Create scenarios using the point and click interface. etc). This module comes with a set of default Page 31 of 60 . Next-generation scripting language eliminates problems created by syntax or other language errors. or logic associated with the engine. Combines sophisticated capture/replay ability with performance testing and regression features. Events and Properties exposed by the DHTML Object Model. Utilizes Collections. and more. dynamic Web applications. Perl dbi database access. many Perl cpan library functions. all without changing tool. For Windows platforms. extensible IDE). and parsing of response codes or parsing page content for expected or unexpected strings.GUI Unique test automation tool from Omsphere LLC.no need to keep track of GUI maps for each window.

content validation.org. script testing and information gathering. Power users can manually edit a recorded macro. JavaScript. Can extract web data and save as CSV file or process the data via a script. IntelliScripting logic removes the reliance on specific browser window sizes. for easier script maintenance. For Windows. databases. page performance tuning. eValid Web test tool from Software Research. basic http authentication. Works by remote controlling the browser. A command line interface allows for easy integration with other test software. supports hyperlinks targeted at new instances of browser. WML and XHTML coding standards or customized standards. assists user during the recording with visual feedback. Records any combination of browsing. Jython is used as the scripting language. Inc that uses a 'Test Enabled Web Browser' test engine that provides browser-based client side quality checking. from SourceForge. utilizes a new approach to recording/playback of web browser scripts.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing plugins.net/Open Source Development Network. Ideally suited for automated unit testing of web sites when combined with a Java unit test framework such as JUnit. Can run load tests based on the tool's analysis of web server log files. component location and mouse movements for accurate replay. TestWeb Test tool from Original Software Group Ltd. including form submission. includes an HTTP proxy recorder to automate test script generation. cookies and automatic page redirection. automates repetitious aspects of web site testing. or MS VBA can be used for customized scripting. tables. CSS. Solaris. Maps and tests all possible paths through a dynamic site. and webserver load and capacity analysis. thus automatically supports advanced features such as SSL. For Windows and MSIE. and a mechanism for playing tests back from the GUI and command line. dynamic testing. Java. Can handle data input from text files. Open-source project maintained by Ilya Martynov. an XML DOM. It analyses the underlying intentions of the script and executes it by direct communication with web page elements. and web-based applications. written in Java. and JUnit is used as the testing library. Allows creation of rules for automatic monitoring of dynamic page content. WebKing Web site functional. 508 compliance. can enforce over 200 HTML. Rational Functional Tester Page 32 of 60 . HttpUnit Open source Java program for accessing web sites without a browser. Compuware TestPartner Automated software testing tool from Compuware designed specifically to validate Windows. and static analysis test suite from ParaSoft. but can be easily extended with third-party plugins. HTTP-Redirects and cookies. or XML. Includes ServletUnit to test servlets without a servlet container. and allows Java test code to examine returned pages as text. clicking. form filling. Playback can run in background while other tasks are performed on the same machine. designed and implemented by Russell Gold. MaxQ Free open-source web functional testing tool from Tigris. Linux. The 'TestPartner Visual Navigator' can create visual-based tests. Emulates the relevant portions of browser behavior. and links. or containers of forms. Works as a proxy server. Utilizes multiple validation methods. iOpus Internet Macros Macro recorder utility from iOpus Inc. load.

SilkTest Functional test tool from Segue for Web. Features include: test creation and customization. Java. ERP. Enables data-driven testing. and web-based applications. recovery system for unattended testing. and record/playback. and to validate compliance with security requirements. 5. protocol analyzers. DHTML. XML. includes site monitoring and load testing capabilities. (HTTP implementations may be utilized in web servers. test process management capabilities. in order to induce component crashes. and other applications.NET and J2EE applications. compiling. etc. etc. scripting language. Codenomicon HTTP Test Tool Tool for discovering and eradicating security-related flaws in HTTP implementations via robustness testing. test plans. Includes full VBA script development environment and options such as javascript. includes support for testing Web. etc. and offers recommendations for fixing detected security flaws. produces defect analyses. Tool systematically generates very large numbers of protocol messages containing exceptional elements simulating malicious attacks. Java or traditional client/server-based applications. HTML. QuickTest Pro Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. etc. and denial-ofservice situations which may affect component/application security. browsers. editing. PDAs and cell phones. 'Data Bank Wizard' simplifies creation of data-driven tests. test planning and management.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing IBM's (formerly Rational's) automated tool for testing of Java. Java.NET. and debugging scripts. Compuware's QARun QARun for functional/regression testing of web. choice of scripting languages and editors. hanging. includes support for testing Web. Web Site Security Test Tools Watchfire's AppScan Tool suite from Watchfire automates web application security testing. C++. running. proxies. Evaluation version available. e-Test Suite Integrated functional/regression test tool from Empirix for web applications and services and . Assessment module can be used by auditors and compliance officers to conduct comprehensive audits. Java beans. For Windows and Linux. DOMbased testing and validation. Java. Handles ActiveX. .) SecurityMetrics Appliance Page 33 of 60 . direct database access and validation. network appliances. Winrunner Functional/regression test tool from Mercury. and more. ERP. and IDE for developing.6.

Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. based on the SATAN model. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. network security scan. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. plug-in facility for third party apps. Runs on Macintosh. Inc. SANS/ISTS certified. real-time IDS event analysis. can audit UNIX. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. websites.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. data theft or system destruction. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 .a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. and browser checkup tool. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. Freeware. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. firewalls. asset management. remote self scan and API facilities. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp. Mac. Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. CVE standards support. remediation management of vulnerabilities. and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. inside and outside the firewall. routers. updated bi-monthly.

Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports.com for individual machines. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Learns about network as it scans. track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. Updated regularly. Port scans. Single machine or full network scans. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool. reports specify severity levels of problems. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability. denial-of-service checks. and a wide variety of other tests. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. Includes DoS testing. by Renaud Deraison. Customizable reporting. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources. CVE compatible. Runs on many UNIX flavors. web server requests-per-second benchmark. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. Limited free or full licensed versions available. Nessus Security Scanner Free. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. open-source remote network security auditing tool. whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. product runs on Windows. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. Works with a variety of operating systems.

servers. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. hubs. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. electronic law. routers. Available as a hardware appliance. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. etc. and many other characteristics. firewalls. etc. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. etc. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems. Provides flexible risk management reports. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. or managed service. intrusion detection resources. what services (ports) they are offering. Page 36 of 60 . Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. etc. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. scanners. operating systems. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. intrusion detection tools. software product. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. printers. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. remediation information. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. organized by subject. workstations. publications. prepares remediation advice. routers. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments. Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. DMZ and externally visible assets. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. desktops. what operating system (and OS version) they are running. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks.

Inc.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance.. database servers.. combining site content. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet. Information Assurance. Includes link checker. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. Desktop product for multiple platforms.org. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. promoting. Similar managed service also available. Limitedcapability free version also available. traffic analysis. and site monitoring capabilities. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. combined utilities/tools. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. service types. Accessibility. Inc. works with a variety of web servers. and OS's.) 5. site scores. analyzing web sites. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. Free and professional versions available. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. for maintaining. and online service available. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software. FPT/publishing. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. server management and optimization tools. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. WYSIWYG editor. (Includes various types of security tools. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement.7. and Web Governance. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. not just for testing.

Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. etc. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. and more. Alerts via email. restart services. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. suited to large systems. network errors. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. sends email notification if site is slow or down. response errors. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. For Windows. applications. real-time executive dash board. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. run scripts. automatically reboot servers. bandwidth usage. restart apps and services. and diagnostics. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. isolation. Captures and monitors real user sessions. from AllScoop. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . visitor segmentation. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. pagers. network management. and network. capabilities include notifications via email. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. and popup. server. SMS.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. page sizes. including server errors. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. for performance and availability monitoring. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. etc. net send. click path analysis. and repair. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. response times. page aborts. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . Other capabilities include search engine optimization. services.

FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. load testing. Installer easily installs system on your server. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. low cost for large sites. WYSIWYG editor.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Search. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). Dynamic Menu. and more. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. based on database-driven. link verification. etc. site cleanup. upload resuming. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Free for use on small sites. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. such as option compatibilities on a single product. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. and a robust API. Works on multiple platforms. scheduler. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. Message Board. Provides complete software developers environment. spatial relationships between products. verifying content and functional integrity. Statistical Reports. Multilingualism.com for web site updating. detecting. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. All can be integrated without writing code. PHP-Code Insertion. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . high-level functions save template coding time. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. User Administration. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. template-based dynamically-created content. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. drag-and-drop. Database Backup. HTML and GIF optimization.

prices. and DB servers. support for more than 50 document formats. e-mail. and more.. HTML Rename Site Migration/Batch processing tool from Expandable Language that enforces file naming conventions (case. templates. e-commerce site designer/generator. Alchemy Eye System management tool from Alchemy Lab continuously monitors server availability and performance. administration. browser-based. Easy to install. simply create an account and paste one line of javascript into your pages. stories. image handling. then Page 40 of 60 . Runs with a variety of platforms. and log events. text editor. Documentum Enterprise content management product from EMC Corp. renaming the files to match the convention. For Windows. multi-lingual support. HTML validator. Update news flashes. Can automatically run external programs. authoring tools. HTML encryptor/optimizer. business process automation. pager. more. link checker.capabilites/support include scalability. notifications. HTML editor. privacy compliance. and more. advertisements. etc. globalization. security. e-commerce. payment processing. Add-on modules allow capabilities such as WAP. spell checker. enables users to update their web site via e-mail. customer relationship management. scalable content management platform for content contributors distributed across an organization. broken links. site mapper. Use any e-mail client capable of producing HTML to format your content or use HTML tags in a plain text e-mail. site spider. FlexWindow Tool from Digital Architects B. integration with a variety of servers. length. Watchfire WebXM Content analysis tool from Watchfire analyzes sites for slow loading pages. activity tracking. Web500 CMS Web content management and site maintenance solution from Web500. security. styles. image mapper. and website standards compliance. Enables collaboration. Alerts by cell phone. web servers. searchability. approval workflow.V. product info. accessibility. . invalid chars). Serena Collage Content management tool from Serena. Basic accounts are free. etc. version control.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Suite of web site management utilities from Trellian including site upload/publishing tools. XML-content-based multichannel delivery. Works with content from any platform or application.

staging. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. replication and administration. management of workflow. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. personalization. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. version control. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). and maintaining highly dynamic web sites. reuse and access. and archiving. where all content and content types are stored for management. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. based on native XML and XSL technologies. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Enables services such as library services. security. and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. isolate. and customizable workflow.. For Windows. portals and scanned images. publishing. Inc. content development.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. conversion services. editing. For Mac or Windows. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. tracking of revisions. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. index/search. Page 41 of 60 . including creation. anticipate capacity shortfalls. deploying. production. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. digital assets. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. documents. Manages Web content. Mac. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. workflow. and manage and report on service level agreements. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. services for capturing. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software.

FTP Workspace for uploading. includes 'anti-caching technology' ensuring more reliable logging by blocking caching of site's pages by visitor's browsers. IBM Workplace Web Content Management IBM's web content management product for Internet. Uses a highly customizable and extensible integrated development environment while maintaining full control over multiple file types including HTML. searches for keywords. lookup help. and update websites. Includes internal. and the ability to use hundreds of optional free add-ins through its open plugins interface. click paths. SSI. extranet and portal sites. and much more. WebCheck Windows application that runs in background and periodically checks a site for availability and correctness. Python. preview and publish web pages. seamless integration with the CSE HTML Validator. automatically resume interrupted transfers. WebLog Manager In addition to logging capabilities. Capabilities include notification by email and automatic reboot of web server. Also has keyword count for pages vs competitor's pages.com designed to help HTML. A1Monitor Utility from A1Tech for monitoring availability of web servers. Finds errors and provides suggestions on how to create standards compliant pages. upload. GUI support of W3C's HTML Tidy. JavaScript. format. XHTML and XML authors to edit. server-side and live preview modes. validate. rank on page. Searches top engines for keywords. can specify search depth. checks search engine placement including position. CSS. on web server and Windows client. Requires UNIX. provides notification by displaying a message or sending an e-mail. intranet. AgentWebRanking Freeware tool from AADSoft to monitor site's search engine position. Ruby. XML. XSL. manage. WS_FTP Pro FTP/web publishing tool from Ipswitch. and 'Active Deny Access' to prevent particular IP addresses from accessing web site. PERL. Enhanced logging utilizing custom generated script uploaded to host. external. Over 400 free plugins available for extending and customizing HTML-Kit. Java. dragand-drop files. Validate XML documents using its DTD and/or check for well-formedness. improve search engine ranks. From Monocle Solutions. support more than 50 host file systems. page. 'Active Protect Images' to prevent other sites from "borrowing" images. runs on both Lotus Domino and IBM WebSphere. Requires MSIE. auto or manual submit of URL's to search engines. full-featured editor from Chami. for Windows. Pro plugins available to paid registered users. Perl. downloading and online editing of files. Requires MSIE and Windows. XHTML. For Windows. WebSite Director Page 42 of 60 . submit URL's. 'Active Protect MetaTags' allowing only search engine spiders to see front-page meta-tags. meta tag creator.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing HTML-Kit Free.

Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. For Windows. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. alerting. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. For Windows. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. real-time server monitoring of server response time. logging. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. and publishing control tool. HTML validation. server management. management. server failure detection. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. link problems. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. OS's. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. monitoring and recovery. number of pending requests. Interwoven Team Site Web development. For MS and Netscape web servers. content management and site visualization. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. Page 43 of 60 . requires Windows and MSIE. version control. works with many servers. link analysis and quality control. and e-mail notifications. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. logging capabilities. UNIX. access control. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. E-mail/pager notifications. and platforms. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. monitoring. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. Web based interface for load balancing administration. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. network management. for customizable automated site mapping. link checking. standards-based environment. metrics. Evaluation copy available. etc. For Windows. e-mail submission of web content.

Link checker. has updateable rulebase. security. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. scheduled and on-demand reporting. databases. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. links. etc. link checker. error info is linked to error in html. logs. For Windows. publishing. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments. variable lock controls. Meta manager. From Talicom. administration. global search-and-replace. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. Visual site structure editor. For Windows or Unix. and encryption capabilities. connections. spell checker. browser interface. file edit merging. Page 44 of 60 . XML repositories.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. image tag checker. Support for managing content stored in databases. and servers. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. Server side compatible with many available web servers. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. Includes version control. etc. link checking. file uploading. For Windows. Includes automated deployment. Validates against various HTML versions. layout editor. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. comparison capabilitie. Date stamper. API's. For Windows. management. graphics management. HTML-to-Text converter.. staging/publishing control. provides notifications of problems. customizable reports. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. thumbnail viewer. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. For Windows and Unix. and static files. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. includes site management capabilities. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. and maintenance. browser extensions.

more.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. system resource usage. and system configuration information. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports. Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. can specify the screen width(s). The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. For Windows. URL2image. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. from TechSmith Corp. system operations in 7 different categories. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. Perl. to which links it extracts. Free. analyzing and sharing of usability data. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware. For anyone interested in css. web standards and elastic design. Consists of 3 components. and share with others. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. for automated recording. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. upload to a bug tracking system. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. SiteTimer service . Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. from how it breaks down the HTML. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. examine server's HTTP headers. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5.8.

FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. ports. Sandra 'System ANalyser. etc. virtual memory settings. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Professional. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc. and delay. html. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. manage and monitor throughput. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. Free. for Windows. set breakpoints. processes. system file listings. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. Provides performance enhancing tips. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles.NET event-based scripting subsystem. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. loaded modules. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. mainboard. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. etc. Includes CPU.) in small text files. loss. data creation or capture and replay. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. modules.). users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. etc. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. and includes a simple but powerful JScript. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. processor information. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. Services information. services. ODBC sources. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. memory details. OS version. physical memory information. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks. component details. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. device drivers. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. and much more. drives. Network Adaptor Information. environment settings. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. tune-up wizard. Free. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. XML. and other versions available in multiple languages. more.

analogous to running an MRI scan. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server. freeware. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. or source code. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. and multipath effects. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. and XML switches. packet losses. Inc. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. available as on-line service. Windows (on-demand). such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". Macintosh. any version. binaries and source available. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. It allows the user to peek inside I. robustness.E. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. For Windows. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Free 90-day trial. in most versions of every browser ever released.com. caching proxies. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. filters. delays. Page 47 of 60 . Linux RPMs. any operating system. For Windows. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. Linux. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. compliance. with GUI. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. originally designed for testing networking protocols. and other quality factors. Can be used on user's workstations. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. binaries. security. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. testing. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Can log captures to disk.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. Enables enhancement of QA.

Freeware. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. HP Net Metrix.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST. Searchability. snoop. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. etc). Inc. window advertisements. any message definitions.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). can also programmatically fix most common errors found. Ethernet. For automated testing of Web. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). and various graphs. FTP. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. and mainframe applications. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. Can crawl a site and report errors. Works with all text-based IP protocols. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. MITs. Page 48 of 60 . bytes. etc. Runs on Windows platforms. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. link validation.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. client/server. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. freeware. Available for various UNIX flavors. Also available: MITS. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. or WinDump. Overall Site Quality. for Windows. throughput. For windows. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. and segments sent and received. Runs on Windows. such as those produced by tcpdump. round trip times. and any network. and as source code. freeware. retransmissions. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. and generating test scripts. mailboxes. etherpeek. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser.

produces a range of configurable reports that breaks down info into network and server speeds. Delphi. client. capability to read in existing database table structures to aid in data generation. MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher . time period. CFML ). Visual C++. Windows. T-SQL. not just samples. DLL. COM+. etc. Included with software are examples of using the control from within Visual Basic. For Windows. Hypertrak Suite of software protocol analyzers from Triometric accurately calculates end-to-end download speeds for each transaction. COM. WebMetrics Web usability testing and evaluation tool suite from U. CSS. and Javascript and includes GIF and JPEG optimizer techniques.1.free tool utilizing SNMP to monitoring traffic loads on network links. performance for each server. URL. VC++. and HTML. without ever attaching to process.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web Optimizer Web page optimizing tool from Visionary Technologies intelligently compresses web pages to accelerate web sites without changing site's appearance. ActiveX Exe.0/1. comparison to SLA's. and developers can then debug their respective code independently of one another no matter if the code units reside on the same servers or on different servers or on any combination thereof. generates reports as web pages with GIF graphics on inbound and outbound traffic. handles HTTP 0. For UNIX. Thread. Remote code can pass messages and dialogs directly to your local machine via Team Remote Debugger component. XML. Govt. Runs on Solaris or Linux. written in any language ( ASP. Freeware. wide variety of data types and capabilities for custom data types. Source code available. allows for entry of custom headers. Removes unnecessary information in HTML. data generation interface to Segue SilkTest.S. T-SQL. Windows. errors. HTML2TXT Conversion utility that converts HTML as rendered in MS Internet Explorer into ASCII text while accurately preserving the layout of the text.9/1. MTS. NIST. VB. CFML ) residing on multiple shared and dedicated servers at the same time. Datatect Test data generator from Banner Software generates data to a flat file or ODBC-compliant database. WebBug Debugging tool from Aman Software for monitoring HTTP protocol sends and receives. Page 49 of 60 . For UNIX. XHTML. includes capabilities such as scripting support that allows user to write VBScripts that modify data to create XML output. VJ. Team Remote Debugger Debugging tool from Spline Technologies allows tracing of any number of code units of any kind ( ASP.

It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. Testing FAQ 1. What's an 'inspection'? 10. What is software 'quality'? 13.) 2. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is 'Software Testing'? 3. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg.monitoring and improving the process. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . Why does software have bugs? 6. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. What is verification and Validation? 8. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. and does C. It is oriented to 'detection'. What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. 3. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. then D should happen'). It is oriented to 'prevention'. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. What is 'good code'? 14.

if any. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. Studies were under way to determine which. government IT systems project. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. In early 2004. portions of the project could be salvaged. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. according to mid-2004 news reports. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. According to news reports in April of 2004. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders.S. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. the worst power system failure in North American history. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. A major U. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors.S. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. According to the report. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events.

the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.S. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U. which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. data communications. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. futures exchange.S. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70. the district's CIO was fired. 4. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) .redesign. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U. problems included 10.000+ students. the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. 5. In early 2000. like anyone else. can make mistakes.programmers. was delivered late. Programming errors .as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. Multi-tiered applications. or may understand and request them anyway .000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. rescheduling of engineers.S.000 customers.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. etc.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. and didn't work. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors. Software complexity . Among other tasks. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. enormous relational databases. client-server and distributed applications. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error. hardware requirements that may be affected. effects on other projects. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. public school district with 100. preventing problems is lowvisibility.

When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. mistakes will be made. it should be hard to read'). continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. In this case. resulting in added bugs. step-at-a-time process. egos . 6. In fact. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. the result is bugs. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control .see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors. and testers. management must understand the resulting risks. managers. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. the result is bugs. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. class libraries. developers. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. understandable. feedback to developers.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. often requiring a lot of guesswork.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. Where the risk is lower.visual tools. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. etc. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. Time pressures . maintainable code. depending on the type of customers and projects. Poorly documented code . a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects. also in Part 2 of the FAQ.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. For small groups or projects. Software development tools . Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. complete.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. compilers. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . scripting tools. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. with a goal of clear. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. In some fast-changing business environments.

10. paths. 7. Incremental integration testing . may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. White box testing . The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. walkthroughs. The 'parts' can be code modules. and inspection meetings. done by programmers or by testers. and specifications. not to fix anything. most problems will be found during this preparation. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. • • Page 54 of 60 . Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. client and server applications on a network. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. Integration testing . Tests are based on coverage of code statements. issues lists. reader. as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code. code. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. branches. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. or that test drivers be developed as needed. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. (b) design inspections and code inspections. Little or no preparation is usually required. 8. requirements.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. to test particular functions or code modules. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. Unit testing . conditions. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. This can be done with checklists. and a recorder to take notes. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . individual applications. 9.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. plans.the most 'micro' scale of testing.

input of large numerical values.testing an application under heavy loads. Performance testing .re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. Stress testing . Failover testing . and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer.testing for 'user-friendliness'. or other catastrophic problems.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. hardware failures.testing of full.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. Install/uninstall testing . this type of testing should be done by testers. or interacting with other hardware.final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. partial. willful damage. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails.) System testing . Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. Regression testing . Clearly this is subjective. For example.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. video recording of user sessions. Compatability testing . especially near the end of the development cycle. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. End-to-end testing . or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs. or upgrade install/uninstall processes.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. Sanity testing or smoke testing .testing how well a system recovers from crashes. etc. Load testing . Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. Page 55 of 60 . or systems if appropriate. Usability testing . such as interacting with a database. surveys. bogging down systems to a crawl. and other techniques can be used.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. may require sophisticated testing techniques. etc. User interviews.typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Functional testing . the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. large complex queries to a database system. covers all combined parts of a system. using network communications. Acceptance testing . This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.similar to system testing. environment. Recovery testing . or corrupting databases. the 'macro' end of the test scale. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. applications. This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing.

detailed.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products.. re-testing. complete. Alpha testing . re-test after fixes or changes. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. and intended use of software. Proper implementation requires large computational resources. not paper. Adequate testing . Stick to initial requirements as much as possible .often taken to mean a creative.clear. make extensive use of group communication tools . culture. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Beta testing . Mutation testing .testing of an application when development is nearing completion. they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. User acceptance testing . use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. intranet capabilities. not by programmers or testers.e-mail.allow adequate time for planning. Communication .preferably electronic. changes. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. testing. Realistic schedules . If changes are necessary. testers may be learning the software as they test it. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements . Typically done by end-users or others. 11. plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. If possible. In 'agile'-type environments.testing driven by an understanding of the environment.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing . continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary.start testing early on. Ad-hoc testing . design. Context-driven testing .require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. bug fixing.determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. etc.testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. and documentation. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . groupware. but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. and be prepared to explain consequences. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities.similar to exploratory testing. • • • • Page 56 of 60 . This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. promote teamwork and cooperation. not by programmers or testers. testable requirements that are agreed to by all players.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. For example. cohesive. Comparison testing . by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. attainable. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. Typically done by end-users or others.

A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. but everyone has different ideas about what's best.use both upper and lower case. naming conventions. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 .) In adding comments. 'Peer reviews'. and is readable and maintainable. etc. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. less than 100 lines of code is good. customer acceptance testers. Organize code for readability. be consistent in naming conventions. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). stockholders. Use descriptive variable names . avoid abbreviations. For C and C++ coding. be consistent in naming conventions. use of brackets. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. less than 50 lines is preferable. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to. and is maintainable. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. the development organization's. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. customer contract officers.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. indentations. Use descriptive function and method names . Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. • 13. etc. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. quality is obviously a subjective term. avoid abbreviations.vertically and horizontally. magazine columnists. future software maintenance engineers. However. One code statement per line. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. Function and method sizes should be minimized. Use whitespace generously . err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. delivered on time and within budget. or what is too many or too few rules. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. 'buddy checks' code analysis tools. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . meets requirements and/or expectations. is bug free. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. There are also various theories and metrics. customer management.use both upper and lower case. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). etc. No matter how small. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free.

and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. periodic panics.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing).S.characterized by chaos. Few if any processes in place. realistic planning. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. and works correctly when implemented. Defense Department contractors.) For C++. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. easily modifiable. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. understandable.S. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization. Level 3 . successes may not be repeatable. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. It is geared to large organizations such as large U.software project tracking. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. and maintainable. initiated by the U. developed by the SEI. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. For C++. requirements management. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. make liberal use of exception handlers. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). Level 1 . • • • 15. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. 14. successful practices can be repeated. and configuration management processes are in place. Minimize use of multiple inheritance.For programs that have a user interface. However. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. Level 2 . Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). keep class methods small. Defense Department to help improve software development processes. For C++.

the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 .S. 6% at 4. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. documentation planning. It covers documentation.ch/ for the latest information. processes. 2% at 4. Also see http://www. Of those. and other aspects. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). after which a complete reassessment is required. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829).Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. Project performance is predictable. 23% at 2. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . design.iso. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). document preparation. MOF. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . To be ISO 9001 certified. and quality is consistently high. For those rated at Level 1. (For ratings during the period 1992-96. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).S. functional design. 23% at 3. not just software.4% at 5. coding.asq. a third-party auditor assesses an organization. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. and 0.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . phase-out. and certification is typically good for about 3 years. the primary industrial standards body in the U. servicing. In the U. testing. updates. Trillium. and other processes. Level 4 . ITIL. 1018 organizations were assessed.the focus is on continuous process improvement. Level 5 . internal design. TickIT. federal contractors or agencies. test planning. installation.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements.S.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary. retesting. It includes aspects such as initial concept. 62% were at Level 1.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. 13% at 3. integration. testing. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards.among other things. requirements analysis. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. and others. and products. 32% of organizations were U. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE.metrics are used to track productivity. 39% at 2. (c)Q9004-2000 . (b)Q90002000 . Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products .) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. 27% were rated at Level 1. 17. 16. production. maintenance.. Bootstrap. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. development. and CobiT.it indicates only that documented processes are followed. and 5% at 5.

or some underlying code in the application is changed. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. dialog box choices. Load/performance test tools . the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions.since they are separate from the test drivers.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. and configuration management.vyomworld. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. Memory analyzers . and may be oriented to code statement coverage. logs. For larger projects.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. bug reporting. Additionally. etc. data. etc. etc. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. The data and actions can be more easily maintained . Page 60 of 60 . condition coverage. etc.for test case management.monitor code complexity. client-side and server-side programs work. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. adherence to standards.) can be a difficult task.such as via a spreadsheet . Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .com/testing/. If new buttons are added.these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. a web site's interactions are secure. Other tools . documentation management. Web test tools .to check that links are valid. HTML code usage is correct. the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. and for all types of platforms. This document is for internal purposes only. in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. documentation. buttons. This approach can enable more efficient control. development. For example.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. interpretation and analysis of results (screens. path coverage. etc. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. Coverage analyzers . the primary being: http://www. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type.