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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Basic Concepts and Industry awareness
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................4 2. Types of Testing...........................................................................................4 2.1. White Box Testing...................................................................................4 2.2. Black Box Testing....................................................................................4 2.3. Unit Testing............................................................................................5 2.3.1. Benefits ...........................................................................................5 2.3.2. Encourages change ...........................................................................5 2.3.3. Simplifies Integration ........................................................................5 2.3.4. Documents the code .........................................................................5 2.3.5. Separation of Interface from Implementation .......................................6 2.3.6. Limitations .......................................................................................6 2.4. Integration testing .................................................................................6 2.4.1. Purpose ...........................................................................................6 2.5. Performance Testing................................................................................7 2.5.1. Technology ......................................................................................7 2.5.2. Performance specifications .................................................................7 2.5.3. Tasks to undertake ...........................................................................8 2.6. Stress Testing ........................................................................................8 2.7. Security Testing......................................................................................9 2.7.1. Security Testing Techniques ...............................................................9 2.8. Usability Testing.....................................................................................9 2.9. Stability Testing....................................................................................10 2.10. Acceptance Testing..............................................................................10 2.11. Installation Testing..............................................................................10 2.12. Alfa Testing........................................................................................11 2.13. Beta Testing.......................................................................................11 2.14. Product Testing...................................................................................11 2.15. System Testing...................................................................................12 2.16. Regression Testing...............................................................................12 2.17. Compatibility Testing...........................................................................13 2.18. Test Cases, Suits, Scripts and Scenario..................................................13 2.19. Defect Tracking...................................................................................14 2.20. Formal Verification...............................................................................14 2.20.1. Validation and Verification ..............................................................14 2.21. Fuzz Testing.......................................................................................15 2.21.1. Uses ............................................................................................15 2.21.2. Fuzz testing methods .....................................................................15 2.21.3. Event-driven fuzz ..........................................................................16 2.21.4. Character-driven fuzz ....................................................................16 2.21.5. Database fuzz ...............................................................................16 3. Manual Testing...........................................................................................17 3.1. Facts...................................................................................................17 3.2. Software Crisis .....................................................................................17 3.3. Software Myths ....................................................................................17 3.3.1. Management Myths .........................................................................17 3.3.2. Developers Myths ...........................................................................17 3.3.3. Customer’s Myth .............................................................................18 3.3.4. What do we do? ..............................................................................18 3.4. Software Quality Assurance: ..................................................................18 3.4.1. Verification: ...................................................................................18 3.4.2. Validation: .....................................................................................18 3.5. Software Life Cycle Models: ...................................................................18
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
3.6. What makes a good Software QA engineer? .............................................18 3.7. Testing: ..............................................................................................19 3.7.1. Why Testing? .................................................................................19 3.8. Test Life Cycle .....................................................................................19 3.9. Testing Techniques ...............................................................................19 3.10. Test Plan: ..........................................................................................19 3.10.1. Test Specification: .........................................................................20 4. Testing Procedure.......................................................................................20 4.1. Bug Tracking .......................................................................................20 5. Testing Tools and Software..........................................................................23 5.1. Load and Performance Test Tools ...........................................................23 5.2. Java test Tools......................................................................................23 5.3. Link Checking Tools...............................................................................27 5.4. Perl Testing Tools..................................................................................28 5.5. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools............................................28 5.6. Web Site Security Test Tools...................................................................33 5.7. Web Site Management Tools...................................................................37 5.8. Other Web Testing Tools........................................................................45 6. Testing FAQ ..............................................................................................50
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Introduction Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. He or she can then see if the program diverges from its intended goal. Refer to the ISO standard ISO 9126 for a more complete list of attributes and criteria. stability. white box testing uses specific knowledge of programming code to examine outputs. In other words Testing is nothing but CRITICISM or COMPARISION. Black Box Testing Testing of a function without knowing internal structure of the program. There are many approaches to software testing. Here comparison in the sense comparing the actual value with expected one. Page 4 of 60 .1.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 1. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Synonyms for white-box include: structural. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. Types of Testing 2. structural. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. opaque-box. The test is accurate only if the tester knows what the program is supposed to do. and all visible code must also be readable. White-box test design allows one to peek inside the "box". 2. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. White box testing does not account for errors caused by omission. Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". the word testing is connoted to mean the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. With that in mind. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. 2. so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". portability. testing can never completely establish the correctness of computer software. and closed-box. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. Black-box and white-box are test design methods. clear box and open box testing.2. Synonyms for black-box include: behavioral. glass-box and clear-box. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection. and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. This is a software testing technique whereby explicit knowledge of the internal workings of the item being tested are used to select the test data. completeness and quality of developed computer software. maintainability and usability. White Box Testing White box testing is also known as glass box. Unlike black box testing. functional.
By testing the parts of a program first and then testing the sum of its parts will make integration testing easier. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers.) can use any test design methods.3.Simplifies Integration Unit testing helps eliminate uncertainty in the pieces themselves and can be used in a bottom-up testing style approach. One has to use a mixture of different methods so that they aren't hindered by the limitations of a particular one. and make sure the module still works correctly (regression testing). 2.2. Clients looking to learn how to use the class can look at the unit tests to determine how to use the class to fit their needs. This provides the benefit of encouraging programmers to make changes to the code since it is easy for the programmer to check if the piece is still working properly. Page 5 of 60 . but it's still discouraged. etc. The idea is to write test cases for every non-trivial function or method in the module so that each test case is separate from the others if possible. Unit testing is usually associated with structural test design. Some call this "gray-box" or "translucent-box" test design. Unit Testing In computer programming.3. 2.3.Benefits The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. 126.96.36.199. it hasn't proven useful to use a single test design method. and their influence is hard to see in the tests once they're implemented. Behavioral test design is slightly different from black-box test design because the use of internal knowledge isn't strictly forbidden.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing While black-box and white-box are terms that are still in popular use. a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. system testing. many people prefer the terms "behavioral" and "structural".Documents the code Unit testing provides a sort of "living document" for the class being tested. In practice. It provides a written contract that the piece must satisfy. It is important to understand that these methods are used during the test design phase. but this is because testers usually don't have well-defined requirements at the unit level to validate. 2. This isolated testing provides four main benefits: 2.Encourages change Unit testing allows the programmer to re-factor code at a later date.4. but others wish we'd stop talking about boxes altogether. Note that any level of testing (unit testing.1.
Unit testing is only effective if it is used in conjunction with other software testing activities. the software developer abstracts an interface around the database connection. across procedure calls or process activations. it only tests the functionality of the units themselves.1. and then implements that interface with their own Mock Object. As a result. Integration testing Integration Testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.3. This is a mistake. because a unit test should never go outside of its own class boundary. for example. in order to test the class. applies tests defined in an Integration test plan to those aggregates. groups them in larger aggregates. performance problems and any other system-wide issues. are exercised through their interfaces using Black box testing. and delivers as its output the integrated system ready for system testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. The overall idea is the "building block" approach in which verified assemblages are added to a verified base which is then used to support the Integration testing of further assemblages. it will not catch integration errors. 2. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing. Simulated usage of shared data areas and inter-process communication is tested. All test cases are constructed to test that all components within assemblages interact correctly.5. By definition.Limitations It is important to realize that unit-testing will not catch every error in the program. Therefore. 2. These "design items". it may not be trivial to anticipate all special cases of input the program unit under study may receive in reality. takes as its input modules that have been checked out by unit testing.4. Page 6 of 60 . 2. This results in loosely coupled code.3. A common example of this is classes that depend on a database. testing a class can frequently spill over into testing another class. success and error cases being simulated via appropriate parameter and data inputs. i. In addition.4.Purpose The purpose of Integration testing is to verify functional.e. thus minimizing dependencies in the system. performance and reliability requirements placed on major design items. the tester finds herself writing code that interacts with the database.Separation of Interface from Implementation Because some classes may have references to other classes.6. assemblages (or groups of units). individual subsystems are exercised through their input interface.
no one will have expressed what the maximum acceptable response time for a given population of users is. In the diagnostic case. performance testing is frequently used as part of the process of performance profile tuning.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. Usually. in order to see what happens when an acceptable load is exceeded –does the system crash? How long does it take to recover if a large load is reduced? Does it fail in a way that causes collateral damage? 2. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly. It is sometimes a difficult task to identify which part of the system represents this critical path. e. i. given as number of users vs. a separate PC acts as a test conductor. or as a series of scripts to emulate different types of user interaction) with the host whose performance is being tested.1. are available to perform such tests. The test result shows how the performance varies with the load. coordinating and gathering metrics from each of the injectors and collating performance data for reporting purposes. performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. However.2.. Tools in this category usually execute a suite of tests which will emulate real users against the system.e. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. 2.Performance specifications Performance testing is frequently not performed against a specification. will result in the overall system running faster. including Compuware Corporation's QACenter Performance Edition. it is often crucial (and often difficult to arrange) for the test conditions to be similar to the expected actual use. that while the average response time might be acceptable. The usual sequence is to ramp up the load – starting with a small number of virtual users and increasing the number over a period to some maximum.5.5. and some test tools come provided with (or can have add- Page 7 of 60 . The idea is to identify the “weakest link” – there is inevitably a part of the system which. Performance testing can serve different purposes. In performance testing. Performance Testing In software engineering. Performance testing can be combined with stress testing. there are outliers of a few key transactions that take considerably longer to complete – something that might be caused by inefficient database queries. Various tools. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. etc. Sometimes the results can reveal oddities.5.g.Technology Performance testing technology employs one or more PCs to act as injectors – each emulating the presence or numbers of users and each running an automated sequence of interactions (recorded as a script. response time. if it is made to respond faster. software engineers use tools such as profilers to measure what parts of a device or software contribute most to the poor performance or to establish throughput levels (and thresholds) for maintained acceptable response time.
although routers would then need to be configured to introduce the lag what would typically occur on public networks. quiet network (we don’t want results upset by other users). Without such instrumentation one might have to have someone crouched over Windows Task Manager at the server to see how much CPU load the performance tests are generating. in order to observe the results. 2. and even done in different parts of the country. but even having the most efficient idle loop in the world obviously didn’t improve overall performance one iota! Performance testing almost invariably identifies that it is parts of the software (rather than hardware) that contribute most to delays in processing users’ requests. Set up of a configuration of injectors/controller Set up of the test configuration (ideally identical hardware to the production platform). either pass/fail.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing ons that provide) instrumentation that runs on the server and reports transaction times. deployment of server instrumentation. Performance testing can be performed across the web. since it is known that the response times of the internet itself vary regionally. Analyzing the results.6. often to a breaking point. For example. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity. a web server may be stress tested Page 8 of 60 . where they had found the system spent most of its time. If there can also be a statement of what constitutes the maximum allowable 95 percentile response time. There is an apocryphal story of a company that spent a large amount optimizing their software without having performed a proper analysis of the problem. Running the tests – probably repeatedly in order to see whether any unaccounted for factor might affect the results.Tasks to undertake Tasks to perform such a test would include: • • • • • • Analysis of the types of interaction that should be emulated and the production of scripts to do those emulations Decision whether to use internal or external resources to perform the tests. which can be analyzed together with the raw performance statistics. It can also be done in-house. Stress Testing Stress Testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. network overhead. database access times. etc.3. It is always helpful to have a statement of the likely peak numbers of users that might be expected to use the system at peak times. They ended up rewriting the system’s ‘idle loop’.5. then an injector configuration could be used to test whether the proposed system met that specification. or investigation of critical path and recommendation of corrective action. 2. router configuration.
whereas general human-computer interaction studies attempt to formulate universal principles. i. Usability Testing Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some humanmade object (such as a web page. "Caution: simply gathering opinions is not usability testing -. 2. to discover errors and areas of improvement. Data corruption and application Defacement. including making things work with people. the detection of application vulnerabilities requires independent evaluation of your specific application's features and functions by experts. Downtime.you must arrange an experiment that measures a subject's ability to use your document. While automated tools can help to eliminate many generic security issues. Security within an application or web service is crucial to avoid such vulnerabilities and new threats. performance testing. bots. compromising usability and functionality. and various denial of service tools to observe the performance of a web site during peak loads.7. or a device) for its intended purpose.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing using scripts. Security Testing Application vulnerabilities leave your system open to attacks. Usability testing focuses on a particular object or a small set of objects.8. a document. usability testing measures the usability of the object. software testing.7. such as people having difficulty understanding instructions. forcing designers to develop systems based on management expectations instead of people's needs.Security Testing Techniques • • • • • • • • Vulnerability Scanning Network Scanning Password Cracking Log Views Virus Detect Penetration Testing File Integrity Checkers War Dialing 2. the aim is to observe people using the product in as realistic a situation as possible. Data theft. Designers commonly focus excessively on creating designs that look "cool". a computer interface.e. If usability testing uncovers difficulties. During usability testing. manipulating parts." Page 9 of 60 . An external security vulnerability review by Third Eye Testing will give you the best possible confidence that your application is as secure as possible. A designers' primary function should be more than appearance. Also see testing. or interpreting feedback.1. This is often caused by pressure from the people in charge. then developers should improve the design and test it again. Stress testing a subset of load testing. 2.
Test designers will draw up a formal test plan and devise a range of severity levels. it refers to a period of time during which a multi-dose product retains its quality after the container is opened. Developers should have worked out these issues during unit testing and integration testing.). or realistic situation. and pre. In the pharmaceutical field. and ask him or her to undertake this task. and the toy's design all affect the assembly process. usability testing involves watching people trying to use something for its intended purpose. Results of these tests will allow both the customers and the developers to be confident that the system will work as intended. Instruction phrasing. 2. the test subjects should be given the instructions and a box of parts. Rather. The aim is to observe how people function in a realistic manner. stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash. ideally. The test scripts will emulate real-world usage of the system. Stability Testing In software testing. Several other test instruments such as scripted instructions. so that developers can see problem areas. it will work just the same in production. Installation Testing Installation testing (in software engineering) can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. developers have derived from the User Requirements Specification. The technique popularly used to gather data during a usability test is called a think aloud protocol. when testing instructions for assembling a toy. paper prototypes. 2. "Do you understand this?". a scenario would describe a situation where a person needs to send an e-mail attachment. and what people like.9. 2.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Rather than showing users a rough draft and asking. The focus in this type of testing is less on simple problems (spelling mistakes. Setting up a usability test involves carefully creating a scenario. The idea is that if the software works as intended and without issues during a simulation of normal use. Page 10 of 60 . For example. the focus is on a final verification of the required business function and flow of the system.10. Users of the system will perform these tests which. Acceptance Testing User acceptance testing (UAT) is one of the final stages of a software project and will often occur before the customer accepts a new system. to which the system should conform. illustration quality. software will not run etc. to test the attachment function of an e-mail program. wherein the person performs a list of tasks using the product being tested while observers watch and take notes. cosmetic problems) and show stoppers (major problems like the software crashing.and post-test questionnaires are also used to gather feedback on the product being tested.11. For example.
This technique is known as black box testing. This is often known as the second stage of alpha testing. 2. In distributed systems. It can then be handed over to testing staff for additional inspection in an environment similar to how it was intended to be used. Page 11 of 60 . Product testing experts design the test process to take advantage of the economies of scope and scale that are present in a software product.14. The product handed out as a Beta Release is not bug free. the software is released to a limited audience who would finally form the end users. the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. the deployment plan itself should be tested in an environment that is a replica of the live environment.13. Product Testing Software Product development companies face unique challenges in testing. Deployment plans in such circumstances may include back-out procedures whose use is intended to roll the target environment back in the event that the deployment is unsuccessful. This process helps in determining whether the final software meets its intended purpose and whether the end users would accept the same. Ideally. 2. Beta Testing Many a time. testing is usually required before release to the general public. In-house developers often test the software in what is known as 'ALPHA' testing which is often performed under a debugger or with hardware-assisted debugging to catch bugs quickly. Only suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a software product. Alfa Testing In software development. Whilst the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program. 2.12. particularly where software is to be released into an already live target environment (such as an operational web site) installation (or deployment as it is sometimes called) can involve database schema changes as well as the installation of new software. A beta release is very close to the final release. however no serious or critical bugs would exist. A factor that can increase the organizational requirements of such an exercise is the need to synchronize the data in the test deployment environment with that in the live environment with minimum disruption to live operation. to use it / test it and come back with feedback or bugs.
IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. New York. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. System testing is more of a limiting type of testing. as its input. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. as its input. According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software system itself integrated with any applicable hardware system(s).15. System testing takes. As a rule. Regression testing takes. As a rule. 2. 1990. New York.16. Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of Regression testing. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. Regression Testing Regression Testing is typically carried out at the end of the development cycle. Regression testing falls within the scope of Black box testing. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. During this testing. System testing is testing conducted on a complete. 1990. NY.). Alpha testing and Beta testing are sub-categories of System testing.). all of the "integrated" software components that have successfully passed Integration testing and also the software Regression itself integrated with any applicable hardware Regression(s). NY. and as such. System Testing According to the IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary. Regression testing is more of a limiting type of testing. 2. integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic (IEEE. where it seeks to detect both defects within the "inter-assemblages" and also the system as a whole. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Regression testing is testing conducted on a complete. The purpose of Integration testing is to detect any inconsistencies between the software units that are integrated together called assemblages or between any of the assemblages and hardware. Page 12 of 60 . and as such.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing These activities are sequenced and scheduled so that a test activity occurs immediately following the construction activity whose output the test is intended to validate. all bug previously identified and fixed is tested along with it's impacted areas to confirm the fix and it's impact if any.
These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. author. Scripts and Scenario Black box testers usually write test cases for the majority of their testing activities. system. The optional fields are a test case ID. operating system and browser versions. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. In a database system. It can occasionally be a series of steps but with one expected result or expected outcome. 2. thus ensuring you that the application is compatible with various hardware. Page 13 of 60 . They are usually different from test cases in that test cases are single steps and scenarios cover a number of steps. Compatibility Testing One of the challenges of software development is ensuring that the application works properly on the different platforms and operating systems on the market and also with the applications and devices in its environment. (c) credible. They may also be called a test script. Most white box tester write and use test scripts in unit. related requirement(s). and regression testing. (d) complex. Suits. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. and (e) easy to evaluate. Most companies that use automated testing will call the code that is used their test scripts. depth. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose. or even a test scenario. and its expected result. It is (a) a story that is (b) motivating. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. Test scripts should be written for modules with the highest risk of failure and the highest impact if the risk becomes an issue. along with various additional pieces of information. A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 2. test step or order of execution number. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. and descriptions of the following tests. and descriptions. A test case is usually a single step. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. Compatibility testing service aims at locating application problems by running them in real environments.17. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. test category.18. database or other common repository. Test Cases. The ideal scenario test has five key characteristics. Test suites and scenarios can be used in concert for complete system tests. you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. spreadsheet.
2. The properties to be verified are often described in temporal logics. Petri nets. does the product conform to the specifications. Validation and Verification Verification is one aspect of testing a product's fitness for purpose. but the two concepts can be used in conjunction. symbolic state space enumeration. System types that are considered in the literature for formal verification include finite state machines (FSM). Page 14 of 60 . formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property. labeled transition systems (LTS) and their compositions. testing.e. and reasoning with the aid of automatic theorem provers such as HOL or Isabelle.. and tracking them to closure. E.e. 2. (by inspection. which is more closely related to exploratory testing. and abstractions of general software components. for a software product one can inspect the source code (static) and run against specific test cases (dynamic). but not the same as session-based testing. abstract interpretation..1. or recording feedback from customers). Usually formal verification is carried out algorithmically. combinatorial circuits. Defect tracking systems are computer database systems that store defects and help people to manage them.20. Formal Verification In the context of hardware and software systems.19. Defect Tracking In engineering. digital circuits with internal memory.g. The verification process consists of static and dynamic parts. timed automata and hybrid automata. Validation: "Are we building the right product?” i. Defect tracking is important in software engineering as complex software systems typically have tens or hundreds of thousands of defects: managing. Verification: "Are we building the product right?” i.20. does the product do what the user really requires. processalgebraic methods.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Scenario testing is similar to. Often one refers to the overall checking process as V & V. Validation is the complementary aspect. defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product.. The main approaches to implementing formal verification include state space enumeration. such as linear temporal logic (LTL) or computational tree logic (CTL). 2. cryptographic protocols. abstraction refinement. evaluating and prioritizing these defects is a difficult task. using formal methods.
usually before applying it to the software.21. fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods: it can only provide a random sample of the system's behavior. rather than behaving correctly. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. Fuzz Testing Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. developers need to reproduce errors in order to fix them. with fuzz test failures actually being more useful as a bug-finding tool than fuzz test passes as an assurance of quality. Fuzz testing is thought to enhance software security and software safety because it often finds odd oversights and defects which human testers would fail to find. 2. 2. For example. the test data is preserved. 2.21. so that if the computer fails dramatically. and free of preconceptions about system behavior. The advantage here is that the cost of generating the tests is relatively low.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Validation usually can only be done dynamically. or possibly from a mechanism in an embedded system. Fuzz testing methods As a practical matter. fuzz testing can only be regarded as a proxy for program correctness. These usually have a budget to develop test tools. If the program fails (for example. rather than a direct measure. or by failing in-built code assertions). Fuzz testing is also used as a gross measurement of a large software system's quality. For this reason. by crashing.2. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple. and fuzz testing is one of the techniques which offer a high benefit to cost ratio. However. • Character driven inputs are from files or data streams. Modern software has several different types of inputs: • Event driven inputs are usually from a graphical user interface. Uses Fuzz testing is often used in large software development projects that perform black box testing. then there are defects to correct. almost all fuzz testing makes a record of the data it manufactures. such as relational databases.21. Thus. • Database inputs are from tabular data.. i. third party testers have used fuzz testing to evaluate the relative merits of different operating systems and application programs. and in many cases passing a fuzz test may only demonstrate that a piece of software handles exceptions without crashing. There are at least two different forms of fuzz testing: Page 15 of 60 .1. the product is tested by putting it through typical usages and atypical usages ("Can we break it?").e. and even careful human test designers would fail to create tests for.
not handling every possible binary value. Fuzz testing may use tools to simulate all of these domains. This problem tends to recur in every instance in which a string or number is parsed from the data stream and placed in a limited-size area. Event-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a queue of data-structures. software must validate all fields of every queue entry. To succeed in a fuzz-tested environment. simply providing error status can cause resource problems or a crash. Simple fuzz usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide input.3. The classic source in UNIX is the random data generator.21. The queue is filled with data structures that have random values. However. and a general-purpose interface is available to users. often the database is more tolerant of odd data than its client software. Character-driven fuzz Normally this is provided as a stream of random data.21. decode every possible binary value. Since major customer and enterprise management Page 16 of 60 . because input and comparison constraints reduce the invalid data in a database. without even crude validation. or conforms to actual production data. 2. By using all of these techniques in combination. Database fuzz is controversial. Database fuzz The standard database scheme is usually filled with fuzz that is random data of random sizes. Another is that decode tables or logic may be incomplete. A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input injected. One common problem with a character driven program is a buffer overrun. Often the same schema descriptions can be used to automatically generate fuzz databases.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • Valid fuzz attempts to assure that the random input is reasonable. Some IT shops use software tools to migrate and manipulate such databases. One of the more interesting issues with real-time event handling is that if error reporting is too verbose. and then ignore impossible requests. 2. when the character data exceeds the available buffer space. The most common problem with an event-driven program is that it will often simply use the data in the queue. Robust error detection systems will report only the most significant or most recent error over a period of time. 2.21.5. fuzz-generated randomness can test the un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states.4.
Basic Concepts of Software Testing
software is starting to be open-source, database-based security attacks are becoming more credible. A common problem with fuzz databases is buffer overrun. A common data dictionary, with some form of automated enforcement is quite helpful and entirely possible. To enforce this, normally all the database clients need to be recompiled and retested at the same time. Another common problem is that database clients may not understand the binary possibilities of the database field type, or, legacy software might have been ported to a new database system with different possible binary values. A normal, inexpensive solution is to have each program validate database inputs in the same fashion as user inputs. The normal way to achieve this is to periodically "clean" production databases with automated verifiers.
3. Manual Testing
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In India itself, Software industry growth has been phenomenal. IT field has enormously grown in the past 50 years. IT industry in India is expected to touch 10,000 crores of which software share is dramatically increasing.
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Software cost/schedules are grossly inaccurate. Cost overruns of several times, schedule slippage’s by months, or even years are common. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand. Added to it is the shortage of skilled people. Productivity of people has not kept pace with demand Added to it is the shortage of skilled people.
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Software Management is different. Why change or approach to development? We have provided the state-of-the-art hardware. Problems are technical If project is late, add more engineers. We need better people.
• • • • We must start with firm requirements Why bother about Software Engineering techniques, I will go to terminal and code it. Once coding is complete, my job is done. How can you measure the quality...it is so intangible.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
• • A general statement of objective is good enough to produce software. Anyway software is “Flex-ware”, it can accommodate my changing needs.
3.3.4.What do we do?
• • • • Use Software Engineering techniques/processes. Institutionalize them and make them as part of your development culture. Adopt Quality Assurance Frameworks : ISO, CMM Choose the one that meets your requirements and adopt where necessary.
Software Quality Assurance:
The purpose of Software Quality Assurance is to provide management with appropriate visibility into the process being used by the software project and of the products being built. • Software Quality Assurance involves reviewing and auditing the software products and activities to verify that they comply with the applicable procedures and standards and providing the software project and other appropriate managers with the results of these reviews and audits.
• • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. The determination of consistency, correctness & completeness of a program at each stage.
• • Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed The determination of correctness of a final program with respect to its requirements.
• • • •
Software Life Cycle Models:
Prototyping Model Waterfall Model – Sequential Spiral Model V Model - Sequential
What makes a good Software QA engineer?
The same qualities a good tester has are useful for a QA engineer. Additionally, they must be able to understand the entire software development process and how it can fit into the business approach and goals of the organization.
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Basic Concepts of Software Testing
Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. In organizations in the early stages of implementing QA processes, patience and diplomacy are especially needed. An ability to find problems as well as to see 'what's missing' is important for inspections and reviews.
• • • • • •
An examination of the behavior of a program by executing on sample data sets. Testing comprises of set of activities to detect defects in a produced material. To unearth & correct defects. To detect defects early & to reduce cost of defect fixing. To avoid user detecting problems. To ensure that product works as users expected it to.
• • • • To To To To unearth and correct defects. detect defects early and to reduce cost of defect fixing. ensure that product works as user expected it to. avoid user detecting problems.
• • • • • • • •
Test Life Cycle
Identify Test Candidates Test Plan Design Test Cases Execute Tests Evaluate Results Document Test Results Casual Analysis/ Preparation of Validation Reports Regression Testing / Follow up on reported bugs.
• • •
Black Box Testing White Box Testing Regression Testing
These principles & techniques can be applied to any type of testing.
A Test Plan is a detailed project plan for testing, covering the scope of testing, the methodology to be used, the tasks to be performed, resources, schedules, risks, and dependencies. A Test Plan is developed prior to the implementation of a project to provide a well defined and understood project roadmap.
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problem/bug tracking. load. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. and test ware through life cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. usability tests.1. 4. prior to the onset of manual testing and/or automated test suite development. set up logging and archiving processes. boundary value analyses.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. functional design. A Test Specification is produced as the first step in implementing a Test Plan. coverage analyzers.10. change processes. test environment.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. Determine test approaches and methods . etc. etc.1.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. system.unit. timelines. etc. and labor requirements Set schedule estimates. Obtain budget and schedule requirements. set up test tracking processes. Testing Procedure The following are some of the steps to consider: • • Obtain requirements. test tracking. It provides a repeatable. etc. software. comprehensive definition of a testing campaign. those responsible for tasks. and determine scope and limitations of tests. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test-ware. reporting requirements. set priorities. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. required standards and processes (such as release processes. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents. functional.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 3. Test Specification: A Test Specification defines exactly what tests will be performed and what their scope and objectives will be. integration. communications. test cases. Bug Tracking What's a 'test case'? Page 20 of 60 .
) Current bug status (e. input data requirements. relevant hardware specifics Test case name/number/identifier One-line bug description Full bug description Description of steps needed to reproduce the bug if not covered by a test case or if the developer doesn't have easy access to the test case/test script/test tool Names and/or descriptions of file/data/messages/etc. test conditions/setup. Bug identifier (number. object. or event and an expected response. action. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • A test case is a document that describes an input. etc. etc. 'Released for Retest'. and expected results. fixes should be re-tested. and reproduce it if necessary. and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. steps. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such tools).g. since it requires completely thinking through the operation of the application. For this reason. If a problem-tracking system is in place. platform. feature. test case name. The following are items to consider in the tracking process: Complete information such that developers can understand the bug. objective. system. ID. etc. get an idea of it's severity. module. it's useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle if possible. it should encapsulate these processes. 'New'. used in test File excerpts/error messages/log file excerpts/screen shots/test tool logs that would be helpful in finding the cause of the problem Severity estimate (a 5-level range such as 1-5 or 'critical'-to-'low' is common Was the bug reproducible? Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer/group/organization the problem is assigned to Description of problem cause Description of fix Code section/file/module/class/method that was fixed Date of fix Application version that contains the fix Tester responsible for retest Retest date Retest results • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 21 of 60 . After the problem is resolved. to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. where the bug occurred Environment specifics.. screen. What should be done after a bug is found? • The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application.) The application name or identifier and version The function.
If there are many minor changes or any major changes. can make mistakes. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. often requiring a lot of guesswork. mistakes will be made. data communications.programmers. In this case. Poorly documented code . Changing requirements . hardware requirements that may be affected. client-server and distributed applications.redesign. And the use of objectoriented techniques can complicate instead of simplify a project unless it is well engineered.the customer may not understand the effects of changes. or may understand and request them anyway . Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • Regression testing requirements Tester responsible for regression tests Regression testing results A reporting or tracking process should enable notification of appropriate personnel at various stages. Windows-type interfaces. testers need to know when retesting is needed. and reporting/summary capabilities are needed for managers. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control. For instance. Egos . continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. the result is bugs. Programming errors . the result is bugs. developers need to know when bugs are found and how to get the needed information. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' Instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up o making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. Time pressures . In some fast-changing business environments. Software complexity . until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problems'. In many • • • • • • • Page 22 of 60 . When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. enormous relational databases. rescheduling of engineers. management must understand the resulting risks. effects on other projects. and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. like anyone else. etc.
5. scripting tools. etc. Testing Tools and Software 5. compilers. Monitors applications as soon as installed no coding is needed. qftestJUI Record/playback test tool from Quality First Software for creation.1. intuitive views of interrelation between system components and application infrastructure.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. and contract (black box) test tool from TreborSoft. user actions and associated data are automatically integrated into an editable tree view reflecting the hierarchical structure of the application's GUI. profiler. Load and Performance Test Tools AppPerfect DevSuite 5. Test private and protected functions. understandable code.). EJBs. Intent is to allow fine-grained continuous testing of all files Page 23 of 60 . etc. and server application's modules. it should be hard to read'). execution and management of automated Java/Swing application tests. Software development tools . Java test Tools Java Development Tools Java coverage. tuning. GJTester Java unit. without implementing test clients. metrics. Included 'LeakHunter'identifies potential memory leaks. regression testing for JAVA VM upgrades. Includes a natural user interface.visual tools. Cactus A simple open-source test framework for unit testing server-side java code (Servlets. Enables test case and test script development without programming. and other server technologies as well.2. Useful for testing CORBA. Filters. Includes: Unit Tester. presents data in easy-to-use customizable dashboards which enable deep. class libraries. resulting in added bugs. Recorded GUI elements. GUI interface emphasizing ease of use. and clone detection tools from Semantic Designs. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. and a component recognition algorithm that takes into account a variety of attributes. RMI. Tag Libs. AppPerfect DevSuite Suite of testing. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write. scripting capabilities. and monitoring products for java development from AppPerfect Corp. Code Analyzer. 'Transaction Tracer' can provide detailed tracing of execution paths and component response times for individual transactions in production systems. Introscope Performance monitoring tool from Wily Technology. Extensive documentation. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Java/J2EE Profiler and other modules. In fact. regression.
Koalog Code Coverage Code coverage analyzer for Java applications from Koalog SARL. Site includes a large collection of extensions and documentation. Free Open Source Software from SourceForge site. predefined (XML. The framework may be invoked directly from Java code or accessed without programming through the use of scripts via 'Costello'. for which JUnit may be sufficient). improving upon the very basic functions provided by the java. It uses JUnit and extends it. Includes: in-process or remote coverage computation. By Mike Clark/Clarkware Consulting.Framework to write repeatable java unit tests A regression testing framework written by Erich Gamma and Kent Beck. for early detection of software defects and automatic assessment of code quality. For use by developers implementing unit tests in Java. Also available as plugins for JBuilder and Eclipse. Jemmy A Java library that is used to create automated tests for Java GUI applications. From Apache Software Foundation. Typically use within your IDE. which can then be run automatically and independent of other JUnit tests. Contains Page 24 of 60 . Free Open Source Software released under the IBM Public License and hosted on SourceForge.available under the GNU Lesser General Public License. LaTex. Intended for use where there are performance/scalability requirements that need re-checking while refactoring code. etc) through an in-container approach. Abbot Java GUI Test Framework Testing framework by Timothy Wall provides automated event generation and validation of Java GUI components. Couples advanced static analysis capabilities to ISO 9126 quality standard framework. Provides recording and playback capabilities. (Abbot = "A Better 'Bot'). Suitable for use both by developers for unit tests and QA for functional testing.awt. CSV. and session merging to allow compilation of overall results for distinct executions. Integrates with Ant and JUnit. jfcUnit Framework for developing automated testing of Java Swing-based applications at the UI layer (as opposed to testing at lower layers. Enables quick composition of a performance test suite. or from the command line. QStudio for Java Java code inspection tool from QA Systems allows automation of a major portion of code inspection process. TEXT) or custom report generation. Integrates with leading Java Development Environments and platforms. Free .Robot class. JUnit . a script editor/recorder.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing making up an application: source code but also meta-data files (such as deployment descriptors. capability of working directly on Java method binaries (no recompilation). Supports customizing existing rules and defining custom rules. HTML. JUnitPerf Allows performance testing to be dynamically added to existing JUnit tests. licensed under the BSD License. using Ant.
Clover Code coverage tool for Java from Cenqua. JMSAssert. Gathers coverage measures of branches. or jar file. Seamless integration with projects using Apache ANT. and J_Playback for GUI operation capture and automatic playback. for speed. Fifty different audits and metrics. Coverage API provided. TrueJ Source code audit and metrics tool from BlueBay systems. PDF. reView Java source code visualization tool from Headway Software. statements. it can be used separately as well as together with the NetBeans IDE. HTML. . integrates with build tools for quality gate and reporting. Java Tool Suite from Man Machine Systems Includes JStyle. package and produces reports in multiple formats. JCover test coverage analyzer. user-friendly performance diagnosis tool from Quest Software for Page 25 of 60 . configurable. and dependencies for Java. application. J_SQA for ObjectOriented software quality measurement. button pushing. Available as binary distribution (including documentation). J_Structure for Java code structure analysis and diagramming.. virtual machines. PerformaSure Low-overhead. an intelligent Java code evolution analyzer that automatically analyzes multiple versions of a Java program and shows how various classes have evolved across versions. etc. class. JPretty reformats Java code according to specified options.e. etc. file. text typing. Panorama for Java Visual environment containing six integrated java tools from ISA. highly scalable. tree node expanding. components. JBench Freeware Java benchmarking framework to compare algorithms. a Java source analyzer to generate code comments and metrics such as inheritance depth. classes. or via a Swing GUI. methods. Halstead Measures. JEvolve.. a syntax testing tool that automatically builds a Java-based test data generator. J_DocGen for Java code static analysis. package. C. J_Test for test coverage analysis and test case minimization.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing methods to reproduce all user actions which can be performed on Swing/AWT components (i. JVerify Java class/API testing tool uses an invasive testing model allowing access to internals of Java objects from within a test script and utilizes a proprietary OO scripting language.. and other IDE's. can 'reason' about selective need for regression testing Java classes. compiler-style output. Coverage difference comparison between runs. Reverse engineer and automatically lay out and view code. JCover Java code test coverage analysis tool from Codework Limited. JemmyTest is a program written in Java which uses the Jemmy API to test applications. JSynTest. a tool and technique for writing reliable software. J_Diagrammer for Java code logic analysis. control flow analysis and diagramming. method.). Inc. Works with source or compiled files. etc. source distribution. Fully integrated plugin for NetBeans. at all levels and between all levels. View coverage data in XML. JBuilder. Shows all dependencies. Cyclomatic Number. integrates with a variety of editors/IDE's. JBrowser class browser. and C++ applications.
includes JProbe Profiler and JProbe Memory Debugger for finding performance bottlenecks and memory leaks. and network metrics. stalls. Sun's Java Test Tools As of February 4. coverage analysis. or load testing of java applets. It automatically generates and executes JUnit tests and checks whether code follows 400 coding standards and can automatically correct for many. JProbe Developer Suite Collection of Java debugging tools from Quest Software. management. testability. and size metrics related to reusability. code coverage analyzer and code analysis for Java. thread debugger. LOC metrics and MOOD metrics. Halstead Software Science metrics. Includes Cyclomatic Complexity. thread and event analysis. and clarity. Jtest ParaSoft's Jtest is an integrated.) Page 26 of 60 . and code coverage tool suite from Borland (formerly from VMGear). OS. and applications. automatic unit testing and standards compliance tool for Java. LProbe Coverage code coverage tool.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing distributed J2EE applications. (Note: some other tools in these listings also handle testing. TCAT for Java Part of Software Research's TestWorks suite of test tools. Integrates with several Java IDE's. Traces and reconstructs execution path of end-user transactions across all components of a clustered multi-tieer J2EE system. complexity. Krakatau Metrics for Java Software metrics tool from Power Software includes more than 70 OO. Enhanced Cyclomatic Complexity. written in Java. procedural. Includes suggestions for optimization techniques. Hundreds of easily-confugured run-time. to diagnose and resolve performance bottlenecks. JProfiler freeware version available. Has online advisor for quality improvement. Check listed web sites for current information. 2000 Sun discontinued accepting orders for these products. and JProbe Threadalyzer for finding deadlocks. or are planning to add such capabilities. OptimizeIt Profiler. includes Java support. and race conditions. maintainability. DevPartner Java Edition Compuware's (formerly NuMega) debugging/productivity tool to detect and diagnose Java bugs and memory and performance problems. VTune Intel's performance tuning tool for applications running on Intel processors. servlets.
Ideal for dynamic sites requiring frequent link checking. Linkalarm Low cost on-the-web link checker from Link Alarm Inc. or as infrequent as once a week. evaluation version available. can also produce a graphical site map of entire web site. customizable reports. Excel. domain names. Identifies orphan files and broken links when browsing files.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. partial testing of ftp and gopher sites. such as internal and external links. Runs as often as every hour. For Windows. employs a simple. provides multiple-level undo/redo for all operations. multiple page list and site list capabilities. for Windows. and FTP protocols. SiteAnalysis Hosted service from Webmetrics. includes FTP link checking. For Windows platforms. DNS servers and SSL certificates. Page 27 of 60 . HTTPS. 3-click process. updates links to moved and renamed files. CSV. familiar interface for managing files. RTF. used to test and validate critical website components. free trial period available. Automatically-scheduled reporting by e-mail. Web Link Validator Link checker from REL Software checks links for accuracy and availability. previews files when fixing broken links and before orphan removal. fixes broken links with an easy. Export to text. finds broken links or paths and links with syntactic errors. Handles HTTP. Alert Linkrunner Link check tool from Viable Software Alternatives. InfoLink Link checker program from BiggByte Software. Link Checking Tools HiSoftware Link Validation Utility Link validation tool.. Link Checker Pro Link check tool from KyoSoft. free version or low-cost pro version. HTML. Site Audit Low-cost on-the-web link-checking service from Blossom Software. For Windows. detects and reports redirected URL. For Windows.3. can be automatically scheduled. supports SSL websites. Freeware 'REL Link Checker Lite' version available for small sites. replaces links but does not reformat or restructure HTML code. several report formats available. Xenu's Link Sleuth Freeware link checker by Tilman Hausherr. Site Map. ChangeAgent Link checking and repair tool from Expandable Language.
Available as source code. Includes capabilities for central management of large multiple intranet/internet sites. configurable. Results stored in database. capabilities include automated retesting of problem links. Utilizes the HTTP 'HEAD' request instead of the 'GET' request so that it does not require retreival of the entire html page. Discontinued. via the WWW Consortium (the folks who set web standards). allowing for customizable queries and reports. Distributed under Gnu General Public License.0 or 3.0 validator programs for AWK or PERL by H. Handles one URL at a time. HTMLchek for awk or perl Old but still useful HTML 2. 5. can check for bad links due to specified problems such as server-not-found. This site contains an interesting discussion on the use of META tags. doc-not-found. MOMspider Multi-Owner Maintenance Spider. relocations. unauthorized-access. Churchyard. It helps users to create. Available as source code or binaries. Windows. Perl Testing Tools W3C Link Checker Link checker PERL source code. Has not been updated in recent years. timeouts. capabilities include specified URL exclusions. CyberSpyder Link Test Shareware link checker by Aman Software.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing changed-link checking. Windows.net. 5.4. results can be exported to database. ability to check password-protected areas. originally by Dave Raggett. support of proxy servers for remote URL checking. test resumption at interruption point. reports of orphan files and files with mismatching case. by Francois Pottier. organize and Page 28 of 60 . Not updated in recent years. HTML TIDY Free utility available from SourceForget. link checker. Not updated in recent years. released under IBM's Common Public License. support for all standard server-side image maps. Web Functional and Regression Testing Tools IeUnit IeUnit is an open-source simple framework to test logical behaviors of web pages. but old versions still available as freeware. For all UNIX flavors. site has much documentation and related info. page size analysis. For automatic fixing of HTML errors. and finding problem HTML areas. PERL script for a web spider for web site maintenance. 'what's new' reporting. Mac. randomized order checking. HTML syntax error checking. Validates hyperlinks for all major protocols. LinkLint Open source Perl program checks local/remote HTML links. Big Brother Freeware command-line link checker for Unix. LinkScan Electronic Software Publishing Co. Includes cross referenced and hyperlinked output reports. For Windows.'s link checker/site mapping tool. For Windows. binary avaialable for Linux. for UNIX and PERL. ID/Password entries. formatting disorganized editing.5. reports URLs changed since last checked.
Page 30 of 60 . Includes capability to expand scope of macros by editing and adding loops. Special validation points. Editable scripts can be recorded in SmithSript language or in Java. Has an XMLbased scripting capability to enable modifying captured scripts or creating new scripts. etc. Active-X controls. with its HTML objects recognition. cookie testing and form submission. Includes an Intelligent. Key features besides capture/playback include automatically detecting and capturing standard and custom content errors. C++ or C++/MFC. ensure robustness of scripts with Synchronization commands. and Runner executes the test case document. Reports information needed to troubleshoot problems. Test results are reported in either plain text or XML format for later presentation via XSLT. WinTask Macro recorder from TaskWare. 90-day evaluation copy available. Utilizes a distributed testing model and consists of three parts: STC Administrator. LLC. (300+ commands). can be inserted during a recording. Canoo WebTest Free Java Open Source tool for automatic functional testing of web applications. Includes all of the typical functions that would be expected from JUnit and the PHPUnit ports. and other typical business web application features. until recording capabilities are added. form entry and submission. jWebUnit Open source Java framework that facilitates creation of acceptance tests for web applications. Adaptable and MultiThreaded Playback Engine. Flash. such as bitmap or text matching. This includes web page navigation. etc. Controls are recorded as individual objects independent of screen positions or resolution. Enables 'Persistent Acceptance Testing' that activates tests each time a web application is used. Fuzzy matching capabilities. TestSmith Functional/Regression test tool from Quality Forge. Utilizes HttpUnit behind the scenes. TestCaseMaker/Runner Test case document driven functional test tool for web applications from Agile Web Development. branching statements. playback window/size can be different than in capture. Handles Applets. SimpleTest Open source unit testing framework which aims to be a complete PHP developer test solution. Free including source code. Standard reporting XSLT stylesheets included. Provides a high-level API for navigating a web application combined with a set of assertions to verify the application's correctness including navigation via links. TestAgent Capture/playback tool for user acceptance testing from Strenuus. Maker creates test case documents. but also adds mock objects. HTML/DOMAware and Object Mode Recording Engine. Includes a WinTask Scheduler. STC Master and STC Master Service. and a Data-Driven. validation of table contents. has some JWebUnit functionality as well. animated bitmaps. scripts have to be developed manually. automates repetitive tasks for Web site testing (and standard Windows applications). but all recorded items are validated and logged 'on the fly'. The simple navigation methods and ready-to-use assertions allow for more rapid test creation than using only JUnit and HttpUnit.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Site Test Center Functional and performance test tool from Alliance Software Engineering. XMLbased test script code is editable with user's preferred XML editor. Can group tests into a testsuite that again can be part of a bigger testsuite. test case documents are always synchronized with the application. and can be adapted to any reporting style or requirements.
a set of scripts that scan a Unix system for security problems. Inc. an upgrade to the TAMU 'tiger' program . Qualys Guard Online service that does remote network security assessments. MacAnalysis database is updated regularly with a "Vulnerability Update" function to update database of more than 100 new holes per month. data theft or system destruction. Mac. updated bi-monthly. plug-in facility for third party apps. SANS/ISTS certified. routers. network security scan. remote self scan and API facilities. websites. Freeware. Also available is 'Tiger Analytical Research Assistant' (TARA). and more for security vulnerabilities which may lead to interrupted service. Perimeter Check SecurityMetrics 'Perimeter Check' service analyzes external network devices like servers. inside and outside the firewall. real-time IDS event analysis. Provides detailed reports and vulnerability fix recommendations. vulnerability assessment scripts and program enhancements nightly. and browser checkup tool. SARA 'Security Auditor's Research Assistant' Unix-based security analysis tool from Advanced Research Corp.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Integrated software and hardware device includes Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems and Vulnerability Assessment. including SANS/FBI Top 20 Vulnerabilities Scan. based on the SATAN model. provides proactive 'Managed Vulnerability Assessment'. CVE standards support. Scheduled vulnerability scanning. Can automatically schedule vulnerability assessment of designated IP addresses during low traffic times. can audit UNIX. MacAnalysis Low cost Network Security audit tool from Lagoon Software. Supports the FBI/SANS Top 20 Consensus. firewalls. Win servers STAT Scanner Page 34 of 60 . Runs on Macintosh. asset management. Includes instructions to help immediately remedy security problems. Automatically downloads latest IDS attack signatures. Operates as a Layer 2 Bridge no network configuration needed. Qualys Free Security Scans Several free security scan services from Qualys. remediation management of vulnerabilities. Lightning Console Security management tool from Tenable Network Security for multiple security and network administrators across multiple organizations. network topology discovery and organizational executive reporting for hundreds of administrators via easy-to-use web interface.
whereas the client is a frontend designed to collect the results. Port scans. reports specify severity levels of problems. An updated and enhanced version of the SATAN network security testing tool.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Tool from Harris Corp. Also available is 'WebSAINT' self-guided scanning service. enabling identification of exactly where to correct vulnerabilities to enforce corporate security policies. Utilizes a root-cause and path-analysis engine to illustrate exact sequence of steps taken to uncover vulnerabilities. based on 'never trust the version number' and 'never trust that a given service is listening on the good port'. Nessus is made up of two parts : a server and a client. Capabilities include: scan and analyze an entire network domain and/or a single machine. denial-of-service checks. open-source remote network security auditing tool. NMap Network Mapper Page 35 of 60 . track vulnerability trends via analyses comparing current and previous assessments. for security analysis of Windows/UNIX/Linux and other resources.Security testing tool from SAINT Corporation. SAINT Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool . eliminate vulnerabilities using recommended solutions with links to related websites and knowledge-base articles. by Renaud Deraison. Single machine or full network scans. retest corrected vulnerabilities immediately. select or ignore specific vulnerabilities via configuration files. customizable security reports for management and technical personnel. NetRecon Network vulnerability assessment scanner from Symantec. Scans systems and services on the network and safely simulates common intrusion or attack scenarios. Can scan a variety of operating systems. Nessus Security Scanner Free. Includes more than 1000 tests in 23 vulnerability categories. CVE compatible. and a wide variety of other tests. Limited free or full licensed versions available. and SAINTbox scanner appliance. Customizable reporting. Includes DoS testing. correct vulnerabilities across the network with 'AutoFix' function. adapting penetration strategy based on previous results. product runs on Windows. and Nessus Attack Scripting Language. the server (nessusd) manages the 'attacks'. Secure-Me Automated security test scanning service from Broadbandreports. 45 common web server vulnerability checks. Runs on many UNIX flavors.com for individual machines. Works with a variety of operating systems. web server requests-per-second benchmark. Utilizes comprehensive updatabale vulnerability databases to automatically detect vulnerabilities. Updated regularly. Learns about network as it scans. analysis reports of vulnerabilities with detailed information relating to the name/description/risk level of each vulnerability.
what operating system (and OS version) they are running. DMZ and externally visible assets. 'hotlist' section includes extensive collection of links. organized by subject. and any other devices with an IP address on a network. or managed service. Runs on most flavors of UNIX as well as Windows. what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use. Uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network. and many other characteristics. routers. Provides flexible risk management reports. Includes a Software Developer's Kit to allow custom security test additions. servers. printers. provides automated vulnerability assessment for measuring online security risks. Systems are analyzed on demand or at scheduled intervals. electronic law. Automatic update service allows updating with latest security tests. etc. Page 36 of 60 . Performs scheduled and selective probes of network services. bv-Control for Internet Security Secutiry scanning tool from BindView. intrusion detection resources. CERIAS Security Archive Purdue University's 'Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security' site. publications. prepares remediation advice. etc. routers. remediation information. Remotely evaluates security of network perimeter. to uncover and report systems vulnerabilities that might be open to attack. Also includes an FTP site with a large collection of (mostly older) security-related utilities. For Windows/Solaris/Linux. NetIQ Security Analyzer Multi-platform vulnerability scanning and assessment product. hubs. etc. Available as a hardware appliance. to hundreds of security information resources and tools. Scans any device on network regardless of platform. CyberCop ASaP Managed vulnerability assessment service from McAfee/Network Associates. includes capabilities for checking and remediation of security problems of servers. workstations. software product. intrusion detection tools. etc. scanners. desktops. Foundstone Vulnerability management software tools from McAfee/Network Associates can provide comprehensive enterprise vulnerability assessments.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. operating systems. what services (ports) they are offering. firewalls. designed to rapidly scan large networks or single hosts. InternetScanner Tool from Internet Security Systems.
Inc. combining site content.org. Capabilities include: high-level summary reports. Recorded transactions can then be analyzed when production errors occur and fed back into SilkPerformer for real-world performance testing scenarios. Limitedcapability free version also available. Information Assurance. site scores. Free and professional versions available. works with a variety of web servers. FPT/publishing. Maxamine Knowledge Platform Integrated site managment tool from Maxamine Inc. database servers. Passive monitoring records real user sessions and reliably detects and logs all error situations encountered by real-users. traffic analysis. Top 75 Security Tools Listing of 'top 75' network security tools from survey by Insecure. and online service available.7. Similar managed service also available. complete inventory of Web sites and Comparison Inventory Reports to compare different versions of a Web site.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing trend analyses and comprehensive data sets to support policy enforcement. server management and optimization tools. combined utilities/tools. and Web Governance. Includes link checker.roll-up of results from different business units or global Web sites for overall views of site compliance. WebCEO Tool from Radiocom Ltd. actively monitors and evaluates the health of a site's live applications utilizing synthetic business transactions. ManageEngine Applications Manager Site management tool from AdventNet.) 5.. SilkCentral Performance Monitor Tool from Segue Software. Desktop product for multiple platforms. webSensor Integrated site measurement and analysis tool from Moniforce BV. (Includes various types of security tools. Inc. not just for testing. for maintaining. analyzing web sites. for monitoring compliance standards related to Privacy. service types. to enable detailed analysis of what is going on behind the scenes of Web operations. Integrates performance Page 37 of 60 . and OS's. and trend analyses using intuitive browser-based reports. Web Site Management Tools (This section includes products that contain: site version control tools. Accessibility. structure and visitor traffic data into one searchable data base. promoting.. and authoring/publishing/deployment tools that include significant site management or testing capabilities. and site monitoring capabilities. WYSIWYG editor.) COAST WebCentral Site management tool from Coast Software.
and more. Web Compliance Manager to manage integrity and accessibility. providing context and correlation data for application failure analysis. Asset Manager to securely centralize images. GFI Network Server Monitor Server management tool from GFI Software Ltd. from AllScoop. network errors. Cuevision Network Monitor Monitoring tool from Cuevision for monitoring website. and 'Real Scripts' automatically generated from recorded user sessions for use in specified other load testing tools. SMS. and repair. page aborts. response times. visitor segmentation. applications. sends email notification if site is slow or down. restart apps and services. Other capabilities include search engine optimization. bandwidth usage. ContentStudio E-catalog management tool from TechniCon Systems with Win Explorer-type interface with drag and drop functionality. checks network and servers for failures and fixes them automatically. Site Manager to create and manage your web site. services. Captures and monitors real user sessions. includes modules to check HTTP and ICMP/ping for checking availability of HTTP and HTTPS sites. response errors. customizable views of success/failure rates for key online business processes and other critical metrics. net send. page sizes. RealiTea Web application management solution that provides detailed visibility into availability and functionality issues to enable efficient problem identification. server. Add-on capabilities include a 'Dashboard' to provide real-time. click path analysis. run scripts. automatically reboot servers. restart services. PROGNOSIS Comprehensive tool from Integrated Research Ltd. RedDot CMS Web content managment system from RedDot Solutions includes modules such as SmartEdit. Web Site Monitoring Performance Monitoring . etc. including server errors. Freeware version of GFI Network Server Monitor is also available. isolation. and network. pagers. for performance and availability monitoring. and diagnostics. suited to large systems. For Windows.Free open-source website performance monitoring and uptime notification application in PERL. eliminates need for programmers and special production staff to maintain catalogs. real-time executive dash board. capabilities include notifications via email.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing and availability data with site traffic data. etc. Alerts via email. Legacy-to-Web Tools can "bulk-load" online catalog from legacy Page 38 of 60 . and popup. network management.
FTP Assistant for Webmasters FTP client from Byteway. CrownPeak CMS Content management service from CrownPeak Technology. Multilingualism. reporting and fixing problems before users see them. Design/administrate database connected PHP web applications in combination with individual webdesign. low cost for large sites. Message Board. template-based dynamically-created content. TestWEB Monitor Web site monitoring tool from Original Software checks 5 or more URL's up to every 30 seconds. which hosts the management system application and the client's administrative interfaces and pushes the final assembled pages to client Web servers. spatial relationships between products. Installer easily installs system on your server. additional features include manual or customizable automated control. Works on multiple platforms. User Administration.com for web site updating. Provides complete software developers environment. and a robust API. Constructioner Website development software with integrated content management system from Artware Multimedia GmbH. Content and Table Management (WYSIWYG-Editor). detecting. site cleanup. WebLight HTML validator and link checking tool from Illumit LLC. Receive instant notification by email whenever one of the sites is unavailable. load testing. Capabilities include defining intra-configuration rules. Tonic Suite of web site management/monitoring/test tools from Tonic Software. Constructioner Light Edition available as Freeware. and more. verifying content and functional integrity. Search.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing product data. Dynamic Menu. link verification. drag-and-drop. PHP-Code Insertion. Includes: Ready-to-use Backoffice. such as option compatibilities on a single product. etc. Database Backup. All can be integrated without writing code. can manage all components across complex Web-enabled applications by measuring and monitoring performance. upload resuming. scheduler. WYSIWYG editor. Statistical Reports. high-level functions save template coding time. comprehensive Communications Gateway for inbound and outbound data. based on database-driven. Trellian InternetStudio Page 39 of 60 . Free for use on small sites. HTML and GIF optimization. SpinPike Flexible and scalable content management system from SavvyBox Systems.
and indexing content by means of a browser window or via MS Word. based on native XML and XSL technologies. services for capturing. content development. management of workflow. It can constantly monitor any number of servers and ports. Alerts webmasters if a webserver is not working correctly because the web service is down. anticipate capacity shortfalls. Enterprise web content management system that enables quickly and efficiently building. personalization. Inc. securing and sharing digital and paper-based documents and reports. Manages Web content. CGI scripts return errors or the SQL server is not reachable. index/search. IP Check Server monitoring tool from Paessler GmbH. Broadvision Suite of content and publishing management tools from Broadvision Inc. diagnose and troubleshoot problem occurrences. production. For Mac or Windows. Mac. and customizable workflow. documents. Page 41 of 60 . tracking of revisions. conversion services. replication and administration. including creation. managing and publishing Web content and supporting from one to thousands of Web sites. workflow. and maintaining highly dynamic web sites.. Rhythmyx Content Manager Web content management product from Percussion Software. publishing. portals and scanned images. security. Designed to help IT staff efficiently predict. where all content and content types are stored for management. HP OpenView Internet Services Internet services monitoring/management tool from HP. and manage and report on service level agreements. reuse and access. editing. Stellent Universal Content Management System Content management tool from Stellent. Eliminates problems encountered when moving files between Windows. version control. Enables scheduling of content refreshes. 'Stellent Content Server' uses a web-based repository. isolate. and services for collaborative environments and for digital asset and records management. and UNIX systems and publishing to CD-ROM. staging. integrates with other OpenView products to provide a variety of management and monitoring services and capabilities. For Windows. and archiving. deploying. Enables end-user emulation of major business-critical applications as well as a single integrated view of the complete Internet infrastructure. Content Management Server Windows based content mgmt tool from Microsoft (formerly 'nResolution' from nCompass Labs). digital assets. allows a distributed team of non-technical content experts to manage every aspect of site content. Other modules provide additional services such as: services for creating.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing correcting the links to those files automatically. Enables services such as library services.
alerting. works with many servers. and publishing to websites within a centrally controlled. standards-based environment. Interwoven Team Site Web development. and platforms. Page 43 of 60 . For Windows. HTML validation. allows defining and applying existing workflow and approval rules to web content management process. server failure detection. for customizable automated site mapping. management. monitoring and recovery. WebTrends Analysis Suite Web site management tool from NetIQ includes log analysis. server management. monitoring. and e-mail notifications. version control. For Windows. Supports multiple platforms and browsers. proxy server traffic analysis and reporting. real-time server monitoring of server response time. e-mail submission of web content. access control. logging capabilities. content management and site visualization. number of pending requests. PowerMapper From Electrum Multimedia. logging. requires Windows and MSIE. Web based interface for load balancing administration. Unicenter TNG w/Web Management Option Site management application from Computer Associates includes access and security control. link checking. etc.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Web-content workflow management system with browser-based interface includes configurable workflow management. XMetal XML development tool from BlastRadius for XML-based web site authoring and validation. and publishing control tool. scalable web content management solution that enables collaboration. metrics. For MS and Netscape web servers. For Windows. link analysis and quality control. For Windows. for periodic server monitoring for web server connection problems. Evaluation copy available. Includes a 'Database Import Wizard'. OS's. Equalizer Load balancing server appliance and site management tool from Coyote Point Systems. Site/C 'Set-and-forget' utility from Robomagic Software. network management. E-mail/pager notifications. Macromedia Web Publishing System Macromedia's complete. and can automatically convert output to CALS or HTML table models or to XML. UNIX. link problems.
etc. variable lock controls. staging/publishing control. and management product for enterprise-wide internet and intranet projects. Includes version control. XML repositories. global search-and-replace. file uploading. connections. administration. Content Management Server Vignette Corporation's product for web site collaborative content. etc. Page 44 of 60 . Validates against various HTML versions. Visual site structure editor. scheduled and on-demand reporting. Date stamper. logs. databases. spell checker. For Windows or Unix. HTML-to-Text converter. Runs on servers and monitors server performance. file edit merging. error info is linked to error in html. and maintenance. For Windows and Unix. Includes automated deployment. Link checker. page in screen is validated with results displayed below. includes site management capabilities. security. NetObjects Fusion Site authoring/management tool. For Windows. graphics management. thumbnail viewer. Support for managing content stored in databases. layout editor. TeamSite Interwoven's collaborative web site production control. has updateable rulebase. provides notifications of problems. API's. link checking. Supports a wide variety of web attributes. links. For Windows. OpenDeploy Interwoven's configurable control system for deploying from development to production environments.. image tag checker. and static files. Server side compatible with many available web servers. link checker. browser interface. Monitors mimic users' end-to-end actions. customizable reports. management. browser extensions. Meta manager. and servers. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing SiteScope Mercury's product for agentless site monitoring and maintenance. and encryption capabilities. Microsoft FrontPage Microsoft's web site authoring and site management tool. HomeSite Macromeida's web site project management/authoring/validator tool. HTML PowerTools HTML validator. publishing. comparison capabilitie. Includes published API for creating custom monitors. From Talicom.
web standards and elastic design. A Remote Viewer enables geographically dispersed observers to watch usability tests from any location. and share with others. Allows user to save and review relevant information for bug reports.Find out how long it takes various connection types to get a page. it displays test user's computer screen along with a picture-in-picture window displaying the test participant's face and audio. analyzing and sharing of usability data. requires a system capable of running Ethereal and/or Sniffer. Repro Manual testing 'helper' tool that records desktop video. SiteTimer service . for automated recording. Fiddler An HTTP Debugging tool by Eric Lawrence. system resource usage. creating a digital record of system activity and user interaction. and compress the result into a very small file to replay. Remote Viewer observers can set markers and add text notes. can specify the screen width(s). Any application which accepts an HTTP Proxy can be configured to run through Page 45 of 60 . The Manager component includes integrated editing functionality for assembly of important video clips to share with stakeholders. how it interprets page's robot exclusion rules and more.8. Other Web Testing Tools Morae Usability test tool for web sites and software. and MS Excel for charting and modeling. Enter URL and receive back report with screenshots taken in real time on real hardware.com Service from HREF Tools to check web page appearance in different Browser/OS combinations. where network traffic is captured over a LAN. TestGen Free open-source web test data generation program that allows developers to quickly generate test data for their web-services before publicly or internally releasing the web service for production.reports on how a search engine may view a webpage. Consists of 3 components. from how it breaks down the HTML. URL2image. Free. Instruments in memory the target application at runtime so no changes are required to application under test. check all the graphical links to ensure they're correct. more. examine server's HTTP headers. from TechSmith Corp. upload to a bug tracking system. system operations in 7 different categories. The predictable network performance of this environment enables reliable modeling of trace data. Acts as an HTTP Proxy running on port 8888 of local PC. font magnification(s) and page position(s) for the proofs. For Windows.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 5. A Recorder records and synchronizes video and data. EngineViewer and SiteTimer Free basic services: EngineViewer . Extreme Web Analyzer Web site performance analysis tool by Dale Feiste for use in a development or controlled test environment. to which links it extracts. For anyone interested in css. and system configuration information. Perl.
and includes a simple but powerful JScript. XML. FunnelIT Free utility from ByStorm Software helps streamline test reporting and analysis by gathering Windows platform environment/configuration information (running tasks.). more. Provides large variety of information about a Windows system's hardware and software. services.NET event-based scripting subsystem. system file listings. mainboard.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Fiddler. Services information. and other versions available in multiple languages. Network Adaptor Information. Professional. FREEping Free ping software utility from Tools4ever which will ping all your Windows-based servers (or any other IP address) in freely-definable intervals. device drivers. processes. virtual memory settings. ODBC sources. Free. Will send a popup when one of the servers stops responding. Diagnostic and Reporting Assistant' utility from SiSoftware. loss. etc. VisitorVille Site traffic monitoring tool from World Market Watch Inc.) in small text files. file system and memory bandwidth benchmarking. Sandra 'System ANalyser. users can watch their web traffic as if they're watching a movie. memory details. and "fiddle" with incoming or outgoing data. Drive Free Space/Size/Used info. and allows inspection of the HTTP data. etc. Logs all HTTP traffic between between computer and the Internet. Path Application Manager Page 46 of 60 . environment settings. Provides performance enhancing tips. set breakpoints. etc. OS version. physical memory information. tune-up wizard. modules. Free. html. Available as an executable intended to leave no footprint. Installed Software and Installed XP Updates. processor information. and much more. data creation or capture and replay. loaded modules. SetSim Pro Northern Webs' free on-the-web meta tag checker. drives. Designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles. Full-featured version (not free) has configurable reporting. that depicts website visitors as animated characters in a virtual village. and also allows gathering TCP/IP Address/Network Information. manage and monitor throughput. Reporting via save/print/fax/email in text. component details. includes additional search-enginerelated capabilities. IP Traffic Test and Measure Network traffic simulation and test tool from Omnicor Corp. Includes CPU. Also allows comparisons among results from multiple systems. ports. can generate TCP/UDP connections using different IP addresses. for Windows. and delay.
originally designed for testing networking protocols. SpySmith Simple but powerful diagnostic tool from Quality Forge. binaries and source available. RAMP Section 508 and W3C Accessibility Guidelines tool from Deque Systems that automates analysis and remediation of non-compliant web functionality. and multipath effects. and XML switches. Page 47 of 60 . It allows the user to peek inside I. in most versions of every browser ever released. Uses pattern recognition technology to peer deep inside customized or COTS applications. caching proxies. Other info: runs on FreeBSD packages. or on FreeBSD machines acting as routers or bridges. captures and displays packet data between local client and specified web server. and other quality factors. Browser Cam Service for web developers and testers that creates screen captures of web pages loaded in any browser. Can log captures to disk. available as on-line service. SpySmith can also spy on Windows objects. Free 90-day trial. can be used in testing to simulate queue and bandwidth limitations. and troubleshooting with code coverage capabilities. filters. Can be used on user's workstations. View all headers and data that travel between your browser and the server.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing Application Monitoring and management tool from Winmoore. delays. HTTP Interceptor A real-time HTTP protocol analysis and troubleshooting tool from AllHTTP. with GUI. any version. security. Dummynet Flexible tool developed by Luigi Rizzo. Macintosh. Windows (on-demand). or source code. Inc.E.com. Co-Advisor Tool from The Measurement Factory for testing quality of protocol implementations. any operating system. Linux RPMs. binaries. compliance. such as "Referrer" and "User Agent". CoAdvisor can test for protocol compatibility. Allows viewing of web page appearance on Windows. Co-Advisor's current focus is on HTTP intermediaries such as firewalls. For Windows. Split-screen display and dual logs for request and response data. For Windows. robustness. Interceptor also allows changing of select request headers on-the-fly. packet losses. freeware. Browser-based Documents (including those without a 'view source' command) to extract precise information about the DOM elements in an HTML source. Also available is PocketXML-RPC and PocketHTTP. testing. PocketSOAP Packet-capture tool by Simon Fell. Enables enhancement of QA. especially useful when testing web sites and web-based applications. Linux. analogous to running an MRI scan.
Ethernet. for Windows. HiSoftware Web Site Monitor Tool allows user to monitor your server and send alerts. etherpeek. freeware. ProxyTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a proxy server to allow tracing of HTTP data. Works with all text-based IP protocols. and any network. The test report contains background information on conformance testing for XML as well as test descriptions for each of the test files. For windows. etc). bytes. Runs on Windows platforms. can be used by setting browser to use it as a proxy server and then can monitor all traffic to and from browser. Overall Site Quality. MITs. Available for various UNIX flavors. etc. and generating test scripts. Inc.) Tool can learn what request/response scenarios are being tested for future tests and can work with any protocol. contains over 2000 test files and an associated test report (also in XML). and as source code. freeware. For managing and developing test cases and scripts. can also programmatically fix most common errors found.GUI XML Conformance Test Suite XML conformance test suites from W3C and NIST.comm Tool from Omsphere LLC for simulating virtually any software interface (internal or external). HP Net Metrix. For automated testing of Web. Runs on Windows. FTP.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing TcpTrace Tool by Simon Fell acts as a relay between client and server for monitoring packet data. throughput. mailboxes. HiSoftware AccVerify Tool for testing site Accessibility & Usability. link validation. snoop. Also available: MITS. Can produce various types of output with info on each connection seen such as elapsed time. Privacy and Intellectual Property policy verification. client/server. Certify Test automation management tool from WorkSoft. allows monitoring web sites for changes or misuse of your intellectual property in metadata or in the presented document. and mainframe applications. Allows developers to test down to the unit level by simulating the internal software interfaces (message queues. tcptrace Tool written by Shawn Ostermann for analysis of TCP dumpfiles. and various graphs. Searchability. Freeware. This is a set of metrics for determining conformance to the listed W3C XML Recommendation. or WinDump. window advertisements. Can crawl a site and report errors. such as those produced by tcpdump. round trip times. retransmissions. Custom Checks and Test Suites to meet organization's standards. and segments sent and received. Allows testing without pitfalls associated with live connections to other systems (TCP/IP. Page 48 of 60 . any message definitions.
What is a 'walkthrough'? 9. and does C. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together. What kinds of testing should be considered? 11. What is 'good code'? 14.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 6. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? 2. What are some recent major computer system failures caused software bugs? by Page 50 of 60 . 3. making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed. then D should happen'). Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? 7. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? 5. It is oriented to 'detection'. What's an 'inspection'? 10. Testing FAQ 1. What is 'Software Quality Assurance'? Software QA involves the entire software development Process . What are 5 common problems in the software development process? 12. with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. What is verification and Validation? 8. and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. Sometimes they're the combined responsibility of one group or individual. It will depend on what best fits an organization's size and business structure. What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? Will it help? 16. The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. What is the 'software life cycle'? 17. Why does software have bugs? 6. What are some recent major computer system failures caused by software bugs? 4.) 2. It is oriented to 'prevention'. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing.monitoring and improving the process. What is 'Software Testing'? Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg. 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B. (See the Books section for a list of useful books on Software Quality Assurance. What is 'good design'?Top of the Document 15. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? 1. What is software 'quality'? 13. What is 'Software Testing'? 3.
The bug resulted in performance problems for many of the sites simultaneously and required disabling of the software until the bug was fixed.S. News reports in September of 2000 told of a software vendor settling a lawsuit with a large mortgage lender.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Media reports in January of 2005 detailed severe problems with a $170 million high-profile U. a software bug was determined to be a major contributor to the 2003 Northeast blackout. Millions of bank accounts were impacted by errors due to installation of inadequately tested software code in the transaction processing system of a major North American bank. government IT systems project. This eventually resulted in major industrial disruption in the country that used the stolen flawed software. the vendor had reportedly delivered Page 51 of 60 . According to news reports in April of 2004. According to the report. if any. The company found and reported the bug itself and initiated the recall procedure in which a software upgrade fixed the problems. A major U. The failure involved loss of electrical power to 50 million customers. The error was found and corrected after examining millions of lines of code.S. the worst power system failure in North American history. forced shutdown of 100 power plants. Software testing was one of the five major problem areas according to a report of the commission reviewing the project. according to mid-2004 news reports. The company found that many of their newer trains would not run due to their inability to recognize the date '31/12/2000'. news reports revealed the intentional use of a software bug as a counter-espionage tool. The bug was reportedly in one utility company's vendor-supplied power monitoring and management system. retailer was reportedly hit with a large government fine in October of 2003 due to web site errors that enabled customers to view one anothers' online orders. and that the total cost of the incident could exceed $100 million. In early 2004. News stories in the fall of 2003 stated that a manufacturing company recalled all their transportation products in order to fix a software problem causing instability in certain circumstances. and economic losses estimated at $6 billion. which was unable to correctly handle and report on an unusual confluence of initially localized events. that additional problems resulted when the incident drew a large number of e-mail phishing attacks against the bank's customers. In January of 2001 newspapers reported that a major European railroad was hit by the aftereffects of the Y2K bug. the trains were started by altering the control system's date settings. portions of the project could be salvaged. Articles about the incident stated that it took two weeks to fix all the resulting errors. Reportedly the original contract allowed for only 6 weeks of acceptance testing and the system was never tested for its ability to handle a rate increase. Studies were under way to determine which. A bug in site management software utilized by companies with a significant percentage of worldwide web traffic was reported in May of 2004. In July 2004 newspapers reported that a new government welfare management system in Canada costing several hundred million dollars was unable to handle a simple benefits rate increase after being put into live operation. in the early 1980's one nation surreptitiously allowed a hostile nation's espionage service to steal a version of sophisticated industrial software that had intentionally-added flaws.
Among other tasks. Why does software have bugs? • • Miscommunication or no communication . and sheer size of applications have all contributed to the exponential growth in software/system complexity. Programming errors . If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Among those affected was the electronic trading system of the largest U.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • an online mortgage processing system that did not meet specifications. Multi-tiered applications. or may understand and request them anyway . which failed for unknown reasons in December 1999.redesign. January 1998 news reports told of software problems at a major U.S.000 customers. telecommunications company that resulted in no charges for long distance calls for a month for 400. It was determined that spacecraft software used certain data in English units that should have been in metric units.S. Bugs in software supporting a large commercial high-speed data network affected 70.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.programmers.as to specifics of what an application should or shouldn't do (the application's requirements). futures exchange. one of whom was known throughout the land and employed as a physician to a great lord. Changing requirements (whether documented or undocumented) . problems included 10.the enduser may not understand the effects of changes. enormous relational databases. In October of 1999 the $125 million NASA Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft was believed to be lost in space due to a simple data conversion error.000+ students. preventing problems is lowvisibility.S. Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance? • Solving problems is a high-visibility process.000 erroneous report cards and students left stranded by failed class registration systems. public school district with 100. and didn't work. client-server and distributed applications. etc. In early 2000. The school district decided to reinstate it's original 25-year old system for at least a year until the bugs were worked out of the new system by the software vendors.000 business customers over a period of 8 days in August of 1999. was delivered late. Several investigating panels were convened to determine the process failures that allowed the error to go undetected. Software complexity . 4. The problem went undetected until customers called up with questions about their bills. which was shut down for most of a week as a result of the outages. 5. effects on other projects. like anyone else. major problems were reported with a new computer system in a large suburban U. known and unknown dependencies among • • Page 52 of 60 . the orbiter was to serve as a communications relay for the Mars Polar Lander mission. can make mistakes. hardware requirements that may be affected. data communications. work already completed that may have to be redone or thrown out. rescheduling of engineers. This is illustrated by an old parable: In ancient China there was a family of healers. the district's CIO was fired.
management must understand the resulting risks. maintainable code. complete. serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. and ensuring adequate communications among customers. How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization? • A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate. etc. In fact. the result is bugs. The most value for effort will often be in (a) requirements management processes.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented. Time pressures . Poorly documented code . step-at-a-time process. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects.visual tools. For small groups or projects. feedback to developers. class libraries. we'll wing it' o 'I can't estimate how long it will take. and QA and test engineers must adapt and plan for continuous extensive testing to keep the inevitable bugs from running out of control . In some fast-changing business environments. developers. and there's job security if nobody else can understand it ('if it was hard to write.see 'What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?' in Part 2 of the FAQ. understandable. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. In many organizations management provides no incentive for programmers to document their code or write clear. egos . A lot will depend on team leads or managers. compilers. often requiring a lot of guesswork. often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. Where the risk is lower. depending on the type of customers and projects. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. it's usually the opposite: they get points mostly for quickly turning out code. resulting in added bugs. and the complexity of coordinating changes may result in errors.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Also see information about 'agile' approaches such as XP. until I take a close look at it' o 'we can't figure out what that old spaghetti code did in the first place' If there are too many unrealistic 'no problem's'. Software development tools . continuously modified requirements may be a fact of life. testable requirement • • • Page 53 of 60 . the result is bugs. In this case. Enthusiasm of engineering staff may be affected. mistakes will be made. management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower. 6. with a goal of clear. it should be hard to read').people prefer to say things like: o 'no problem' o 'piece of cake' o 'I can whip that out in a few hours' o 'it should be easy to update that old code' instead of: o 'that adds a lot of complexity and we could end up making a lot of mistakes' o 'we have no idea if we can do that. and testers. also in Part 2 of the FAQ. managers. scripting tools.
plans. or in 'agile'-type environments extensive continuous coordination with end-users. client and server applications on a network. individual applications. 8. to test particular functions or code modules. and inspection meetings. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. walkthroughs. (b) design inspections and code inspections. What kinds of testing should be considered? • • • Black box testing . Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. reader. Incremental integration testing . code.not based on any knowledge of internal design or code. What is a 'walkthrough'? • A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. most problems will be found during this preparation. The 'parts' can be code modules.the most 'micro' scale of testing. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. done by programmers or by testers. branches. 9. 10. requirements. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. This can be done with checklists. White box testing . as it requires detailed knowledge of the internal program design and code.continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. Little or no preparation is usually required. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report.based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code.testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Not always easily done unless the application has a well-designed architecture with tight code. not to fix anything. What's an 'inspection'? • An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. or that test drivers be developed as needed. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. and (c) postmortems/retrospectives. • • Page 54 of 60 . issues lists. Unit testing . 7. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan. What is verification and validation? • Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents. paths. and a recorder to take notes. Integration testing . may require developing test driver modules or test harnesses. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. Typically done by the programmer and not by testers. and specifications.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing specifications embodied in requirements or design documentation. conditions. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document.
User interviews.black-box type testing that is based on overall requirements specifications. involves testing of a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use. this type of testing should be done by testers.typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. environment. bogging down systems to a crawl.black-box type testing geared to functional requirements of an application. Automated testing tools can be especially useful for this type of testing. Sanity testing or smoke testing .testing how well a system recovers from crashes. willful damage. etc.testing how well the system protects against unauthorized internal or external access. large complex queries to a database system. applications. using network communications.testing of full. or upgrade install/uninstall processes. Functional testing .testing an application under heavy loads. End-to-end testing . This doesn't mean that the programmers shouldn't check that their code works before releasing it (which of course applies to any stage of testing.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • etc. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. or other catastrophic problems. or corrupting databases.term often used interchangeably with 'load' and 'performance' testing. heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs.re-testing after fixes or modifications of the software or its environment. or interacting with other hardware. Ideally 'performance' testing (and any other 'type' of testing) is defined in requirements documentation or QA or Test Plans. and other techniques can be used. Regression testing .typically used interchangeably with 'recovery testing' Security testing . Performance testing . or systems if appropriate. or based on use by end-users/customers over some limited period of time. Failover testing .testing how well software performs in a particular hardware/software/operating system/network/etc. Compatability testing . covers all combined parts of a system. surveys. hardware failures. and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. Clearly this is subjective. Load testing . It can be difficult to determine how much re-testing is needed. For example. Stress testing .final testing based on specifications of the end-user or customer. may require sophisticated testing techniques. such as testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system's response time degrades or fails. the software may not be in a 'sane' enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state. such as interacting with a database.) System testing . partial.testing for 'user-friendliness'. video recording of user sessions. Install/uninstall testing . the 'macro' end of the test scale. Also used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads.term often used interchangeably with 'stress' and 'load' testing. Usability testing . input of large numerical values. especially near the end of the development cycle. if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. Page 55 of 60 . Recovery testing .similar to system testing. Acceptance testing . etc.
culture. Beta testing .Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • Exploratory testing .testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before final release. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible . but often taken to mean that the testers have significant understanding of the software before testing it. minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. groupware. Proper implementation requires large computational resources.testing driven by an understanding of the environment.clear. re-test after fixes or changes. make extensive use of group communication tools . • • • • Page 56 of 60 . Alpha testing . testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. insure that information/documentation is available and upto-date . plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing.allow adequate time for planning. work closely with customers/end-users to manage expectations. Typically done by end-users or others.preferably electronic. and intended use of software. User acceptance testing . bug fixing. In 'agile'-type environments. Context-driven testing . intranet capabilities.similar to exploratory testing. If changes are necessary. personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. design.be prepared to defend against excessive changes and additions once development has begun. networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools. use protoypes if possible to clarify customers' expectations. the testing approach for life-critical medical equipment software would be completely different than that for a low-cost computer game. Realistic schedules . by deliberately introducing various code changes ('bugs') and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the 'bugs' are detected. not paper.often taken to mean a creative. What are 5 common problems in the software development process? • Solid requirements .determining if software is satisfactory to an enduser or customer. not by programmers or testers.start testing early on. and documentation. Comparison testing . Communication . they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. promote teamwork and cooperation.. Ad-hoc testing . cohesive. Mutation testing . not by programmers or testers. and be prepared to explain consequences. 'Early' testing ideally includes unit testing by developers and built-in testing and diagnostic capabilities. 11. detailed. informal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. continuous coordination with customers/end-users is necessary.e-mail. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize excessive changes later on. testers may be learning the software as they test it. If possible. testing.testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Typically done by end-users or others.a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful. attainable. changes.comparing software weaknesses and strengths to competing products. For example. re-testing.require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. Adequate testing . etc. complete.
Use descriptive function and method names . and is maintainable. delivered on time and within budget. A wideangle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users. less than 100 lines of code is good. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. Coding style should be consistent throught a program (eg. 'Peer reviews'. be consistent in naming conventions.use both upper and lower case. these may or may not apply to a particular situation: Minimize or eliminate use of global variables. but everyone has different ideas about what's best. or what is too many or too few rules. magazine columnists. customer acceptance testers. err on the side of too many rather than too few comments. etc. less than 50 lines is preferable. and is readable and maintainable. customer contract officers. is bug free. quality is obviously a subjective term. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). Use descriptive variable names . meets requirements and/or expectations. Each type of 'customer' will have their own slant on 'quality' . be consistent in naming conventions. No matter how small. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free. Some organizations have coding 'standards' that all developers are supposed to adhere to.vertically and horizontally. customer management. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. Each line of code should contain 70 characters max. etc.) In adding comments. Function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function's code. For C and C++ coding. future software maintenance engineers. What is 'good code'? • 'Good code' is code that works. What is software 'quality'? • Quality software is reasonably bug-free. an application should include documentaion of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than • • • • • • • • • • • • Page 57 of 60 . the development organization's. Use whitespace generously . 'buddy checks' code analysis tools.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing 12. indentations.use both upper and lower case. use of brackets. such as McCabe Complexity metrics. a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. etc. naming conventions. • 13. Function and method sizes should be minimized. here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards. However. Management/accountants/testers/salespeople. Organize code for readability. stockholders. There are also various theories and metrics. avoid abbreviations. One code statement per line. use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line). avoid abbreviations.
It's a model of 5 levels of process 'maturity' that determine effectiveness in delivering quality software. Level 1 . Level 3 . successes may not be repeatable. successful practices can be repeated. or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation.S.) For C++. Organizations can receive CMMI ratings by undergoing assessments by qualified auditors. but often refers to 'functional design' or 'internal design'. make liberal use of exception handlers. less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. and heroic efforts required by individuals to successfully complete projects. Few if any processes in place. and if reasonably applied can be helpful. periodic panics. CMM = 'Capability Maturity Model'. initiated by the U. requirements management. However. Level 2 . What is SEI? CMM? CMMI? ISO? IEEE? ANSI? Will it help? • • SEI = 'Software Engineering Institute' at Carnegie-Mellon University. keep class methods small.S. avoid too many levels of inheritance in class heirarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). realistic planning.characterized by chaos. understandable. What is 'good design'? • 'Design' could refer to many things. It is geared to large organizations such as large U. Minimize use of multiple inheritance.For programs that have a user interface. is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability. Make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. to minimize complexity and increase maintainability. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading. For C++. some common rules-of-thumb include: The program should act in a way that least surprises the user It should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit The program shouldn't let the users do something stupid without warning them. and configuration management processes are in place. it's often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help.software project tracking. developed by the SEI. 14.standard software development and maintenance processes are integrated throughout an organization. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. Defense Department contractors. and works correctly when implemented.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • nothing). Defense Department to help improve software development processes. now called the CMMI ('Capability Maturity Model Integration'). For C++. a Software Engineering Process • • • Page 58 of 60 . easily modifiable. and maintainable. • • • 15. many of the QA processes involved are appropriate to any organization.
Of those. 1018 organizations were assessed. servicing. development. and 0. processes. MOF. 23% at 2. retesting.) The median size of organizations was 100 software engineering/maintenance personnel. 17. 32% of organizations were U.metrics are used to track productivity.S. ISO = 'International Organization for Standardization' . testing. (For ratings during the period 1992-96.org/ IEEE = 'Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' . Also see http://www. For those rated at Level 1.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • Group is is in place to oversee software processes. publishes some software-related standards in conjunction with the IEEE and ASQ (American Society for Quality).S. Level 4 . 62% were at Level 1. It covers documentation. ANSI = 'American National Standards Institute'. Project performance is predictable. and other processes. after which a complete reassessment is required. The full set of standards consists of: (a)Q9001-2000 . production. 2% at 4. 16. and it applies to many kinds of production and manufacturing organizations.ch/ for the latest information. It includes aspects such as initial concept. document preparation.S. coding. the standards can be purchased via the ASQ web site at http://e-standards. 'IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 730). ITIL. The impact of new processes and technologies can be predicted and effectively implemented when required. installation. a third-party auditor assesses an organization.Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvements.. creates standards such as 'IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation' (IEEE/ANSI Standard 829). phase-out. Bootstrap.Quality Management Systems: Fundamentals and Vocabulary.The ISO 9001:2000 standard (which replaces the previous standard of 1994) concerns quality systems that are assessed by outside auditors. testing. and CobiT. 23% at 3.4% at 5. To be ISO 9001 certified. not just software. Other software development/IT management process assessment methods besides CMMI and ISO 9000 include SPICE. and products. design. Perspective on CMM ratings: During 1997-2001. the most problematical key process area was in Software Quality Assurance.asq. Level 5 . (b)Q90002000 . requirements analysis. Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Page 59 of 60 . internal design. Note that ISO certification does not necessarily indicate quality products . and certification is typically good for about 3 years. 6% at 4. What is the 'software life cycle'? • The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. functional design. 27% were rated at Level 1.it indicates only that documented processes are followed.iso. and other aspects. maintenance. 'IEEE Standard of Software Unit Testing (IEEE/ANSI Standard 1008). TickIT. In the U. federal contractors or agencies. updates.Quality Management Systems: Requirements. 13% at 3.among other things. and quality is consistently high. test planning. Trillium. integration. the primary industrial standards body in the U. (c)Q9004-2000 . documentation planning.the focus is on continuous process improvement. and 5% at 5. and others. and training programs are used to ensure understanding and compliance. 39% at 2.
documentation management. and configuration management. Other tools . Memory analyzers . This approach can enable more efficient control. The data and actions can be more easily maintained .these tools check which parts of the code have been exercised by a test. etc. etc. in which the test drivers are separated from the data and/or actions utilized in testing (an 'action' would be something like 'enter a value in a text box'). in an application GUI and have them 'recorded' and the results logged by a tool. Other automated tools can include: Code analyzers .) can be a difficult task. Additionally. etc. dialog box choices. The test drivers 'read' the data/action information to perform specified tests. a web site's interactions are secure.for testing client/server and web applications under various load levels. The same has then been reviewed and restructured for better reading and understanding. the time needed to learn and implement them may not be worth it. If new buttons are added. The 'recording' is typically in the form of text based on a scripting language that is interpretable by the testing tool. Test drivers can be in the form of automated test tools or custom-written testing software. and may be oriented to code statement coverage. Load/performance test tools . The problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the system being tested. Note that there are record/playback tools for text-based interfaces also. bug reporting. the application might then be retested by just 'playing back' the 'recorded' actions. adherence to standards. condition coverage. buttons. Page 60 of 60 . For example. a tester could click through all combinations of menu choices. or on-going long-term projects they can be valuable. Web test tools .for test case management.com/testing/. This document is for internal purposes only.Aditi Technologies Basic Concepts of Software Testing • • • • • • • • • • Possibly For small projects. and maintenance of automated tests/test cases. logs. or some underlying code in the application is changed. etc. development.such as bounds-checkers and leak detectors. the primary being: http://www. Coverage analyzers .since they are separate from the test drivers. client-side and server-side programs work. and comparing the logging results to check effects of the changes. A common type of automated tool is the 'record/playback' type. Another common type of approach for automation of functional testing is 'data-driven' or 'keyword-driven' automated testing.such as via a spreadsheet . the 'recordings' may have to be changed so much that it becomes very time-consuming to continuously update the scripts. path coverage. HTML code usage is correct. etc. documentation.monitor code complexity. and for all types of platforms. data.to check that links are valid. For larger projects.vyomworld. All contents of this document have been collated from various resources. interpretation and analysis of results (screens.
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