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I. II. III. IV. V. VI.
CHAPTER NAME Introduction to central bank of India Products of central bank of India Database & methodology Innovations in banking by products Innovations in banking by branches Conclusion, finding & suggestions Bibliography
This chapter contains the information about Central Bank of India origin, vision,
Established in 1911, Central Bank of India was the first Indian
commercial bank, which was wholly owned and managed by Indians. The establishment of the Bank was the ultimate realisation of the dream of Sir Sorabji Pochkhanawala, founder of the Bank. Sir Pherozesha Mehta was the first Chairman of a truly 'Swadeshi Bank'. In fact, such was the extent of pride felt by Sir Sorabji Pochkhanawala that he proclaimed Central Bank as the 'property of the nation and the country's asset'. He also added that 'Central Bank lives on people's faith and regards itself as the people's own bank'. During the past 95 years of history the Bank has weathered many storms and faced many challenges. The Bank could successfully transform every threat into business opportunity and excelled over its peers in the Banking industry. A number of innovative and unique banking activities have been launched by Central Bank of India and a brief mention of some of its pioneering services are as under:
1921 1924 1926 1929 1932 1962
Introduction to the Home Savings Safe Deposit Scheme to build saving/thrift habits in all sections of the society. An Exclusive Ladies Department to cater to the Bank's women clientele. Safe Deposit Locker facility and Rupee Travelers' Cheque. Setting up of the Executor and Trustee Department. Deposit Insurance Benefit Scheme. Recurring Deposit Scheme.
Subsequently, even after the nationalization of the Bank in the year 1969, Central Bank continued to introduce a number of innovative banking services as under: 1976 1980 1986 1989 1994 The Merchant Banking Cell was established. Central card, the credit card of the Bank was introduced. 'Platinum Jubilee Money Back Deposit Scheme' was launched. The housing subsidiary Cent Bank Home Finance Ltd. was started with its headquarters at Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh. Quick Cheque Collection Service (QCC) & Express Service was set up to enable speedy collection of outstation cheque. Further in line with the guidelines from Reserve Bank of India as also the Government of India, Central Bank has been playing an increasingly active role in promoting the key thrust areas of agriculture, small scale industries as also
medium and large industries. The Bank also introduced a number of Self Employment Schemes to promote employment among the educated youth. Among the Public Sector Banks, Central Bank of India can be truly described as an All India Bank, due to distribution of its large network in 27 out of 28 States as also in 4 out of 7 Union Territories in India. Central Bank of India holds a very prominent place among the Public Sector Banks on account of its network of 3194 branches and 267 extension counters at various centers throughout the length and breadth of the country In view of its large network of branches as also number of savings and other innovative services offered, the total customer base of the Bank at over 25 million account holders is one of the largest in the banking industry. Customers' confidence in Central Bank of India's wide ranging services can very well be judged from the list of major corporate clients such as ICICI, IDBI, UTI, LIC, HDFC as also almost all major corporate houses in the country.
Our vision is to emerge as a strong, vibrant and pro-active bank
and to positively contribute to emerging needs of the economy through harmonization of human, financial and technological resources and effective risk control system.
The authorized Capital of Central Bank of India is
15,000 million equity shares of Rs.10 each & 8,000 million are perpetual non-
000. Out of which 324.141.000 equity shares of Rs. 022-22161091 022-22022048 022-22021553 011-23318964 033-22301270 022-22024601 022-22022565 Audit & Inspection/ House Keeping & 022-66387777 IBR/ General Administration Dept International Division/ Treasury/ MBD/ Dept of IT Planning & Development/ Accounts/ Legal/ Recovery Zonal Manager .460 equity shares of Rs.New Delhi Zonal Manager . No. 10 fully paid up. General Managers Name Shri G Gupta Shri S Suresh Shri K K Gupta Shri R P Sharma Shri S G Nadgonde Shri A Ghosh Shri G P Chitnis Shri N Natrajan Shri R N Vadivelu Shri R Natarajan Shri S M Deshpande Shri V P Sathe Shri H K Designation Priority Sector/ Rajbhasha/ Operation/ Central Card/ Subsidiaries Credit/ Credit Policy/ Loan Credit Appraisal Zonal Manager .Kolkata New Initiative Dept/ Planning & Development/ Profitability HRD/ Dept of IT/ Risk Management Tel.10 issued and 80.Mumbai Metro Audit/ Inspection/ Inter Branch Reconciliation/ Housekeeping Accounts/ Recovery/ Legal & BIFR/ 022-22831592 022-22026776 022-22043673 022-27580571 022-22023326 5 .cumulative preference shares.
Vesuna Shri K A Somayajulu HRD Zonal Manager . Jail Road Bhopal – 462 011 CHANDIGARH P. 37/2/4.co. No.: 0755 – 2674037/36/35/34/33 Fax: 0755 – 2552019 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 6 . Sector – 17B Chandigarh – 160 017 CHENNAI Tel. Sanjay Place Agra – 282 002 AHMEDABAD Central Bank Building Tel. Arera Hills.Chennai Corporate Office Central Bank of India Chander Mukhi. No.co. 58-59 Bank Square.: 079 – 25503586 P.co.in BHOPAL 9. 13. B.: 0562 – 2850154/3424 Fax: 0562 – 2853698/1341 Email: email@example.com Tel.: 0172 – 2702994/98 Fax: 0172 – 2704047 Email: zmchanzo@centralbank. No. 205. Narman Point Mumbai – 400 021 Tel: 022 – 6638 7777 Zonal Offices 044-28554792 AGRA Block No.in Tel.O. Lal Darwaja Fax: 079 – 25505995 Ahmedabad – 380 001 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Monteith Road Egmore.: 0361 – 22457651/52 Fax: 0361 – 22452154 Email: zmguwazo@centralbank. Central Bank Building Bhangagarh.co.co.in MUMBAI METRO ZONAL OFFICE Standard Building. Mumbai – 400 023 MUZAFFARPUR Pawapuri Vihar Building. No. Guwahati – 781 005 HYDERABAD P. Road.in Tel.: 040 – 24740361/64.co. No. B. N.co. S. Bank Street Hyderabad – 500 195 KOLKATA Central Bank Building 33.in Tel. Road. 710-712 Mahapathram Road.co. Netaji Subhash Road Kolkata – 700 001 LUCKNOW P. 522. 24611402-05 Fax: 040 – 24742841 Email: zmhydezo@centralbank. Tel: 0621 – 22251855 Tel: 022 – 22047229/7301/7304 Fax: 022 – 22044720 Email: email@example.com Tel. 10.in 7 . B.: 033 – 22301270/1275/7007 Fax: 033 – 22309864 Email: zmkolkzo@centralbank. Chennai – 600 008 GUWAHATI G.in Tel. Akash Deep 23.: 044 – 28554792/4692/4620 Fax: 044 – 28551260 Email: zmchenzo@centralbank. Vidhan Sabha Road Lucknow – 226 001 Tel.48/49.co.: 0522 – 2611301-4 Fax: 0522 – 2621213 Email: zmluckzo@centralbank. 1st Floor D.
co. B. Nagpur – 440 001 NEW DELHI P. No.co. 2225171 Fax: 0771 – 2234895 Email: zmraipzo@centralbank. B. Block ‘C’ Bombay Market. Road. 23319268/69 Fax: 011 – 23311332/237 Email: zmdelhzo@centralbank. H.: 0771 – 2226756.: 0612 – 2226607 Fax: 0612 – 2221898 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.in 8 . E. Pune – 411 001 RAIPUR 1st Floor.in Tel. G.N. New Delhi – 110 002 PATNA 2nd Floor.: 011 – 23318964. Link House Press Area.: 020 – 26131611-17 Fax: 020 – 26131618 Email: zmpunezo@centralbank. Raipur – 492 001 Fax: 0621 – 2251784 Email: zmmuzazo@centralbank. Road.co. 2nd Floor Kamptee Road.in Tel.in Tel. 3 Bahadurshah Jafar Road.in Tel. 7007.co.: 0712 – 2520361-63 Fax: 0712 – 2520365 Email: email@example.com. No. G. Block B Maurya Lok Complex Dak Banglow Road. 317 M. Patna – 800 001 PUNE P. 98.co. 28 Near Bhagwanpur Chowk Muzaffarpur – 842 001 NAGPUR Oriental Building.
Shri Albert Tauro Executive Director Chander Mukhi Nariman Point Mumbai-400 021 Tel: 022 .22024393 / 22023942 Fax: 22028122 2. Ms H. Shri P. Shri K.22874143 Fax: 022 – 22022617 4. Mitra Economic Advisor and Joint Secretary 9 . A. Subbaraman Executive Director Chander Mukhi Nariman Point Mumbai-400 021 Tel: (O) 022 . Daruwalla Chairperson & Managing Director Chander Mukhi Nariman Point Mumbai-400 021 Tel.22023661 / 66387799 / 66387826 Fax: 22856187 3. P.Directors Directors of Central Bank of India & their addresses: 1.: (O) 022 .
Nizamuddin East. Satya Bahin 89. Shri Kamal Faruqui A-80. Bhattacharya RBI Nominee Director Evershine Millenium Park Apts.23018891 / 23014325 Fax: 011 – 23017047 8. 37/601. New Delhi -110013 Tel: 011 – 23269723 7. Kandivili (East) Mumbai – 400101 6. Neb Sarainew Delhi Tel: 011 . Shri M. Major (Retd) Ved Prakash 204/1 Neb Valley. Thakur Village.K.Ministry of Finance Banking Division Jeevan Deep Building New Delhi Tel: 011 – 23745128 5. Sector-4.P) Tel: 0120 – 2774995 9. Shri Harish Chandhok 10 . Vaishali Ghaziabad (U. Smt.
110 001 Tel: 011 – 23321343/23316708 Fax: 011 – 23357934 13. No. P. Shashtri Nagar.M. 70.2493152 0731 – 4064828 10. Jaipur . Flats Peshwa Road. Shri Romesh Sabharwal A2/3. Manishpuri.302 001 11 . Saket Ext. Tel: 0731 . P.B. Indore.180 004 12. Shri C. 87. Mirza Ismail Road. Pareek Central Bank of India.20-21.B. Gole Market. Indu Singh Pawar Central Bank of India 18A. Shri N. Ms. Janpath Branch. 72 Janpath New Delhi .110 001 11. New Delhi .S. M. Puri Central Bank of India. 244. Jammu Tavi Pin . K.
Sir Pherozeshah Mehta was the first Chairman of the Bank. In its 95 years of history. the credit card of the Bank was Introduced. Central Bank of India has launched a number of innovative and unique banking activities. which was wholly owned and managed by Indians. 1986: 'Plantinum Jubilee Money Back Deposit Scheme' 12 . 1962: Recurring Deposit Scheme. 1980: Centralcard. 1926: Safe Deposit Locker facility and Rupee Travellers' Cheques. In 1969.2370333 Fax: 0141 – 2338900 History of Central Bank of India Sir Sorabji Pochkhanawala established Central Bank of India in 1911.Tel: 0141 . 1976: The Merchant Banking Cell was established. 1932: Deposit Insurance Benefit Scheme. 1929: Setting up of the Executor and Trustee department. 1924: An Exclusive Ladies Department to cater to the Bank's women clientele. Central Bank of India was nationalized along with 13 other banks. It was the first Indian commercial bank. Major among them are: 1921: Introduction of the Home Savings Safe Deposit Scheme to build saving/thrift habits in all sections of the society.
URL: http://www.centralbankofindia.in/ This chapter contains information about different products offered by the central bank of India for the benefit of its customers. These schemes suit different kinds of banking needs you might have. The Bank has a total customer base of over 25 million account holders.co. 1994: Quick Cheque Collection Service (QCC) & Express Service were set up to enable speedy collection of Outstation cheques. 1989: The housing subsidiary Cent Bank Home Finance Ltd. which is one of the largest in the banking industry.Was launched. was started with its headquarters at Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh. CBI has offered a choice of various deposit schemes with unique features and facilities. Central Bank of India has a large network of 3161 branches and 270 extension counters spread over 27 States and 4 Union Territories. 13 .
100/-. minimum period of 6 months and upto a maximum of 120 months. You will be permitted to withdraw upto a 14 . 5000/.and multiplies of Rs. The rate of interest shall be the appropriate rate prevailing on the date of the deposit for the period Premature payment so selected. Amount of deposit Period of deposit Rate of interest minimum amount of Rs. 100/. Amount of deposit Period of deposit Rate of interest minimum amount of Rs. It is also a flexible scheme that allows you to withdraw a part of the deposit amount as and when required.Money multiplier deposit certificate The interest accrued gets added back to the principal giving you an effective interest rate that is higher than the contracted interest rate. minimum period of 30 days and upto a maximum of 120 months.and multiplies of Rs. Payment before maturity is available as per prevailing rules. Loan/advance facility is available under the scheme as per prevailing rules. Khazaana deposit scheme Khazaana deposit scheme offers you the double benefits of easy liquidity and high returns. 1000/-. The rate of interest shall be the appropriate rate prevailing on the date of the deposit for the period Premature payment Loans/advance against deposit so selected.
Loan/advance facility is available under the scheme as per prevailing rules. Monthly interest deposit receipt The MIDR scheme provides you with monthly interest earnings. 5000/. The rate of interest shall be the appropriate rate prevailing on the date of the deposit for the period Premature payment Loans/advance against deposit so selected. Payment before maturity is available as per prevailing rules. open an account for periods ranging from 12 months to 120 months.and multiplies of Rs. open an account for periods ranging from 12 months to 120 months. Loan/advance facility is available under the scheme as per prevailing rules. 1000/-. The rate of interest shall be the appropriate rate 15 . Amount of deposit Period of deposit Rate of interest minimum amount of Rs. 5000/. Amount of deposit Period of deposit Rate of interest minimum amount of Rs. Quarterly interest deposit receipt QIDR provides you quarterly interest without affecting the principal amount.and multiplies of Rs.maximum of 10 times during the entire period of Loans/advance against deposit deposit. without affecting the principal amount. 1000/-.
prevailing on the date of the deposit for the period Premature payment Loans/advance against deposit so selected. LOANS 16 . One year and above and upto a maximum of 10 years. In case the deposit will be treated as normal deposit and interest will be paid as per our prevailing rates Loans/advance against deposit applicable to normal deposits. 1 lac and above. The rate of interest shall be the appropriate rate prevailing on the date of the deposit for the period Premature payment so selected. Payment before maturity is available as per prevailing rules. Amount of deposit Period of deposit Rate of interest Single deposit of Rs. Loan/advance facility is available under the scheme as per prevailing rules. Loan/advance facility is available under the scheme as per prevailing rules. Centrals flexi yield deposit scheme Under this scheme depositors can avail floating rate of interest. which is higher than the interest rate on normal term deposits.
two wheelers and four wheelers. 80% of the cost of four wheelers.100/-. Our loans enrich life and enhance lifestyles. Hypothecation of articles/vehicles purchased out of loan. applicant should be income Quantum of loan tax assessee. 10 lacs. Cent Vyapari Objective To provide finance to small and medium traders. Maximum Rs. 85% of the cost of two wheelers and other Security consumer durables./private sector) 2) Others have regular and known sources of income. 1) Permanently employed persons (govt. 3) For four wheelers. In case f salaried employees.2 lacs. PLR + 2% 1% of the loan amount. Minimum Rs. when installments Rate of interest Processing charges Repayment are received from salary. 17 . 36 to 84 equated monthly installments (EMIs). Maximum Rs.You can avail of easy and convenient loan offers for purposes ranging from housing finance to higher education to purchase of computer. Cent buy Facility & purpose Eligibility You can avail of the term loan facility at all branches for purchase of consumer durables.
5 lacs –PLR + 4% 1) Hypothecation of stocks.1 lac . 5 lacs per borrower. Small and medium traders including retailers and distributors. 500/Above Rs.2 lacs and upto Rs.Rs. Minimum 25% on stocks. 1% of the loan amount.25000 to Rs. Ten times of gross salary subject to a maximum of Rs. 18 .2 lacs – Rs. Rs. PLR + 4% 36 months commencing in one equated month monthly after the instalments month of disbursement.2500/- Personal Loan – To Employees Of Corporate Clients Eligibility Purpose Quantum of loan Rate of interest Mode of repayment Processing charges Permanent employees of large corporate clients.Implemented by Nature of facility Eligibility Maximum limit Margin Rate of interest Security Processing fees Semi-urban and & urban branches. Cash credit.250/Above Rs 1 lac – Rs. Upto Rs. of land and building.2lacs .Rs.M.5 lacs . Upto Rs. 2) E. 1 lac. To meet any personal/domestic expenses of the borrower.Rs. 25000 Nil Above Rs. 2 lacs – PLR Over Rs.
10000/. Individual singly or jointly. The property value should be equal to 200% of the loan Insurance amount.per month Quantum of loan Security or more. traders.00 lac and maximum of Rs. PLR + 4% 1% of the loan amount. by the borrower with usual bank clause for the full Rate of interest Processing charges Repayment value of the property. commercial or industrial property situated in metro/urban/semi-urban centers only in the name and possession of the borrower. Advance Cheque signed by the borrower for repaying monthly instalments along with letter of deposit will be obtained. professionals or self employed persons etc. Loan against mortgage of property situated in metro/urban/semi-urban areas. The property will be insured against fire. Residential house/flat. riots and wherever required against earthquake. businessmen. having known sources of net income of Rs. flood.Cent mortgage Facility & purpose Eligibility Target group Term loan facility to meet any sort of personal or business expenses. 20 times net monthly income subject to minimum amount of Rs. 10 lacs. lightning etc.1. 19 .
Copy of sales tax registrations.Rs. Above Rs. 100000 20 .PLR Over Rs. .Nil . 25000 upto Rs.Cent trade Facility & purpose Eligibility/Target group Quantum of loan Overdraft limit for business requirements. The property will be insured with the usual bank clause for full value of the property.2000000 Required details 5000/Application form. 25000 250/Above Rs.Rs.1000000 upto Rs. . 200000 upto Rs. .PLR + 2% Processing charges Upto Rs. 1000000 2500/Above Rs. 100000 upto Rs. 2. 2. Traders/retailers/distributors/commission agents/arhatiyas. 200000 500/Above Rs.Rs.Rs.00 lacs . Copies of sales tax returns. Equitable mortgage of property situated in metro/urban/semi-urban with market value of 200% of overdraft limit and in the name and Insurance Rate of interest possession of the borrower.00 lacs . Upto Rs. Financial statements. .
• CKCC will be provided to any farmer to cater to his short-term credit requirements. Central kisan credit card Objectives Loan for farmers on the basis of their holdings for purchasing agricultural inputs including cash Eligibility withdrawals for their production needs. Details of property offered as security with its present valuations. borrowing limit. SERVICES 21 . validity period which will serve both as an identity card as well as facilitate recording of Security margin Rate of interest transactions on an ongoing basis. • CKCC will be issued to farmers in the form of card-cum-passbook incorporating the name. Same rate of interest as are applicable to crop loans and activities allied to agriculture. address. • Farmers having good track record for past 2 years with our bank as a borrower or depositor and not being defaulter to any credit institution would be considered.Credit report from previous bankers/market report. particulars of land holding. In conformity with the agriculture loan.
central card with prior approval/authorization from our system. untapped market segments that previously did not have access to traditional bank card payment products. restaurants. Features: • It is designed for use only at electronic terminals. airlines. 22 . • Mail order/telephone order. Facilities offered by central card: • Our domestic card is accepted all over India and Nepal having more than All retail outlets. Indian railways. 110000 merchant outlets. now accept central card. It offers you the freedom to spend at a large number of member establishments. departmental stores and grocery stores etc. Internet transactions can also be made through Group Accident Insurance Scheme coverage upto Rs.Central card It is a unique credit card offering you innumerable facilities & convenience. • hotels. 1 lakh. Acceptance at non- terminalised merchants is not allowed. petrol pumps. • Central Card Electronic Central card electronic is a new “entry level credit product” for the emerging. nursing homes.
• • • • • • • Account information is printed and not embossed on the card. -Rs. Completely safe and secure PIN based card. as only transactions within the Cash withdrawal limit: -Rs. • .p.m. 15000/. You will be allowed cheque encashment facility. 400/.is charged for a photo card. upto Rs. The card is issued/renewed every two years. You will get free accident insurance cover upto Rs. 23 . Debit Card Features: • • • Direct online debit to your savings or current account.p. There is zero lost card liability.at all the There is no fear spending over the limit.Global card • • • • Fees and charges: There is no joining fee.is charged every year in advance. • available limits would be authorized. Globally accepted at merchant establishments displaying the maestro/cirrus logos. A nominal fee of Rs. branches of CBI.m. 50/.Domestic card . An annual fee of Rs. 5000/. Card will be replaced in seven days. 24-hour customer call centers are available on India. 100000/You will get free lost card insurance cover to the extent of credit limit. 2500/.
Zero lost card liability. * Rs. There is no transaction charge at the ATMs of CBI. 30 for cash withdrawal * Rs. Existing partnership firms Existing proprietorship firms Individuals & institutions Better cash management Regular computerized MIS/reports Instant liquidity Faster and higher turnover Higher income and profitability Benefits to customers: • • • • • 24 . 6 for balance enquiry Fees & charges: • • Cash Management Services Who can avail cash management services? • • • • • Corporate Public. Replacement card. private and joint sector Cos.• • • • 24-hour customer call centers available in India. Itemized billing on your statement/passbook. Transaction charges are levied only at non-central bank maestro.
Rs. at all the branches of central bank. • • leading nationalized banks. 11/-. 1/. Rs. They are encashable at par at all the branches of central bank and other They are valid till encashed. 100/-.51/. Rs. Issued free of charge and payable at par. 500/-. • This chapter contains the information about the objectives of the study and the information upon which the study for the purpose of project is conducted and the limitations faced therein.and Rs. 5000/-. • Gift Cheques • • Central bank gift cheques are ideal gifts for all occasions. 25 .25/. 100/-. They are available in denominations of Rs. 2500/.Rs. 101/-. Charges Rs. Rs.per Rs. 1000/-.Travelers’ Cheques • Central bank’s travelers’ cheque are available in denominations of Rs.and Rs.
26 . study the following sources are used: PRIMARY SOURCE: The primary data has been based on the response received from bank manager.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study are based on the concept of Income & Investment Sources. The researcher has tried to represents the concept of different sources of Incomes & Investments analysis in this project. • • • SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION To collect the data for the purpose of the project. papers and the annual report of the bank and through web sites. To know about the benefits of investments to the bank. To discuss about the role of Central Bank of India in banking field. journals. The various objectives are discussed as under: • To understand the issue of Income & Investment Sources as practiced by the bank. bank staff related to the Income & Investment Sources. SECONDARY DATA: The secondary data has been collected from the various books. To know about the different sources Incomes & Investment of the bank. articles.
CHAPTER SCHEME CHAPTER 1 – Introduction Of Central Bank Of India CHAPTER 2 – Products Of Central Bank Of India CHAPTER 3 – Database & Methodology CHAPTER 4 – Innovations In Banking Products CHAPTER 5 – Innovations In Banking Branches CHAPTER 6 – Summary. investment sources. The presentations are through: Bar graphs Tables Diagrams LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY During the study work a number of limitations have been arisen which are acknowledged here under. Findings & Suggestions PRESENTATION OF PROJECT For the purpose of presentation of the study the following ways have been adopted. The limitations are: First of all main problem is that no any bank was ready to give training.MAIN EMPHASIS OF STUDY: In this project report the study revealed about Income & Investment Sources of Central Bank of India consisting of income sources. 27 .
The information that is collected in project report is not adequate. Due to shorter span of time and resources less information has been considered to analysis the concept of Income & Investment Sources. So the study cannot be generalized. 28 . The respondents whose opinions are analyzed are not willing to disclose the quantum of information they have.
The growth of e-commerce and Internet has transformed the world into the GLOBAL VILLAGE. Credit Cards. to remain isolated from what is happening around. rising consumer expectations and shrinking margins of banks. which lead to reduction in cost. ATM.This chapter contains the different innovations in banking products such as EBanking. computer or magnetic tape to conduct various transactions like cash receipts. it is difficult for any nation whether big or small. Meaning: E-banking means. Introduction: With the trend of globalization all over the world. efficiency and customer convenience. “application of electronic technology towards transfer of funds through an electronic terminal. Usage of technology by banks is due to challenge of competition. Mobile Banking. and enhancement of productivity. Fast development in electronic technology has concerned the computers to take over the bank counters and to convert brick banking into electronic banking. developed. Internet Banking. transfer of funds etc. payments.” 29 . Debit Cards.
bill payments. without having to step to office of the branch. from one account to another. It does not involve any physical exchange of money. Intense competition: E-Commerce is a product of handling intense competition among various banks.It is often known as banking on net. but it’s all done electronically. Promptness: Another feature of E-Commerce is provides promptness in services. personal computers or even through mobile phones. transfer money between accounts. customers are benefited by unlimited accessibility through the network of Automated Teller Machines. Cash less banking: E-Commerce also provides feature of cash less banking as cash is not require in raw form but electronic cash like debit or credit cards may serve the purpose. Features of e banking: Anywhere any time banking: customers can avail banking facility while sitting at their home/office. Process of E-Banking/ procedure of E-Banking E-Banking process can be explained with the help of following diagram and explanation as under: 30 . using the Internet. With the advent of e banking. and transaction histories. Globalization of service: E-Banking has a special feature of globalising bank’s services all over. Customer can perform various banking transactions such as balance enquires.
Log on to website Verification Of password Final Approval Credit Card request Processing Of information To make the use of E-Banking user has to go to the World Wide Web and log on to the website. 31 . then processing of information will start on the web. Next step follows verification of user ID and password by the website server. In this step. credit card number will be demanded for online transaction. If all security measures are completed then the transaction is approved accordingly. As soon as password is approved on the server.
To merchant Trader Reduction in cost: E-Banking is helpful to banks by reducing the cost of various transactions as compared to traditional cost by way of ATM’s Telephone banking. II.Advantages of E-Banking: Importance of E-Banking can be explained from four aspects: Advantages To banks I. bulky books of accounts. Benefits to customers 32 . spreadsheets. through the concept of ‘Anywhere Anytime Banking’. ledger including the use of calculator. Good customer relationship: E-Banking helps in attracting and retaining the customer by properly handling their grievances. Reduction in frauds and misappropriations: Through EBanking frauds and misappropriations can be reduced as inter branch reconciliation is possible through internet. Global coverage: E-Banking provides global network coverage of bank’s services i. Reduction in paper work: E-Banking helps in eliminating endless paper based bank statements.e. To cust omer Benefits to banks To Govt.
access to information is possible easily. 33 . Anytime banking: E-banking provides 24 hours. 365 days services to customers. Risk of carrying cash: E-Banking provides the facility of cash less banking which helps in growth of economy. IV. Saving in time: With the help of E-banking there is no need for bank customers to stand in queue for hours to complete financial transactions.e. Prompt services: Customer can avail the services of details regarding their accounts and transactional details instantly. Benefits to merchant traders Promotion of business: with the help of E-Banking business of merchants traders will be promoted because of increased purchasing power of credit holder. Benefits to government Transparency in transactions: E-Banking provides transparency in transactions i. Global market: With the help of E-Banking products of our country will get global market to be popularized properly. III. Anywhere banking: customers can avail any sort of banking services from anywhere around the globe from sitting at anyplace. On line purchase: Customer can buy product of bank or invest in any scheme without actually insisting the bank branch but only through online.
Immediate settlement: E-Banking helps settlement. Limitations of E Banking: Problems of security: Security and privacy aspects are major issue in case of E-Banking transaction. Avoids risks: it helps merchants bankers also as there is no risk of handling cash. Lack of awareness: Another great hindrance is lack of awareness because effective and wide media efforts in publishing Internet banking need to be emphasized. Wrong assumption by people: Many people are away from net banking on the assumption that it is more expensive than the traditional method of dealing with bank transactions. only 5000 branches are computerized. Various sites are not properly locked at to ensure weather customer’s money is safe in cyber world or not. which involves high cost. They still prefer going to bank to perform transactions. and payment of cash is possible by the customer. High cost: The infrastructural cost of providing E-Banking facility is very high. out of 65000 bank branches. The banks not only have to automate front-end services but also back office services. In India. Lack of computerization: Lack of computerization and low density of telephone lines is also a bottleneck for online banking. Types of E-Banking services E-banking Services 34 .
For the purpose of withdrawing cash from ATM machine. Credit card is a product with the help of which a customer can avail various facilities or buy products/services without making immediate payment and that payment could be made at later stage of time.i. Routine banking transactions can be performed by just punching a few buttons on the mobile. 6. plastic currency and debit cards are used.Credit Cards: Credit card is another facility produced by E-Banking. E-cheque facilitates on line payment. Electronic Cheques: E-cheque is a system. City bank.Automatic Teller Machine (ATM): ATM facility was started in early 1990’s by foreign banks like HSBC. 5. Mobile Banking: Mobile banking provides customer to access their account on mobile phone screen.Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT): E-Banking has given a system of electronically transferring funds . It helps the user to transact various transactions while remaining at home. 3.e. This is done through electronic data interchange (EDI).ATM Card E-cheque Mobile Banking Telephone Banking EFT 1. It needs no 35 . ATM is made to work 24 Hrs a day. EFT which involves transfer of funds from bank account of one customer to bank account of another customer electronically. 4. 2. which provides more security and reduction in overall cost. Telephone Banking: Tele banking is another main service provide by ebanking Tele banking is a service where banks get various phone calls during their working hours.
36 .clearance charges. Issue of E-cheque is more familiar in various advanced countries.
Meaning: Banks have noticed and availed the opportunity that exists between banking and mobile telephony. Mobile devices are enabled now days to perform many activities which earlier have been available only as internet services.Introduction: There are rapid changes in the financial services environment. Recent innovations in tele communications have opened up an additional channel for electronic banking. Issues relating to M-Banking 37 . which has led to increased competition by few players and product innovations. The mobile banking enables the customers to bank anywhere and at any time. SMS (short messaging services) and GSM(global system mobile)of mobile can be used for banking transactions. These wireless devices may give services as hand held PC’s.
Few are mentioned here under: • Balance enquiry can be made. • Requesting countermanding cheque payments (stop cheque) • Chequebook request can be made. SMS tariffs should be lowered in order to capture the markets and to exploits the potential for commercial transactions over mobile device. user habits and key players is required to be done. • Cheque clearance alerts are given to customers. which helps in finding out if some one else is using your ATM card.• Cost saving: SMS offers revenue opportunities for operators by changing SMS into higher value added applications. • Sending account balances every time one makes a withdrawal. The service offerings in SMS banking are numerous and highly cost saving. 38 . • Simple to operate: The success of M. just as it supports telephony. Players will have to be creative to make users perceive it as beneficial. Services: Global system mobile (GSM) is not just about voice communications but also supports wireless personal digital assistant and other devices. • Requesting for providing bank statement. Many services and schemes are being piloted and some are already available.Banking is due to its userfriendly interface and range of services it offers. • Market research: Proper understanding of specific market is key in the success of mobile banking. Research on available payment methods.
Limitations /problems in M-Banking: • Possibility of error is higher than in internet banking. 39 . • M-banking services are not enough versatile. cheaper it simple to use. • The data transmission is very slow. security and user friendly interface its make it easy. M Banking is not just a service reserved for international banks but for any financial institution wishing to take it. Some non-users of mobile banking perceive it to be complicated due to lack of guidance available. • The information knowledge available related to M-Banking is not sufficient. but its success depend upon of variety of services. • M-banking services are risky and not secure trials and pilots are still on World Wide Web to developed enhanced security. There is a great opportunity to exploit the combination of fast growing consumer device the mobile phone with the richness of internet protocols that will surpass a similar revolution imitated by pc related banking M-Banking has a lot to offer banks and to its customers.
For the purpose of withdrawing cash from ATM machine. The operation mechanism is that card is inserted into the ATM.Introduction: ATM facility was started in early 1990’s by foreign banks like HSBC. that contains a unique card number and some security information. According to the instructions. which activates the accounts. City bank. The account number and credit limit of customers are magnetically embedded on a strip of the tape on the back of card. ATM is made to work 24 Hrs a day. An automated teller machine (ATM) is a computerized telecommunications device that provides the customers of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public space without the need for a human clerk or bank teller. the details are displayed on the screen and by checking a few keys of the keyboard the user can direct the computer to carry out the financial transactions. plastic currency and debit cards are used. This is one of the unattended or unmanned devices usually located on or off the bank’s premises. the terminal reads the tape data to processes. the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smartcard with a chip. Its function is to receive and dispense cash and to handle routine financial transactions. On most modern ATMs. ATM enables user to perform banking transactions by actually interacting with the human teller. such as an 40 .
expiration date or CVC (CVV). Security is provided by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN). 41 .
and Any Time Money (in India). Working of ATM Insertion of Card into ATM Transmission of Tape data to Processor Activation of account Actual Transaction Operation by user Clicking of keys of keyboard Display of details on screen ATM will give various options on the screen like: Balance enquiry Mini statement Deposits Cash withdrawals etc. 42 . hole-in-the-wall. money machine. in Portugal). cash machine. ATMs are known by various other names including automated banking machine. bank machine. customers can access their bank accounts in order to make cash withdrawals (or credit card cash advances) and check their account balances as well as purchasing mobile cell phone prepaid credit. Multibanco (after a registered trade mark. Bancomat (in various countries in Europe and Russia).Using an ATM. cashpoint.
Shepherd-Barron was awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year's Honours List. which was installed first in Enfield Town in North London. The first person to use the machine was the British variety artist and actor Reg 43 . United Kingdom on 27 June 1967 by Barclays Bank. Various facilities produced by ATMs: Cash withdrawals Personal identification number (PIN) change On line balance enquiry Transfer of funds between accounts linked to one’s card Request for cheque book Request for account statement HISTORY: The first mechanical cash dispenser was developed and built by Luther George Simjian and installed in 1939 in New York City by the City Bank of New York. This instance of the invention is credited to John Shepherd-Barron. although various other engineers were awarded patents for related technologies at the time. until De La Rue developed the first electronic ATM. Thereafter. the history of ATMs paused for over 25 years. but removed after 6 months due to the lack of customer acceptance.Banks have launched the operation of accepting payments for utility services like electricity and telephone bills etc. Banking on the net is only an extension of the ATM and tele banking services.
and NCR 5xxx series. 44 . These worked on various principles including radiation and low-coercivity magnetism that was wiped by the card reader to make fraud more difficult. In 1995 the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History recognised Docutel and Wetzel as the inventors of the networked ATM. The machine dispensed pre-packaged envelopes containing ten pounds sterling. Cashpoint is still a registered trademark of Lloyds TSB in the U. which was retained by the machine. Notable historical models of ATMs include the IBM 3624 and 473x series. ATMs first came into wide UK use in 1973. A small number of 2984s were supplied to a USA bank.K. similar in function to today's machines. Diebold 10xx and TABS 9000 series.Varney. The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by the British engineer James Goodfellow in 1965 In 1968 the networked ATM was pioneered in Dallas. the IBM 2984 was designed at the request of Lloyds Bank.The first ATMs accepted only a single-use token or voucher. Texas. All were online and issued a variable amount which was immediately deducted from the account. by Donald Wetzel who was a department head at an automated baggage-handling company called Docutel. The 2984 CIT (Cash Issuing Terminal) was the first true Cashpoint.
Introduction: Debit cards combine the functions of ATM cards and checks. allowing him/her to make plastic transactions. thereby preventing the consumer from racking up debt • 45 .they are not credit cards. Use of a debit card is limited to the existing funds in the account to which it is linked. the money is automatically deducted from your checking account. Debit and check cards. but the countries to which they apply are unspecified): • A consumer who is not credit worthy and may find it difficult or impossible to obtain a credit card can more easily obtain a debit card. The money you spend comes out of your checking account immediately. have revealed numerous advantages and disadvantages to the consumer and retailer alike. as they have become widespread. Many banks issue a combined ATM/debit card that looks just like a credit card and can be used in places where credit cards are accepted. Advantages are as follows (most of them applying only to a some countries. But don't be mistaken -. When you pay with a debit card.
amount and • 46 . Many merchants mistakenly believe that amounts owed can be "taken" from a customer's account after a debit card (or number) has been presented. and even attempted but refused transactions by the merchant (some of which may not even be known by the client). late fees. which charges higher fees and interest rates when a cash advance is obtained. or being charged interest. • For most transactions. and bypassing the requirement to pay a credit card bill at a later date. merchants generally do not believe that a payment via a debit card may be later dishonored. Check cards debit funds from the user's account on the spot. Unlike personal checks. or fees exclusive to credit cards. debit cards are accepted by merchants with less identification and scrutiny than personal checks. thereby making transactions quicker and less intrusive. Like credit cards.as a result of its use. other than a foreign ATM fee. • • The Debit card has many disadvantages as opposed to cash or credit: • Some banks are now charging over-limit fees or non-sufficient funds fees based upon pre-authorizations. without agreement as to date. thereby finalizing the transaction at the time of purchase. a check card can be used to avoid check writing altogether. a debit card may be used to obtain cash from an ATM or a PIN-based transaction at no extra charge. Unlike a credit card. or to write an insecure check containing the account holder's personal information. payee name.
or who has • • 47 . and rejected transactions by some banks. theft of users' PIN codes using skimming devices van be equally easily accomplished with a debit transaction PIN input. • In some unspecified countries. and theft using a signature-based credit transation is equally easy as theft using a signature-based debit transaction. and therefore. The consumer also has a much shorter time (usually just two days) to report such fraud to the bank in order to be eligible for such a waiver with a debit card. whereas with a credit card. laws protect the consumer from fraud a lot less than with a credit card. While the holder of a credit card is legally responsible for only a minimal amount of a fraudulent transaction made with a credit card. this time may be up to 60 days. thus causing penalty fees for overdrafts. and the consumer will have no recourse. the consumer may be held liable for hundreds of dollars in fraudulent debit transactions. which is often waived by the bank. In many places. debit cards offer lower levels of security protection than credit cards.currency. amounts not available causing further rejections or overdrafts. However. When a transaction is made using a credit card. Theft of the users PIN using skimming devices can be accomplished much easier with a PIN input than with a signature-based credit transaction. over-the-limit. The bank may fight to void the charges of a consumer who is dissatisfied with a purchase. the bank's money is being spent. the bank has a vested interest in claiming its money where there is fraud or a dispute. as with a credit transation PIN input. A thief who obtains or clones a debit card along with its PIN may be able to clean out the consumer's bank account.
will verify the creditworthiness of the renter using a debit cardThere are currently two ways that debit card transactions are processed: online debit (also known as PIN debit) and offline debit (also known as signature debit). In some countries including the United States and Australia. or may be paid at the expense of an overdraft fee if the account lacks any additional funds to pay those items. such as gasoline.otherwise been treated unfairly by the merchant. • Some cards are blocked from making either online or offline transactions. lodging. is at car rental facilities. and the bank has little if any motivation to collect the funds. the consumer has spent his/her own money. may be dishonored. while other cards are enabled for both kinds of transactions. or car rental. this isn't the case in other countries. a major exception (in some unspecified countries only. any other transactions presented to the account. 48 . they are often referred to at point of sale as "debit" and "credit" respectively. such as Sweden. In some unspecified countries. • In some unspecified coutriesand for certain types of purchases. including checks. the bank may place a hold on funds much greater than the actual purchase for a fixed period of time. But when a debit purchase is made. car rental agencies require an actual credit card to be used. or at the very least. However. even though in either case the user's bank account is debited and no credit is involved. While debit cards bearing the logo of a major credit card are accepted for virtually all transactions where an equivalent credit card is taken. Until the hold is released.
One difficulty in using online debit cards is the necessity of an electronic authorization device at the point of sale (POS) and sometimes also a separate PINpad to enter the PIN. 49 . only issue online debit cards. such as Canada and Brazil. the online debit card is generally viewed as superior to the offline debit card because of its more secure authentication system and live status.Online debit ("PIN debit" or "debit") Online debit cards require electronic authorization of every transaction and the debits are reflected in the user’s account immediately. which alleviates problems with processing lag on transactions that may have been forgotten or not authorized by the owner of the card. essentially becoming enhanced automatic teller machine (ATM) cards. Banks in some countries. Overall. The transaction may be additionally secured with the personal identification number (PIN) authentication system and some online cards require such authentication for every transaction. although this is becoming commonplace for all card transactions in many countries.
A credit card is different from a debit card in that it does not remove money from the user's account after every transaction. which requires the balance to be paid in full each month. In contrast. a credit card allows the consumer to 'revolve' their balance. 50 . In the case of credit cards. the issuer lends money to the consumer (or the user).Introduction: A credit card is a system of payment named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. at the cost of having interest charged. Most credit cards are the same shape and size. It is also different from a charge card (though this name is sometimes used by the public to describe credit cards). The issuer of the card grants a line of credit to the consumer (or the user) from which the user can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance to the user. where a charge card requires the balance to be paid in full each month. as specified by the ISO 7810 standard. A credit card is different from a charge card. In contrast.
many merchants now accept verbal authorizations via telephone and electronic authorization using the Internet. by signing a receipt with a record of the card details and indicating the amount to be paid or by entering a Personal identification number (PIN). Also. Most credit cards are issued by local banks or credit unions.credit cards allow the consumers to 'revolve' their balance. 51 . known as a 'Card/Cardholder Not Present' (CNP) transaction. the credit card user agrees to pay the card issuer. at the cost of having interest charged. Credit cards are issued after an account has been approved by the credit provider. When a purchase is made. The cardholder indicates his/her consent to pay. after which cardholders can use it to make purchases at merchants accepting that card.
Electronic verification systems allow merchants to verify that the card is valid and the credit card customer has sufficient credit to cover the purchase in a few seconds, allowing the verification to happen at time of purchase. The verification is performed using a credit card payment terminal or Point of Sale (POS) system with a communications link to the merchant's acquiring bank. Data from the card is obtained from a magnetic stripe or chip on the card; the latter system is in the United Kingdom and Ireland commonly known as Chip and PIN, but is more technically an EMV card.
Other variations of verification systems are used by eCommerce merchants to determine if the user's account is valid and able to accept the charge. These will typically involve the cardholder providing additional information, such as the security code printed on the back of the card, or the address of the cardholder. Each month, the credit card user is sent a statement indicating the purchases undertaken with the card, any outstanding fees, and the total amount owed. After receiving the statement, the cardholder may dispute any charges that he or she thinks are incorrect (see Fair Credit Billing Act for details of the US regulations). Otherwise, the cardholder must pay a defined minimum proportion of the bill by a due date, or may choose to pay a higher amount up to the entire amount owed. The credit provider charges interest on the amount owed if the balance is not paid in full (typically at a much higher rate than most other forms of debt). Some financial institutions can arrange for automatic payments to be deducted from the user's bank accounts, thus avoiding late payment altogether as long as the cardholder has sufficient funds.
Interest charges Credit card issuers usually waive interest charges if the balance is paid in full each month, but typically will charge full interest on the entire outstanding balance from the date of each purchase if the total balance is not paid. For example, if a user had a $1,000 transaction and repaid it in full within this grace period, there would be no interest charged. If, however, even $1.00 of the
total amount remained unpaid, interest would be charged on the $1,000 from the date of purchase until the payment is received. The credit card may simply serve as a form of revolving credit, or it may become a complicated financial instrument with multiple balance segments each at a different interest rate, possibly with a single umbrella credit limit, or with separate credit limits applicable to the various balance segments. Usually this compartmentalization is the result of special incentive offers from the issuing bank, to encourage balance transfers from cards of other issuers. In the event that several interest rates apply to various balance segments, payment allocation is generally at the discretion of the issuing bank, and payments will therefore usually be allocated towards the lowest rate balances until paid in full before any money is paid towards higher rate balances. Interest rates can vary considerably from card to card, and the interest rate on a particular card may jump dramatically if the card user is late with a payment on that card or any other credit instrument, or even if the issuing bank decides to raise its revenue.
Advantages: The main advantages are as follows:
Benefits to customers:
Because of intense competition in the credit card industry, credit card providers often offer incentives such as frequent flyer points, gift certificates, or cash back (typically up to 1 percent based on total purchases) to try to attract customers to their programs. Low interest credit cards or even 0% interest credit cards are available. The only downside to consumers is that the period of low interest credit cards is limited to a fixed term, usually between 6 and 12 months after which a higher rate is charged. However, services are available which alert credit card holders when their low interest period is due to expire. Most such services charge a monthly or annual fee.
A credit card's grace period is the time the customer has to pay the balance before interest is charged to the balance. Grace periods vary, but usually range from 20 to 40 days depending on the type of credit card and the issuing bank. Some policies allow for reinstatement after certain conditions are met.
regardless of whether the consumer defaults on the credit card payment (except for legitimate disputes. That task is now performed by the banks which assume the credit risk. 56 .e. Prior to credit cards. there are some credit cards that will only apply finance charge on the previous or old balance. such as checks. and can result in charges back to the merchant). finance charges will be calculated and the grace period does not apply. which are discussed below. cards are even more secure than cash. Benefits to merchants An example of street markets accepting credit cards For merchants.Usually. if a customer is late paying the balance. interest is applied on both the previous balance and new transactions). because the issuing bank commits to pay the merchant the moment the transaction is authorized. each merchant had to evaluate each customer's credit history before extending credit. because they discourage theft by the merchant's employees and reduce the amount of cash on the premises. a credit card transaction is often more secure than other forms of payment. However. Finance charges incurred depend on the grace period and balance. In most cases. with most credit cards there is no grace period if there is any outstanding balance from the previous billing cycle or statement (i. excluding new transactions.
Independent sales organization: Resellers (to merchants) of the services of the acquiring bank. this is no longer the case. American Express and Discover were previously the only card-issuing banks for their respective brands. Discover. Parties involved • Cardholder: The holder of the card used to make a purchase. plus a fixed fee. and acquiring banks. The commission is often a percentage of the transaction amount. but in general is the organization that the merchant deals with. the bank charges the merchant a commission (discount fee) for this service and there may be a certain delay before the agreed payment is received by the merchant.For each purchase. MasterCard. This bank bills the consumer for repayment and bears the risk that the card is used fraudulently. Credit Card association: An association of card-issuing banks such as Visa. that set transaction terms for merchants. • • • • • • 57 . card-issuing banks. Merchant: The individual or business accepting credit card payments for products or services sold to the cardholder Acquiring bank: The financial institution accepting payment for the products or services on behalf of the merchant. Card-issuing bank: The financial institution or other organization that issued the credit card to the cardholder. Merchant account: This could refer to the acquiring bank or the independent sales organization. etc. American Express. the consumer. but as of 2007.
and major retailers. Paymentech. Concord EFSnet. Credit cards are accepted worldwide. NDC Atlanta. universities. and other perks (such as rewards schemes in which points earned by purchasing goods with the card can be redeemed for further goods and services or credit card cashback). professional organizations. and get paid a fee or a percentage of the balance for each card issued using their name. charities. and are available with a large variety of credit limits. May be operated by an independent company. accessible credit. which is necessary for both monitoring personal expenditures and the tracking of work-related expenses for taxation and reimbursement purposes. Nova. Affinity partner: Some institutions lend their names to an issuer to attract customers that have a strong relationship with that institution. Nabanco. 58 . Examples of typical affinity partners are sports teams. Features: As well as convenient.• Transaction network: The system that implements the mechanics of the electronic transactions. Omaha. and VisaNet. TSYS. credit cards offer consumers an easy way to track expenses. repayment arrangement. • The flow of information and money between these parties — always through the card associations — is known as the interchange. Transaction processing networks include: Cardnet. and one company may operate multiple networks.
and France. which are generally used quickly before the cards are reported stolen. The goal of the credit card companies is not to eliminate fraud. The 3 by 5 mm security chip embedded in the card is shown enlarged in the inset. Despite efforts to improve security for remote purchases using credit cards. The low security of the credit card system presents countless opportunities for fraud. such as the United States. This implies that high-cost low-return fraud prevention measures will not be used if their cost exceeds the potential gains from fraud reduction. For example. the United Kingdom. anywhere 59 . either online or offline. systems with security holes are usually the result of poor implementations of card acquisition by merchants.Some countries. the simplest being copying information from retailers. Problems A smart card. limit the amount for which a consumer can be held liable due to fraudulent transactions as a result of a consumer's credit card being lost or stolen. combining credit card and debit card properties. Most internet fraud is done through the use of stolen credit card information which is obtained in many ways. The contact pads on the card enable electronic access to the chip. a website that uses SSL to encrypt card numbers from a client may simply email the number from the webserver to someone who manually processes the card details at a card terminal. but to "reduce it to manageable levels". Naturally. This opportunity has created a huge black market in stolen credit card numbers.
card details become human-readable before being processed at the acquiring bank. a security risk is created. Introduction: 60 .
. or to another customer's account Investment purchase or sale Loan applications and transactions. credit union or building society. and applications. Features: Online banking solutions have many features and capabilities in common. but traditionally also have some that are application specific.. chat) o Bank statements • Financial Institution Administration .. The common features fall broadly into several categories • Transactional (e. new account.g.EBPP Funds transfer between a customer's own checking and savings accounts.features allowing the hosting company to administer the solution across financial institutions • Security 61 . performing a financial transaction such as an account to account transfer. paying a bill. such as repayments o o • Non-transactional (e. cobrowsing.Online banking (or Internet banking) allows customers to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by their retail or virtual bank. wire transfer. online statements.) o o Electronic bill presentment and payment . etc.features allowing the financial institution to manage the online experience of their end users ASP/Hosting Administration .. apply for a loan..g.. check links.
as is the case in most secure Internet shopping sites. stored in the security token (this is called two-factor authentication or 2FA). so that there is no additional encryption needed. Signature based online banking where all transactions are signed and encrypted digitally. These token generated TANs depend on the time and a unique secret. Basically there exist two different security methods for online banking. The Keys for the signature generation and encryption • 62 . TANs can be distributed in different ways. used for the login and TANs representing one-time passwords to authenticate transactions. Usually online banking with PIN/TAN is done via a web browser using SSL secured connections. The most secure way of using TANs is to generate them by need using a security token.Security token devices Protection through single password authentication. is not considered secure enough for personal online banking applications in some countries. • The PIN/TAN system where the PIN represents a password. the most popular one is to send a list of TANs to the online banking user by postal letter.
000. lists 536 cases of computer intrusion. users should use virus scanners and be careful with downloaded software or e-mail attachments. the source of the intrusion is unknown but it occurred during online banking. That adds up to a nearly $16-million loss in the second quarter of 2007. Two well known examples for those attacks are phishing and pharming. depending on the concrete implementation. To protect their systems against Trojan horses. Attacks Most of the attacks on online banking used today are based on deceiving the user to steal login data and valid TANs. Countermeasures There exist several countermeasures which try to avoid attacks. 63 . A recent FDIC Technology Incident Report. Computer intrusions increased by 150 percent between the first quarter of 2007 and the second. the use of class-3 card readers is a measure to avoid manipulation of transactions by the software in signature based online banking variants.can be stored on smartcards or any memory medium. Cross-site scripting and keylogger/Trojan horses can also be used to steal login information. with an average loss per incident of $30. Digital certificates are used against phishing and pharming. the report states. compiled from suspicious activity reports banks file quarterly. In 80 percent of the cases.
This chapter includes innovations in banking branches such as Universal banking. Introduction: Universal banking is bank engaged in diverse kind of banking activities. agriculture etc. Under the universal banking system the banks do broad based and comprehensive activities. and wholesale banking. Meaning: Universal banking is a multipurpose and multi functional financial superstore providing both banking and financial services. and related legal acts. development financing and related activities subject to compliance of statutory and other requirements prescribed by RBI. retail banking. Govt. exports. offshore banking.Khan committee had recommended the concept of universal banking. R. A universal bank may undertake multifarious services under one roof. As per universal banking financial institutions and banks are allowed to undertake all kinds of activities of banking. 65 . industries.H. which includes: a) Receiving money on current or deposit accounts and lending of money for trade.
The few objectives of universal banking are as follows: To help in bringing harmony in the role of financial institutions and banks. custodial services. asset securitisation. To increase per customer revenue. underwriting new debt and equity shares) foreign exchange operations. c) Remittance of funds. merchant banking (brokerage. d) Corporate advisory services. To reduce per customer cost. Therefore in universal banking under one roof.b) Mortgage financing. other financial services. factory etc. project financing infrastructure lending. corporate can get loans and avail. credit/debit cards. leasing. To take benefit of economies of scale. To offer world-class financial services to the clients by using information technology and cross selling. insurance depository service. collection of cheque/bills etc. To compete with international banks by expanding business beyond the national boundaries. while individuals can bank and borrow. RBI Guidelines: 66 .
R. A bank possesses information on the risk characteristics of its clients. To the organization: When a bank diversifies its activities as a universal bank it can use its existing expertise in one type of financial service in providing the other types. Act 1949 requires that at least 51% of that total number of directors should have special knowledge and experience. So. Permissible activities: In case an activity. is presently undertaken by financial institution. Reserve provisions (CRR/SLR): A financial institution will have to comply with CRR and SLR provisions after its conversion into a universal banking. 67 . financial institutions have an option to convert into a bank provided they ensure compliance with following provisions. which is not permissible for a bank under section 6(1) of B. Composition of board: The section 10(A) of B. such activity will have to be stopped after its conversion into a universal banking. This provision has to be complied with constituting the board after transformation from financial institution to a bank.Act 1949.According to RBI guidelines of April 2001. it entails less cost in performing all the functions by one entity instead of separate specialized bodies. which it can use to pursue other activities with the same clients. Benefits of universal banking The benefits of universal banking are as follows: Benefits To Organization To Customers To Shareholders 1.R.
e. A bank can use its instruments in one activity to exploit the other. This way a big bank can reach the remotest client without having to recourse to an agent. All these benefits have to be weighed out against the problems. which can acts as shops for selling products like insurance.A bank has an existing network of branches. The wide range of financial products and services offered by universal banks are preferred by the customers than the specialized banks due to comprehensive service provided by these banks.g. some a lot of transaction costs and increases the speed of economic activity. 2. which will ultimately benefit all the participants in the market. b. The main drawbacks are that: a. Problem of the bank indulging in too many risky activities. Universal banking leads to a loss in economies of specialization.g. including the banks themselves. which sends a good signal about the financial health the firm to the investors. e. To account for this. 68 . This situation is beneficial from investor’s point of view. appropriate regulation can be devised. When a lender has a stake in the firm he is in a better position to monitor the firm to safeguard his interest. insurance and lending. Many financial services are interlinked activities. To the customers: Universal banking being a one-stop shops for all varied services. in case of project lending to the same firm which has purchased insurance from the bank. To the shareholders: One manifestation of universal banking is a bank holding stakes in a firm. 3.
In spite of these problems. Banks mainly the financial institutions are aware of it. In India. and most of the groups have plans to diversify in big way. too a lot of opportunities are there to be exploited. there is a lot of interest expressed by banks and financial institutions in universal banking. 69 . Even though there might not be profits forthcoming in the short run due to the switching costs incurred in moving to a new business.
• Electronic funds transfer • Foreign exchange 70 . are: • Deposit taking • Project financing • Syndication of loans • Issuing short-term instruments like negotiable certificates to deposits.Introduction: offshore banking refers to the banking business related to borrowing and lending funds abroad and meeting the special needs of international investors. • Carry merchant banking activities in foreign currency denominated bonds. financial and legal advantages. An offshore bank is a bank located outside the resident country of the depositor. Services/functions The important functions or financial services. low or no taxation protection against local political or financial instability. These advantages may include strong privacy. which govern the branches of foreign banks. These banks are not subject to domestic monetary and fiscal regulations. Moreover offshore banks are also exempted from the regulations. Rather they are situated in a low tax jurisdiction that provides. which offshore banking units can provide.
Banks try to polarize between retail services (which are low cost) and private banking (which tries to bring personalized suite of services to the client). Benefits/advantages The main advantages of offshore banking are: Advantages Economic And Political Stability Tax Benefits Payment of Higher Interest Rates Special Banking Services Development Of nation/ Remote areas 71 .• Letter of credit and trade finance • Investment management and investment custody • Trustee services • Corporate administration Although every bank does not provide each service.
Economic and political stability: Offshore banking provides economically politically stable jurisdictions especially for those resident in areas where there is a risk of political turmoil. Special banking services: Certain offshore banks offer special banking services not offered else where such as anonymous bank accounts. Tax benefits: Generally the interest paid by offshore banks is without tax deduction. higher or lower rate loans based on risk and investment opportunities. Although. or who do not pay tax until the tax return is agreed. Development of remote areas/nation: offshore banking helps even geographically remote nations to generate investment and create growth in their economies. Payment of higher interest rates: Some of these banks which function at a lower cost base provide higher interest rates than the legal rates prevailing in their home countries due to lack of government intervention and lower overheads. This acts as a benefit for individuals who do not pay tax on worldwide income. developed economies with regulated banking system offer same advantages in terms of stability. and who fear their assets may be seized or disappear. Disadvantages There are some limitations of offshore banking are as follows: 72 .
terrorist groups. by phone or by mail. however in a global tele communication networks this does not seen to be a big problem as information can be set up on line. This “hot money” coming from offshore accounts can be definitely increase problems of financial and economic disturbance in developing countries.2001 these banks have been accused of helping various organized crime gangs. Developing countries may face financial disturbance: sometimes developing countries may face problem due to speed at which money can be transferred in and out of their economy. After September 11. 73 . Access to information can be difficult. therefore the physical access is difficult. Encourages tax evasion: Offshore banks encourages tax evasion by giving Difficult physical access: As offshore banks are often remotely situated people seeking tax evasion an attractive place to deposit their hidden income.Disadvantages Involved in Crime Encourages Tax evasion Difficult Physical access Financial Disturbance Involved in crime: Off shore banking has been found associated with the underground economy and organized crime through money lending.
It represents any banking. Retail banking today is characterized by three areas: Multiple products (deposits. investment) Multiple channels of distribution (call center. It encompasses all institutions that provide a related range of banking services—money deposit.Introduction: The coming up of middle class with substantial purchasing power in India during the last decade has given rise to its desire to spend according to the changing life style. branch internet) Multiple customer groups (consumer. insurance. credit cards. 74 . there is huge untapped potential for business. which is not wholesale based. small business) Need for retail banking Economic prosperity and the consequent increase in the purchasing power of consumer. It includes any business that is conducted through branch network. credit services and some form of financial advice. This has offered the Indian banking system. Meaning: Retail banking is activity devised in past few years and now used extensively. Given the rising purchasing power of this class. for mobilization and development of their funds. a ready market. which is mainly focused towards personal sector.
personal loans for diverse purposes such as medical expenses. have all forced banks to be in search of alternative opportunity to deploy their funds. Decline in interest rates have also contributed to increase retail banking. waiver of fee on credit cards and utility services such as payment of water. With the large corporate borrowers having diversified the sources to fund their financial requirements. declining bank rate leading to decline in spreads unattractive yields on government securities etc. travel abroad) c. Technological factors also added to the requirement convenience of using credit cards. 75 . Other products Besides there are a number of value added services such as free collection of outstation instrument. education loans. Loan products (such as housing loans. Developments in retail banking in India: Commercial banks in India are involving more and more in retail banking as it is now an attractive market segment having lot of opportunities for growth and profit. electricity and phone bills. internet and phone banking anywhere and any time banking has also flood customers into banking. Deposit products (convenient deposit schemes such as flexi deposits) b. issue of free ATM cards. concession in service fee in case of remittances. Segments in retail banking: There are three segments in retail banking which included: a. credit cards and educational loans. Retail banking refers to housing loans for purchasing durables. frequent reduction in cash reserve ratio resulting in pumping in of liquidity. conveyance loans. auto loans.
with an exception of housing loan being granted up to 15 years. cost reduction and cross selling. The speed of growth of retail banking can be accelerated by growth in banking technology and automation of banking processes. innovation. This requires product differentiation. There is need for constant innovation to revalidate and upgrade existing internal systems. product pricing technological up gradation. Banks can now use retail as growth trigger.20000 to Rs. 76 . These loans are of period of 5 to 7 years.1 crore. Although the retail banking offers phenomenal opportunities for growth and profits but how far it is able to lead to growth will depend on the capacity of banks to meet these opportunities profitably.The loan values can average between Rs.
Wholesale banking is the provision of services by banks to the like of large corporate clients. market making. underwriting. institutional customers (such as pension funds and government entities/agencies). international trade finance businesses. (Wholesale finance means financial services. insurers. fund managers. which is the provision of banking services to individuals. fund management. wholesale banking services usually involve high value transactions.) Modern wholesale banks are engaged in: finance wholesaling. real estate developers and investors. Wholesale banking contrasts with retail banking. mergers and acquisitions. 77 . In essence. and services offered to other banks or other financial institutions. which are conducted between financial services companies and institutions such as banks. mid-sized companies. consultancy. and stockbrokers.
retail banking. E-banking. FINDINGS The Project work is done on basis of certain objectives. which are as follows: • • • • To understand the various innovations in banking sector by the bank. offshore banking. debit cards. universal banking.This chapter represents a conclusive review of the efforts made since up till about the different innovations by Central Bank of India in banking sector. To discuss about the role of Central Bank of India in banking field. ATM. credit cards & mobile banking whereas innovations in branches includes. This information is based on the primary and secondary data available from different sources. Various innovations of the bank provide benefits to the various business and Industries in many different ways. The innovations of bank are of two types: innovations in products & innovations in branches Innovations in products includes. wholesale banking. To know about the benefits of innovations of the bank. The project report summarizes about the facilities of CBI accounts and deposits and also provides the different products. To know about the different products of the bank. 78 .
Processes are established in such a manner that allows the board of director to compliance with the policies of companies. we have already discussed about ATM network in each branch. The study presents the different types of products available in the bank for the help of its customers. The study reveals about the different types of innovations of the bank. Moreover to making efficient central bank of India. which helps the people in many ways. These are as follows: Central bank of India has to provide ATM facility to its customers so that the people can get benefit of this facility and withdraw money at any time at any place with this they would not have to face any problem regarding to money. So. The role of board of directors is properly described. these are the findings.In the light of these objectives the following are the findings that represent the changing environment of Indian economy in global scenario in the wake of liberalization and globalization. Central bank of India’s branch network should be wider as. which the project reveals by making an analysis of the topic. Bank should open their branches in rural area. 79 . Indian market will provide for high growth market so bank should make strategies to grab such opportunities. Central bank of India has to improve its disclosure policies so that everyone can get easily all information regarding banking policies and other information related to bank. certain suggestions have to be followed by these banks.
com www.com Finance biz.central bank of india.google.com Value notes.com Banknetindia. Principles of banking by AIBA (All India banking associations) 80 .com www.com White papers.lycos.wikepeadia.www. Banking theory and practices by kalyani publishers.com www.com Banking Law and Practice by Sharma publications.com Gahoo yoogle.
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