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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Tree (disambiguation).
Trees on a mountain in northern Utahduring early autumn
Trunk base of a Coast Redwood tree inJedediah Smith Redwoods State Park: Simpson Reed Discovery Trail, nearCrescent City, California
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to 6 m; some authors set a minimum of 10 cm trunk diameter (30 cm girth).
Woody plants that do not meet these definitions by having multiple stems and/or small size
are called shrubs. Compared with most other plants, trees are long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old and growing to up to 115 m (379 ft) high. Trees are an important component of the natural landscape because of their prevention of erosion and the provision of a weather-sheltered ecosystem in and under their foliage. They also play an important role in producing oxygen and reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,
as well as moderating ground temperatures. They are also elements in landscaping and agriculture, both for their aesthetic appeal and their orchard crops (such as apples). Wood from trees is a building material, as well as a primary energy source in many developing countries. Trees also play a role in many of the world's mythologies (seetrees in mythology).
• • •
1 Classification 2 Morphology 3 Record breaking trees
3.1 Tallest trees
3.2 Stoutes t trees
3.3 Largest trees
3.4 Smalle st tree
○ • • • • •
3.5 Oldest trees
4 Damage 5 Trees in culture 6 Tree value estimation 7 See also 8 References
8.1 Notes 8.2 Bibliog raphy
The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants. For the listing of examples of well-known trees and how they are classified. The earliest trees were tree ferns. Trees show a variety of growth forms. and subsequently flowering plants in the Cretaceous period. leaf type and shape. A small group of trees growing together is called a grove or copse.• 9 External links Classification A tree is a plant form that occurs in many different orders and families of plants. but the only surviving horsetails and lycophytes are not of tree form.000 treespecies. A forest of great age is called old growth forest or ancient woodland (in the UK). ginkgos. making species diversity and ranges poorly understood. see List of tree genera. Later. bark characteristics and reproductive organs. The majority of tree species grow in tropical regions of the world and many of these areas have not been surveyed yet by botanists. Most species of trees today are flowering plants (Angiosperms) and conifers. making it a classic example of parallel evolution. horsetails and lycophytes. which grew in forests in the Carboniferousperiod. With an estimate of 100. in response to similar environmental challenges. Several biotopes are defined largely by the trees that inhabit them. cycads and other gymnosperms appeared. the number of tree species worldwide might total 25 percent of all living plant species. A landscape of trees scattered or spaced across grassland (usually grazed or burned over periodically) is called a savanna. Morphology . examples are rainforest and taiga (see ecozones). and a landscape covered by a dense growth of trees is called a forest. tree ferns still survive. in the Triassic period. A young tree is called a sapling. conifers.
there may be a new growth ring with each rainfall.Tree roots anchor the structure and provide water and nutrients. By analyzing the leaf arrangement and shape. and almost all broadleaf trees). these rings can be counted to determine the age of the tree.[clarification needed] Trees with leaves range from being Deciduous to Evergreen. Endogenous trees. Trees after an overnight snowfall.g. growth is continuous and the growth rings are not visible nor is there a change in the wood texture. immediately under the bark. and bark is made of phloem and other tissues external to the vascular cambium. The parts of a tree are the roots. and tropical climates with a single wet-dry season alternation. Trees may be grouped into exogenous andendogenous trees according to the way in which their stem diameter increases. twigs and leaves. it creates growth rings as new wood is laid down concentrically over the old wood. In areas with two wet and dry seasons each year. grow by addition of new material inwards. Woodconsists of xylem cells. In species growing in areas with seasonal climate changes. or soft and hard. these are known as annual rings.palms and dragon trees). wood growth produced at different times of the year may be visible as alternating light and dark. The ground haseroded away around the roots of this youngpine tree. in early morning light. but also cacti. In tropical rainforest regions. there may be two pairs of light and dark rings each year. each pair of light and dark rings being one year of growth. Exogenous trees. trunk(s). In temperate climates. a tree can be identified. mainly in the monocotyledons (e.  As an exogenous tree grows. and in some (mainly semi-desert regions with irregular rainfall). the growth rings are annual. and used to date cores or . In species with annual rings.. with constant year-round climate. grow by the addition of new wood outwards. branches. rings of wood. Tree stems consist mainly of support and transport tissues (xylem and phloem). which comprise the great majority of trees (all conifers.
However. while ground nutrients are essential to a tree's growth the majority of its biomass comes from carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere (seephotosynthesis). but one should not confuse reference to the form of a species with the size or shape of individual specimens. Tallest trees The heights of the tallest trees in the world have been the subject of considerable dispute and much exaggeration. Based on their general shape and size. and attributed to human error. A spruce seedling does not fit the definition of a tree. Historical records of fallen trees measured prostrate on the ground are considered to be somewhat more reliable. The following are now accepted as the top ten tallest reliably measured species (taken only currently standing specimens): . a practice known as the science of dendrochronology.S. In many trees. trunk diameter or girth. is called a shrub. or with tape drop measurements made by tree climbers (such as those carried out by canopy researchers or members of groups like the U. most palm trees are not branched. However. tree ferns do not produce bark. the arrangement of the branches optimizes exposure of the leaves to sunlight. the saguaro cactus of North America has no functional leaves. Very few tropical trees can be accurately dated in this manner. are now largely disregarded as unreliable. the trunk gives height to the leaf-bearing branches. Record breaking trees The world's champion trees can be rated on height. For example. Given their small size. and even 150 m (492 ft). all of these are nonetheless generally regarded as trees. Eastern Native Tree Society). bonsai plants would not technically be 'trees'. Above ground.even wood taken from trees in the past. total size. A plant form that is similar to a tree. no precise differentiation between shrubs and trees is possible. multiple trunks and/or branches that arise near the ground. have shown that some older measuring methods and measurements are often unreliable. Age determination is also impossible in endogenous trees. The roots of a tree are generally embedded in earth. etc. but generally having smaller. other measuring devices. providing anchorage for the aboveground biomass and absorbing water and nutrients from the soil. Modern verified measurements with laser rangefinders. and age. Historical claims of trees growing to 130 m (427 ft). Not all trees have all the plant organs or parts mentioned above. aiding in competition with other plant species for sunlight. sometimes producing exaggerations of 5% to 15% or more above the real height. but all spruces are trees.
9 m (288. Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis): 89 m (292 ft).3 m (289. south of Hobart. Tasmania. Kings Canyon National Park. Coos County. Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. California.9 m (317. Brummit Creek. Tasmania. Redwood Mountain Grove. Coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii): 99.4 ft). Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis): 96.Alpine Ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis): 87.4 ft). Philippines  5.1. Australia 8.1 ft). Australia 3.4 m (326.7 m (317. Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum): 94. California.3 ft).7 m (297. in Sabah on the island of Borneo 10. Oregon. Australia . Agusan del Sur.8 ft). United States 4.9 m (311. Australian Mountain-ash (Eucalyptus regnans): 99. United States 6. United States 7. California. Mindanao. Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus): 90.1 ft). Philippine rosewood (Petersianthus quadrialatus): 96. Tasmania.6 m (326. Shorea faguetiana: 88.9 ft).7 ft) Tawau Hills National Park. Australia 9.6 ft). Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens): 115. Tasmania. United States 2. Evercreech Forest Reserve.56 m (379. Redwood National Park.
3 m above ground. This is cited as dbh (diameter at breast height) in tree and forestry literature. 9. the "above ground" reference point is usually taken as the highest point on the ground touching the trunk. Earlier measurements have therefore been omitted. It has been found to have a girth that dilated and shrunk in the following way: 11. as it is a simple matter of stretching a tape round the trunk. clean. Swanton).3 m (1892 Lowe). and pulling it taut to find the circumference.0 m (1924 E. if irregular bole at least 1.28 m (1834 Loudon). 9. tree girth is taken at 'breast height'.A view of a tree from below. this may exaggerate apparent height Stoutest trees The girth of a tree is usually much easier to measure than the height.45 m (1959 Mitchell) .5 m long. 10. As a general standard.." Washingtonia Robusta palm inBeachlands. For example. while those who measure ornamental trees usually measure at 1. New Zealand. but some use the average between the highest and lowest points of ground. On sloping ground.5 m above ground. Some of the inflated old .67 m (1903 Elwes and Henry). in most cases this makes little difference to the measured girth. the tree at Tisbury has a well-defined. Despite this.. Breast height is defined differently in different situations. UK tree author Alan Mitchell made the following comment about measurements of yew trees: The aberrations of past measurements of yews are beyond belief. 9. with most forestry measurements taking girth at 1.
California. United States. this assumes the trunk is mostly circular in cross-section (an oval or irregular cross-section would result in a mean diameter slightly greater than the assumed circle). the actual idealised diameter of the area of its wood is 9. Some past exaggerated measurements also result from measuring the complete next-to-bark measurement.85 m (29 ft). .5%). One further problem with measuring baobabs Adansonia is that these trees store large amounts of water in the very soft wood in their trunks.8 ft).9 ft).38 m (30. 2. Diameter of the tree is calculated by finding the medium diameter of the trunk. Santa Maria del Tule. Limpopo Province. Modern trends are to cite the tree's diameter rather than the circumference. in most cases obtained by dividing the measured circumference by π. Giant Sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum: 8. 3. This leads to marked variation in their girth over the year (though not more than about 2. General Grant Grove.9 m (25.62 m (38. minimum at the end of the dry season.9 m (52 ft). Mexico. swelling to a maximum at the end of the rainy season. Coast Redwood Sequoia sempervirens: 7. Accurately measuring circumference or diameter is difficult in species with the large buttresses that are especially characteristic in many species of rainforest trees.1 ft). pushing the tape in and out over every crevice and buttress.  Note though that this diameter includes buttressing. General Grant tree. This tree split up[clarification needed] in November 2009 and now the stoutest baobab could be Sunland Baobab (South Africa) with idealised diameter 10. Simple measurement of circumference of such trees can be misleading when the circumference includes much empty space between buttresses. African Baobab Adansonia digitata: 15.measurements may have been taken at ground level.64 m and correct circumference . United States 4. California. Glencoe Baobab (measured near the ground). The stoutest living single-trunk species in diameter are: 1. Oaxaca.33. Árbol del Tule. South Africa. Montezuma Cypress Taxodium mucronatum: 11.4 m. Lost Monarch Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park.
4 ft) An additional problem lies in instances where multiple trunks (whether from an individual tree or multiple trees) grow together.7 ft).72 m (22 ft) 6. Measurement is very complex. Measuring standards vary. Olympic National Park 9. The multi-stemmed Hundred Horse Chestnut was known to have a circumference of 57.5. The Sacred Fig is a notable example of this. Olympic National Park 8. in particular.52 m (21. hold a large diameter high up the trunk. Kalaloch Cedar. Quinalt Lake Spruce. forming additional 'trunks' by growing adventitious roots down from the branches. Australian Oak Eucalyptus obliqua: 6. so measurements have only been made for a small number of trees. Australian Mountain-ash Eucalyptus regnans: 6.0 m (16.7 ft). and generally only for the trunk.39 m (17. particularly if branch volume is to be included as well as the trunk volume. . The largest trees in total volume are both tall and large in diameter and. Largest trees The coniferous Coast Redwood is the tallest tree species on earth. a single Sacred Fig tree can have hundreds of such trunks.9 m (190 ft) when it was measured in 1780.99 m (19. Western Redcedar Thuja plicata: 5. No attempt has ever been made to include root volume. Alerce Fitzroya cupressoides: 5. which then thicken up when the root reaches the ground to form new trunks. Big Foot 7. Sitka Spruce Picea sitchensis: 5.4 ft).
General Sherman 2. Lost Monarch 3.100 cu ft). Australian Oak Eucalyptus obliqua: 337 m³ (11.Alpine Ash Eucalyptus delegatensis: 286 m³ (10. Western Redcedar Thuja plicata: 500 m³ (17. Australian Mountain-ash Eucalyptus regnans: 360 m³ (12. Quinault Lake Redcedar 5. Rullah Longatyle (Strong Girl.508 cu ft).The top ten species measured so far are*: 1. located in Styx River Valley (*)This list does not take into account now dead specimens.487 m³ (52. However healthy and well grown specimens of a few species of tree only reach a height of a few centimetres. Montezuma Cypress Taxodium mucronatum: 750 m³ (25. Tasmanian Blue Gum Eucalyptus globulus: 368 m³ (13. which can be seen if the tree is cut down. Coast Redwood Sequoia sempervirens: 1. Coast Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii 349 m³ (12. Smallest tree Many fully grown mature trees may be very short due to environmental factors or disease. Oldest trees The oldest trees are determined by growth rings. Accurate determination is only possible for .920 cu ft) Gothmog 10.500 cu ft). also Grieving Giant)  6. or in cores taken from the bark to the center of the tree. Amongst these is Lepidothamnus laxifolius believed to be the shortest conifer in the world.650 cu ft ). Arve Big Tree 7. Árbol del Tule 4.000 cu ft). Giant Sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum: 1.320 cu ft) Red Creek Tree 8.203 m³ (42.920 cu ft) Queets Spruce 9. Sitka Spruce Picea sitchensis 337 m³ (11.000 cu ft).714 cu ft).
Sugi Cryptomeria japonica: 3. generally those in seasonal climates. The oldest reported age for an angiosperm tree is 2293 years for the Sri Maha Bodhi Sacred Fig (Ficus religiosa) planted in 288 BC at Anuradhapura.622 years 3.000 and 5. Many very old trees become hollow as the dead heartwood decays.000 years 5. For some of these species.844 years 2.266 years 4. Giant Sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum: 3. The verified oldest measured ages are: 1. Huon-pine Lagarostrobos franklinii: 2. Damage . which is estimated to be between 4.500 years Other species suspected of reaching exceptional age include European Yew Taxus baccata (probably over 2. The oldest known European Yew is the Llangernyw Yew in the Churchyard of Llangernyw village in North Wales.000 years old. It is also only possible for trees that are solid to the center. This is also the oldest human-planted tree with a known planting date. Trees in uniform nonseasonal tropical climates grow continuously and do not have distinct growth rings. but the results are usually largely speculation.trees that produce growth rings. White (1998) proposes a method of estimating the age of large and veteran trees in the United Kingdom through the correlation between a tree's stem diameter.000 years) and Western Redcedar Thuja plicata. Sri Lanka. Great Basin Bristlecone Pine (Methuselah) Pinus longaeva: 4. growth character and age. age estimates have been made on the basis of extrapolating current growth rates. Alerce Fitzroya cupressoides: 3.
Both damage sources can result in trees becoming dangerous. are more susceptible to falling in windstorms. The two sources of tree damage are either biotic (from living sources) or abiotic (from non-living sources).  Abiotic sources include lightning. . Evaluating the danger a tree presents is based on a process called the Quantified Tree Risk Assessment. and construction activities. deer that rub bark off. spills involving toxic chemicals such as cement or petroleum products. due to disease or other factors.El Grande. Severity relates usually to the degree of intrusion into the TPZ and resultant root loss. and industry groups such as power line operators. Extent is frequently a percentage of a factor such as canopy. and fungi. Hazard trees are trees that. Assessment as a result of construction activities that will damage a tree is based on three factors: severity. Root severing is considered permanent in time. Assessment as to labeling a tree a hazard tree can be based on a field examination. the most massive (though not the tallest) Eucalyptus regnans was accidentally killed by loggers burning-off the remains of legally loggable trees (less than 280 ft) that had been felled all around it. about 280 feet high. extent and duration. and the term "hazard trees" is commonly used by arborists. Construction activities can involve a number of damage sources. vehicles impacts. and duration is normally based on time. roots or bark. including grade changes that prevent aeration to roots. or having parts of the tree fall. Biotic sources include insects that bore into the tree. or severing of branches or roots.
One reason for confusion about tree damage from construction involves the dormancy of trees during winter. Arborists are very aware that established trees will not tolerate any appreciable disturbance of the root system. For that reason. For mature to fully mature trees. but even small amounts of certain types of trauma can result in death. Another factor is that trees may not show symptoms of damage until 24 months or longer after damage has occurred. the accepted TPZ . protocols for tree management prior to. tested and refined. However. post-construction Implementation of the remediation plan International standards are uniform in analyzing damage potential and sizing TPZs (tree protection zones) to minimize damage.Trees are similar to people. persons uneducated in arboriculture science may not correlate the actual cause and resultant effect. such as the International Society of Arboriculture. during and after construction activities are well established. and post construction damage prevention and remediation steps) Development of a tree protection plan Development of a remediation plan Implementation of tree protection zones (TPZ) Assessment of construction tree damage. Both can withstand massive amounts of some types of damage and survive. As a result. The impacts are important because they can result in monetary losses due to tree damage and resultant remediation or replacement costs. concurrent. have long recognized the importance of construction activities that impact tree health. as well as violation of government ordinances or community or subdivision restrictions. These basic steps are involved: Review of the construction plans Development of the related tree inventory Application of standard construction tree management protocols Assessment of potential for expected tree damages Development of a tree protection plan (providing for pre-. the British Standards Institute and the National Arborist Association (about 2007 renamed the Tree Industry Association). Various organizations. lay people and construction professionals are seldom cognizant of how easily a tree can be killed.
 See also Arboretum Axel Erlandson Christmas tree Deforestation Dendrology Dendrometry Evolution of plants#Evolution of trees Exploding tree Frost crack Fruit trees Gilroy Gardens . A common misconception is that trees get most of their mass from the ground. For young or small trees with minimal crowns (and trunks less than 4 inches (100 mm) in diameter) a TPZ equal to 1-foot (0. In fact. the TPZ would extend 15 feet (4. and the tree of life. for instance Yggdrasil. the TPZ would extend 3 feet (0.30 m) for every inch of trunk diameter may suffice. Detailed information on TPZs and related topics is available at minimal cost from organizations like the International Society for Arboriculture.5-foot (0. That means for a 3-inch (76 mm) tree. 99% of a tree's mass comes from the air.91 m) in all directions from the base of the trunk at ground level. Tree value estimation Studies have shown that trees contribute as much as 27% of the appraised land value in certain markets. Trees in culture Main article: Tree (mythology) The tree has always been a cultural symbol.comprises a 1.6 m) in all directions from the base of the trunk at ground level. That means for a 10-inch (250 mm) tree. The tree is often used to represent nature or the environment itself. Common icons are the World tree.46 m) set-off for every 1-inch (25 mm) diameter of trunk.
Retrieved 2008-07-11. A. 2. F. 7. ^ "TreeBOL project". New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.. "Field Guide to Indian Trees. National Public Radio. John Krubsack List of famous trees List of tree genera List of trees and shrubs by taxonomic family Mother of the Forest Multipurpose tree Plantation Topiary Tree allometry Tree climbing Tree line Trees of the world Tree Shaping Urban forestry Woodland management References Notes 1. ^ a b c d e Mitchell. . ^ a b Huxley. CollinsISBN 000-220013-9. ^ Utkarsh Ghate. A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. (1999). ^ Going Out On A Limb With A Tree-Person Ratio. ^ Gymnosperm Database: Sequoia sempervirens 6. 5. ^ Rushforth. A. Retrieved 2007-07-25. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6 4. Trees of Britain and Europe. introductory chapter: Introduction to Common Indian Trees" (RTF). (1992). Morning Edition. ed. K. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. (1974). 3. 12 Nov 2008.
^ a b c d e f g . Retrieved 2007-06-10. The Genus Pinus. Plant diversity and complexity patterns: local. are in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. Retrieved 2010-04-14. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. Oregon. Forestry Tasmania. regnans. 16. 96.htm 10. in 1998" 14. Ib. Diameter (cm): 405.edu/pubs/plantsci/trees/f436-1. ^ "Gymnosperm Database: Sequoia sempervirens". ^ Friis. G. dbh 354 cm. Name: Centurion. 11. Archived from the original on 2008-07-18. 2005. Retrieved 200706-10. ^ "Gymnosperm Database: Picea sitchensis". Redwood National Park. 15. CA. ^ Mirov. ^ a b Jojie.ndsu. "This tree also has a sign nearby proclaiming it to be 'the world's largest spruce'. ISBN 0-11-710023-4. "Hyperion. ^ http://www.55 m" 12. ^ "Gymnosperm Database: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. T. Tasmanian Giant Trees Consultative Committee.ag. 18. ^ "Tallest Tropical Trees". Retrieved 2009-01-07.8. "Tasmanian Giant Trees Register". Biologiske skrifter. . "Majestic Toog: Philippine’s Tallest Living Christmas Tree".6. 115. regional. Ronald Press. Retrieved 2007-06-10. "The Brummit Fir: Height 99. 25–28 May 2003. ^ "Tasmania's Ten Tallest Giants". and Henrik Balslev. Year last measured: 2008" 13. Location: south of Hobart. N. and global dimensions : proceedings of an international symposium held at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in Copenhagen. ^ It is possible that it is slightly lower. on E. "Height (m): 99. (1975). ^ a b c Hamilton. J.4 m. Forest Mensuration Handbook. Forestry Commission Booklet 39. (1967).4 m. 19. 9.7 m and 96. Alcantara (8). 55. Species: E. pp 57-59. California" 17. Retrieved 2010-12-18. menziesii". Tree identification: TT443. because the height might include Christmas decorations on the top of the tree. Fork Brummit Creek in Coos County. Denmark. The two tallest on record.
Árbol del Tule". ^ a b Gymnosperm Database: Taxodium mucronatum 24. Available online 32. 27. J. South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry". ^ "Gymnosperm Database: Sequoiadendron giganteum". Groups. ^ a b c d Gymnosperm Database: How Old Is That Tree?. which is 885 cm dbh and 81. Retrieved 2007-06-10. (1996). ^ Prof Stephen Sillett's webpage[dead link] with photogallery including: a general gallery. ^ Kinmonth. Availableonline 31. ^ Harte. no curve? International Dendrology Society Yearbook 2005: 41-46 ISSN0307332X .com. (2006). Ageing the yew . Conifers in the British Isles. Biotropica 12 (3): 205-209. How old is that old yew? At the Edge 4: 1-9. 30. 400 m³" 26. 1997. The Dynamics of Old Cryptomeria japonicaForest on Yakushima Island. ^ Suzuki.1 m tall" 25. Some measurements on the water relations of baobab trees. Archived from the original on 2007-04-09. Retrieved 2007-06-10.google. E. ^ Mitchell. 1980. "the General Grant tree in Kings Canyon National Park. A. J. Retrieved 201001-18. ^ a b "Gymnosperm Database: A Tale of Big Tree Hunting In California". Forestry Commission Booklet 33.20. Tropics 6(4): 421–428. ^ White. F. (1972). Retrieved on 2008-04-17.no core. CA. 23. 2005. canopy views. ^ "ENTSTrees . F. M. Thuja plicata 500 m³. "Sequoiadendron giganteum is 1489 m³. epiphytes. Retrieved 201010-18. ^ "List of Champion Trees published for comment. ^ Fenner. Estimating the Age of Large and Veteran Trees in Britain. andarboreal animals. 22. (1990). Forestry Commission Edinburgh.Agathis australis ca. 29. 21. 28. Sequoia sempervirens 1045 m³.
Quantified Tree Risk Assessment Used in the Management of Amenity Trees. ^ Mountfort. Illinois. ISBN 0-713-99698-6 External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Trees Look up tree in Wiktionary. The Secret Life of Trees. Integrated Pest Management Tactics. casting. ^ a b "Jonathan Drori on what we think we know | Video on". 31:2 57-65.com. North Carolina. London. (2002). Continuing Education Unit. Unit 1. M. ISBN 0-29784300-1 Pakenham. March 1989. 38. Gymnosperm database . Paul Rhys (2003). 2005 35. ISBN 0297-83255-7 Tudge. International Arboricultural Society Vol 17. February 2008 34. T. Meetings with Remarkable Trees. Journal of Arborculture 8:169 36. P. Retrieved 2010-10-18. International Society of Arboriculture. 37.4 published by the City of Raleigh. Nordic runes: understanding. Savoy. the free dictionary.F.33. and interpreting the ancient Viking oracle. ^ Wiseman. Eric. Remarkable Trees of the World. Allen Lane. J. ISBN 9780892810932. (2005). How They Live and Why They Matter. ^ Schoeneweiss. (1996). Reprinted February 2000 Bibliography Pakenham. "Prevention and treatment of construction damage". ^ Ellison. Ted. D.. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. C. Journal Arboric. T. ^ "Protecting Existing Trees on Building Sites" p. 279. p.
Silvics of North America University of Florida's Landscape Plants website Global Trees Campaign (campaigning to save the world's most threatened trees) International Society of Arboriculture Eastern Native Tree Society Western Native Tree Society Trees The Arbor Day Foundation Tree Encyclopedia Extensive collection of diagnostic photos. Morton Arboretum Specimens • • • • • • Wondermondo .Trees Largest and most unusual trees of the world Venerable Trees Venerable trees of the planet Categories: Trees | Forestry | Plant morphology Log in / create account Article Discussion Read View source View history Top of Form Bottom of Form • • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction • Help • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages .
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