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Applying colored patterns and designs to decorate a finished fabric is called 'Printing'. The term “printing” is used to signify the production by various means of colored patterns or designs on textile material, other than woven embroidered or painted designs.
Methods of Printing
Three different approaches or techniques are prevalent for printing colour on a fabric: Direct, Discharge and Resist.
1. Direct Printing
It is the most common approach to apply a colour pattern on fabric. It can be done on white or a coloured fabric. If done on coloured fabric, it is known as overprinting. The desired pattern is produced by imprinting dye on the fabric in a paste form. To prepare the print paste, a thickening agent is added to a limited amount of water and dye is dissolved in it. Earlier corn starch was preferred as a thickening agent for cotton printing. Nowadays gums or alginates derived from seaweed are preferred because they are easier to wash out, do not they absorb any colour and allow better penetration of colour. Most pigment printing is done without thickeners as the mixing up of resins, solvents and water itself produces thickening.
2. Discharge Printing
In this approach, the fabric is dyed in piece and then it is printed with a chemical that destroys the colour in the designed areas. Sometimes, the base colour is removed and another colour is printed in its place. The printed fabric is steamed and then thoroughly washed. This approach is on decline these days.
3. Resist Printing
In this technique, a resist paste is imprinted on the fabric and then it is dyed. The dye affects only those parts that are not covered by the resist paste. After dyeing, the resist paste is removed leaving a pattern on a dark background. There are various methods of printing in which one of the above three techniques is used – Stencil Printing, Screen Printing, Block Printing, Roller Printing, Duplex Printing, Transfer Printing, Airbrush (Spray) Painting and Digital printing.
a. Block Printing
The designs are carved on a wooden or metal block and the paste dyestuff is applied to the design on the face of the block. The block is pressed down firmly by hand on the surface of the fabric.
b. Roller Printing
In this machine counterpart of block printing, engraved copper cylinders or rollers are used in place of hand carved blocks. With each revolution of the roller, a repeat of the design is printed. The printed cloth is passed into a drying and then a steam chamber where the moisture and heat sets the dye.
c. Duplex Printing
Printing is done on both sides of the fabric either through roller printing machine in two operations or a duplex printing machine in a single operation.
d. Transfer Printing
The design on a paper is transferred to a fabric by vaporization. There are two main processes for this- Dry Heat Transfer Printing and Wet Heat Transfer Printing. In Conventional Heat Transfer Printing, an electrically heated cylinder is used that presses a fabric against a printed paper placed on a heat resistant blanket. In Infrared Heat Vacuum Transfer Printing, the transfer paper and fabric are passed between infrared heaters and a perforated cylinder which are protected from excessive heat by a shield. The Wet Heat Transfer Printing uses heat in a wet atmosphere for vaporizing the dye pattern from paper to fabric.
e. Airbrush (Spray) Painting
Designs may be hand painted on fabric or the dye may be applied with a mechanized airbrush which blows or sprays colour on the fabric.
f. Digital printing
In this form of printing micro-sized droplets of dye are placed onto the fabric through an inkjet print head. The print system software interprets the data supplied by an Academic Textile Digital image file. The digital image file has the data to control the droplet output so that the image quality and color control may be achieved. This is the latest development in textile printing and is expanding very fast.
g. Stencil Printing
Stencil printing is an easy and versatile way to make multiple prints of an image. It also acts as a nice alternative to regular brush painting and can give crisp, smooth lines.
h. Screen Printing
Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A roller or
The stencil stuff from the defect that completes rings or circles fall out of the pattern and some form of tie is necessary to link such a shape to the stencil. . Commercial stencil prints have been made with the aid of an air brush. A stencil cutting machine has a fig-saw. STENCIL PRINTING – A BROAD STUDY Stencil printing is one of the resist processes of textile design. The silk screen process in now extensively used for commercial duplication work. Metal stencils are many. Commercial stencils were firstly used in the United States at the time of the civil war. The name. the resist in this case being the stencil which prevents the paint from spreading beyond the margin of the cutout pattern. A stencil is a flat sheet of paper or a metal out of which a design has been cut.squeegee is moved across the screen stencil forcing or pumping ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas. this process has also been successfully used in commercial illustration work for grading total work and for grading total values and colors. 'stencil screens' to have been derived from the Latin word stencil meaning as 'sparkle'. Very little is known about the historic back ground of stenciling.
Stencils may have been used to colour cloth for a very long time. which continued to be coloured by stencil long after most other subjects for prints were left in black and white. In the ancient world stencils were used in the decoration of Egyptian tombs. In ancient Greece stencils were used to outline the mosaic designs.History:Stencil paintings of hand were common throughout the prehistoric period. Stencils were used for mass publications. as the type didn't have to be handwritten. The first known book to be printed using stencils was the Bible. usually woodcuts. Once this was done a thin layer of stucco was added to receive the paint. from about 1450 they were very commonly used to colour old master prints printed in black and white. painted on signboards. This was especially the case with playing-cards. More durable stencils of varnished mulberry fibers were made in China and Japan and were used mainly for decorating cloth. Many different stencils were also employed in the painting of the Murals that both the Greeks and Romans loved so much. directing people to the Games were also made with stencils. In Europe. The Egyptians tended to use very bright primary colors mainly red. blue and yellow. The artist would stencil an outline of the figure or hieroglyph onto the wall. this technique on silks for clothes during the Edo period in Japan. after which a sculptor would incise the outline in low relief. In classical Rome the letters. .
The silk is then dyed. but a bridge so fine and strong that when the stenciling was finished it was all but invisible.Katagami stencils have been used by the Japanese for over one thousand years to pattern textiles in a technique called Katazome. One major difficulty with early stencils was the isolated parts of a design. This delicate dye resist technique. or reverse stenciling. With the invention of paper artisans started cutting 5060 tissue thin sheets of paper at one time. There is then a time consuming period of realigning the stencil and applying more paste until the pattern is repeated over the whole piece of material. . This was the for-runner of Silk Screening. In the traditional Japanese stencil making process many thin sheets of mulberry bark are cured in persimmon juice. In this way the artist could cut several stencils at a time and know that the pattern would be exactly the same on all of them. The solution the Japanese came up with was quite ingenious. repeatedly. Later on they used silk thread thus forming a bridge. They would hold loose pieces in place by gluing them to the main body of the stencil with human hair. They are then stacked together and cut with a sharp curved blade. usually with an indigo pigment and finally the paste is removed. revealing an exquisite pattern underneath. such as the center of the letter O which would fall out as soon as the outer ring was cut. traditionally involves applying rice paste through a stencil onto silk.
since stencil art using spray-paint can be produced quickly and easily. including acetate. Home stenciling A common tradition for stencils is in home decorating and arts & crafts. Victoria Larsen and many more. Stencils are usually applied in the home with a paint or roller brush along wall borders and as trim. . mylar and vinyl. Stencil templates can be purchased or constructed individually. Home decor stencils are an important part of the DIY (Do It Yourself) industry. Well-known manufacturers and designers of home decorating stencils are companies like Stencil Ease.Classification Of stencils: Stencil graffiti:Stencils have also become popular for graffiti. The extensive lettering possible with stencils makes it especially attractive to political artists. Typically they are constructed of flexible plastics. They can also be applied with a painted sponge for a textured effect. arts & crafts stores and through the internet. depending on the city and stenciling surface. There are prefabricated stencil templates available for home decoration projects from hardware stores. These qualities are important for graffiti artists where graffiti is illegal or quasi-legal. Jan Dressler. Stencils can be used as children's toys.
government and infrastructure management. . depending on the city and stenciling surface. commercial. ranging from plain paper. These qualities are important for graffiti artists where stenciling is illegal or quasi-legal. plastic sheets. residential and recreational settings. Street stencils Stencils have also become popular for graffiti. artistic. Aerosol stencils Aerosol stencils have many practical applications and the stencil concept is used frequently in industrial. Micro/neon stencil Stencils are also used in micro/nanotechnology. cardboard. g. electron beam. etched or ions implanted onto a substrate. metals and wood. since stencil art using spray-paint can be produced quickly and easily. as miniature shadow masks through which material can be deposited. as well as by the military. These stencils are usually made out of thin (100500 nm) low-stress SiN in which apertures are defined by various lithographic techniques (e. The extensive lettering possible with stencils makes it especially attractive to political artists. photolithography). Stencils templates can be made from any material which will hold its form. A template is used to create an outline for the image.
Screen printing is used to print on fabrics ranging from cotton and organza to silk and polyester. The textile industry probably makes the largest use of the screen printing technique. hand outs. Hence screen printing to the rescue. Any surface that is flat can be screen printed on. The other industry that makes extensive use of screen printing is the marketing and advertising industry. The costs of printing small quantities digitally or electronically can be very high. Another factor that makes screen printing so popular is the fact that it allows one to use a wide variety of printing materials on a wide variety of surfaces. The possibilities are endless. children's clothing and any kind of clothing made from printed the fabric. The applications of screen printing are increasing as fast as one can think about a new surface for printing. dresses. skirts. The advertising industry uses screen printing primarily because it generally requires limited edition printing. . The finished products include shirts. advertisements and other point of sale or graphics products are all screen printed. posters.SCREEN PRINTING – A BROAD STUDY Screen printing is a fairly economical method of printing and hence it’s growing popularity. Flyers. The combinations possible are numerous and can suit any kind of end usage and budget. These fabrics are then made into finished products. In fact many designers set up their own screen printing units since they are so cheap.
This technique became hugely popular for printing signs and posters in large quantities.The sports industry also uses screen printing to print souvenirs and collectible items. In 1907. mouse pads. the Japanese adopted the screen printing process and used woven silk to make the mesh and lacquers to make stencils. Different areas on the screen were blocked out for different color inks. . it was Samuel Simon near Manchester who patented the first ever industrial screen printing process. which basically introduced the concept of multi-color printing using the same screen. Many years later close to the First World War. John Pilewort of San Francisco developed the Selecta sine method. screen printing has innumerous applications. Subsequently. The use of silk is where screen printing got its alternative name – Silk screening or silk screen printing. History of Screen Printing Screen printing was a technique first used by the Chinese almost 2000 years ago. Everywhere you look you will find examples of screen printing. souvenirs like caps. To that they attached a stencil made from leaves stuck together into different shapes. baseball bats and a host of other items are all screen printed. key chains. Some are overt and others will be disguised. thus resulting in a multi-colored image. Thus. sweatshirts. T-shirts printed with the logos of popular teams. This was probably the first application of screen printing ever. They used human hair stretched across a wooden frame to form the screen.
Fabric movement or shrinkage must be avoided during printing in order to maintain registration of the pattern. using either a watersoluble adhesive or a semi-permanent adhesive. solid table covered with a layer of resilient felt and a washable blanket (usually coated with neoprene rubber). alternatively it is ‘combined’ with a back-grey. Hand Screen Printing and Semi-automatic Screen printing The hand screen printing is a craft rather than a productive method of printing. Combining is most suitable for printing lightweight fabrics. In the latter instance an absorbent fabric is stuck to the blanket and the fabric to be printed is pinned down on top of it. Printing is carried out on a flat. The basic technique remains the same but with innovation and the introduction of electronics and computers. The fabric to be printed is laid on the table and stuck to the blanket directly. .From using hair to silk to polymer meshes. screen printing has come a long way today. where there is a danger of smudging or loss of adhesion caused by the presence of excessive print paste. It can also be advantageous for knitted fabrics. screen printing is no longer recognizable as the technique Simon patented.Heat for drying the printed fabric may be provided either under the blanket or by hot air fans above the table. Types of screen printing:A. Sometimes fabric and back-grey are combined before fixing to the table using an adhesive and a specially adapted pad mangle.
again. The printing process consists of forcing a viscous print paste through the open areas of the screen with a flexible. one on either side of the table. which is contained in a wooden or metal support. the screens must be carefully positioned on the fabric. . The rubber blade. If the screen is too wide to allow one operator to reach all the way across it. The stops are spaced exactly one (lengthways) screen repeat apart along the whole length of the table.Before a design can be printed. Two adjustable screws set the distance of the frame from the rail. or when a third colour is produced by one colour falling on another. known as ‘stops’. To achieve accurate registration it is common practice to attach to the frame a bracket which locates against fittings. Before printing begins. except when the fabric is dyed to the background colour (known as the ground) before or after printing. a small overlap is usually allowed. The area printed by a screen (screen repeat) must fit exactly alongside the adjacent one. One screen is required for every colour in the design. as light overlap being preferable to a gap. With flat-screen printing this is not automatically achieved (as is the case with rotary printing). The differently coloured areas must be in register and. it must be reproduced on the screens in a suitable form. two operators may work together. When the background colour is printed it is termed the ‘blotch’. is drawn steadily across the screen at a constant angle and pressure. The pressures exerted by the two must be as similar as possible. synthetic rubber squeegee. on a guide rail along one edge of the table.
the third screen prints colour in the third circle and a cross in the first circle .Figure: . . rail and bracke Figure: . the second screen prints colour in the second circle and a cross in the first circle.Pitch marks: the first screen prints all the circles and a cross in the first circle.Hand screen printing showing stops.
One such scheme is illustrated in Figure below. Semi-automated flat-screen printing is still very popular where the scale of production is not large. can be achieved than is possible by printing all the colours in more rapid succession (wet-onwet). typically 20–60 m long. Long tables. repeat crosses known as ‘pitch marks’ may be incorporated at one or both sides of the screen and the positions of the following screens checked against the first pitch mark. Often registration marks are printed along the selvedge.As a further aid. is usually left until last as the larger amount of colour is more likely to cause loss of adhesion between fabric and table. to achieve maximum smartness and as an aid to accurate fitting. If the design includes an outline this is printed first. In both hand and semi-automatic flat-screen printing the colours are printed one after another with time for drying. are used. . Hence sharper results. alternate repeats are normally printed along the full length of the table and then the gaps are filled in. if there is one. The screen is then washed and the second screen introduced to print the second colour. When screen printing is carried out by hand. The manual process has been semi-automated by mounting the screen in a carriage and driving the squeegee mechanically across the screen. with subsequent loss of registration. This allows time for the print paste to penetrate the fabric and partially dry before the frame falls on the next printed area. which means that the situation approaches ‘wet-on-dry’ printing. or where capital investment is limited. The blotch screen. and some provision is usually made for drying the printed fabric.
as in fully automatic machines. Clearly a good adhesive is required to prevent the fabric from becoming detached on its upside-down return journey. the level of automation for one-colour-ata-time flat-screen printing has advanced a great deal recently.Perhaps surprisingly. The operative at the console controls the robot. which can be positioned at a second station while the first colour is being printed. stationary table. The Italian companies Viero have robotized the process completely. Even more sophisticated developments have been introduced. positions it accurately in the carriage. Instead of a flat. It then tips the bucket to pour in the paste. which it places on a shelf above the screen. the rest of the process is also automated . and then proceeds to collect the bucket of print paste. a moving blanket is incorporated. Needless to say. and passes round the end of the table and beneath it before being printed with the second screen. fits the squeegee. which lifts the screen from its rack. The fabric is printed with the first screen.
Robot lifting a flat screen from the rack prior to fitting it on the printing machine (Viero) B.Figure: . Fully-automatic Screen Printing .Semi-automatic flat-screen printing. in this machine the rod squeegee is rolled across the screen by means of a moving electromagnet under the blanket (Zimmer) Figure: .
Unfortunately. . where there are three design repeats per screen repeat. All the screens for the design (one screen for each colour) are positioned accurately along the top of a long endless belt. the gap between adjacent screens need only be one-third of a screen repeat. flat screens are not suitable coloration units for a truly continuous process. for example.In order to increase the speed of flat-screen printing. This need not necessarily be the same as the lengthways screen repeat as there may be several design repeats per screen repeat. The width of the gap between the areas printed by any two adjacent screens must be a whole number of lengthways design repeats. known as a blanket. it was necessary to devise a method of printing all the colours simultaneously. The main features of a typical automatic flat-screen machine are illustrated and diagrammatically shown in Figures. and in all the successful machines for fully automatic flat-screen printing the colour is applied through the screens while the fabric is stationary. A machine intended to print traditional furnishing designs might have space for 15 or more screens.
Fully automatic flat-screen printing machine (simplified diagram). one screen-repeat distance . to maintain the lower side of the blanket in constant motion. 4 the temporary adhesive application unit and 5 the blanket washer The fabric is gummed to the blanket at the entry end and moves along with the blanket in an intermittent fashion.Figure: . rollers 1 and 2move as shown. 3 is the pressure roller.Fully automatic flat-screen printing machine Figure: .
it is pulled off and passes into a dryer. All the colours in the design are printed simultaneously while the fabric is stationary. When the fabric approaches the turning point of the blanket. and during printing is forced out through the design areas with the aid of a stationary squeegee. continuous rotation of a cylindrical screen while in contact with the fabric ensures genuinely continuous printing. . Figure illustrates some of the squeegee types in use.at a time. C. Print paste is fed into the inside of the screen. for example. is of this type). In rotary-screen printing. The soiled blanket is washed and dried during its return passage on the underside of the machine. because their printing action is in fact intermittent. Continuous movement of the fabric has been achieved by moving the screens along with the fabric while printing (the American Precision Midas machine. then the screens are lifted and the fabric and blanket move on. Rotary Screen-Printing Fully automatic flat-screen machines cannot be described as operating continuously. but the use of rotary-screen machines has proved to be a simpler and more economical means of achieving this goal.
where the screen remains stationary while the squeegee moves. This is of course. the rotation of the screen in contact with the stationary blade builds up the pressure to force the paste through the screen. OBJECTIVES .Figure: .Rotary-Screen Squeegee System In the case of flexible-blade squeegees. the converse of flat-screen printing.
To study the designing tools which are offered in these printing techniques? To compare the technique of stencils and screen printing. To asses these articles for cost and acceptability CHAPTER-3 . To develop value added articles using these two techniques.The present study was undertaken with the following Objectives: To study how to develop motifs for stencils and screen. To estimate the cost in developing designs by stencil and screen printing.
Some additional items. The ends of the brushes should be flat and the bristles firm.METHODOLOGY STENCIL PRINITNG Stenciling Equipments:Stenciling does not require a great deal of specialist equipments: many of the items used are commonly found in most households. will make job easier: a. all-purpose size. b. Brushes:It is worth investing in a set of good stencil brushes. Craft knife . however. to control the application of paint. A medium-sized brush (3cm/U/sin diameter) is a useful.
Push the point of the blade through the stencil board or acetate and then flatten it out. When we reach a corner or sharp point lift the heel of hand and move the stencil around. It is used mainly in painting. Don't remove the knife until the whole shape has been cut out. do not remove the knife. to mask off areas that should not be painted. Masking tape As the stencil may need to be repositioned it is advisable to hold it in place with masking tape. c. .Use for cutting out stencils from card (stock). Always cut a stencil on a proper cutting mat using only your fingers to move the knife and at the same time use other hand to move the stencil so that we are constantly cutting towards ourself. which can be removed fairly easily. in that way we will use the whole blade. Masking tape is a type of adhesive tape made with an easy-to-tear backing (usually paper) and a removable pressure sensitive adhesive.
e. which means that it will last longer. but ordinary card or heavy paper can also be used. f. Special stencil card (stock) is available waxed. Paint-mixing container This may be necessary for mixing paints and color-washes. Pencils Keep a selection of both soft and hard pencils to transfer the stencil design on to card (stock).d. Stencil card The material used to make the stencil is a matter of personal preference. Use an ordinary pencil to mark the positions of the stencils before applying. It is .
. They are valued for their textural quality. This means that you will be able to reuse the design fur future projects.worth purchasing a sheet of clear acetate if you wish to keep your stencil design. g. Tape measure Many stenciling projects require accurate positioning. Natural Sponges:Natural sponges are used for sponging. h. Measuring and planning the design and layout of your stencils before you begin will aid the result. Synthetic sponges can be used for colour-washing.
is easy to clean with water and comes in hundreds of different colors.Method of Stencil Printing Virtually any paint can be used to stencil with but the two most popular types are Acrylic and Dry-brush Oil. water or oil based. always use a clean brush or sponge. wood. The lightest color should be applied first. start on the outside of each of the stencils cut outs and work your way in towards the middle. Apply the paint using an up and down stippling motion. Instructions for stencil preparation:a. . you must push the stencil tightly against the surface so no paint can seep down the back. plastic. metal. Acrylic paint dries fast. does not smudge or bleed and will adhere to any surface. Acrylic Paint: Dip your brush or sponge into the paint and then wipe off most of it on a piece of kitchen paper. tiles. If you use too much paint you will find that it bleeds behind the stencil. wait for the first color to dry before you apply the second color. When using more than one color. fabric or almost any other surface inside or out. If you are using masking tape to hold the stencil in place. melamine. Dry-brush oil paint is non messy. giving the pattern very ragged edges. Markal Paint Stiks fall into this category and will adhere to any wall paint. glass.
keep the brush in an upright position at 90° to the stencil. Brushes can also be washed in hot soapy water and dried on kitchen paper. One paint stick or pot of dry-brush paint can give you many different shades of the same color. wipe off a bit more. b. For a really light fresco look apply the dry paint with a sponge.Using liquid paint for stenciling can be problematic. Using a circular motion transfer the paint to the stencil. Clean-up: Wash your stencil frequently in hot soapy water. Markal Paint Stiks can be rubbed directly onto the palette or stencil corner. The harder you press the darker and more definite the color will become. where there are no holes. my advice is to keep your brushes and stencil very clean and use as little paint as possible. Dry-Brush: Peel off the skin from the paint. Don't forget to check for paint on the back of the stencil. Clean-up: . you can always add some if the color is not right. Stencils look better when the color is built up in layers. dip in your brush and swirl onto a palette or the corner of the stencil. especially when changing color. If you are not sure.
Infact it is a creative hobby that doesn't require a lot of time or money. The most important part of stenciling is to be creative and innovative.To remove paint and glue from your stencils and brushes soak them in turpentine for a few minutes. This helps in eliminating use of fabric softener. The fabric was pre-washed to assure that it was clean of any surface treatment that will keep the paint from adhering. You can also use kitchen paper for the brushes. Using a stencil brush sweep the paint off your stencil and finish off with kitchen paper. table linens and even bedding as well as clothing and accessories. brushes. Selection of fabric is an important step in stencil printing. Preparation of Furnishing Articles by Stencil Printing : Stenciling is a great way to customize curtains. It's an easy way to duplicate a design several times without printing and requires no expensive equipment. just keep rubbing until no more color comes off. One can start with a basic single layer stencil and work on stencil with multiple overlays or try a raised stencil. Make sure it does not have a stain resistant finish. with the variety of different stencils. What ever decided. It's been a popular household craft for over a century. paints and techniques available stencil will be a unique creation. Even one doesn’t have to be an experienced painter to get good results. The . Steps 1. Practice with a variety of different paints and brushes to see what one like best.
which will require careful pattern matching. Now apply the paint with a gentle pounding motion. make sure it will work as a stencil. Turn over the glass so that we can see the design and tape the OHP sheet to the glass over the design. Carefully cut out the stencil. 6. 7. Lay out paint colors on the palette (Flat board used for holding and mixing colour). 4.color of the fabric affects the color of the paint so use of dark colours was avoided. glass and a small sharp matte knife like an Exacto blade. In delicate design masking tape/ cello tape were used to hold them down as paint. Turn the glass as necessary. We will probably find that it is easier to cut accurately if we pull the blade slowly towards us. A loaded brush/sponge will spread paint under the edges of the stencil. If we are adapting a design. holding the brush/sponge straight up and down. 3. an OHP sheet. Now we test the colors and practice our painting on a piece of fabric. following the lines of the original. If we have complex interlocking lines. 2. Make sure our brush/sponge is evenly covered with paint but do not load it. To cut own stencil. we need a drawing or photocopy of a design. we will need at least two stencil overlays. Tape the original to the glass with the design facing down. 5. .
once it has been moved. After 24 hours. stencil was lifted carefully. If we use acrylic paint instead of fabric paint then we must be very careful. 9. using the hottest possible setting. The basic straight up and down painting technique for stenciling is simple to master. When we finished. Precautions:1. Don't be tempted to heat set our fabric too soon. 3.8. 10. SCREEN PRINTING Printing Technique . but can be exhausting with a big project. we iron our fabric on the back to set the color. because we can't wash out our mistakes. Paint all the colors in our design before lifting the stencil . it is almost impossible to replace it exactly in the same spot. Now the paint was kept to be dryed for 24 hours. The paint may feel dry but it can stain when heated if not allowed to set. 2.
nylon. Areas of the screen are blocked off with a non-permeable material to form a stencil.Screen is made of a piece of porous.e. which is a negative of the image to be printed. and a fill bar (also known as a flood bar) is used to fill the mesh openings with ink. . The operator lifts the screen to prevent contact with the substrate and then using a slight amount of downward force pulls the fill bar to the front of the screen. The operator begins with the fill bar at the rear of the screen and behind a reservoir of ink. i. The ink that is in the mesh opening is pumped or squeezed by capillary action to the substrate in a controlled and prescribed amount. This effectively fills the mesh openings with ink and moves the ink reservoir to the front of the screen. As the squeegee moves toward the rear of the screen the tension of the mesh pulls the mesh up away from the substrate (called snap-off) leaving the ink upon the substrate surface. currently most mesh is made of manmade materials such as steel. the wet ink deposit is equal to the thickness of the mesh and or stencil. the open spaces are where the ink will appear. The operator then uses a squeegee (rubber blade) to move the mesh down to the substrate and pushes the squeegee to the rear of the screen. Ink is placed on top of the screen. that is. and polyester. Originally human hair then silk was woven into screen mesh. finely woven fabric called mesh stretched over a frame of aluminum or wood. The screen is placed atop a substrate such as paper or fabric.
Tight screens also offer lower resistance when pulling the squeegee thereby reducing labor and cutting the ink cleanly. Press: To get good quality screen printing. Even if you do everything else right and the platen shifts. . A soft mesh may have deposits of ink towards the edges thus printing with more ink in the center and less towards the corners.Screen Materials and Preparation Overview a. the platen must never move during printing. c. b. Squeegee: It is vital that the blade of the squeegee is straight and sharp. The benefits of a tight mesh include a decreased likelihood of the mesh moving out of registration during printing and lesser chances of one color bleeding into another. the better the quality of output. A tight mesh also deposits the ink evenly onto the substrate. Screens: The rule of thumb with screens and meshes is that the tighter they are. The uneven deposit of ink results in lowered printing quality. The squeegee should be sharpened every day if need be to allow for even spreading of the ink.
they work by removing the dye in the garment – this means they leave a much softer texture. Discharge inks Used to print lighter colors onto dark background fabrics. Glitter/Shimmer . They are less graphic in nature than plastisol inks. Also the color arm must not deflect when it in or out of the registration gate. and exact colors are difficult to control. Also useful for larger area prints where texture is important. d. but especially good for distressed prints and under basing on dark garments that are to be printed with additional layers of plastisol. Some inks require heat or an added catalyst to make the print permanent. Ideal for printing darker inks onto lighter colored garments.the quality of the print will suffer. Ink: Water-Based inks These penetrate the fabric more than the plastisol inks and create a much softer feel.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE . Usually available in gold or silver but can be mixed to make most colors.Metallic flakes are suspended in the ink base to create this sparkle effect.
more technical problems were encountered that delayed the interpretation of digital cases. In addition. screen process printing. Slingshot- Screen-printing (also referred to as silk screening. Like grass slowly growing up through the cracks in the concrete. small. their combination may be the solution to the development of a rapid . and is considered by many to be the one of the oldest methods of printing. (Eric A.. A comparative analysis is conducted and the possibility of combining the method is proposed. the use of digital mammography for screening examinations significantly shortened acquisition time but significantly increased interpretation time. Berns et al. and serigraphy) is a unique method of transferring or printing graphic images. perhaps our counter information can eventually sneak up on the mighty machine and topple it. This technique will also be applied for printing in general. However." ."We need to learn how to spread the vision of liberation and life everywhere in humble. Each of the three methods studied required further work as they all had major constraints.PB Floyd. Three adaptive screen printing methods are proposed as an alternative to two dimensional screen printing. invisible ways. (1) To develop a rapid manufacturing process for high-volume free from fabrication of parts that is based on the high speed printing method which is screen printing. 2009). Efforts have been made to explain the scope of stencil and screen printing in Compared with screen-film mammography.
manufacturing process. The originality is in the adaptive screen principle the screen being used will be capable to auto-change the pattern of the layer to be printed instead of introducing a new stencil for every layer as in conventional screen printing. A detailed investigation into process parameters showed that at up to 60 per cent coverage the performance of a roller squeegee in either sliding or rolling mode is identical. when the squeegee was locked. It was observed that. notably using a 150-34 screen. the screen adhered to the substrate. reducing the snap-off speed and increasing the contact duration. (Farid Fouchal Phill Dickens. the roller squeegee constrained to slide led to highzzer ink coverage. This dominates the higher hydrodynamic pressure associated with the rotary motion. It is suggested that the main reason for this is the viscosity reduction at the screen surface on account of the ink characteristics and the high local shear rates. The combined effect led to an increase in ink deposit. Presently. this is believed to be due to the increase in hydrodynamic pressure within the squeegee nip . However. since a lower thread count offers insufficient resistance to flow and leads to image flooding. the rolling action leads to superior tonal gain characteristics. When the snap-off gap was increased sufficiently to prevent the screen from adhering to the substrate. (2) The paper describes a series of experiments on precision screenprinting with a roller squeegee. Above this coverage and for smaller snap-off gaps. The work showed that this could only be achieved using a screen having a high mesh count. 2007). the rotating squeegee produced considerably higher ink deposit than the locked squeegee.
The two modrdants identified were zinc chloride and copper sulphate. (Sonja ostar Turk and Reinhold Schneider. a bifunctional reactive dye and blends of substituted guar gum and alginate were used. guar paste.8. Good and fast colours were obtained when 3 percent zinc chloride or 7 percent copper sulphate was used as mordants. The colours obtained with peepal bark dye were tea rose however with zinc chloride. The colour of printing sample was assessed best when dye extracted at pH. In this work. sharp line of printed design were obtain when dye paste and guar gum paste were mixed in the ratio of 1:5 and washing fastness was best when 1. Simultaneous mordanting technique was used. D T Gethin.junction which now becomes a dominating mechanism. (4) A study was conducted on application of peepal bark dye for cotton printing. it was . fixer concentration were optimized. dye paste & guar paste ratio. pH of thickener i. technological and colorimetric parameters of the mixed printing pastes were studied and compared with those of alginate printing pastes. (3) Highly substituted guar gum can be used in the printing of cotton with bifunctional reactive dyes as an alternative to alginate. e. The printed samples were subjected to visual assessment and washing fastness for evaluation. (I J Fox. The dye powder concentration was kept 10 gm and dye extracted as per available procedure. guar gum paste was prepared at 6 pH. To standardize the printing paste recipe for screen printing. T C Claypole. 100 gm dye solution was concentrated to 5 ml. The rheological. 2000).5 percent fixer was used. 2003).
and the 90.4 poise viscosity at a shear rate of 31. The concentration of enzyme depends on the nature of dye used. and 1h time of treatment. treatment time and temperature of enzymatic treatment as well as the viscosity of the printing paste on colour discharge studied. (7) A preparation technique of TiO2 screen-printing pastes from commercially-available powders has been disclosed in order to fabricate the nanocrystalline layers without cracking and peeling-off over 17 µm thickness for the photoactive electrodes of the dyesensitized solar cells. jeet singh. et al. (I Abd EI-thalouth.golden brown and with copper sulphate it was deep rose. 2007) ... (6) The present study was conducted that approximately 50% of all textile printing is now accounted for by pigment printing systems.5 pH. (5) The study showed that laccase enzyme formulation has been used in discharge printing of cotton fabrics dyed with different reactive dyes and the effect of enzyme conc. 2007). F kantouch.61s-1. A conversion efficiency of 8·7% was obtained by using a single-layer of a semi-transparent-TiO2 film. The fastness performance and ‘handle’ now are acceptable for many outlets. (radhika agarwal. 2008). neelam pruthi and saroj s. (shekhar sing. A conversion efficiency of 9·2% was obtained by using double-layers composed of . The optimum conditions for discharge printing are found to be 4. pH of the printing paste. 60 degree centigrade temperature.
in which the screen is modelled as a permeable membrane and the entire region above and below the screen is flooded. No remarkable differences in energy and water consumption between continuous and batch wet processing could be measured. (John Wiley. monitored for the whole wet processing only in the companies under study. By drawing upon widely used industrial circuit printing practices. the lowest dyeing liquor ratios were reported on jet machines and the highest on winch dyeing machines. only . low fixation rates. however. (8) A preliminary investigation into aspects of the off-contact screenprinting process is presented. A mathematical model for the printing of a thin film of Newtonian fluid is proposed. (Springer Netherlands. the distinguished limit of greatest interest to this industry is identified. Dyestuff consumption depends on the colour shade required. such as reactive and sulphur dyes. The use of resources and process emissions is. Numerical and asymptotic solutions of this distinguished limit are presented that reproduce many of the features observed in industrial screen-printing.transparent and light-scattering TiO2 films for a photon-trapping system. however. 2007). (9) This study was carried out in major Finnish textile companies in order to create an environmental impact profile for wet processing in Finland as a part of drafting the Best Available Technique (BAT) Reference documents for the European IPPC Bureau. System boundaries were defined for alternative process technologies to be used in BAT definitions. 2006). some dyes have.
The effects of UV-curing were evaluated by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR). 2006). comparable with those from the thermal curing method. pigment dispersion and photoinitiator was applied using a flat screen printing technique onto the cotton fabric. These chemicals are not recovered and reused in the companies under study. All textile plants. colour properties. (11) . The characteristics of cured prints such as paste add-on. then dried and exposed to heat or UV-radiation under a mercury vapour lamp (200 W cm−2). emulgator. et al. A printing paste comprising synthetic thickener. Nerala. (10) This paper studies and evaluates the UV-curing of pigment prints on textile fabric using a prototype UV scanner. binder. together with fabric stiffness. which carry out wastewater analysis and control. (Eija Kalliala. (B. and Päivi Talvenmaa 2000). The properties of the UV-cured pigment prints were compared with those of the thermal cured prints. which use more than 50 tonnes of organic solvents per year. are under official off-gas control in Finland. colour fastness to washing and dry/wet rubbing were evaluated. About 20% of the process liquor containing unfixed dyestuffs and auxiliaries end up in sewage treatment plants. and the UV-curing conditions under which satisfactory results were obtained.60% on average.. Analyses of the obtained results helped to define the optimum composition of the photo reactive pigment paste. All industrial plants in Finland discharge their wastewater to municipal sewage treatment plants.
Further research has also been carried out to establish the issues surrounding digital ink-jet printing and print quality when different types of designs are being printed. non-purified. Chemical analyses of actual. F. in the wastewater was studied. Dehghani. whose output is approx. The study of membrane filtration is based on a pilot wastewater treatment plant: ultra filtration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) units. The paper also reports on some of the results of a large project. Borman.This paper will review digital ink-jet printing on textiles and the advantages it offers to textile industry and consumers in comparison with conventional printing. Wang 2004). D. The quality of the wastewater was improved by ultra filtration. wastewater showed that many Slovenian regulations were exceeded. sodium alginate. J. (A. The research carried out in Leeds has addressed this problem and solutions are proposed which will be covered in detail in this paper. The paper will address the results of this research on quality assessment of digital ink-jet printing on textiles. Dennis. K. the presence of urea. was studied. The wastewater from a Slovenian factory. One of the important issues associated with digital ink-jet printing on textiles is speed and reliability. 80% reactive dyes printed and dyed on cotton. Jahanshah. which has been undertaken in the University of Leeds to address a number of issues concerning the problems associated with this technique. as this has commercial implications for the industry. oxidation agent and reactive dyes. (12) Membrane filtration of wastewater after textile printing with reactive dyes is described. In particular. but its effluent still does not conform to the specification of concentration . used for the printing paste preparation.
Petrinića 2005). Šostar-Turka. Juha Hagberg and Seppo eppävuori 2004). Permeate coming from RO meets the required specification and. therefore. (14) .. M. Simoničb and I. but in this case the line thickness suffers and the square resistance increases. (S. respectively. could be re-used in the washing process of printed textiles. it was found that the ink had an optimum curing temperature of 140 °C. respectively. A roller type of gravure offset printing has been used to evaluate the printing process and pad printing to print on the non-planar substrates. (13) A gravure offset printing process has been developed for Ag-filled polymer conductor ink. for 7–8. Pad printing and roller type printing have been used.5 μm thick line. Square resistance of 300 and 150 μm wide lines can be as low as 20 and 28 mΩ/sq. Curing and electrical properties have been studied.limits for emission into water. The minimum line width was 70 μm. This minimum line width can be reduced with different ink solvents. Based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and resistivity measurements during ink curing. (Marko Pudas.
An experimental investigation into ink transfer using a roller squeegee in highspeed screen printing. 5. Berns. Print cotton fabric with peepal bark bark dye. T C Claypole. 217: 307-321. 4. Patricia DeLeon. Eric A. Issue 3: 269-275. Radhika agarwal. 2. . 3. Sonja ostar Turk and Reinhold Schneider (2000). R. Stefanie Benjamin and Laura Willis (2009). Adaptive screen printing for rapid manufacturing. Lora Barke. Mariana Solari. D T Gethin (2003). L-No-10: 367-369. American Journal of Roentgenology: 216 – 220. Phill Dickens (2007). Dyes and Pigments Volume 47. Denise Reddy.Bibliography 1. jeet singh(2007). Man-made textiles in India vol. Digital and ScreenFilm Mammography: Comparison of Image Acquisition and Interpretation Times. Lewis Segal. issue 5: 284-290.13. I J Fox. Printing properties of a high substituted guar gum and its mixture with alginate. Farid Fouchal. Edward Hendrick. Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering vol. neelam pruthi and saroj s. Judith Wolfman. Rapid Prototyping Journal vol.
Journal of Cleaner Production Volume 8. S. Properties of UV-cured pigment prints on textile fabric. 7. and B. 12. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications Volume 15. Design and engineering challenges for digital ink-jet . Shekhar sing (2007). and Päivi Talvenmaa (2000). K. Vončinab (2006). Environmental profile of textile wet processing in Finland. Šostar-Turka. Springer Netherlands (2006). J. 8. Issue 7: 603 – 612. S H Nassar. Borman.6. F kantouch. John Wiley & Sons (2007). Indian journal of fibre and textile research vol. D. Journal of Engineering Mathematics. 10. Asian dyer : 53-56. Ecofriendly discharge printing on cotton fabrics using laccase enzyme. 9. Issues 2-3: 143-150. B. Wang (2004). Research: Fabrication of screen- printing pastes from TiO2 powders for dye-sensitized solar cells. I Abd EI-Thalouth. H M EI-Hennawi and M adel youssef (2008). Printofix concept for pigment printing. Volume 54: 49-70. A. Dyes and Pigments Volume 68. Eija Kalliala. Nerala. Issue 2: 143-154. 11. Dennis. 33: 52-57. A model for the screen-printing of Newtonian fluids. F. Jahanshah. Dehghani.
International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology Volume 16. Wastewater treatment after reactive printing. M. Issue ½: 262 – 273. Marko Pudas. Progress in Organic Coatings Volume 49. Simoničb and I. . Issue 4: 324-335. Juha Hagberg and Seppo Leppävuori (2004).printing on textiles. Gravure offset printing of polymer inks for conductors. Dyes and Pigments Volume 64. Petrinića (2005). Issue 2: 147-152. Šostar-Turka. S.
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