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Japan¶s Process industries introduced preventive maintenance (PM) relatively early because production output and rate, quality, safety and environment depend almost entirely on the state of plant and equipment. The preventive and productive maintenance systems introduced by Japanese process industries played a major role in improving product quality and productivity. They contributed significantly to overall progress in maintenance management and expertise in such areas as setting up specialized maintenance organizations, creating equipment management systems, improving equipment technology and raising maintenance productivity.
ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF TPM.
While the process industries focused on preventive and productive maintenance, the fabrication and assembly industries invested heavily in new equipment in an effort to become less labor intensive. The equipment used by these industries has become increasingly automated and sophisticated and Japan is now the world leader in the use of industrial robots. This trend towards automation, combined with the trend towards Just in Time Production stimulated interest in improving maintenance management in the fabrication and assembly industries. This gave birth to a uniquely Japanese approach called ³TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE´ (TPM), a form of productive maintenance involving all employees.
THE SPREAD OF TPM.
TPM first took root in the automobile industry and rapidly became part of the corporate culture in companies such as Toyota, Nissan and Mazda and their suppliers and affiliates. It has also been introduced by other industries such as consumer appliances, microelectronics, machine tools, plastics, film and many others. Having introduced PM, the process industries then began to implement TPM. An increasing number of process plants have introduced TPM over the past few Years in industries such as food, rubber, oil refining, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, gas, cement, papermaking, iron and Steel etc. Initially corporate TPM activities were limited to the departments directly involved with equipment such as production, maintenance etc. However administrative and support departments, while actively supporting TPM in production are now applying TPM to enhance the effectiveness of their own activities. TPM improvement methods and activities are also being adopted in product development and sales departments. This last trend underlines the increasing tendency to consider production process and equipment at the product development stage in an effort to simplify production, improve quality assurance and enhance and reduce the startup period for new production. Interest in TPM outside Japan has also expanded in recent years. Many companies in United States, Europe, Asia and South America are planning to or are actively pursuing TPM.
TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE
WHY TPM IS SO POPULAR.
There are three main that why TPM has spread so rapidly throughout Japanese Industries and why companies outside japan are becoming interested: It guarantees dramatic results, visibly transforms the workplace and raises the level of Knowledge and skill in production and maintenance workers.
Similarities and differences between TQM and TPM:
The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. Many of the tools such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM. Following are the similarities between the two. 1. Total commitment to the program by upper level management is required in both programs 2. Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action, and 3. A long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well.
People begin to think of TPM as part of their Job. safe working environment. so TPM was originally defined by the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) to include the following five strategies. the working environment. workers become motivated. reducing change overtimes and so on). shrinking inventory. Category TQM TPM Object Quality ( Output and effects ) Systematize the management. improve quality. TRANSFORMING THE PLANT ENVIRONMENT. trimming labor and cost.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE The differences between TQM and TPM are summarized below. boosting productivity. minimizing idling and minor stops.e. particularly in reducing equipment breakdowns. cutting accidents and promoting employee involvement . Page 3 . lessening quality defects and claims. leaking fluids and spilt powders can be reborn as a pleasant. TRANSFORMING THE PLANT WORKERS: As TPM activities begin to yield concrete results i. the reduction in breakdowns. Mains of attaining goal Target SIGNIFICANT TANGIBLE RESULTS. Customers and other visitors are impressed by these changes and their confidence in the plant¶s products increase. Companies practicing TPM invariably achieve startling results. Through TPM a filthy rusty Plant covered in oil and grease. It enables them to make new discoveries. TPM helps operator understand their equipment and the range of maintenance and other tasks that they can handle. involvement increases and improvement suggestion proliferate. Because early TPM activities were targeted at Production Departments. motivates and engenders interests in and concern for the equipment in peak condition. DEFINITION OF TPM. It is software oriented Quality for PPM Equipment ( Input and cause ) Employees participation and it is hardware oriented Elimination of losses and wastes. acquire fresh knowledge and enjoy new experiences. It strengthens.
Obtain Minimum 90% OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) Run the machines even during lunch. Promote PM through motivation management.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE y y y y y Maximize overall equipment effectiveness. Using a shop floor approach. Establish the comprehensive PM system covering the life of the equipment. Now. To reflect this trend. build an organization that prevents every type of loss for the life of the system. sales and administration. Involve all departments in implementing TPM. JIPM introduced a new definition of TPM in 1989. in many preproduction and product development departments as well as administrative and sales departments. (Lunch is for operators and not for machines) Q Operate in a manner. Conduct Zero-Loss activity through overlapping small-group activities. however TPM is applied throughout many organizations. Involve all departments that plan. i. C Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%. so that there are no customer complaints. autonomous small group activities. with the following strategic components. Page 4 . including development. Involve all employees from Top Management to front line Workers. Involve everyone from Top Management to Shop Floor Workers. D Achieve 100% success in delivering the goods as required by the customer.e. TPM Development TPM is normally implemented in four Phases: y y y y Preparation Phase Introduction Phase Implementation Phase Consolidation Phase TPM Targets P Obtain Minimum 80% OPE. use and maintain equipment. S Maintain an accident free environment. y y y y y Build a corporate constitution that will maximize the effectiveness of production System.
Zero Breakdown and Zero accidents in all functional areas of the organization.) 5. You (Maintenancedepartment) fix" is not followed. 1. 3. Higher confidence level among the employees. 4. Increase productivity and OPE (Overall Plant Efficiency) by 1. Reduce accidents. Satisfy the customers¶ needs by 100 % (Delivering the right quantity at the right time. Achieve Zero Defects. 2. Share knowledge and experience. neat and attractive.5 or 2 times. Improving productivity by highly motivated workers which is achieved by job enlargement.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE M Increase the suggestions by 3 times. possible plant and equipment modifications. Uniqueness of TPM TPM Objectives Direct benefits of TPM Indirect benefits of TPM Page 5 . Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%. Keep the work place clean. 1. 2. 3. The use of voluntary small group activities for identifying the cause of failure. 1. 5. 3. Involve people in all levels of organization. 2. Rectify customer complaints. Favorablechange in the attitude of the operators. The concept of "I (Productionoperators) Operate. The workers get a feeling of owning the machine. The major difference between TPM and other concepts is that the operators are also made to involve in the maintenance process. Horizontaldeployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization. Develop Multi-skilled and flexible workers. 3. 4. Adoption of life cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production equipment. Achieve goals by working as team. 6. in the required quality. Motives of TPM 1. Follow pollution control measures. 6. 2. Form different teams to reduce defects and Self Maintenance. 7.
Rate efficiency (RE): Actual average cycle time is slower than design cycle time because of jams.Refers to quality rate. Output is reduced because of jams Speed efficiency (SE): Actual cycle time is slower than design cycle time machine output is reduced because it is running at reduced speed. repeated modifications and correction will be needed during implementation. Preparation Phase (Steps 1 to 5).Performance Efficiency. etc. It is vital to lay the foundation for TPM program carefully and thoroughly. When Top Management does make this commitment. Many companies are adopting TPM as a way of solving their complex internal problems and riding out the economic storm.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) OEE = A x PE x Q A . A = (MTBF . however it should declare the intention to see the TPM Program through to the end. Q . Step 1: Top Management Announces its Decision to Introduce TPM. It is given by RE X SE. The preparation phase starts with top management¶s announcement of its decision to introduce TPM and is complete when TPM development master plan has been formulated. Top Management must consider these points carefully before announcing its decision to introduce to TPM. All Employees must understand that why their Company is introducing TPM and be fully aware of its necessity. PE .Mean Time between Failures = (Total Running Time) / Number of Failures. This informs all the employees and interested outside parties that management understands the long term value of TPM to solve the various problem that are likely to surface during implementation. Needless to say. Which is percentage of good parts out of total produced sometimes called "yield".MTTR) / MTBF. Rising raw and intermediate material costs. Preparation for TPM begins formally when this announcement is made Page 6 . Availability is proportion of time machine is actually available out of time it should be available. MTTR .Availability of the machine. MTBF . falling product prices and other upheavals in the business environment are forcing industry to organize itself more effectively.Mean Time to Repair. If planning is slipshod.
Page 7 . Step 3: Create a TPM Promotion Organization. Before TPM Program can be implemented it must be understood. As figure shows. This system is extremely effective for deploying top management policy and goals throughout the organization. some people attend outside seminars and in-house training program is planned and implemented. TPM is implemented through a structure of overlapping small groups. in this system leaders of small groups at each organizational level are members of small groups at the next higher level. To achieve this. Top management itself also constitutes a small group.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Step 2: Introductory Education.
Its function include preparing the TPM Mater Plan and coordinating its promotion. To set goals. the office should be run by permanent full time staff. the TPM program last for the length of time required to attain these goals. spearheading focused campaigns. including top management. start by establishing clear baselines. Step 4: Establish basic TPM Policy and Goals. A company¶s basic TPM policy must be an integral part of its overall business policy and should indicate goals and direction of the activities to be carried out. assisted by various committees and sub committees. Page 8 . TPM goals should relate to the companies long and mid-range business goals and should only be decided after thorough consultation among everyone involved. Express goals numerically as far as possible. devising ways to keep the various TPM activities on track. The promotion office plays an especially important role in managing the implementation of autonomous maintenance and focused improvement activities.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Establish a TPM promotion office responsible for developing and promoting effective TPM promotion strategies. disseminating information and arranging publicity. To be effective. These should provide the snapshot of the existing situation and be expressed partly quantitatively and partly qualitatively.
In Japan. affiliates and sub-contractor are often invited. Once the Master Plan has been approved. A schedule should be drawn up for each activity and integrated in the master Plan. although different companies may choose slightly different activities. There are eight core TPM Activities: y y y y y y y y Focused Improvement Autonomous Maintenance Planned Maintenance Education and Training Early Management Quality Maintenance Administrative and Support Department Safety and Environment Management Other important activities include: y y y Diagnostic and predictive maintenance Equipment Management Product Development and Equipment Design Construction These activities need budget and must be properly supervised. Step 6: Introduction Phase. The Kick-off should be designed to cultivate an atmosphere that raises morale and inspires dedication. They have been shown to yield excellent results when properly pursued. Top Management reconfirm their commitment to implementing TPM and report on the plans developed and the work accomplished during the preparation phase. because it makes people think about the most efficient ways of bridging the gaps between the baselines and goals. and they are the foundation and support of any successful TPM development program. first decide what activities must be pursued to achieve the TPM Goals. it is often companywide meeting to which client companies. Fundamental TPM Activities: Companies must select TPM activities that will achieve the goals of TPM effectively and efficiently. the TPM Kick-Off can take place. This is an important Step. At the meeting. To formulate a master plan for implementation. The order and timing of the activities in step 7-11 should be tailored to suit the particular characteristics of the company. Step 7: Implementation Phase (Step 7 ±Step 11): During the implementation phase.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Step 5: Draft a TPM Master Plan. division or plant. selected activities designed to achieve the targets shown in the master plan are carried out. Page 9 . the eight described below are the most common.
the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement. As a result of this step. Store away from the workplace Low Less than once per year. should be stored in some place. Priority Frequency of Use How to use Throw away.Discipline SEIRI . Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. important. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. or items that are not need as of now. Once per year< Average At least 2/6 months. Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future. frequently used items. the search time is reduced. Store together but offline Once per week Once Per Day Locate at the workplace High Page 10 . Japanese Term Seiri Seiton Seiso Seiketsu Shitsuke English Translation Organization Tidiness Cleaning Standardization Discipline Equivalent 'S' term Sort Systematize Sweep Standardize Self . TPM starts with 5S. Unwanted items can be salvaged.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Activity # 1: 5S.Sort out: This means sorting and organizing the items as critical. useless. Once per month. For this step.
oil. SHITSUKE . This standard is implemented for whole organization and are tested / inspected randomly.Shine the workplace: This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs.Organize: The concept here is that "Each item has a place and only one place". No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines. following work procedures. name plates and colored tags has to be used. waste. Activity # 2: AutonomousMaintenance: This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks. Reduce oil consumption by 50% Reduce process time by 50% Increase use of JH by 50% Steps in Autonomous Maintenance: y y y y Preparation of employees Initial cleanup of machines Take counter measures Fix tentative Autonomous Maintenance standards Page 11 . punctuality.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE SEITON . To identify items easily.Standardization: Employees have to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. SEISO . The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating.Self-discipline: Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of the organization. scrap etc. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose. dedication to the organization etc. This includes wearing badges. thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repair. The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. grease. SEIKETSU . Policy: y y y y Uninterrupted operation of equipment Flexible operators to operate and maintain other equipment Eliminating the defects at source through active employee participation Stepwise implementation of AM activities Autonomous Maintenance Targets: y y y y Prevent the occurrence of 1A / 1B because of JH. and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks.
lubricant and coolant. Autonomous inspection. Page 12 . Its advantages. Schedule should be made regarding cleaning. unfastened nits and bolts and worn out parts. loose wires. Make note of area which were inaccessible. Train the Employees: y Educate the employees about TPM. acrylic sheets can be used. what and how. oils and grease has to be removed. After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. stains. Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipment. y y y Counter Measures: y Inaccessible regions had to be reached easily. JH advantages and Steps in JH. employees should clean the equipment completely with the help of maintenance department. E. Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine. Autonomous management.g.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE y y y y General inspection. They are Oil leakage. Instead of opening a door for inspecting the machine. Dust. bolts. Pink tag is placed where the aid of maintenance department is needed. hinge door can be used. hydraulics. General Inspection: y The employees are trained in disciplines like Pneumatics. Each of the above mentioned steps is discussed in detail below. inspection and lubrication and it also should include details like when. y y Tentative Standard: y y AM schedule has to be made and followed strictly. Initial cleanup of machines: y y y y y y Supervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing step1 Arrange all items needed for cleaning On the arranged date. If there are many screw to open a fly wheel door. drives. Content of tag is transferred to a register. Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and dust. White tags are place where problems can be solved by operators. electrical. nuts and Safety. To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken. Standardization. Following are the things that have to be taken care while cleaning.
PDCA (Plan. Focus of easy handling of operators. such that there is no searching and searching time is reduced. and "Zen" means good (for the better). Parts which have never given any problem or part which don't need any inspection are removed from list permanently based on experience. This includes good quality machine parts to avoid defects due to poor JH. Kaizen Policy: y y y y y Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity. Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly. but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience. Do. However in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized. Necessary spares for equipment are planned and procured.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE y y This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use inspection manuals correctly. Standardization: y Upto the previous stem only the machinery / equipment was the concentration. Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting any item. The principle behind is that "a very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value. Page 13 . y y y Autonomous Management: OEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improve through Kaizen. Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart / schedule in consultation with supervisor. Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses. relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources Relentless pursuit to improve over all plant equipment effectiveness. Autonomous Inspection: y y y y y y New methods of cleaning and lubricating are used. Activity # 3: KAIZEN "Kai" means change. Check and Act) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with others. Basically kaizen is for small improvements. Necessary items should be organized. Kaizen requires no or little investment.
defects and unavoidable downtimes. The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness.operating at low speeds.Why analysis Summary of losses Kaizen register Kaizen summary sheet. Kaizen pursues efficient equipment. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses. Tools used in Kaizen: y y y y y PM analysis Why . measurement and adjustments. Sixteen Major losses in anOrganization: Loss Category y y y y y y y y Failure losses . Loses that impede effective use of production resources Page 14 . As one of the pillars of TPM activities. jig and tool breakage loss Yield loss. Defect / rework loss Scheduled downtime loss Losses that impede equipment efficiency y y y y y Management loss Operating motion loss Line organization loss Logistic loss Measurement and adjustment loss Loses that impede human work efficiency y y y Energy loss Die.Breakdown loss Setup / adjustment losses Cutting blade loss Startup loss Minor stoppage / idling loss. operator and material and energy utilization that is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Speed loss . It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction. TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Kaizen Target: Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops.
A single cause is rare . Page 15 . Policy: y y y Achieve and sustain availability of machines Optimum maintenance cost. It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipment producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. Usually the line personnel in the Specialists in process engineering. Reduces spares inventory. people are required. Maintenance Prevention. Cause-effect and solved. Even if various counter relationship is simple to trace. measures are applied These types of losses are caused Easy to establish a remedial because of hidden defects in measure machine. production can attend to this quality assurance and maintenance problem. Breakdown Maintenance.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Classification of Losses: Aspect Sporadic Loss Chronic Loss Causation Causes for this failure can be This loss cannot be easily identified easily traced. low and occasional. equipment and methods. Corrective Maintenance. y y y y Preventive Maintenance.a combination of causes trends to be a rule Remedy Impact / Loss A single loss can be costly Frequency occurrence of The frequency of occurrence is The frequency of loss is more. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families" or groups which were defined earlier.&improve reliability and maintainability of machines. With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment. Corrective action Activity # 4: Planned Maintenance.
(Fool proof system). Effective implementation of operator quality assurance. QM activities are to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects. Prepare time based information system. Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance). Page 16 . The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before-hand. Activity # 5: Quality Maintenance: It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus of prevention of defects at source. QM activities to support quality assurance. parts and members and map out plan. select equipment. In-line detection and segregation of defects.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Target: y y y y Zero equipment failure and break down. Improve reliability and maintainability by 50 % Reduce maintenance cost by 20 % Ensure availability of spares all the time. Six steps in Planned Maintenance: y y y y y y Equipment evaluation and recoding present status. The condition is checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. Policy: y y y y y y Target: y y y Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero Reduce in-process defects by 50 % Reduce cost of quality by 50 %. based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. and then move to potential quality concerns. We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns. Focus on poka-yoke. Defect free conditions and control of equipment. Building up information management system. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner. Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques and Evaluation of planned maintenance. Restore deterioration and improve weakness. much like Focused Improvement.
It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they should also learn "Know-why". Page 17 . Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The different phases of skills are: y Phase 1: Do not know Phase 2: Know the theory but cannot do. Activity # 6: Training It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently.) Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of quality components. The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence. Data related to Processes: y y y The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men.major/minor Location of the defect with reference to the layout Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes. ladle/furnace lining etc. material and machine. The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. By experience we come to know.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Data Requirements: y y y y Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. "Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. In-house. (Like pattern change. we have to get data on Customer end line rejection Field complaints. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. For customer-end data. data include data related to products and data related to process Data related to Product: y y y y y y Product wise defects Severity of the defect and its contribution . method. Phase 3: Can do but cannot teach Phase 4: Can do and also teach. Hence it become necessary to train them on knowing "Know-why".
telephone and fax lines Time spent on retrieval of information Non availability of correct on line stock status Customer complaints due to logistics Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases Page 18 . They are y y y y y y y y y y y y Processing loss Cost loss including in areas such as procurement. QM. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. skills and techniques. Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge / skills / techniques Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme. conductive to employee revitalization Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable Steps in Educating and training activities: y y y y y y Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill up gradation Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills Preparation of training calendar Kick-off of the system for training Evaluation of activities and study of future approach Activity # 7: Office TPM: Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH. sales leading to high inventories Communication loss Idle loss Set-up loss Accuracy loss Office equipment breakdown Communication channel breakdown. Creating a training environment for self-learning based on felt needs. marketing. efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity. and PM). KK. Focus on improvement of knowledge. Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc. accounts. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Policy: y y y y Target: y y y Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines.
M in each function in relation to plant performance Identify the scope for improvement in each function Collect relevant data Help them to solve problems in their circles Make up an activity board where progress is monitored on both sides .g. Equalizing the work load Improving the office efficiency by eliminating the time loss on retrieval of information. Purchase etc. MIS. should be heading the sub-committee. C. TPM co-ordinate plans and guides the sub-committee. by achieving zero breakdown of office equipment like telephone and fax lines.results and actions along with Kaizens. Members representing all support functions and people from Production & Quality should be included in sub-committee. Page 19 . S. y y y y y y y Providing awareness about office TPM to all support departments Helping them to identify P. Kobetsu Kaizen topics for Office TPM: y y y y y Inventory reduction Lead time reduction of critical processes Motion & space losses Retrieval time reduction. Fan out to cover all employees and circles in all functions. Office TPM and its Benefits: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Involvement of all people in support functions for focusing on better plant performance Better utilized work area Reduce repetitive work Reduced inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain Reduced administrative costs Reduced inventory carrying cost Reduction in number of files Reduction of overhead costs (to include cost of non-production/non capital equipment) Productivity of people in support functions Reduction in breakdown of office equipment Reduction of customer complaints due to logistics Reduction in expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases Reduced manpower Clean and pleasant work environment.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE How to start office TPM? A senior person from one of the support functions e. Head of Finance. Q. D.
With distributors it will lead to accurate demand generation.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE P Q C D S M in Office TPM: P . Cost of communication. Health and Environment: Target: y y y Zero accident. How office TPM supports plant TPM: Office TPM supports the plant. Extension of office TPM to suppliers and distributors: This is essential.Production output lost due to want of material. Activity # 8: Safety. as in Autonomous Maintenance at the: y y Initial stages machines are more and manpower is less. Q. Office area rework. for this Office TPM can eliminate the lodes on line for no material and logistics. In any case we will have to teach them based on our experience and practice and highlight gaps in the system which affect both sides. C . Manpower productivity. Production output lost due to want of tools.inbound/outbound. they have started to support clusters of suppliers. Page 20 .Number of Kaizens in office areas. M .Logistics losses (Delay in loading/unloading) y y y Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions Delay in payments to suppliers Delay in information S . Customer returns/warranty attributable to BOPs.Buying cost/unit produced. Rejection/rework in BOP's/job work. so the help of commercial departments can be taken. improved 'in-coming' quality and cost reduction. In case of some of the larger companies. initially in doing Autonomous Maintenance of the machines. Safety of soft and hard data. Cost of carrying inventory. Demurrage costs. improved secondary distribution and reduction in damages during storage and handling. but only after we have done as much as possible internally. payroll. invoices. With suppliers it will lead to on-time delivery. Zero health damage Zero fires. D .Safety in material handling/stores/logistics. bills. Cost of logistics .Mistakes in preparation of cheque.
Quiz. Fabrication and Construction Test operation Startup Management All activities from initial design of a piece of the equipment to its installation and test operation can be viewed as a single. In TPM this efficient approach to stable full scale production is known as ³Vertical Startup´. In planning such a project. A committee is constituted for this pillar which comprises representative of officers as well as workers.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or procedures. in particular. perform test operation and initiate the startup management Phase. fabricating and constructing a plant. related to safety can be organized at regular intervals. etc. and construction and test operation. The purpose of these activities is to achieve ± quickly and economically ± products that are easy to make and equipment that is easy to use. it addresses the following areas: y y y y y Equipment Investment Planning Process Design Equipment Design. help ensure that the plant and equipment are reliable and easily maintained. Early Equipment Management concerns equipment users. the project team determines the plant and equipment required technical levels (Functions and Performance) together with its availability levels (Reliability and Maintainability) and then establishes budgets and schedules. Startup Management is an activity designed to achieve as quickly as possible the conditions for its own termination that is the conditions that enable the plant to start producing stable quality product with zero failure. teams install the equipment. Drama. Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant. This section highlights early equipment management. Posters. engineering companies and equipment manufacturers. Page 21 . basic plant design and detailed design unfolds to include procurement. giant project. The committee is headed by senior vice President (Technical). Early management includes both Early Product Management and Early Equipment Management. The project starts with process design. Step # 8: Early Management. Manager (Safety) is looking after functions related to safety. In designing a plant. various designs are performed which are as under: y y y y Functional Design Reliability and Maintainability Design Safety Design Economy Design Establishing maintenance prevention (MP) specifications and performing MP design. fabrication. After Completing this activities. To create awareness among employees various competitions like safety slogans. Several design review should be performed in the course of designing. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis.
applying a QM approach in equipment design. In quality maintenance. These are called ³Quality Components. variability in the product quality characteristic is controlled by controlling the condition of equipment components that affect it. the quality and timeliness of the information supplied by the administrative and support departments has a major impact on these activities. teams should focus first on the process. A TPM program in such a department aims to create ³Information Factor´ and apply process analysis to streamline the information flow. TPM activities performed by the administrative and support departments must not only support TPM in the workplace but also strengthen the function of the department themselves by improving their own organization and culture. In other words first clarify the relationship between product quality and process condition and ascertain the precise process condition required for producing the perfect product. Think of administrative and support departments as process plants whose principal tasks are to collect process and distribute the information. and teams begin by identifying the components that will affect the product¶s quality characteristics. Quality Characteristics are mainly influenced by the four production inputs which are as under: y y y y Equipment Material People¶s Action (Skill) Method Used The first step in quality maintenance is to clarify the relationships between these factors and a products quality characteristic by analyzing quality defects. In Process Industries. In process industries the process determines the type of equipment needed. trouble free work execution from two angles which are: y y Administrative Function Administrative Environment Page 22 . therefore. however. focused improvement and other TPM activities in an office environment. Autonomous Maintenance in the administrative departments aims for efficient.´ Step # 10: TPM In administrative and Support Departments. Administrative and support department play and important role in backing up production activities. Quality Maintenance (QA) is method for building in quality and preventing Quality Defects through the process and through the equipment. the effect of equipment on quality characteristic is particularly very important. Compared with the production. therefor. This understanding makes it easier to promote and measure autonomous maintenance.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Step # 9: Quality Maintenance. Equipment is the means of implementing the process. then on the equipment. it is not as easy for the administrative and support department to measure the effects of their activities.
continuous and concrete measurement. Assuring safety and adverse environmental impacts are important issues in process industries. continually devising goals upward and setting new challenges.g. Step # 11: Safety and Environmental Management. Certain issues are of particular importance in the process environment. Step # 12: Sustaining TPM implementation and Raising Levels. with competition in industry at an all-time high. To achieve this automated office tasks and install electronic data processing systems such as local area networks increase administrative efficiency to support the planning and decision making of executives and managers. building strong teams at every level and staffing a promotion organization helps integrate TPM in daily work for example following the systematic step by step approach recommended for TPM activities helps lock in results. building maintenance. as with all TPM activities. Focused improvement of administrative tasks aims to improve their efficiency and speed and reduce the number of staff required.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Implemented step by step. It can be adapted to work not only in industrial plants. shutdown maintenance requires considerable support from outside sub-contractors. safety activities are implemented step by step. as do operation such as cleaning. Safety is promoted systematically as part of TPM activities. Check the skills and qualification of sub-contracted workers well in advance. Start with clear baselines and document improvement results regularly and in detail. emphasizing a continuous improvement approach through the CAPD cycle. Operability studies combine with accident prevention training and near miss analysis are effective ways of addressing these concerns. If everyone involved in a TPM program does his or her part. like PM. transportation. Conclusion: Today. Assuring safety during shutdown maintenance is also important. an unusually high rate of return compared to resources invested may be expected Page 23 . and in a variety of other situations. and this makes it doubly important to ensure safety during such operations. it is particularly important to incorporate fail safe mechanism. None of these approaches will be effective without the support of careful. the first set of activities is to reduce cost and boost efficiency by improving administrative processes. whenever possible. also take every practicable step to assure safety including giving rigorous safety training. It has been proven to be a program that works. in process industries. but in construction. Employees must be educated and convinced that TPM is not just another "program of the month" and that management is totally committed to the program and the extended time frame necessary for full implementation. TPM may be the only thing that stands between success and total failure for some companies. e. The second set of activities removes obstacles to effective work hidden in the physical and psychological environment. There are several keys to maintaining TPM levels once they are achieved. Use management indicators that show everyone at every level what concrete progress is being made and motivate their continued involvement.
TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE References: Learning Booklet of TPM by JIPM (Japan Institute of Preventive Maintenance) http://www.shtml Page 24 .com/articles/tpm_intro.plant-maintenance.
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