Integrating Social Media into Event Strategies by Coree Silvera Social media communication tools are proving to be a valuable

resource for successful event marketing they create buzz, increase attendance and foster interaction long after the actual event. While event marketing focuses on the faceto-face experience of attending, sponsoring and speaking at trade shows or industry meet-ups, social media facilitates shared experiences and creates brand advocates on a much larger scale. Integrating social media into event strategies allows audiences to contribute to event content, promote the event to their friends, share the event experience through images and conversations, evaluate the event in real time, and extend the post-event experience. When using social media to achieve these goals, you should consider the three phases of event marketing. Here are some recommendations for each aspect of your event. Before the event Consider surveying your members or past attenders to ask them which social media platforms they use. Build your communities where you have the largest participation and cross-promote the event on all channels. Make sure your customers are aware of your social networking initiatives by placing social media or video menus in a prominent place on your company web site. Create a page that lists all the event speakers, with their Twitter handles. Consider creating a Twitter list of all event speakers to promote the event. A Twitter list is a newer function of Twitter that allows a user to group together and name a list of favorite or industry-related users. The lists are given their own distinct URL, which can then be promoted and followed. There are even sites such as Listorious which allow you to publicize and promote your Twitter lists and gain followers. As an event organizer, a Twitter list of all keynote speakers would allow you to easily track their updates and retweet to help promote your speakers to your followers and build an event community. You can also import your lists to Facebook and have those updates automatically feed into your fan page. You should also create and promote your event hashtag. Effectively using hashtags enables tweets about your conference or event to be organized and searched. During the event When recently asked for his best tip in using social media for events, Jason Falls, well-known social media consultant and founder of Social Media Explorer, advised,

either on your site or on public forums like Flickr. Provide a special area during events for bloggers. an interactive platform that allows anyone to broadcast videos through its web site. those who were not able to attend will want to read reviews. Social media is about putting control of the message in the user s hands. or. . Begin planning your next event by speaking to potential presenters. if you didn t make it out to SXSW this year. exhibitors and attenders while the iron is still hot. NBC. Use the content to help build a house file for future events. get a glimpse of the 2010 event. you may be wondering where you can go to catch up with sessions you may have missed. relive talks you want to experience again. created an Olympics Twitter Tracker to help viewers see the trends on Olympic-related twittering. Here is a good example of how SXSW organizers let their audience know why to keep coming back after the event: Now that the SXSW Interactive Festival has come to a close. For example. Comment on and retweet any blog posts or updates from attenders. for example. After the event Just because the event is over does not mean the conversation is. Be sure to use the event hashtag in all tweets. Consider providing real-time footage of the event on Ustream. Social media allows event attenders and those who are unable to be there in person to engage using micro-blogging sites like Twitter. if you take a look at the 2010 SXSW Interactive Festival web site you ll see the recaps and reviews.Stop thinking about events as a push (awareness) tactic and find ways to let attendees tell the story before. Media companies often set up official tweeters and create Facebook pages for big events to foster dialogue about the event. Provide Wi-Fi and public computers at your event to aid this process. videocasters and podcasters. Your events are catalysts for relationships. view photos and videocasts. A well-written and opinionated post by one of the event organizers on your event s blog can move the post-event conversation to your web site. Continue to engage attenders on social media platforms. Nurture your community with events. but in the relationships you develop within your community through collaborative conversations live and online. during and after. The roots of social media marketing are not found in technology. and allow them to use PR facilities to interview speakers and attenders. and listen to podcasts from the event. Along with attenders. Ask attenders to post to your photo galleries.

Several online tools were used to find and follow new contacts. including Twitter Grader. the organization posted photos of players. Forty percent were not even sure they could monitor social media ROI. Using the methods below.Case study Public relations company PR 20/20 was selected to manage local media relations for the 2009 Senior PGA Championship in Cleveland. practice rounds. During the event.com). a free online tool that allows you to compare your Twitter profile to millions of other users. photos of the golf clubhouse and course construction. the driving range and fans getting autographs. and search. Monitored and followed all twitterers discussing golf. . If you have interesting content.com. PGA. With only three months of preparation time.com s search function. the organization was able to attract 908 followers in a three-month window. PR 20/20 posted a tweet asking them. Ohio. The overwhelming answer was pictures images that they could not find on TV or in the newspapers. Researched and followed Ohioans who listed golf in their profiles (Twitter Grader). and you share it in the communities that are appropriate and relevant. In order to gauge what Twitter followers wanted to see from the event coverage. Reviewed the followers of other professional golf tournaments and started following them on Twitter. 84 percent of survey respondents who have adopted social media indicated that they do not measure their social media programs. People enjoy having access to privileged information about events. media interviews. Researched and followed Clevelanders who listed golf in their profiles (using Twitter Grader). Senior PGA. media day. Each method is listed in the order in which it was implemented.twitter. Measuring event ROI According to a 2009 survey of 555 professionals in a variety of industries worldwide by Mzinga and Babson Executive Education.twitter. a goal was set to add 500 Twitter followers by the start of championship week. and player arrivals were posted. that message will travel and can be leveraged with social media. the putting green. This was the least successful method. Leading up to the event. with player photos generating the most traffic. Started following all professional golf tournaments on Twitter. Researched and followed golf twitterers with the best Twitter Grades (Twitter Grader). and various player names (using search. This was the most successful method. Researched and followed Ohio and Cleveland sport fans (Twitter Grader). Each picture that was posted to Twitter would get between 20 to 30 views. the course.

you can t replace face-to-face when building relationships and powerful sales opportunities. Google Alerts. event community management. during and after your event. You want conversations to flow between attenders sharing ideas. A few choices include Trackur. there are a host of free or low-cost tools available to help companies and organizations track the social media effectiveness of their event marketing strategies. Coree Silvera works in event community management and social media marketing. global access to information has left communicators competing like never before. The long-term effect will be a viral event community that continues to grow year after year. and traditional marketing techniques shift to new media strategies. But before you rush off to begin planning your next event. You Can t Replace Face-to-Face: Event success in any economy by Kimberley Clarke Our audiences instant. Quite simply. You can follow Coree on Twitter as @marketlikeachik. Interestingly. PostRank. old-fashioned. networking with other attenders and discussing trends. Social Mention or TechrigySM2. not just for market share. According to EventView 2009. 62 percent of senior sales and marketing executives in 2008 chose event marketing as the tactic that best accelerates and deepens relationships with audiences. ask yourself one important strategic question: Why? . a study by the Event Marketing Institute. public relations manager or fundraising professional command and keep stakeholder attention? You might be surprised at the answer: live events. As the economy shrinks and changes. at only 21 percent. how can the modern communicator. She is the founder of Market Like A Chick. That s right. face-to-face events. Good. PR came in second. and marketing from a woman s point of view. Your event community should be the communication hub before. but also for a few precious moments of customer (or donor or sponsor) attention.Fortunately. and her blog focuses on presenting tips and tutorials in social media.

Events are marketing No event is an island. what metrics will you use to determine your event s success and the projected returns? First let s examine the motivations and methods behind successful special events. If you are in the fortunate (or unfortunate) position of wearing both the event marketing and corporate communication hat in your organization. or any event. . How many people can you get in contact with and how frequently before the event even happens? Follow-up is key to your event s success. from invitations to follow-up e-mails and phone calls. marketing and communication people should work together closely. follow up and follow up again In addition to being a part of annual strategic and communication plans. While many people focus on the details of the day (and sure. If you have limited resources to get the word out about your event. rely on existing channels like the corporate newsletter. an event is a campaign in itself. and has seen it all maybe even seen someone else do it better.Why are you planning this event? What are the event goals? To increase market share? Develop donors? What are your precise organizational objectives. the true success of an event is established well before the event actually happens. and event marketing shouldn t be either. there are a lot of details). fit with your overall strategy? Why would people attend? What s the follow-up strategy? And. consider how many people you can realistically connect with in the promotion process. of course. a movie star is headlining your fundraiser. If not.) Getting to sold-out Your audience wants more for less. and lasts quite a long time after it s over. It s not enough anymore to put your logo on an invitation and wait for the RSVPs to start rolling in. share your event real estate with your communication partners. perhaps most important. Follow up. If you have some promotional funding. Since we are all being asked to do more with less these days. (Unless. there is a huge opportunity to cross-promote and create efficiencies. You must determine your organization s key corporate messages and how your event can reinforce and support them. Before your event. and where does this event. Consistency is king. then alignment between your event and marketing will come easy.

A hook can be anything that serves to draw in your audience. create opportunities for attenders to discuss their experience at your event. direct mail. Before you start planning that next event. Follow-up should include personal phone calls. Did the speaker address your challenges? and Can we send you more information on this topic? And follow up you must. the food. Lack of WOW factor. for at least 12 18 months after your event. Post-event Be sure to collect meaningful feedback about your event. You were there. maybe even an invitation to the next event. In follow-up surveys. . the speaker. Ask questions like. you should be well on your way to having a successful live event.So how do you get them to your event? You need a hook. Event budgets are challenging. Ask yourself where you are in comparison to your year-to-date or projected plan target. keep in mind the five most common mistakes made in event planning: Lack of follow-up on event marketing materials. marketed your event (in partnership with your corporate communication folks) and followed up relentlessly. Underestimating the work and the intense time lines. donors and sponsors through the door of your event? Once you ve developed your hook. Underestimating the budget. You can t just sit and wait for registrations to arrive. and there are always unforeseen costs so be sure to build in contingency plans. e-mail and social media campaigns and yes. Too many cooks in the kitchen. You must determine who has the ultimate decision making power over your event. during and after your event. Having too many people involved in the event planning process can lead to a lack of accountability. you monitor. You know about the room temperature. You must create a compelling reason for people to attend your event. If you follow the steps outlined here for before. Everybody thinks they can organize the ultimate event but project management can be incredibly timeconsuming. Perhaps you have the most intriguing speakers? Or celebrity guests? Are you known as the best party in town ? What s the compelling draw that will get customers.

Frank Kern. Over the past few years. You must create a hook that strongly resonates with your target market. Here s the really important part: It isn t enough to include your web address in your advertising. importance. not quantity of leads Concentrate on driving high-quality leads to your web site. The majority of visitors to your web site have some degree of interest in your .Kimberley Clarke is founder and principal of KCI Management. and then convert those leads into advance ticket sales. and online social networks like Facebook and Twitter. You can use the same strategy to generate high-quality leads online. Your web address needs to be coupled with a compelling reason to visit your event web site. I ve witnessed the amazing results of well-executed online lead generation campaigns. With a client roster consisting of blue chip companies in the IT. Two years ago. A dedicated event web site is one of the best lead-generation tools in your event marketing arsenal. a top Internet marketing guru. Visit (name of your site) and sign up for exclusive ticket offers and insider information not available to the public. radio. and multimillion dollar budgets. Remember. If people don t respond. a client used their event web site to generate 4. your web site acts as a natural traffic filter. This includes everything from television to print. and long-term profitability of having a good targeted list with which you have an excellent relationship. finance and academic sectors. Web-centric marketing model Your web site needs to be at the center of all your event marketing efforts. an event management firm specializing in corporate event marketing. How to Generate Leads and Sell Advance Tickets with an Event Web Site by Eugene Loj There is a big difference between an event web site and an event web site that lives up to its potential. Go for quality.000 brand-new leads. They were able to convert 31 percent of those leads into ticket sales. It could be something as simple as. Kimberley and her team regularly manage events with tight deadlines. A big list is ineffective if it consists of low-quality leads. summed up online lead generation like this: Absolutely nothing can replace the significance. you don t have a strong enough hook. high stakes. What follows is a brief outline of their simple strategy.

At first. My clients have created extraordinarily successful e-mail marketing campaigns integrating these systems into their event management. the Canadian International Air Show. Join our newsletter.event. The client wasn t sure that it was sending a positive message to the web site s visitors. benefit-laden sign-up box that took up half of their home page. As soon as people visit your web site. they collected more than 7. Last year. Their previous. unassuming Join our newsletter sign-up link to a monstrous. concentrate on collecting people s first names and e-mail addresses. Ninety percent visit three times or fewer. This was a highlyeffective incentive that drove opt-ins. You cannot afford to hesitate. or insider information to entice sign-ups. Put your opt-in box on the home page. Offer a benefit with enough value for a visitor to give you their name and e-mail address. the better the leads you will generate. Getting people to opt in Lead generation on your event web site should take the form of a well-thought-out opt-in box. present them with a reason to join your e-mail list that they can t resist. Focus on value first sell later . a downloadable event guide. A look at statistics from Google Analytics for three of my event clients.500 e-mail addresses in just 60 days. more obvious opt-in box. the client hated the look and feel of the opt-in box. above the fold. switched their opt-in box from a small. iContact and 1Shoppingcart. the Canadian International Air Show. Go beyond an opt-in box that just says. When they switched to the larger. Your opt-in box needs to give visitors a convincing reason to give you their personal information. The more targeted your marketing and advertising. Consider offering exclusive ticket discounts. Some e-mail marketing service providers include aWeber. discreet form collected 565 e-mail addresses over two years. another client of mine. Capturing leads online After you drive quality traffic to your event web site. you can either automatically e-mail your leads or send mass broadcasts. shows that over a two year period approximately 70 percent of people visit an event web site only once. A client of mine shared a previously unreleased event performer schedule with their e-mail list. the Rochester International Air Show and the Flour City Brewer s Fest. Use feedback you ve collected from your target market as a key indicator as to what is important to them. These online services make the collection of leads and communication with your database easy because they allow you to create an opt-in script that you can easily integrate into your event web site. I asked them to stick with it for 30 days. After you ve captured the lead. The services also provide real time e-mail marketing statistics and tracking capabilities.

and help to ensure its success. people respond in a very positive manner.After you build a list. you can generate a database of the best prospects for advance ticket sales to your event. The feedback Pietrowski receives is used to improve the event from year to year. Your e-mail marketing effort for your event should be based on cultivating an online relationship based on trust. Engage your online audience with relevant content and take advantage of the opportunity to capture leads.645. Be the opposite of everyone else who salespitches people to death. For example. No other form of advertising allows you to interact with your market like your event web site. When done correctly. When you ve delivered tremendous value that fuels an insatiable demand to attend your event.270 of advance ticket sales in just 60 minutes from those addresses! In seven days. After your event is over Use your list to follow up with people. New York.com. For example. the client who collected 7. Find out which leads turned into event attenders. You can access any of his articles for free on his web site at: http://www. daily flying schedules. The e-mails provide the list with insider information regarding the event. After the event. start to interact with your leads via e-mail. aviation stories and updates regarding the event. that s the time to sell tickets. What didn t you like about our event? Even though he s asking a negative question. a charity event in Buffalo. Before you dismiss this counterintuitive suggestion. consider this: Pietrowski sells out his 7. Innovative Meetings Use Technology to Succeed by Jason Menicheschi . links to performer videos. Eugene Loj has written more than 400 articles on event and Internet marketing. Use what you know about your target market to deliver valuable information to them regarding your event. Send them a post-event survey. I usually send 10 15 value-based e-mails before trying to sell anything. Dave Pietrowski organizes the World s Largest Disco. we offer list subscribers for the airshow a sneak peak of the performer line-up. he e-mails a thank-you note to attenders with one simple question.500 e-mail addresses went on to generate CDN$21. credibility and rapport.eugeneloj.000-person event months in advance. they generated CDN$64.

Meetings are no different. from television. think about how you can apply technology to take it to the next level. podcasts. Metro Bank hosts an Academy Awards-style event to recognize star employees and reinforce its servicefocused culture. The meeting has to serve a purpose for the attenders or no amount of bells and whistles will have any effect. Tie it to your strategy Before you rent out the nearest stadium or plan a multi-city webcast. first make sure your meeting is tied to your overall business strategy. He led division presidents and other company executives through a series of staged musical numbers.Today s meeting attenders have high expectations. Their high-impact experience for more than 700 employees includes multiple screens and cameras. Inspiration breeds inspiration Executives with the Ford Motor Company credit global sales meeting wanted to show the company s management and sales people how to take risks. Following are some tips and examples to help you. To drive the point home. radio. The objective was to show that if executives could take an unusual risk and perform in a musical number. Internal events should be all about employees what they ve already accomplished and what they hope to accomplish next. from video to text messaging. Think of how you receive your information each day. the head of Ford Financial was cast as the director of a huge production number. so could all of the Ford Financial employees attending the event. whether it s a staff meeting for 100 people or a sales meeting for 1. each year. the Internet and don t forget the posts and status updates from social media. It s the combination and integration of these media that speaks to you and communicates key points. They expect to be engaged and inspired. Providing that inspiration may sound easier said than done.000. It has to connect to your organization s goals in order to have meaning. Communicating your messages through a variety of integrated media. The bank also used its most recent event to create excitement around the launch of its new brand. Technology coupled with entertainment are the means used to create a meaningful event experience. Face it: They re taking valuable time out of the office. The result was an effective meeting that left attenders motivated and empowered to try even harder when they returned to the office. Acknowledge achievements A successful event is one that attenders look forward to year after year. For example. can be truly innovative and can lead to highly effective meetings. Before you plan your next event. print. RSS feeds. and they re not making money while at your meeting. . lighting and more.

demonstrating the life cycle of a cup of coffee. At TechQuest Pennsylvania s recent Technology Awards gala in Harrisburg. In previous years. however. Giant inserted a few video programs into the day-long event. used special audience response system remote controls to vote on a series of questions embedded in a PowerPoint presentation. The texting was an entertaining highlight of the evening. stages media-rich annual business meetings to celebrate the company s past achievements and motivate managers for the coming year.000 store managers and field leadership members attended the organization s New Orleans Starbucks Mega Leadership Show. Attenders were led through an interactive experience.Make the message big Bigger is sometimes better when it comes to reaching an audience. and gave our CEO and emcee. Recent attenders at the Lancaster Chamber of Commerce and Industry annual business meeting in Lancaster. featured 14 short HD videos. The audience members also got to text messages about the event itself.S. Kelly Lewis. and it also gives the presenter an idea of what s going on in the minds of the attenders. Pennsylvania. And the survey says Keeping your audience engaged throughout an event can be as simple as using a response device system or personal cell phones. vice president of TechQuest Pennsylvania. audience members were able to share their concerns about issues in the county and the economy. The sheer scale of the event and the panoramic imagery was breathtaking and offered an engaging way for attenders to view business content. guests became a part of the action by voting with their cell phones to share how they use technology. Through this interactive system. opportunities for humorous adlibs throughout the evening.. Key messages were presented on 30 plasma screens that provided attenders with a 360degree experience. Give them a 360-degree view Coffee giant Starbucks Corporation understands how to stir things up. Texting engaged our audience with technology interaction throughout a complex presentation. which added some humor. video screen supported by multiple projectors and a computerized control system. creating a new kind of excitement for Giant employees. Its 2009 meeting. by 120-ft. Pennsylvania. from growing the beans to sorting them for roasting to brewing. Giant Food Stores. said Leigh Twiford. focused their attention on key presentation points. . More than 10. Polling allows the audience to participate fully in the event. one of the leading supermarket operations in the U. plus graphical presentations that were integrated into the day s program on a 20-ft. allowing employees to gain a better understanding of the company and its social responsibility program.

or distrust. this type of meeting can be just as engaging as an in-person event.. a variety of cutting-edge technology can help ensure that your next event is a success. At that time we were convinced that trust played a significant role in affecting overall organizational effectiveness. to consumers claims regarding the safety of Toyota vehicles in the U. If done properly.Online programs easily allow attenders to use their own phones to text votes and participate in the event. You ve probably used a similar program to send a donation to a worthwhile cause or vote for a contestant on a TV show. conducted in several . many companies are choosing to hold virtual meetings through webcasts. Our subsequent research.com. Jason can be contacted at JMenicheschi@JPLcreative. is at the core of all organizational relationships. Sherwyn Morreale and Michael Z. JPL s full-service meetings and events team produces media-rich annual meetings. even though they were thousands of miles apart. Jason Menicheschi is director of meetings and events at JPL in Harrisburg. more than 140 team members listened to company leaders. trust. webcasts. Taking your meeting to the Web Today. Recognized as one of the world s leading bridge engineering firms. Hackman Editor s note: This article is based on Building the High-Trust Organization: Strategies for Supporting Five Key Dimensions of Trust the latest book from IABC and Jossey-Bass available at the Knowledge Centre. Organizational Trust A Model for Building the High-Trust Organization by Pamela Shockley-Zalabak.S. Modjeski & Masters recently launched its new brand to eight separate locations in a customdeveloped web seminar that originated in Harrisburg. conferences. Every day there is a story concerning organizational trust in the headlines. We first became interested in organizational trust more than a decade ago. Across seven states. together. Pennsylvania. product rollouts. When used correctly. Pennsylvania. asked questions through webcast communication panes and shared the energy of the company s new brand promise video. From questions about how corporate advertisers respond to allegations about the personal integrity of Tiger Woods. sales presentations and motivational events.

languages. lower trust scores predicted lower effectiveness and less job satisfaction. It begins with the immediate supervisor or manager listening to employees and acting on their needs. (2000) showed that the more positive the trust score was for an organization. the more effective the organization was perceived to be and the more satisfied employees were with their jobs. . Competence relates to the overall efficiency of the organization as well as to the quality of its products or services. Openness and honesty is positively evaluated when managers and supervisors keep confidences and provide information about job performance. Conversely. Building the High-Trust Organization: Strategies for Supporting Five Key Dimensions of Trust. Dimension one: Competence The competence dimension is an organization s ability. ideas or concerns. decisions.countries around the world. to meet the challenges of its environment. The research we have conducted supports a model of organizational trust with five key drivers: Competence Openness and honesty Concern for employees/stakeholders Reliability Identification Further. The results of our survey for the IABC Research Foundation report. Employees evaluate an organization as open and honest when they are provided with information about how job-related problems are handled and how major organizational decisions will affect them as individuals. they need to believe they are heard. consulting experiences on four continents and in work on our new book. the essential element of organizational success. industries and types of organizations. For employees to trust that the organization has concern for them. Dimension two: Openness and honesty The openness and honesty dimension is reflected in how organizations communicate about problems. have only served to convince us that trust is not just critically important it is the main thing. through its leadership. strategy. Dimension three: Concern for employees/stakeholders The concern for employees dimension is squarely about communication and employment practices. Measuring Organizational Trust: A Diagnostic Survey and International Indicator. our research and practical experiences suggest the five drivers are strong and stable predictors of organizational trust across cultures. Competence comes from the capabilities of employees at all organizational levels. quality and capabilities. engage in constructive disagreements and provide input into job-related decisions.

Trust is the main thing. It is consistent behavior from day to day. . A reliable organization is a trusted organization because you can count on the organization to do what it says it is going to do. The concern dimension is reflected in both the perception and reality of top management s willingness to communicate regularly with employees and act on their concerns. reliability includes keeping commitments made to the organization and telling the organization the reason if any commitments must change. Often that means communicating about the need for change. salary scales. family leave. vacation. Employees trust the organization when they believe their immediate supervisor or manager is concerned about their personal well-being. with the entire organization. most often based on core values. Employees identify with and trust organizations that conduct themselves in a way that is consistent with how employees believe the organization should operate. Reliability is a steadiness in behavior that builds the trust necessary for uncertain times. They trust management when policies and procedures within the organization reflect concern for the wellbeing of employees generally. Safety procedures. It is about doing what supervisors and managers say they are going to do. Strategic communication makes all the difference. Dimension five: Identification The identification dimension is the connection between the organization and individual employees. It is not surprising that identification or the lack thereof is often directly related to the quality of management-employee relationships. and communicators are at the forefront of trust-building strategies in organizations. Identification relates to an individual establishing a personal connection with management and peers and. Many believe there is nothing we can do to actively build trust. Dimension four: Reliability The reliability dimension is about keeping commitments and basic follow-through. and a host of other organizationwide processes determine whether employees trust the organization is concerned for their well-being.Trust is related to leaders attempts to disseminate information to employees and the way leaders talk about any specific employee group to others. but we disagree. performance evaluation. health plans and benefits. in a more elusive way. Everything we do is about trust-building. The reliability dimension of trust should not be confused with sameness or the status quo. Reliability is doing what you say you are going to do and saying why. Identification comes when individuals believe their values are reflected in the values the organization exhibits in day-to-day behaviors. For top management. promotional practices.

She can be reached at smorreal@uccs. Michael Z.D.. Ph. Sherwyn Morreale.Pamela Shockley-Zalabak... is a faculty member in the Department of Communication at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs and director of graduate studies in communication. is professor in the Department of Communication and director of the honors program at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. is chancellor and professor of communication at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs.edu. He also serves as an adjunct at the Center for Creative Leadership and is an experienced consultant.edu. Ph. and her research interests include organizational trust and cultures as they relate to overall organizational effectiveness. . He can be reached at mhackman@uccs. She is the author of six books and numerous articles on organizational communication. Hackman. Ph.edu.D. She has served as the associate director for the National Communication Association. She can be reached at pshockle@uccs.D.

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