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ANUJA SHAH DIPARNA SHETYE
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MEANING OF RESEARCH MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS RESEARCH DESIGN DATA COLLECTION STEPS IN CONSTRUCTION SAMPLING QUESTIONNAIRE
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR THE PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS ELEMENTS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE PROCESS PARTIES INFLUENCING PURCHASE DECISION CADBURY MARKET SURVEY DATA ANALYSIS LIMITATIONS IN RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY
MEANING OF RESEARCH
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.” Some people consider research as a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. Research is an academic activity and such a term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D.Slesinger and M.Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, corrector verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of art.” Research is thus an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also research. As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusion either in the form of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generalization for some theoretical formulation.
MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS
Marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis an reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company.
Marketing research process
Define the problem and research objective
Develop the research plan
Collect the information
Analyze the information
Present the findings in Report
namely. choice of research design. research approaches. In order to identify the research problem. It is most important stage as poorly defined problems will not yield useful results. Step 4: Analyze the information After the process of gathering information was completed we tabulated the data and developed frequency distributions and extracted the findings from the survey. Such opportunities are not clearly seen and dome effort is required to explore them. would soon become evident. Step 5: Present the findings 6 . residential complexes.Step 1: Define the problem and the research objectives The 1st step in research is formulating a research problem. research instruments. Latent difficulties are those which are not so apparent and which. Unnoticed opportunities indicate the potential for growth in a certain area of marketing. sampling plan and contact methods. Overt difficulties are hose which are quite apparent and which manifest themselves. colleges and schools and also retailers. latent difficulties and unnoticed opportunities should be studied. overt difficulties. if not checked. Step 3: Collect the information Our research group collected the information over a period of 15 days and from various locations such as malls. three categories of symptomatic situations. Step 2: Develop the research plan Designing a research plan calls for decisions on data sources. Also the marketing management must be careful not to define the problem too broadly or too narrowly.
A. Hypothesis. 3. research approach. The process of designing a research study involves many interrelated decisions.Testing Research Studies (Experimental Studies) 2.Testing Research Studies • Hypothesis-tested research studies (experimental studies) are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables.Finally we prepared a project report on our survey and along with the findings we also presented our recommendations. Step 6: Make the decision RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the detailed blueprint used to guide a research study toward its objectives. • Professor Fischer found that by dividing agricultural fields or plots into different blocks and then by conducting experiments in each of these blocks. The achievement of this fit among objective. To design something also means to ensure that the pieces fit together. • Professor R. • Such studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability. Types of Research Designs The different research designs can be categorized into research design in case of: 1. and research tactics is inherently an iterative process in which earlier decisions are constantly reconsidered in light of subsequent decisions. but will permit drawing inferences about casuality. because it determines how the information will be obtained. The most significant decision is the choice of research approach. Fisher begun such designs when he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station (Centre for Agricultural Research in England). Exploratory Research Studies. Descriptive And Diagnostic Research Studies Hypothesis. the information 7 .
probability sampling design (purposive or judgement sampling) No pre-planned design for analysis Unstructured instruments for collection of data Types of study Descriptive / DIAGNOSTIC Rigid design (design must make enough provision for protection against and must maximize reliability) Probability sampling design (random sampling) (i) sampling design (ii) statistical design (iii) observational design (iv) operational design Pre-planned design for analysis Structured or well thought out instruments for collection of data Advanced decisions about operational procedures No fixed design about the operational procedure 8 .collected and inferences drawn happen to be more reliable. • This fact inspired him to develop certain experimental designs for testing hypotheses concerning scientific investigation. Difference between exploratory and descriptive research RESEARCH DESIGN Exploratory of formulative Overall design Flexible design (design must provide opportunity for considering different aspects of the problem) Non.
The secondary are those which have been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through statistical process. The researcher would have to decide which sort of data he would be using for his study. They are as follows: 1. There are several ways of collecting primary data. which are collected afresh and for first time and thus happen to be original in character.DATA COLLECTION The task of data collection begins after problem has been identified. The method collecting primary and secondary data differ since primary data are to be originally collected while in case of secondary data the nature of data collection work is merely that of compilation. 3. Purpose is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and controls on validity and reliability. Observation method Interview method Through questionnaires Through schedules OBSERVATION METHOD Observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the researcher when it serves a formulated research. primary data and secondary. Under the observation method the information is sought by way of investigators own direct observation without asking from respondent 9 . While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study the researcher should keep in mind two types of data viz. 4. 2. The primary data are those.
it is essentially cross-sectional. opinions that are held. They are primarily concerned with present but at times do consider past events and influences as they relate to current conditions. Surveys are example of field research and are concerned with hypothesis formulation and testing analysis of the relationship between non-manipulated variables. as low as 20 to 30%. Thus. public opinion surveys. usually appropriate in case of social and behavioral sciences because many types of behavior that interest researcher cannot be arranged in realistic setting. the method of data collection happens to be either observation or interview or questionnaire or opinionnaire or some projective technique. research design must be rigid. the aim happens to be to obtain complete and accurate information. analyzing and interpreting conditions that exist or existed. processes that are going on. especially in mailed questionnaire studies.SURVEYS [Questionnaire to public] Surveys are concerned with describing. economic surveys. 10 . must make economical provision for protection against bias and must maximize reliability. effects that are evident or trends that are developing. Surveys are conducted in case of descriptive research studies. recording. the survey method gathers data relatively from the large number of cases at a peculiar time. Survey type researches usually have larger samples because percentages of responses generally happen to be low. In case of surveys. Case method may as well be used. The researcher does not manipulate the variable or arrange for events to happen Surveys are only concerned with conditions or relationships that exist. Possible relationships between the data and the unknowns in the universe can be studied through surveys. Whatever be their type. Surveys may either be census or sample surveys. They may also be classified as social surveys.
banks. then he has to look into various sources from where he can obtain them. The sources of unpublished data are many. Trade organization. they may be found in diaries. labor bureaus and other public/private organizations Researcher must be careful in using data. Secondary data may be either published or unpublished data. He must make a minute because it is just possible that the secondary data may be unsuitable or maybe be inadequate in the context of a problem which the researcher wants to study. state and local government Various publications of foreign government or of international bodies and their subsidiary organization. Usually published data are available in: Various publications of the central. letters unpublished biographies and autobiographies and also may be available with scholar’s research workers. stocks exchanges etc Reports prepared by various scholars’ universities economists etc in different field Public records and statistics. which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. In this case he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. 11 . When the researcher utilizes secondary data. historical documents and other sources of publish information. Technical and trade journals Books magazines and newspapers Reports publication of various associations connected with business and industry.COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA Secondary data means that are already available that is they refer to the data.
Precision required: Precision required is yet another important factor to be considered at the time of selecting the method of collection of data. this factor is also important in deciding whether the data already available are to be used not yet available are to be collected. When the funds at the disposal of the researcher are very limited. Finance in fact is big constraint in practice and the researcher has to act within this limitation Time factor: Availability of time has also to be taken into account in deciding particular method of data collection. Availability of funds: Availability of funds for the research project determines to a large extent the method to be used for the collection of data. The time at the disposal of the researcher thus affects the selection of the method by which the data is collected. 12 .the method selected should be such that it suits the type of enquiry that is to be conducted in the researcher. he will have to select a comparatively cheaper method. Some methods take relatively more time whereas with others the data can be collected in a comparatively shorter duration.Selection of appropriate methods for data collection Nature scope and object of enquiry: This constitutes the most important factor affecting the choice of a particular method .
2) TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS This method of collecting information consists contacting information consists contacting respondents on telephone itself. Periodic surveys are conducted by mail. 3) COMMERCIAL SURVEYS Commercial surveys can be divided into three types: Periodic. telephone or occasionally personal interviews over time. personal interview and telephone. But a continuous panel or panel data (explained more in panels) refers to a group of individuals who agree to report specified behaviors over time. sometimes called interval panels. Panel surveys Panel surveys. It is not a very widely used method. but plays important role in industrial surveys in developed regions. This sort of interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation or it may be an indirect oral investigation. focusing on the same topic and allowing the analysis of trends over a period. This method is particularly suitable for intensive investigations. are conducted among a group of respondents who have agreed to respond to a number of mail.Data Collection Instruments 1) PERSONAL INTERVIEW An interviewer asking questions generally face-to-face to other persons conducts personal interview. ranging from weekly to annually held surveys. These need not occur regularly. Each of them are discussed below Periodic surveys Periodic surveys are conducted at regular intervals. 13 . They use a new sample of respondents for each survey. Panel and Shared surveys.
as might be the case in personal interviews when the interviewer finds that the respondent. boarding and lodging of interviewers is not to be incurred. the focus of this section. product audits and retail distribution audits. telephone. sales receipts. When the questions asked to the respondents need time to be answered and needs some thinking. distribution and other relevant information. The main advantage here is the cost factor. Of respondents can be approached all over the country. which may undermine the reliability and validity of the results emerging from the survey. consumer further divided into diary panels and electronic panels.Shared surveys Shared surveys. market share. shelf facing and other aspects of marketing mix to determine sales. being away from home is not available. 6) MAIL QUESTIONNAIRE A mail questionnaire is free from any interviewer’s bias and errors. A continuous panel. or personal interviews. mail questionnaire is ideal. Such surveys can involve mail. It saves money as cost of traveling. (During some personal questions the respondents may hesitate to answer them in the presence of the interviewer). 4) AUDITS Audits involve the physical inspection of inventories. has agreed to report specified behaviors on regular basis. There is no difficulty in having central supervision and control over the survey operations over a large region. Mail Questionnaire saves time in collecting the desired information as a large no. The respondents may be drawn from either an interval panel or random selection. It will not have the problem of non-contacts in the strict sense. It avoids the bias arising from any inhibitions in answering questions. 5) PANELS A panel is a group of individuals or organizations that have agreed to provide information to researcher over a period of time. 14 . A mail questionnaire will not have any distribution bias as it will not show any particular preference or dislike for a certain individual or household. sometimes referred to as omnibus surveys. relative price. The different types of audits are store audits. are administered by a research firm and consist of questions supplied by multiple clients. There are 2 types of panels: retail and consumer.
Information which might explain the dependent variables-that is. Question Sequencing 4. To maximize the proportion of subjects answering our questionnaire that is. Question Phrasing 3. and the general layout of the questionnaire. 2. Question content: For each question in the questionnaire. There are two main objectives in designing a questionnaire: 1. establish rapport. the order we ask them in. Deciding what to ask there are three potential types of information: Information we are primarily interested in that is. The length of the questionnaire should be appropriate. To obtain accurate relevant information for our survey: In order to obtain accurate relevant information. we should pay attention to how well it addresses the content we are trying to get at. we have to consider carefully how we administer the questionnaire. Question Layout 1. Question Content 2. how we ask them. and explain the purpose of the survey.STEPS IN QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION A Questionnaire is often the heart of a survey operation. the response rate: To maximize our response rate. Thus studying the main objective of the questionnaire is important. If the heart is not properly set up then the whole operation is bound to fail. 15 . we have to give some thought to what questions we ask. Thus the most important parameters in questionnaire designing can be described as: 1. dependent variables.
Ask for only one piece of information at a time For example.independent variables. Other factors related to both dependent and independent factors. Is Question Biased or Loaded? One danger in question writing is that your own biases and blind spots may affect the wording. simple sentences are generally less confusing and ambiguous than long. Thus while forming the question content the following question must be answered appropriately. 1. Is the Question Necessary/Useful? Examine each question to see if there is a need to ask it at all and if you need to ask it at the level of detail you currently have. confounding variables. which may distort the results and have to be adjusted for . It should 16 .that is. As a rule of thumb. most sentences should contain one or two clauses. Does the Question Need to be More Specific? Sometimes the questions are too general and the information we obtain is more difficult to interpret. 3. Question phrasing: The way questions are phrased is important and there are some general rules for constructing good questions in a questionnaire. 2. Do Respondents Have the Needed Information? Look at each question to see whether the respondent is likely to have the necessary information to be able to answer the question. If there is some reason why they may not. "Please rate the lecture in terms of its content and presentation" asks for two pieces of information at the same time. complex ones. 2. consider rewording the question. Will Respondents Answer Truthfully? For each question see whether the respondent will have any difficulty answering the question truthfully. 5. Use short and simple sentences Short. 4.
" the statement should be rephrased as. 3. -Go from easy to difficult. a researcher must pay attention to the question-sequence in preparing the questionnaire. "Small group teaching should continue. • The order of the questions is also important. -Start with questions relevant to the main subject. with questions that are easiest to answer being put in the beginning. • Relatively difficult questions must be relegated towards the end so that even if the respondent decides not to answer such questions. • Following the opening questions are the question that are rally vital to the research problem and a connecting thread should run through successive questions.be divided into two parts: "Please rate the lecture in terms of (a) its content. Ask precise questions Questions may be ambiguous because a word or term may have a different meaning. -Do not start with demographic and personal questions. considerable information would have been obtained. • The first few questions are particularly important because they are likely to influence the attitude of the respondent and in seeking his desired cooperation.Question layout: 17 ." Avoid negatives if possible Negatives should be used only sparingly. -Start with closed format questions." Double negatives should always be avoided. "Small group teaching should not be abolished. Question sequencing: In order to make the questionnaire effective and to ensure quality to the replies received. instead of asking students whether they agree with the statement. For example. (b) its presentation. 4. -Go from factual to abstract. • A proper question sequence reduces the chances of the questions being misunderstood • The question sequence must be clear and smooth.moving. Some general rules are: -Go from general to particular.
However. Questionnaires are versatile. Conclusion: Questionnaire design is a long process that demands careful attention. Questionnaires that jump from one unrelated topic to another feel disjointed and are not likely to produce high response rates. or those that cover a specific topic should appear together. Design begins with an understanding of the capabilities of a questionnaire and how they can help the research. a questionnaire is only as good as the questions it contains. Questionnaires are like any scientific experiment. One does not collect data and then see if they found something interesting. Transitions between questions should be smooth. allowing the collection of both subjective and objective data through the use of open or closed format questions. 18 . and the respondent will feel more comfortable. If it is determined that a questionnaire is to be used. the greatest care goes into the planning of the objectives. One forms a hypothesis and an experiment that will help prove or disprove the hypothesis. When these guidelines are followed. • Each question should follow comfortably from the previous question. Writing a questionnaire is similar to writing anything else.• Questions should form a logical part of a well thought out tabulation plan. the questionnaire becomes a powerful and economic evaluation tool. Mindful review and testing is necessary to weed out minor mistakes that can cause great changes in meaning and interpretation. Grouping questions that are similar will make the questionnaire easier to complete. • Questions should basically meet the following standards -Should be easily understood -Should be simple -Should be concrete and should conform as much as possible to the respondent’s way of thinking. • Items on a questionnaire should be grouped into logically coherent sections. Questions that use the same response formats.
which make census impractical or even impossible. therefore. 2. the decision until information is obtained may result in a smaller gain or a larger loss than would have been the case from making the same decision earlier. as the case may be) is. which is provided by some process or other. The opportunity to make more (or save more. Time: The kind of cost we have just considered is an outlay cost. Surveys of industrial consumers or of distributors of consumer products are frequently in the form of a census. or a subset from a set of units. The time involved in obtaining information from either a census or a sample involves the possibility of also incurring an opportunity cost. average amount kept at home and the like) and the population of interest is all households in a country. Thus a sample is the only logical way of obtaining new data from a population of this size. If information is desired on grocery purchase and use behaviour (frequencies and amounts of purchase of each product category. A part of a population. usually by deliberate selection with the object of investigating the properties of the parent population or set. Cost: Cost is an obvious constraint on the determination of whether a census should be taken. contains no sampling error. by definition. The reasons are as follows: 1. foregone. That is. A study using a sample may involve 19 . the cost will preclude a census being taken. 3.SAMPLING Census versus Sample Census in simple terms means to measure each element in the group or population of interest. Accuracy: A study using a census. However there are certain reasons.
or gas seed. A sample is then the only practical choice. and interviews conducted of those not responding. bicycles. a 100% sample (census) may be entirely reasonable. 20 . The potential for errors in a returned questionnaire is therefore high. However it has been argued that a more accurate estimate of the population of a country could be made from a sample than from a census. Other things being equal. or electrical appliances are to be tested. If one were producing firecrackers. Destructive nature of the measurement: Measurements are sometimes destructive in nature. census questionnaires mailed. On the other hand. Taking a census of a population on a “mail out – mail back” basis requires that the names and addresses of almost all households be obtained.sampling error in addition to other types of error. The questionnaires are sent to a population of which only about half have completed high school. performing a functional use test on all products for quality control purposes would not be considered from an economic standpoint. it is apparent that taking a census would usually defeat the purpose of a measurement. When they are. if the light bulbs. a census will provide more accurate data than a sample. electrical fuses.
The sampling unit may contain one or several population elements. city block.The Sampling Process Step 1. map. b) units. or 3. The office and fieldwork necessary for the selection of the sample are carried out. 21 . Select the sample selected is described. c) extent and d) time. Specify sampling unit city directory – are described. The number of elements of the population to be sampled is chosen. Specify sampling method The method by which sampling units are to be 5. The means of representing the elements of the population – for example telephone book. 4. Specify sampling frame Description The population is defined in terms of a) element. Determine sample size 6. Define the population 2. The operational procedures for selection of the sampling units are selected. company. Specify sampling plan 7. or household – is selected. The unit for sampling – for example.
acquisition. what they buy. It is a subcategory of marketing that blends elements from psychology. friends. reference groups. psychographics. develop new products and find the language adapted to the target 22 . and behavioral variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process. both individually and in groups.To detect trends. utilization and destruction of goods.To understand the behaviors and attitudes of the consumers when choosing a product or a Brand In long run . Consumption is the “process of production. and society in general. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family.CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Consumer behaviour is the study of how people buy. sociopsychology. services. experiences or places” Why should we care? In Short run . sociology. anthropology and economics. when they buy and why they buy.
religions.FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Personal Social Cultural Culture Subculture Social Class Reference Groups Family Roles and status Age & life cycle stage Occupation Economic situation Lifestyle Personality Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs & Attitudes Buyer Psychological 1. 2. web site in Mandarin and Cantonese [in addition to English and French] to court the growing and Affluent Asian community. racial Groups. and geographic areas. Social factor Family 23 . Cultural factor Subculture People with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. The HSBC bank in Canada. Subcultures include nationalities.
It profiles a person’s whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. and tendencies toward an object or idea. 4. Sleeman beer ads reveal a dynamic and sophisticated city image. Lure women and they will drag their husbands behind them. Attitudes are difficult to change. and opinions. Psychological factor Attitude A person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations. To promote its premium image to a new target market. but the Milk processor’s wildly popular milk moustache campaign succeeded in changing attitudes towards milk. Family members can strongly influence buyer behaviour. Personal factor Lifestyle A person’s pattern of living as expressed in their activities. Family buying influences: Lowe’s targets women shoppers who initiate 80% of all home improvement decisions. Husbands. wives. feelings. 24 . interests. and children have varying influences on different product and services. 3.
THE PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS 25 .
NEED [PROBLEM RECOGNITION] ELEMENTS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE PROCESS 26 . INFORMATION SEARCH LOYALTY 1.4. PURCHA SE 3. POST-PURCHASE EVALUATION 2. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES 5.
Need is different from motivation . Needs can be . It’s difficult to create a need 3.Need is a state of tension.Conscious but not declared . while motivation is the force that pushes to reduce this state of tension 2.PURCHA SE INVOLMENT SATISFACTION MEMORIZATION LOYALTY PERCEPTION NEED 1.Unconscious 27 .
PARTIES INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE PROCESS FRIENDS FAMILY OPINION LEADERS 28 .
that unite them. of kinship or others.Family Household: – A group of persons who share a same principal residence. whatever the links. their children or by a person without spouse and his/ her children. and. Family: – Part of a household constituted either by a couple (married or not). Friends and Opinion leaders Friends: – Group of belonging – Reference group – From group to tribe Opinion leaders: – “One is considered as leader when he/ she are recognized as such by the others” – A leader in a category of products is not necessarily leader in another 29 . A household can be reduced to a single person. if need be.
“THE SWEET TOOTH OF THE WORLD” 30 .
Dr Pepper. Dentyne and Bubbas bubble gum range in its portfolio with acquisition of Adams in December 2002.000 people in over 200 countries around the world. The company employees around 55. 60 per cent of the Group’s net sales came from confectionery and 40 per cent from beverages. Trebor Basset. 31 . Some of the popular international brands of the company are Cadbury Dairy Milk. The company also has Halls.1 confectionery and third largest soft drinks company in the world. Snapple and Motts.CADBURY INDIA Background Cadbury Schweppes is the No. Cadbury Schweppes’ has focused on confectionery and nonalcoholic beverages. Clorets. Since 1969. The origin of the group goes back to over two centuries. Trident. Flake. In 2004.
1 confectionery company with a 70 per cent market share in India. Dairy milk is the largest chocolate brand in India. The company today employs nearly 2. Cadbury India is the No. etc.Cadbury in India Cadbury India is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes which has operated in the country for more than 55 years. Perk. 32 . Gems. It was originally incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes Overseas Ltd in 1948. It is a dominating player in the Indian chocolate market with strong brands like Dairy Milk.000 people across India. Five Star.
Perk & Celebrations Gift boxes. Cadbury’s other products include Drinking Chocolate and Cocoa powder.3 million in 2004. panned confectionery (Gems) and wafer chocolates (Perk). its sweet snacking brand. The leading brands in this category are Cadbury’s Dairy Milk. The company has recently made a foray into snacking category with Cadbury Bytes. toffees (English Toffee). Temptations). Halls is amongst the largest brands in its segment of Minty / Breath freshness brands in India. Crackle. Chocolates . For more than five decades now.Cadbury is mainly into three segments 1. Overall share in the malted food drinks market is estimated to be around 19 per cent. Sugar Confectionery – Cadbury Dairy Milk Eclairs is one of the leading brands in this category.6 million in 2000 to US$ 166. count lines (5 star. Cadbury has enjoyed leadership position in the Indian chocolate market to the extent that 'Cadbury’ has become a generic name for chocolate products. Cadbury has leading brands in all the segments viz bars (Dairy Milk. éclairs (Cadburys' Eclairs). Fruit & Nut. 5 Star. Crackle. Temptations. 33 . Cadbury also owns Halls (which was acquired as a part of the global acquisition of the Adams business from Pfizer in 2003).Cadbury India is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery market in India with over 70 per cent market share. Food Drinks – Cadbury’s Bournvita is a leading brand in the brown drinks segment of milk / malted food products. 3. It is amongst the largest éclair brands in the market in terms of value share. Milk Treat). The company has been performing well in India. The net sales of the company have increased from around US$ 131. 2.
India contributes to less than 5 per cent of the global revenues today. Cadbury has improved the distribution quality of its products with the installation of refrigerators at several outlets. It also offers products at affordable price points so as to increase its market penetration. The distribution network directly covers almost the entire urban population. when sales usually dip due to the fact that the heat affects product quality and thereby consumption. The company uses Information Technology to improve its logistics and distribution competitiveness. The company places great emphasis in ensuring display dominance at the point of purchase 3. relevant. Extensive distribution network Cadbury’s brands are available in over a million outlets across the country. Customization of products for India Cadbury India has spent time in understanding the Indian consumers. insightful and entertaining communication. This helps in maintaining product quality in summer. 4. The company has invested significantly in building such an extensive network. India is critical to the global strategy of the company 5. The company has built strong brand equity through consistently high product quality. Cadbury has developed new channels for marketing its brands such as Gifting and Snacking. the company has customized its products to the Indian markets. 2. Managerial Talent Cadbury has begun recruiting management graduates in India to serve its global operations. 34 .Factors for Success 1. Leveraging the India Advantages Though. Leveraging its 55 years of experience in India. Creation of strong brands Cadbury owes its success to strong brand equity and resultant consumer preference that it enjoys in India.
The company also leverages India as a manufacturing base for producing products for the overseas market. It also has a wide Sales & Distribution infrastructure consisting of 33 depots managed by 4 regional sales branches across India. 35 . Cadbury India has 4 company owned factories and as many third party manufacturing contractors.6. Huge market potential India offers huge market potential and is a priority market for Cadbury.
30 yrs What do you normally prefer ___________________________ Do you like chocolates? Very much Okay Not much Not at all to eat as a sweet item How many times you buy chocolates? Once every day 2. please specify What do chocolates signify to you? ________________________________________ 36 .MARKET SURVEY FOR CHOCLATES QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CONSUMERS Name Gender : : ____________________________________________ _____________ Age group : 16-20 yrs 21.3 times a week Once a week On special occasions only Others.
please specify _______________________________________________ Why do you prefer that particular brand? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Is there anything that you feel is lacking in your preferred brand of chocolates? If yes.Where do you normally buy chocolates from? Your local kirana shops Supermarkets like Big Bazaar Rate your preferences in choice of chocolates on a scale of 1-5 (5 being highest rank) Taste Sweetness Price Calories Brand of the chocolate Packaging Ingredients/ flavors Which brand of chocolates you prefer? Nestle Cadbury’s Amul Foreign brands like Hershey’s Any other. what will be your ideal price range? 37 . please describe _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Do you think that the present choices available in chocolates are costly? If yes.
Would you prefer to switch to chocolates of another brand if it is cheaper than your preferred brand without any change in quality & taste? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Do continue eating chocolates of a company if it has some controversy in market or do you lose trust? Yes No Does a Personality like AMITABH BACHHAN or RANI MUKHERJI or PREITY ZINTA influences your decision of buying a particular brand of chocolate? Yes No Not completely 38 .
MARKET SURVEY FOR CHOCOLATES QUESTIONNAIRE FOR RETAILERS Name of the shop : ________________________________________________________ Location : _____________________________________________________________ Which brands of chocolates does the shop sell? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Highest sales of which brand of chocolates (i.e. how many in 1 day) _____________________________________________________________ ___________ What are customer’s preferences in the choice of chocolates? Taste Sweetness Price Calories Brand of the chocolate Packaging Ingredients/ flavors Sales of chocolates are highest during which period? _____________________________________________________________ ___________ 39 .
Are there any customer complaints about the existing brands of chocolates? _____________________________________________ Has the demand for chocolates risen in the past few years? _____________________________________________________________ ___________ 40 .
DATA ANALYSIS FOR CONSUMERS Sample Size: 25 respondents 20 consumers – 82% 5 retailers – 18% SAMPLE SIZE Retailers 18% Consumers Retailers Consumers 82% 20 Consumers: 9 males – 46% 11 females – 54% CONSUMERS Females 54% Males 46% Males Females 41 .
Age group: 16-20 years: 10 respondents Males: 4 respondents Females: 6 respondents AGE GROUP : 16 .20 Females 40% Males 60% Males Females Age group: 21-30 years: 10 respondents Males: 5 respondents Females: 5 respondents AGE GROUP: 21-30 Females 50% Males 50% Males Females 42 .
Normally prefer as a sweet item Chocolates: 53% Ice creams: 11% Traditional Sweets: 28% Cake: 6% PREFERENCE AS A SWEET ITEM 6% 29% 54% 11% Chocolates Ice creams Traditional Sweets Cake Do you like chocolates? Very much: 59% Okay Okay: 28% Not much: 11% Not at all: 2% 43 .
LIKE AND DISLIKE OF CHOCOLATES 11% 2% Very much Okay Okay 28% 59% Not much Not at all How many times do you buy chocolates? Once every day: 33% 2-3 times a week: 30% Once a week: 12% Special occasions: 25% BUYING PATTERN Special occasions 25% Once a week 12% Once every day 33% Once every day 2-3 times a week Once a week Special occasions 2-3 times a week 30% Where do you normally buy chocolates from? Kirana shop: 79% Supermarkets: 9% Both: 12% 44 .
PREFFERED DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL 12% 9% Kirana shop Supermarkets Both 79% Which are the top attributes a consumer looks for while making his decision? 28% respondents said taste was the most important factor of selection 27% respondents said brand was the most important factor of selection 25% respondents said ingredients/ flavours was the most important factor of selection 20% respondents said packaging was the most important factor of selection PREFERENCES Packaging 20% Taste 28% Taste Brand Ingredients Ingredients 25% Brand 27% Packaging On an average the scale of preference was as follows: 1st priority: Taste 2nd priority: Brand 3rd priority: Packaging 45 .
4th priority: Flavors 5th priority: Sweetness/less sweet 6th priority: Calories 7th priority: Price Which brand of chocolates you prefer? Cadbury’s: 57% Nestle & Cadbury: 18% Cadbury & Foreign Brands: 10% Only Foreign Brands: 9% Amul: 2% Nestle: 2% Nestle & Foreign Brands: 2% MARKET LEADER 2% 2% 2% 9% 10% 57% Cadbury & Foreign Brands Only Foreign Brands Amul Nestle Nestle & Foreign Brands Cadbury’s Nestle & Cadbury 18% 46 .
have stated the following attributes as lacking in the existing varieties of chocolates: • Lack of chocolates in attractive shapes • High price • Not enough crunchier • Not good as compared to foreign brands 47 . Is there anything lacking according to you in your preferred brand? (amongst the existing varieties) No: 84% Yes:16% SATISFACTION GRAPH Yes 16% No Yes No 84% The respondents who replied yes.Why do you prefer your choice of brand? Majority of the respondents said that they liked a particular brand of their choice especially Cadbury because of taste. quality and most importantly brand name and packaging.
what will be your ideal price range? Yes: 45% No: 55% PRICES: HIGH OR LOW Yes 45% No 55% No Yes Would you prefer to switch to another brand? Yes: 53% No: 43% Indifferent: 4% 48 .Are the present choices available in chocolates. costly? If yes.
3. 86% When is the sale of chocolates the highest? 49 . 19.PRICE SENSITIVITY OF CONSUMERS Indifferent 4% Yes 53% No 43% No Yes Indifferent DATA ANALYSIS OF RETAILERS Which brand of chocolates does shop sell? 22% of retailers stock cadbury’s 19% or retailers stock Nestle 13% of retailers stock Amul 3% of retailers stock imported brands. 14% Cadbury's Nestle Cadbury's. Which brand has the highest sales? HIGHEST SALES Nestle.
Large size of target population The target population of chocolates is each and every person with teeth right from children to old people. 86% Sales are normally higher during Festivals.All Time. 19. Thus it is very difficult to estimate the sales and buying pattern of consumers in general. Our sample size of 25 thus cannot be said to be the correct representation of the target market. Special occasions like Valentines Day. 50 . Fragmentation Chocolates are not only sold in exclusive shops but also sold in simple retail shops. LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH 1. 14% Festivals All Time Festivals. 2. Friendship day. 3.
com 51 .rediff.ask.com www.google.cadburydairymilk.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS REFERRED BOOK NAME MARKETING MANAGEMENT AUTHOR’S NAME PHILIP KOTLER WEBSITES www.com www.cadbury.cadburyltd.com www.com www.wikipedia.com www.com www.com www.cadburysindia.
BRAND LINE 2. ECONOMIC TIMES MAGAZINES REFERRED 1.yahoo.COMPETITION SUCCESS REVIEW 52 .www.com NEWSPAPERS REFERRED 1.