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Functions Introduction The phrase "y is a function of x" means that the value of y depends upon the value of x. for example. there are two values of x such that f(x) = 4 (namely 2 and 2). which is found by replacing x"s by 4"s .g. One-to-One We say that a function is one-to-one if. Example If f(x) = 3x + 4. so y can be written in terms of x (e. and y is a function of x (i. f(x) = x2 is not one to one because. Sometimes. in other words all of the possible values of y when y = f(x). y cannot be negative. then the value of y when x is 4 is f(4). find f(5) and f(x + 1). we can choose the domain to be all of the real numbers.e. y = f(x) ). then function f. Composing Functions fg means carry out function g. f(5) = 3(5) + 4 = 19 f(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) + 4 = 3x + 7 Domain and Range The domain of a function is the set of values which you are allowed to put into the function (so all of the values that x can take). since if y = x2. fg is written as fog Example If f(x) = x2 and g(x) = x 1 then gf(x) = g(x2) = x2 1 fg(x) = f(x 1) = (x 1)2 As you can see. a function is one to one if any horizontal line cuts the graph only once. for every point y in the range of the function. fg does not necessarily equal gf The Inverse of a Function . So if y = x2. y = 3x ). there is only one value of x such that y = f(x). On a graph. The range is all of the real numbers greater than (or equal to) zero. If f(x) = 3x. The range of the function is the set of all values that the function can take.

1) Therefore f -1(x) = ½(x . Example Find the inverse of f(x) = 2x + 1 Let y = f(x). so y = ½(x . therefore y = 2x + 1 swap the x"s and y"s: x = 2y + 1 Make y the subject of the formula: 2y = x . The inverse is said to exist if and only there is a function f-1 with ff-1(x) = f-1f(x) = x Note that the graph of f-1 will be the reflection of f in the line y = x.1. A function is continuous if its graph has no breaks in it.The inverse of a function is the function which reverses the effect of the original function. An example of a discontinuous graph is y = 1/x. The graph of such a function will . Graphs Functions can be graphed. swap the x"s and y"s and make y the subject of the formula. since the graph cannot be drawn without taking your pencil off the paper: A function is periodic if its graph repeats itself at regular intervals. this interval being known as the period. For example the inverse of y = 2x is y = ½ x .1) f-1(x) is the standard notation for the inverse of f(x). To find the inverse of a function. A function is even if it is unchanged when x is replaced by -x .

Even functions which are polynomials have even degrees (e. is x for values of x which are positive and -x for values of x which are negative. So the graph of y = |x| is y = x for all positive values of x and y = -x for all negative values of x: Transforming Graphs If y = f(x). The graph of the function will have rotational symmetry about the origin (e. Curve Sketching Given a particular equation. the graph of y = f(x c) will be the graph of y = f(x) shifted c units to the right. the modulus of -1 ( |1| ) is 1. A function is odd if the sign of the function is changed when x is replaced by -x . scale factor (1/a). . For example. from your knowledge that in the equation y = mx + c. parallel to the x-axis. y = x³). [Scale factor 1/a means that the "stretch" actually causes the graph to be squashed if a is a number greater than 1] Example The graph of y = |x .g. but shifted one unit to the right (so the point of the V will hit the x-axis at 1 rather than 0). y = x²). |x|.g. the graph of y = f(x) + c (where c is a constant) will be the graph of y = f(x) shifted c units upwards (in the direction of the y-axis). If y = f(x). The modulus of x.be symmetrical in the y-axis. If y = f(x).1| would be the same as the above graph. If y = f(x). You should be able to quickly sketch straight-line graphs. the graph of y = f(x + c) will be the graph of y = f(x) shifted c units to the left. The Modulus Function The modulus of a number is the magnitude of that number. you need be able to draw a quick sketch of its curve showing the main details (such as where the curve crosses the axes). the graph of y = af(x) is a stretch of the graph of y = f(x). m is the gradient and c where the graph crosses the y-axis.

x) = 1 + x -1 + x = 1 + x -1 = 1.When asked to sketch a more complicated curve. positive or negative. x = -1 is an asymptote because when x is -1. Such functions are known as odd functions. Functions which are symmetrical in the y-axis are known as even functions. . These can then be marked onto your sketch. What happens as x becomes very small (large and negative)? Is the graph symmetrical about the x or y-axes? Remember that the graph is symmetrical about the y-axis if replacing x by -x in the equation of the graph doesn't change the equation (for example y = x2 is symmetrical about the y-axis because if x is replaced by -x. A curve often gets very close to an asymptote. Substitute in x = 0 and then y = 0 to determine the crossing points. Work out where the graph crosses the axes. For example y2 = x. The graph will cross the x-axis when y = 0 and the y-axis when x = 0. there are a number of things that you should work out before drawing your sketch: y Asymptotes. Therefore. The graph is symmetrical about the x-axis if replacing y by -y does not change the equation of the graph. without actually crossing it. we end up dividing by zero so there will be an asymptote at x = 1. The graph will have rotational symmetry if f(x) = -f(-x). in other words if replacing x by -x in the equation only results in the sign of the equation being changed. y y y y y y Example Sketch the graph of y = 1 + x 1-x 1) Asymptotes: When x = 1. Remember that you cannot divide by zero. very small. and mark these on your sketch.these are lines for which the graph is undefined (this means that the curve does not cross asymptotes). -1 = 1 + x 1-x -1(1 . What happens as x becomes very large? Think about whether y will become very large. in the graph of 1/(1 + x). you end up dividing by zero. the value of y is not changed since (-x)2 = x2). Also think about what happens when y = -1. You may also think about where the maxima and minima occur (by differentiating).

so the graph cannot be defined for y = -1. 1 + x = 0 so x = -1. 1 + x will become large and positive and 1 . y = 1. The sketch of the graph would therefore look something like this: Note that the curve does not cut the lines that we have found to be asymptotes. This is therefore another asymptote. 4) By substituting in -x for x it can be seen that the graph is not symmetrical in the x axis. When y = 0. Therefore the curve crosses the y-axis at (0. 0).1).x will become very large and positive. Therefore as x becomes large.This cannot happen. Therefore y = -large/large = -1. y = large/-large = -1. As x becomes very large and negative. 1 + x will become very large and negative and 1 . 2) Where the axes are crossed: When x = 0. Therefore the curve crosses the x-axis at (-1. since -1 ¹ 1. but it gets extremely close to them.x will become large and negative. 3) As x becomes large. .

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