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and in particular following the English translation of The Production of Space.and his discussionslips in andout of these differentdimensions.BODIES.A number monographs e. time. Elden.among mostimportant French and authorssuch as deBeauvoir. 1996. 1993. 1994.Ainley. in particularwhen it comes to the conception of a generative and creative social body as an intrinsic part of social practice. even though a range of writers on Lefebvre do acknowledge his emphasis on embodiment.. p. Butler. in this way also emphasizing creative. 1998. talks about an unresolvedcontradiction between ontology andhistoryin muchof Lefebvre'svision (Smith. (see 2000.. 2005 . of 1984. although on quitea few writers Lefebvrenoticehis emphasis on embodiment Gregory. and through such interactions add to current discussions on 'body politics' and 'performativity'.Feheret al. Heidegger Merleauof and Ponty. Shields. In the same period. he does not seem to be considereda to majorcontributor a theoryof the body.1996. in 1995the These atjournalBody & Societywas established. issues on the body and embodiment have increasingly come to the fore over recent decades. Few.in particular 1 Introduction of therehasbeenanoutpouring litInrecent decades and of erature the importance embodiment the on as bodyin (notleastfeminist)geography well as other partsof the humanitiesand social sciences. The living body. Ann. space'.g. Key words: body. to bvreto be a majorcontributor theseendeavours. moving bodies. Henri Lefebvre has been a central figure in the geographical discourse. Smith. histories thebodyliketheonesof Elias Lefeseemto consider andFoucault. Kristeva. 1998. such as Marx. Duncan. has the space-bodyrelationship come much more into the centreof analysis.Later. 1996. theorizing body inevitablyinvolvesa focus on space. Irigiray Cixous. Geogr. As in manyof his themes. (Lefebvre. Turner. p. space. Merrifield. In geography as well as other human/social sciences. Instead of a conclusion the paper argues that Lefebvre's contribution could gainfully interact with later (not least feminist) approaches.1991. 1994. Heideggger and Nietzsche. Longhurst. not without some justification. sensations.. 1991. cannottoleratesuch conceptualdivision. 1998)haveappeared. embodiment.phenomenological critiquesof Cartesianand ism in theworkof Husserl.2004)..Lefebvre's writingson the body-space relationship include a conceptual and as well as a historical a politicaldimension. SENSATIONS.All the same. 87 B (1): 1-14. 7). being at once 'subject' and 'object'. it seems that he has only partially found his way into the core of the body literature. the contrary. Pile. 407. Lefebvre he although wasveryfirmabouttheneedto reinstate and the body in philosophy socialthought: Westernphilosophyhas betrayedthe body. ABSTRACT. But Lefebvre also mindfully deploys these slippages and ambiguitiesin his Nietzsche-inspired style of Anti-Logos. and continue by way of an explication of his own contribution. ?Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.Shil(see ling. emphasisin original) Probablyone of the reasons why the Lefebvrian contribution not the greatappealfor the early had (mainly sociologist) theoristsof the body is that when authorslike Featherstone Turnerargue and that'we needto developan embodiednotionof the humanbeing as a social agentandof the functions of the body in social space' (1995.Featherstoneet al.BlumandNast.on the body's imof plicationin and constitution a 'sensory-sensual withmoregeographical interventions. 1989. This is done under the headings of 'spatial bodies' and 'temporal bodies'. The aim of this paper is to explore Lefebvre's contribution to a geographical theory of the body. 2005: Bodies. Grosz. and consequentlyphilosophicalconcepts fall into the categoryof the 'sign of non-body'. 1998). 2001) andcollections(e. temptsto establishthe body in social theoryhave tradibeenfuelledby a diverserangeof theoretical feminist the are tions.however. SPACE AND TIME: THE CONTRIBUTION FROM HENRI LEFEBVRE by Kirsten Simonsen Simonsen.g. 1993. and it has denied the body. However. To the on Lefebvre. and NastandPile. I start by exploring the way in which Lefebvre's conception of the body is developed in creative dialoque with other philosophers. space is conceived of in a purely metaphorical sense. K. space and time: the contribution from Henri Lefebvre. it in has actively participated the great process that has abandoned the of metaphorization body.
Geografiska Annaler 87 B (2005) ? 1 . 1991. open-ended and holding many dimensions. 1991.KIRSTEN SIMONSEN as performed in The Production of Space (see e. With take-off in The Production of Space. but also in the work of images.g. p. p. This renders necessary another understanding of the body. Lefebvre's contribution to the understanding of the history of the human body is the most thoroughly explored. the bodies of 'users' are caught up. to abstract space and demonstrates it by examples from philosophy and science. It is embodied in a masculine will-to-power and. It relates to nature. thus establishing an indispensable connection between the history of the body and the history of space and. male fertility and masculine violence. In this process of production . as 'generative'. over cosmological and symbolic space. 71). Gregory (with Lefebvre) traces this decorporealization of space through the history of space . and from art. wood. a dialectic is established between social practices (work). metaphorically. the body serves as a critical figure too. in leisure space. p. First and foremost. comprehending the shift from 'the space of the body to the body-in-space' which somehow facilitates 'the spiriting-away or scotomization of the body' (Lefebvre. Marxism should be treated as one moment in the development of theory and not. not only as the subject of historical abstraction and visualization. 302). their warmth. as a definitive theory. and his genealogical exploration of concepts and relations. bodies and nature. for Lefebvre other processes or 'histories' accompany the decorporealization of space. Inspiration and dialogue Lefebvre's interest in the body is founded on a conception of practice that is complex. however. It is not possible totally to reduce the body or the practico-sensory realm to abstract space. Productive activity is always oriented towards an objective.they transform nature and. absorbed. 302) As indicated in this opinion on Picasso. The body takes its revenge . but also phallocratic. In this way. language. the process involves a logic of visualization and one of metaphorization. instructions. From Marx comes the idea that human beings are characterized by the way in which . but is used here to signal a historical process of abstraction of the body through an overlapping of the visual and the linguistic. first and most elegantly by Gregory in his Geographical Imaginations (1994). It is Lefebvre's contribution to this endeavour. These bodies are transferredand emptied out via the eyes. p. but also that. from cities and architecture. the body is disdained. everyday time.living bodies. although this is less developed in the text. First and foremost. 97). abstract space and its material forms symbolize force. at the same time. Furthermore.a phenomenological body. not only in the toils of parcellized 2 space. and it ranges in scale from gestures andcorporeal attitudes.1 For Lefebvre. by the eye and by the phallus . to gain recognition. but also as an intrinsic partof social practice. signs and symbols. in his view. by violence. more particularly. and for him the conceptions of body and space are inseparable both from their history and the concomitant critique and politics. he identifies one of its major themes to be a history of the decorporealization of space. Merrifield. particularly the female body.or domination and appropriation of nature. to overall social practice in the economic and political spheres.through work .in short. In his search for a nonessentialist Marxism. 1995).from analogical space. and during the process bodies. is dictated by the dominant form of space. only the most importantof whom I will touch upon. dogmatically. Here. The optical and visual world fetishizes abstraction and detaches the pure form from its impurecontent . you could say .to the past and to humanpossibilities.over everyday activities. It is important to maintain that Lefebvre was first of all a Marxist philosopher. which he tortures in a thousand ways and caricates without mercy. involving both 'materials' (stone. a process that is not only abstract and visual. (1991.both biological (physiological) and social (historical) dimensions are involved. and from bodies with their opacity and solidity. The considerations on the body in this connection are formulated in dialogue with a range of philosophers and social theorists. It seeks to make itself known. to the conception of the generative and creative social body . limbs and eyes are mobilized. The term is borrowed from psychoanalysis. leather) and 'materiel' (tools. their life and their death' (1991. and broken into pieces by images: Picasso's cruelty toward the body.'from lived time.or at least calls for revenge .for example. agendas) (Lefebvre.that I want to explore in the remaining part of this article. Among these dimensions. the decorporealization of space is paralleledby a decorporealizationof time. Lefebvre incessantly resisted even the slightest hint of systematization and foundationalism. a point of departureis taken in Marx. their own nature.
in his development of the active side of consciousness and sensations in the process of human becoming. The most importantreason for this is that he reduces human reality to work. touchingly patriarchal and Germanic feeling for the home.as process and result of creative. involve the body. but with notions such as 'being-towardsdead' or 'ready-to-hand' his terminology is highly suggestive. reformulates them from an existential critique towards a more social one. So when Lefebvre adopted the existentialist concept of poesis . It includes the creation of villages and cities. It exists in dialectic with the routinization of everyday life and the historical process of institutionalization and stabilization of interaction into systemic domains. it stands in subjection to others. Let Lefebvre himself summarize the consequences of these ideas: 3 . too. Heidegger uses the concept to characterize the inauthentic existence of Dasein. not some definite others. in both cases. The relationship is most obvious in Lefebvre's trilogy Critique of Everyday Life (1958. As everyday Being-with-one-another. in particular Heidegger and Nietzsche. In this way. They shared a number of preoccupations concerning existence and the world. fascist interpretation of Nietzsche's thinking and the tendency in Heidegger towards German chauvinism (Lefebvre. He adds a historical and a utopian dimension and develops a theory of alienation that is an extension of what he considers Marx's incomplete one. As Lefebvre tells us. not as technical product but as 'the work' (oeuvre) . He emphasizes Heidegger's introduction of the question of 'the thing'. psychoanalysis. These considerations also. Lefebvre (1991) himself declares his critique of philosophy as rooted on the one hand in social practice (Marx) and on the other hand in art. 1961.2 To cope with these problems and elaborate a richer conception of human beings. 1981). Lefebvre criticized Heidegger for translating this insight into a cult of the artisan.4 For him. In this sense the thing was rich in poetry (not understood as verbal art. Another important source for the understanding of the body. 2004). is Nietzsche. it was reduced to toolmaking and had no right of satisfaction of its own. Heidegger continues the work that young Marx had started (Lefebvre. but the indeterminate mass of 'they'. From Nietzsche comes the idea that prior to knowledge. stresses the fact that. Heidegger himself does not refer explicitly to the body.he gave it a ratherbroad content. in the (material) body. without neglecting homo sapiens too much. the decision to change one's life . Marx's concept of social practice is not sufficient to an understanding of human beings and their bodies. In other words.THECONTRIBUTION FROMHENRILEFEBVRE SPACEAND TIME: BODIES. the formation of territorial groups. is the body and the actions of the body . 1975). Heidegger. he did not insist on homo ridens. reflecting a shift from the individual to the collective level. music and drama (Nietzsche) . 1975. Heidegger is probably the twentieth-century philosopher with whom Lefebvre was most engaged. Marx therefore was unable sufficiently to integrate materialism and spiritualism. Shortly. In doing so. everydayness opens the way to a loss of direction. desire and pleasure. rather than the home. to making tools or to conquering nature. with his restitution of the practico-sensory realm. the idea of 'absolute love'. he makes clear his dissociation from what he considers the false. Quotidiennete. 143). desire and play were missing. The concept of everydayness (Lefebvre. However. utopian condition. even if the substance is divergent. Yet it is importantto maintain the dialectical nature of everyday life. In this connection Lefebvre also looked to French phenomenology and existentialism . besides Heidegger also to Merleau-Ponty and in particularto Sartre3. it was the city that symbolized a person's being and consciousness. Marx accentuated homo faber. but as the practical truth of orientated. 1975).SENSATIONS. and beyond it. whom Lefebvre sought to conjoin with Marx. of averageness and publicness. bodily activity. however. 1975). while issues such as joy. including sexuality. Lefebvre 'marxianizes' these ideas.suffering. extending it from production to the whole range of spheres of social life.that Annaler 87 B (2005) 1 Geografiska is. poetry and drama.all connected in the creative ability of daily life (see also Poster.connecting orientated bodily activity with the experience and creation of human nature . Alltaglichkeit) in both authors refers to a theory of alienation. but did not come to the same conclusions (see also Elden. Dasein stops being itself and the ascendancy of others rids it of its being. to dereliction and disquiet. then. Lefebvre. more or less explicitly. continuous dis-alienation would be an impossible. In Being and Time (1962).and rooted. he also disregarded death and the consciousness about death (Lefebvre. subjectivity was founded in work and partially in knowledge. bodily activity). and also homo ludens was put aside. Lefebvre enters into dialogue with other authors. Poesis cannot be sustained beyond specific 'moments'. poetry. p.
to common birthplace of needs and desire. symmetries and asymmetries. takes place between the Logos and the Anti-Logos. very much as Nietzsche did with his desire for 'Anti-Logos'. touch and hearing as well as through sight. but also a space of 'yes'. projecting into the world pairs of determinants such as right and left. a practical and fleshy body conceived of as a totality complete with spatial qualities (symmetries. The emphasis on production is vital because it enables Lefebvre . of course. On the contrary. tastes. with Lefebvre (1991. The physiological closures of the body imply a conceptual differentiation between internal and external spaces . since in practice spatiality and temporality is inseparable. 4 Spatial bodies The relationship between human bodies and space is most thoroughly explored by Lefebvre in his 'SpatialArchitechtonics' (1991. There Lefebvre describes an anatomy of space generated by living bodies. desire. sometimes furious. perhaps the most complex section of The Production of Space. Or. pp. 391) Lefebvre thus prioritized Eros (erotic knowledge) over Logos (logical knowledge) in his political thinking. or rather to the spatiality and temporality of the body. the body constitutes a practico-sensory realm in which space is perceived through smells. how bodily practices that give rise to socially constructed modes of space and time are at the same time definitions of selfhood internalized within the body. but also make it meaningful. from Lefebvre's point of view. is exposed to a tendency to be drained of all content by mechanisms of language. the emphasis on the body. All these dimensions . but which cannot be totally erased. (1991. be it urban and ecological. sometimes more low-key. at the same time he makes an ontological claim and establishes a material basis for the production of space consisting of . I will consider the two in turn. sexuality and not least festivals as 'intense moments' of everyday life have direct resonance from Nietzschean thought. Eros. Theoretically. Space is liable to be erotisized and restored to ambiguity. In other words. is the intrinsic way in which this conceptualization relates to space and time. p. Orientation somewhat replicates the structureof the body itself. Demarcation adds to this traces and marks that are both practical and symbolic . nor adapted to a system. All this is connected to a conception of the spatial body: Geografiska Annaler * 87 B (2005) ? 1 . p. time is distinguishable but not separable from space . An important precondition of this material production is that each living body both is space and has its space. An unequal struggle. supposedly. by means of music. then. it produces itself in space at the same time as it produces that space.directions which not only act as guidance to the world. economics. taste and touch and that sexuality and desire are more or less being annexed by sight. It produces a space which is both biomorphic and anthropological.are connected in Lefebvre's conception of the body. waste) (1991. sexuality and desire .the sense of smell.an experience that in modernity. even if Lefebvre was always guarded against the nihilism and anti-democracy involved. though.the two of them manifest themselves as different yet inextricable. asymmetries) and energetic properties (discharges.in critical dialogue with psychoanalytical assumptions of prohibition .work and social practice. these terms being taken in the broadest sense ..KIRSTEN SIMONSEN Spatial practice is neither determined by an existing system.the sense in which Nietzsche used them. So. Of the utmost importance too. be it economic or political..to treat social space as not only a space of 'no'. bodily creativity and poetry. of affirmation of life. It is an intrinsic part of the 'lived experience' . p. a theatricalized or dramatized space is liable to arise. thanks to potential energies of a variety of groups capable of diverting homogenized space to their own purposes. 169-228). should be seen only as an analytical distinction. by means of differential systems and valorizations which overwhelm the strict localizations of needs and desires in spaces specialized either physiologically (sexuality) or socially (places set aside. the body serves both as point of departure and as destination. As part of the lived experience. As does the above-mentioned idea that the visual increasingly takes precedence over elements of thought and action deriving from other senses .while the external environment is perceived through a double process of orientation and demarcation. 61).and hence of a distinct body . In the following. signs and abstractions. This. 175). axes and planes or centres and peripheries. for pleasure).
Blum and Nast. refersto livingorenergiesthatareactivein their ganismsthatcapture vicinity . As an illustration. albeit in an ambiguousand shadowy manner. conparency.Herewe findthe 'double' of symmetry and asymmetrybetween male and female and subsequently displacedillusionaleffects (an oscillationbetweentransparency andopacity). They are partof the transgressive gies of the body. He wantsto include the underlyingmaterial.a will to poweris able to intrudeitself. Lefebvrediscusseshow of between body and space are inthe relationship of volvedin theconstitution the self.in another own materialpresence. sexualityand love . (1991. This objectionis parallelto Lefebvre'sgeneralcritique of structuralist poststructuralist and writingsforreducingspaceto a linguisticmentalspace. 195) to Lefebvre's references theenergyof the repetitive but body may seem not only biomorphic. the mirror extends a repetitionimmanentto the body into sense it presentsthe Ego with its space. 1996)have shownhow Lefebvre'sdiscussion of the mirroris .threatensor benefitsmy body on the one hand.5 the next step.opacity/transand material/social.he emphasizesthe Dionysianside of existence accordingto which play.surface/depth. each of member societyrelatesitselfto space.The most interestingthing aboutthe mirror is therefore so muchthe fact thatit projectsthe not 'subject's'image back on the 'subject'as the way in which it extends a repetitionimmanentin the in body into space.Lefebvre does not deny the importance (Lacan's)Imagiof nary and Symbolic spaces for the constitutionof inthe self.in short.among other things . to In psychoanalysis.are of themselvesa necessityanda potentiality the livenering being.in the of conflictualway in which the production social of space is involvedin the constitution the self.BODIES. the spatial character derivesfrom space.Pile. spatial and political forces thathavethe possibilityto transcend visual dothe main.it is the or shifting intersection between that which touches.the mirrorworks into social life and in a subjectivity the formof a dualspatiality.Lefebvresays. He criticizedthe psychoanalysts overGeografiska Annaler 87 B (2005) ? 1 statingthe work of the mirror-effect demateriby it alizingit andabstracting outof its spatialcontext into the form of purely mental 'topologies'.energiesthatare dedicatedby natureto In productive expenditure.is not the context of which I constitute'textuality': instead. (Lefebvre. 184. struggle.is immediately the determinants of that space . the one hand.art. Lefebvre withdrawsfrom any functionalismor 'principleof economy' in relationto that energy.butalso concreteandpractical co-existence and differentiation(1991.to the social relais tionshipsin work when the body/subject facing inthe 'other'as another body. SENSATIONS. He is interested the social relationshipbetween repetitionand difference.Again with reference to Nietzsche. This meansa shift of emphasisfromthe 'psychic' towardsthe social and material. festival. an immediatesense. body's material fromtheenergythatis deployedandputto use there. repetition/differentiation. also alin He mostnaturalistic character.emphasisin original) A few authors(Gregory.my space . buthe wantsto establishtheirmaterial scriptionin social space. In this process. p. nection/separation. p.pro- Lefebvre'srelationship vokedby Lacan. whichhe relatesto the mathematical theory to and of symmetry.1995.andthen it is my body'scounterpart or 'other'. penetrates.as producedand as the of subjectto production space.The otheremergesandturnsoutto be the same. sciousnessof oneself andof the other. This is partof the processof constitution 5 . In thisdiscusand sion. Lefebvre(as one of the very few places in his text wherehe does so) discusses therelationship betweenthesexes.Each person seeks him or herself in the hope of finding the other. SPACE AND TIME: THE CONTRIBUTION FROM HENRI LEFEBVRE A body so conceived. p.thanksto the oscillationbementation the tween knowingand misapprehending other.Theserelationships cludea set of 'doubles'in time-space. Nietzsche and surrealism.However.it is firstof all my body.with the doublenessof its absencefromandat the sametime its inherencein this 'other'space: Space .situatesitself in it. it characterizing as a low-level principleapplying only at the level of survival.Eros . space with respectto originandseparathatis imaginary withrespectto tion.1991.andall otherbodies on the other. while what he or she of seeks in the otheris a projection the self. The 'socialization'of the mirror-effect based is on a dual existence of social space relativeto its On participants.imaginary/real. 186).suchas symconmetry/asymmetry.however..its mirror-image shadow. 1996.. is to psychoanalysis definitelyone of criticaldiafor logue. In continuation this.he drawson ideasof themirror themirroreffect. A fragensues and.
which embraces social production and reproduction and the particularlocations and spatial forms characteristic of a given social formation. But organized gestures. which extend the body in accord with its rhythms. Lefebvre characterizes this space as aperceived space. 1990). Like language. 2. More precisely. Among the last-mentioned are everyday utensils or tools. for example. Social space itself becomes a mirror. 1996. sensory-sensual space may be seen as sediment. the three dimensions are: 1. But that does not address the issue of more specific articulations. and so onas also for the declaration of hostilities. which sometimes disclose and sometimes dissimulate.7Ensembles of gestures or gestural systems are further invested with meaning and codes. which embodies the interrelations between institutional practices and daily experiences and routines. Through everyday practices. is a point of intersection between the body and social space. this takes place through performance of gestures and development of gestural systems. urban morphology and the creation of zones for specific purposes. parley. city) and of activity . These are the forms of knowledge of space in society. p. or speech and writing. courtesy. thus recalling a spatialized version of Bourdieu's theory of practice and the body's incorporation of history (1977. let us very briefly recapitulate Lefebvre's by now widely discussed conceptual triad of social space (see e. trading. the ideological content and claims of truth of theories. in a collective and historical sense. which are produced by and for their gestures. It would. (1991. The spatial practice of a society at the same time propounds and presupposes its space in a dialectic interaction. This is a conceived space.g. of course. therefore.8 Briefly recapitulated.of designating oneself to an individual as well as a public identity. Lefebvre however also offers more material solutions to the relationship between the two. are not simply performed in space. 1998).the most obvious example being gestures of labour. he considers the articulation between sensory and practico-perceptual space on the one hand and specific or practico-social space on the other. it relies on a 'commonsense' understanding of space including both the taken-for-granted dimensions of everyday life and the rationalized institutions and urban networks that we pass through in our daily routines. negotiation. 1989. they are made up of symbols. Historically. He introduces it twice in the introductory chapter of The Production of Space and even though it is not developed later in the book. giving the impression of transparency. In order to consider this. 215) What this sentence says is that gestural systems embody ideology and history and bind them to practice. More generally. village. This aspect of spatiality helps to ensure continuity and some degree of cohesion in social configurations. include the built environment. it permeates the whole text. Their accomplishment implies the existence of affiliations. This duality between opacity and transparency. signs and signals. of groups (family. One immediate answer given by Lefebvre is a conception of social practice and its objects as an extension of the body. On the other hand. affection. space is dialectically created as a human and social space. the articulation between bodily practices and social space may be understood through the way in which the body is involved in the constitution of the dimensions of social space. which are codified gestures. Lefebvre sees gestural systems as something that can connect representations of space and spaces of representations. tribe. and this also goes for systems ranging from the everyday microgestural realm to the most highly formalized macrogestural one. Bodies themselves generate spaces.of the world as reflected within each body in an ever-renewed to-and-fro of reciprocal reflection. Shields. sets of objects and concatenations of bodies. Social gestures in Lefebvre's sense consist of articulated movements mobilizing and activating the whole body. Representations of space are connected with the dominant 'order' of any society and hence with its codes. subjectivity and objectivity. Spatial practice. It offers sequences. space serves an intermediary or mediating role through which 'one' seeks to apprehend something or somebody else. destined to survive as one layer or element in the stratification and interpenetration of social spaces. specific to a particular society: To belong to a given society is to know and use its codes for politeness. signs and knowledge about space. The importance 6 of places and space in gestural systems is obvious. Soja. and the conceptual imaginations of space linked to production relations. conceptualized and Geografiska Annaler 87 B (2005) * 1 .KIRSTEN SIMONSEN of the self. Such codes are.6 Practically.
it is the dominant of space in a given society. This space embraces places andtheirsymbolicvalue. flictingrhythms everyday feminine/masculine andso on.from a strategicpolitical viewpoint. As for the conceived. andalso in theoretical terms.involving need anddesire. 1991.However.BODIES.membersand sensoryorgans. In some of Lefebvre's in this presentations. 40). social engineersand scientists. time was in closely connectedwith space and apprehended space. SPACE AND TIME: THE CONTRIBUTION FROM HENRI LEFEBVRE discursivelyconstructedby professionalsand technocrats planners. 3. Here.urbanists. Lefebvrenotes.Hereagainwe can see the influenceof both Heideggerand Nietzsche.and mediated throughsystemsof verbalsigns.Theinfluenceof theformermaybe seen in the emphasison the spatialnotionof 'poeticdwelling' (Lefebvre. p. could probably do this by way of a dialoguewith the corporeal elementsin the laterculturalstudies. Temporal bodies AlthoughLefebvrenevereffectively producedan of analysesof the production time.The Lefebvresays. pp. I see it. and from the knowledge of the body's relations or withnature withits surroundings 'milieu'.the body is involvedin the oppositionbetween ourperceptionof space.and our conception of space .as a thirdtermbetween the poles of perception conception.Buthe does plex.tendtospacesof representation.Lefebvre cites Dadaandthe Surrealists as examplesof art.the issue at stakeis morethanjust of the production space by way of the three elements.passionandsexuality. categorymayappear rather comprehensive rhetooppression/opposition ric. Even if the threedimensionsof spatialityenjoy the same ontological (but not necessarilyhistorithereis no doubt cal) status.we need a dialectic relation between materialismand idealism.a bodily embedded understanding space and place.however.This is where thenotionof thelivedcomesin . his analysisof do everydaylife andrhythmanalyses yield significantinsightson time.1970). Spaces of representations embody complex or symbolismslinkedto the 'clandestine underground'side of social life.multiple and temporalities the time-body relationship.conof life.andbothenjoyedthesameontologicalstatus. bettertranslation as be wouldprobably dwelling)andhabitat(housing) suggestsa directlived experience.of physiology. In this sense.Furthermore. 121.and it can take 7 the mental. SENSATIONS. havea substantial debut cisive role in the productionof space through social andpoliticalpractices. If we applya Foucauldian discourses term. possible spatialities.developers. from creative activityandfromthe level of affection. The Niof etzscheaninfluenceis evidenteverytime Lefebvre arguesthatembodiedlived experiencecomes from the excessive energies of the body.of the hands. it is a of terrain struggleon the way to realizingourselves as 'totalpersons'andbringingintobeing alternative imaginationsof space.the partof embodiedlived experienceis highly comintervenes here. literarycommentand fantasy dealing with other.For Lefebvre. As an initial point.withno one privileged.which is performed the level of the the perceived. need to graspthe concreteand Geografiska Annaler ? 87 B (2005) ? 1 .however. presupposes use of thebody.theyderivefromthe discourses of scientificknowledge. wardsmoreorless coherent systemsof non-verbal symbols and signs.the spacetheyincessantlyseek to createthroughappropriation the environof ment. Lefebvrestresseshow social/ at spatialpractice.1975.butdissociated a reduction time to historyor evolution. It is the livedspace.of sickness and its cure. 314): Lefebvre's discussion of the contradictionbetween a habiter(translated residence.abstract and the abstracttogether.butalso the role of the body in this process. thatthe elementof lived space is centralto Lefebvre's project.9In or this way.Soand cially lived space dependson materialas well as mentalconstructs andon thebody. The centralitygiven to the body in this discussion as well as the position of the body in all threedimensionsof spatialityrenderspossible an of understanding the body as a mediatorof the relationshipbetweenthe differentdimensions.performof to ing gestures workorof activityunrelated work (1991.Time is of also part of the lived experience.fromthe knowledgeof anatomy.the representationsof thebody.the space of inhabitants users as well as of some artand ists andwriters. He also sketchedout a periodization time in soof himselffrom ciety(Lefebvre.images and the spokenword.In orderto understand productionof we space. because'culture' one not developthis line of thinking.concreteandmaterial .Morethanonce in The Productionof Space he stressesthat spatialpractices are lived directlybeforethey areconceptualized.These 'representaand tions'areabstract. spacesof representation as will also workin moremodesteverydayapproof priations space.
knowledge. It is a conjunction temporalof ities. Lefebvre somewhatnostalgicallytracesback the firsttype to archaicsocieties in which social life is closely connectedto cosmic cycles andrhythmsof nature and of the body.and the realization action. replacement psychoanalysis.the possibilityis given. in this proc.munication 1985. and publishedin a ratherinof in lation.perambu. This doubleof ness relatesto the temporalities daily life.whichhas a secretlife and a richnessof its own (Lefebvre1958). 203) First. and an unearthingof the humanwhich still buriedtherein'(Trebitch.their difference. Thereis a cliche.This idea allowed implicatesa constitutive himto extendthetheoryof momentsfromtheanalof ysis of everydaylife to the understanding sublime momentsof revolutionary suchas the fervour. The body subsistspreciselyat the sis. The idea of outstandingcreative moments was however not strange to Lefebvre.For relationship amongthebody.it is the dominant of temporality of modernity.cyclicalandlineartime.whichcompares creativemomentsto the mountain tops andeveryday time to the plains. the interweaving concrete ess. 8 Geografiska Annaler ? 87 B (2005) ? 1 many forms. standsthereto be both uncoveredand achieved.its rhythms its surthe bodyindeedunitesthe cyclical andthelin. is enframed. vate life and its symbols cannotsubmitto cumulative and linearprocesses.but flowers and trees should not make us forgettheearthbeneath.poetry andjustice. prehensionand the manipulationof complete collection after his death (Lefebvre. two qualitiesof (Lefebvre.the handlingof bothmaterial ab.andyouth and age. such as a series of gestures. cosmic. The developmentof a theory and a critiqueof everyday life was one of Lefebvre's lifelong projects.1991. Lefebvretalksabouta localized repetition. suchpainto decode. The othertype of repetitionis linear.constrained andcolonized by the space of the commodityand the territory the state.10 And at the point of intersection betweenthetwo we findeverydaylife and the body: . of declaration the Paris Communeor the student The body does not fall undersway of analytic uprisingin 1968.rest.As anidea. however.the momentwas also characterized towardsthe realizationof a posby its orientation sibility.Theunity. of it blows of the hammer. butit always also implies a relationof time to space or place. need and duction of Space.KIRSTEN SIMONSEN Lefebvre played with metaphorsof everyday life.1992). For Lefebvre.biological. preferred comparingeveryday life to fertile soil. a functionof the individual'shistoryand a formthatis superior andelevatesitself overrepto etition and reappearance. and things. It is mechanical.as well as the spatial body .findsrefugein thecryptic phenomenological-hermeneutic of description the and opacitythatis the greatsecretof the body. preservingand developingdifferencewithin times. which are irreducible to each other(Lefebvre. talk abouta temporalbodyliving out the different Rhythmcan be definedas movementsand differof as of temporalities self and society and.ences in repetition. seasons and years. such as physical. p.1991). not thought. he even considered a possible and it for lived.can scends any separationbetween space and time. announced as a project in Comdesirewiththe linearities gesture. basically of two differentforms. but decisive sensationimplicatinga doublerecognitionof the 'other'andthe self."M this he In the interpreted moment as fleeting. This is why we .it was envisaged Proear. he imagined kindof general'rhythmology' a aplevel of the reciprocal movement between pliedto thelivingbody andits internal external and these two realms. of Thesedifferent ideason temporality connectare thoughtandits separation the cyclicalfrom the linear.rounding in space. A landscapewithoutflowersor woods may be depressingfor the pasmagnificent ser-by.which is relationships. everyday life is made of repetitionsor recurrences.social.He himself anothermetaphor. Lefebvreheld high hopes for rhythmanalystracttools. activitiesthatin a temporalityof ruptureand spontaneitytend towardsa unification thefestivalandeveryday of life.is its habitat.Even if linear time has encroachedon the cyclical. or to the marshes.This cyclical repetitionis organized accordingto phenomenasuch as days and nights.all of which in life we encounter everyday andin the body.the latternever Emotions and affections.1961).12 To take a less ambitiousview. he said.whichthatreflection at ed in Lefebvre's is whichis a kindof rhythmanalysis. Among the 'moments' thatarisefromeverydaylife arelove. Sporadicallyhe developed whathe called a 'theoryof moments'.mental. prifully disappeared. combiningthe cycles of time.andit is a double-sidedeffortproducing 'at once a rejectionof the inauthenticandthe alienated.generations. games.it tranrhythmanalysis mightbe accentuated.
we find that some rhythmsare easy to identify: thirst. and de.This situatedness goes fortimeas well. SPACE AND TIME: THE CONTRIBUTION FROM HENRI LEFEBVRE the time or a temporalized place to underline spaand realityof rhythms theirparticipatio-temporal of tion in the production space.thusmakingpreliminary suggestions ploys it in space. body(Merleau-Ponty.If we attempt specify them. manbodyis uniquein playinga dualrolebothas the vehicle of perceptionand the object perceived. 205)..locatedin the spacebetweenmindandbody.or subjectandobject . Some operate on the surface.Inthis. of the The body..bvre. Second. in a certain place and with a gesturalwhole. mentalandthe social. rhythms are forever crossing and recrossing.the hartbreak. Lefebvredid not deliver a coherenttheoryof the body. Lefebvrehimselfin a coupleof essays (one of themwithCatherine Regulier)exploresthe of rhythms the city . SENSATIONS. and around it . or tueof its activerelation thisworld. and on the withthe largestpubotherhand.Thisduality to is ambiguityof the body as perceiving-perceived centralto Merleau-Ponty's projectand. everyday of anda focus on the spatialityandthe temporality be thebody. is of perception not seen as an innerrepresentation the outerworld. or of This polaropposi'presenceand representation'.at the level ideasof the of practice.and breathing. always bound to space. (LefebvreandRegulier.BODIES.1996. Lefebvre (andCatherine Regulierwithwhomhe wrotea few to of these essays) extendedrhythmanalysis wider sociologicalrelationships: of It is on the one handa relationship the humanbeing with his own body. social life. to maybe related Lefebvre's to dualityof socialspacerelative thebody.fertility.or distilled to into desire.He started of how body andaccentuated this is not a spatiality of position. with his gestures.such as those of sexuality.represents surmounting dithe visionsbetweenthe sensory. Lefebvre emphasizes the relativity of and rhythmsand the multipletransitions imbricainand tions betweenthe spatialities temporalities unis volved. 1996). Others.whatwe havegot fromhis handis a concepto tualeffortcallingattention humancapacitiesand creativities involvedin an 'authentic' life. is One suchauthor Merleau-Ponty.fromflows of bodies. is an activeprocessrelating ouronand Thismeansthatthehugoingprojects practices. tion should however only be seen as a starting point..then.. the universe. or thought.as in Lefebvre. Rhythmsin all their multi. the body and spatialitymighttake. butwe shouldavoidsee9 . of too Merleau-Ponty placedthe body in a field of fromthe spatiality the of spaceandtime. p.with his tongue and speech.rhythmaof the nalysisaccentuates centrality thebodyto social understanding: meththe questionon developmentof alternative odologies in orderto graspthe more opaquesides of sociallife. whereasothersspringfromhiddendepths (1991..Merleau-Ponty something Lefebvrewhen it comes to a carefulphilosophical of working-through issues of the body.are relativelyobscure. spectacles and soundsto politicalcentralityand struggle The body's inventivenessneeds no demon.14Whileboth in and authors wereinterested the spatiality tempoto adds ralityof thebody.of 'the privateand the public'. Such rhythmshave to do with needs.betweenhomogeneityanddiversity(bothin Lefefor stration. From the startingpoint in the body. however.buta spatiality situation.as to the directionssuch analyses of temporality In one plicity interpenetrate another. evenif a tensionbetweenbiologicalandsocial processesremainsunsolved.the intersubjective space of perceptionand the 1962). the body itself revealsit.as which 'knows'itself by virthe body-in-the-world. superimposing themselves upon each other.In his phihe losophyof embodiment.I havetriedto distilLefebvre'scontribution to a social understanding the body.as simulof taneously of theconstitution theself andmepart diatorto the perception somethingelse.withtheentiresocietyandbeyondit. p. 235) and This extensionis basedon a distinction a conof junctionbetween'rhythms the self andrhythms of the other'. so to speak.in particular of as it relates to social practiceand everydaylife.butratheras a practical bodily inIt to volvement.13 rhythmanalysis a rather Obviously. finishedprojectfromLefebvre's hand.butit raises Geografiska Annaler ? 87 B (2005) ? 1 Perspectives Above.a relationship lic space. which may be dispersedas tendencies.Theseeffortscouldprofitably connected withworkfromotherauthors who bringtogether the body andeverydaylife. hunger. developeda sensuous of phenomenology lived experience. the need for sleep are cases in point.
he definitely touches on a theme that is more thoroughly worked out by Goffman. 1994.they inhabit space and time: I am not in space and time. Considering the role that Goffman's work (acknowledged or unacknowledged) has achieved in contemporary geographical literature on performativity (see Crang. (Merleau-Ponty. Lefebvre would agree with such a conception of the spatiality and temporality of the body. 1992). nor do I conceive space and time. and some of the weaknesses of Goffman's analysis . Moreover. emphasizing the material and sexed/gendered character of bodies. (3) the body plays an important role in mediating the relationship between people's self-identity and their social identity (Goffman. Other possible partners in a marriage between Lefebvre and feminism could be Iris MarionYoung (1990) when she draws on phenomenology to explore the possibility of specifically 'feminist' body comportment in relation to space. which in my opinion would benefit from the input of Lefebvre's stronger spatial dialectics. as socially and historically constructed and inscribed from the outside. like him.its lack of macro-social connections and its less adequate sense of the body as an integral partof human agency . The scope of this inclusion is the measure of that of my existence. and that the means of this transcendence is the production of space. When Lefebvre writes about gestures and gestural systems and considers the way in which their codifications form the basis of social interaction. I have already touched on the fact that even if Lefebvre in his later writings makes numerous references to male sexuality and its production of spaces and to the symbolic distortion. space and time. 2001. Another author who can add to some of Lefebvre's ideas of the body is Goffman. among other things. positions its world around itself and constitutes that world as 'ready-to-hand'. 2000). The interesting point about Lefebvre's discussion of the body is that he transcends this division. 10 Last but not least. I belong to them. An interaction between Lefebvre's ideas and those of feminist authors who. objectification and control of female bodies. or Toril Moi (1998) in her explorations starting from the idea of the body as a 'situation'. 2003). are interested in concrete. or in time . as a resource which both requires and enables people to manage their movements and appearances. The most obviously relevant contribution for this purpose is Elisabeth Grosz's (1994) corporeal feminism. 1997. using its acquired schemas and habits. These perspectives could in different ways add a much needed genderization/sexualization to Lefebvre's spatio-temporal bodies (see also Simonsen. She has a starting point in psychoanalysis but departs from it by moving the body and sexual difference from the periphery to the centre of analysis. it may be interesting to relate Lefebvre's formulations to a rather dominant tendency in social discussions on the body . Goffman's approach to the body is characterized by three main features: (1) the body is viewed as a material property of individuals. material bodily practices would therefore stimulate the project.may be counteracted by the Lefebvrian contribution.KIRSTEN SIMONSEN ing it in terms of our bodies being in space. my body combines with them and includes them. From this he demonstrates. Lefebvre's approach to the body is definitely in need of juxtaposition with some of the extensive feminist literature on the body. 1963. how social interaction in daily life requires a high degree of competence in controlling the expressions. 140) This means that the active body. On one side of the line stand analyses of the active role of the body in social life. 1996). Annaler* 87 B (2005) 1 Geografiska . he never seriously engaged with the production and practices of sexualized bodies and their relationship to social space. In conclusion. Such an approach could definitely develop Lefebvre's ideas.a theoretical distinction that is often attributedto the work of Merleau-Ponty and Foucault (Crosley. to use a Heideggerian expression. 1962. thus considering it the very 'stuff' of subjectivity. Gregson and Rose. of the body as lived and generative. Unique to Lefebvre's contribution to a conception of the body is the way in which he deals with its involvement in different social modalities of space and time. an approach. however. p. in a seminal essay she approaches the way in which the modern metropolis assimilates the subject into the space of the city (Grosz. (2) meanings attributedto the body are determined by 'shared vocabularies of body idiom' which are not under immediate control of individuals. In Fig. but he would find it inadequate. in particular when it comes to the performance of gestural systems. and on the other side are studies of the body as acted upon. 1990). movements and communications of the body. 1 I attempt in a very simple manner to illustrate the two sides of Lefebvre's conjunction of body. McDowell. this connection gains particularrelevance.
p.Heretoo Lefebvretreatsspace as both producingand a product of the humanbody.g. 2003). 1993) Foucauldian feminism in which 11 . the body tends to behave as a differential field. 2002.or a space.the conceivedandthe lived. formulated against forces of homogenization. not simply the impositionof a concept.Lefebvre'scommoninterestwith Foucaultin To powerandthehistoryof thebodyis represented. In the intersectionbetween Lefebvre'ssocial ontologyof the body andhis historyof thebody.1991. SPACE AND TIME: THE CONTRIBUTION FROM HENRI LEFEBVRE Fig. 384).Forbothspaceandtime(andthe body). In these rhythms.Inthe lowerpartof the figure.As partof the lived experience. Lefebvre located these strugglesfor the rightto be differentat many scales. As a consequenceof this dualityin Lefebvre's discussionof thebody. is abouttheabove-mentioned history of of increasing abstraction.it is possibleto arguethathe locateshimself in the centreof two recentdebates The on thebody in geography. 1. collections edited by Rose and Thrift.One is the 'Festival'. the decorporealization of spaceandtime. This history fragmentationand hierarchization.besides the above-mentionedinspirationfromGoffman.imagination). 2000. firstof theseis about bodypolitics.from the sense of smell and from sexuality to sight . constituting and constituted.. SENSATIONS.BODIES. Lefebvredescribesthis processof abstraction as simultaneouslyone of homogenization. andthebody and embodimentare distinctiveelements in this shift. However. and as the conjunction the perceived. It has been argued thatthese contributions a represent turnin cultural to geographyfrom 'text' and representations performanceandpractices(Nash. This meansthatthe body. the The upperpartof the figurerepresents discussion primarilyconducted in this essay. as a total body. LathamandConradson. this Lefebvre.. gestures. breakingout of the temporaland spatialshell developedin responseto labour (Lefebvre.as a perceptionand a conception.as it in would be represented a theory of practice. It is and aboutthe generative creativesocial body. the hierarchicalorganized power. It behaves. differsfrom the one given by Foucaultbecauseof of its basis in the production space.thebodyturnsintoa criticalfigure a site of resistanceandactivestruggle: Geografiska Annaler 87 B (2005) ? 1 Thanksto its sensoryorgans. and fragmentation. but at the scale of the body two aspectsare crucial.the body constitutesa in realmthatis performed thespapractico-sensory tio-temporalrhythmsof everyday life. Body. as a producer differof ence (through has rhythms. Dewsbury et al. in other words. cyclical and linearrepetiof tions. ing new situations otheris sexuality.one of the mainpointsof access to this discussion was Judith Butler's (1990.uponthe body (see also Stewart.. The seconddebateto whichLefebvre'sconception of the body mightcontribute the current is one on performativity(see e.as the site of participationandof the possibilityof thepoesis of creatThe fromdesireandenjoyment. different and modalitiesof social spatiality social temporalas ity are incorporated. an inherent right to difference.1995).involvingstrugglesof relations betweenthe sexes (a femininerevolt)as well as relationsbetweensexualityandsociety. space and time.2000).
er Real-and-imagined places (Cambridge. distinctions such as inarticulate/articulate. Lefebvre had dismissed Sartre's existentialism in uncompromising hostile terms. pp. some rapprochement between the two of them occurred.g. nature/culture or body/mind. Drawing on a whole array of theoretical inspirations .dk Geografiska Annaler ? 87 B (2005) ? 1 12 . 1959). and in La somme et le reste (2 vols. 8. 1968). 5. unaware of it himself. then. enacted and inscribed by way of discourse.ruc. The argument was that rhythm analysis is much more concrete than psychoanalysis. This parallels Lefebvre's later critique (Production of Space) of the nostalgic aura in Heidegger's writing. the linear and the cyclical. He does not. I think that Lefebvre's both phenomenological. flows and assemblages in Deleuze and Guattari. 1975). Gestaltism and organic psychology. 1968) and Jurgen Habermas. 2000).MA and Oxford: Blackwell. Lefebvre at this place refers to Gaston Bachelard for.that is. Lefebvre also uses bodily gestures as a critical figure of. Erkenntnmsse und Interesse (Frankfurt am Mein: Suhrkamp.nonrepresentational theory concerns practices shaping 'subjects' as decentred. In this way. rhythm analysis may be seen as a social and philosophical translation of Eisteinian notions of spacetime relativity. 9. Kirsten Simonsen Department of Geography and International Development Studies Roskilde University Postboks 260 DK. It seems to me. In this sense. that overlap in interest occurred. 1996). With the publication of Sartre's Critique de la ralson dialectique however. his own writings of everyday life. However.. however.geo. Existential Marxism in Postwar France (Princeton. He criticized him of eclecticism. 208-209). Lefebvre developed around 1960 in Critique vol II op.dk E-mail: kis@ruc. 1956. 205. 4. of conducting a mystifying syncretism between phenomenology.cit. 44-58 and 73: 37-52). NJ: Princeton University Press. rhythmic and political understanding of the body (whatever romantic bias it might hold) can still inform the discussion and partially counteract Butler's more discursive bodies and the barely living bodies of actor network theory.4000 Roskilde Denmark www. Although there is good reason to appreciate the work on bodies and embodiment in these traditions. pp. In his book Thirdspace Journeysto LosAngelesand oth- und als phie des Geistes'. embodied. exploitation of women in everyday life. especially the early ones. expressive and involved with others and objects in a world continually in process. 3. Another line of work informing this discussion is what has been labelled 'nonrepresentational theory' in geography proposed primarily by Nigel Thrift (e. closer to a pedagogy of appropriation (the appropriation of the body. earliest in Jiirgen Habermas. Merleau-Ponty et la philosophie de l'ambiguite'. 1975). Lefebvre himself was rather critical towards Merleau-Ponty. 14. as suggested by Kofman and Lebas in their introduction in Lefebvre (1996). 1996. having revealed the contradictionbetween the cumulative and non-cumulative. and the objectification and control of female bodies.in Technik Wissenschaft 'Ideologie' (Frankfurtam Mein: Suhrkamp. Arbeit und Interaktion. For a closer description of these debates see Mark Poster. characterizing it as feminine . as of spatial practice). 6. these ideas date back to the 1920s. In the 1940s. and partly because of his interest in communication rather than practice. Edward Soja interprets this triad as part of a general strategy in Lefebvre of 'thirding-asOthering'. the 'space of dreams' should be described as a space where dispersed and broken rhythms are reconstituted (Production. Bemerkungen zu Hegels Jenenser 'Philoso- These ideas seemingly come close to Nietzsche when he talks about the human body or 'organism' in the context of the bodies of all organic beings. 10. and of leaving out history and social practice in the attempt (Henri Lefebvre. pp. also developed in Paris in the late 1950s. relational. But I think the resulting formulations are quite divergent. elaborate at length an interpretation of gendered bodies and gender relations. A similar critique may be found in Habermas' work. however. 2.KIRSTEN SIMONSEN identity (and the body) is performative . 9-47. These ideas come close to the ones of Foucault on the discursive formation of the body. La Pensde 68. never become very clear. Paris: La Nef de Paris. 7. 11.cit. and later he linked moments with the idea of creating new situations in Les temps de mdprises (Paris: Stock.ranging (to mention just a few) from phenomenological (and related) theories of practice through pragmatism and conversational analysis to the emphasis on non-human agency and relational networks in actor network theory and heterogeneous fragments. even if Lefebvre several times throughout The Production of Space dissociates himself from Foucault's thinking. and mediation between. and that in the harsh critique much was bound up with an ongoing debate in which Merleau-Ponty's increasing scepticism about Marxism was the issue. his ideas conjoined with the ones of the situationist movement.as passive and emotional. 'M. The Heideggerian undertones in some of these formulations are obvious. Instead of some kind of fetishized unconsciousness. As for everyday life. Lefebvre's intentions by these suggestions. These male chauvinist formulations stand in contrast to his own later critique of the phallocratic character of modernism. partly because of the more dualist character of Habermas' thinking. Throughout Lefebvre's later writings are numerous references to male sexuality and its production of spaces and femininity. 13. do not escape a nostalgic glorification of the peasant community. op. 12. Notes 1. however.
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