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공 학 박 사 학 위 논 문

CAD of Forged Involute Bevel Gear

2009년 8월

부 산 대 학 교

대 학 원

기 계 설 계 공 학 과 박 문 우

공 학 박 사 학 위 논 문

CAD of Forged Involute Bevel Gear
지 도 교 수 박 노 길

2009년 8월

부 산 대 학 교

대 학 원

기 계 설 계 공 학 과 박 문 우

박문우의 공학 박사 학위 논문을 인준함 2009 년 7 월 3일 위원장 이 시 복 (인) 위 위 위 위 원 정 의 봉 (인) 원 배 원 병 (인) 원 조 용 주 (인) 원 박 노 길 (인) .

..................2 3.............2 Forging for Straight Bevel Gears ...10 Manufacturing Differential Gears . .................. .. Spherical Involute Tooth Profile ...37 Modeling the Spherical Involute Tooth-Form.......23 Spherical Involute Tooth Profile ......................................2 1....................................................1 Defining the Addendum and Dedendum Parameters.......1 3.... ..................................................1 1..........................45 - . ...................................................14 2.................41 4......................... Automotive Differential Bevel Gears ........23 3.Contents Chapter 1............1 1.......... Introduction ............... .........3 Definition of the Spherical Involute Function.................................................10 2.....33 Specifying Parameters and Coordinate Systems .2 Automotive Differentials: Their Function and Architecture .............. .......................3 1..................... ........... .3..........1 Literature Survey .........3 CAD procedures .................4 Objective and Scopes ................... ..... ..............31 - Chapter 4.......4 Motivation ...... .... ................ ....1 4.........................2 Generating Spherical Involute Curve ....27 Coordinate System of Spherical Involute Tooth-Profile Curve.............. ...........................21 - Chapter 3...........................................1 Cutting Methods for Straight Bevel Gears for Differentials ..........3...............3 Problems: Differential Bevel Gear Tooth-Form and Forging Processes ......43 4.......16 2.........................................................................33 4. CAD for Differential Bevel Gears ...........9 - Chapter 2................2......14 2.1 2.....2...................................... .......................... .......................7 Thesis Outline .........2 4.........

......4......................1 Geometrical Considerations ...62 4........47 4........................................55 4.............................88 Appendix A ........................93 - ..................3 Defining the Tooth-Thickness Factors.........2 Defining the Range of Modification...................................................3.............4....................77 Design Results ................ ................1 Simulation Algorithm ..............86 References ........................ .. ...................4........... .............................5...4 Tooth-Form Modification ....74 - Chapter 5........ ...........................................3 Profile Modification ......................82 Contact Pattern Test ..........5......................................................................... .5... .... ...................4 Design Parameters ................79 Manufacturing . .... .......... ........52 4............................67 4.........5 Contact Pattern Simulation ... ..........................................................4 Crowning .......77 5.............................................51 4..... Verification of the CAD Program...............................2 Simulation Examples ...............................................58 4... .......................3 Simulation for the Shaft Angle Deviations ......3....1 5........... .....................................4........................ ........................... ...........3 5..64 4......................... . ..............73 4.........6 Design Program that uses CATIA-VBA......... .4 Defining the Face and Root Parameters ......4............2 5................. ....................................64 4.................................................53 4.......................................................82 - Chapter 6 Conclusion .........................................

body fixed coordinate system Dp . addendum-cone angle γb . tooth thickness at an arbitrary point tb . rotating angle of gear ξ . tooth thickness of base circle tp . ⃗. number of teeth α . diameter of pitch circle ı∗ ∗ k ∗ . pitch n ⃗ . azimuthal angle γ . space fixed coordinate system C* (x*. backlash C*0 (x*0. base-cone angle γp . y*0. gear module p . radius of pitch circle Z . z*0) . pitch-cone angle θg . cone angle at an arbitrary point γa . ⃗ m . azimuthal angle ψ . direction vector at point A t . tooth thickness of pitch circle RP .Nomenclature B . spherical-involute function ψp . directional vectors of each coordinate system C* ⃗. gear pressure angle β . spherical-involute function of pitch point . z*) . y*. tool pressure angle αg . cone distance φ .

.18 Figure 2.......... .6 Schematics of the addendum and dedendum for a spherical involute curve...... .................6 Electrodes for differential bevel gears.... ................. ............... .......1 A spherical involute curve.... ........19 Figure 2............ ... ........ .........11 Range of tooth-form modification.............. .........29 Figure 3......................................3 Coniflex tool of Gleason.. . ...........5 Flowchart for design and manufacturing of the differential bevel gear forging die....... ........4 Basic parameters of a pair of spherical involute bevel gears.............. .....4 A spherical involute tooth profile and its coordinate system............................................................... ....1 A kinematic diagram of a bevel gear differential..20 Figure 3...... .... ... ..................50 Figure 4.........30 Figure 3.......... ...........2 Flowchart of the modeling process for differential bevel gears through the integrated CAD program........3 Teeth profiles of a spherical involute bevel gear.........................57 Figure 4.2 The architectures of automotive differentials.............. . ...2 Basic parameters of a spherical involute bevel gear........3 Coordinate System of a pair of spherical involute bevel gears.............. ..............39 Figure 4.....................12 Figure 2........32 Figure 4.....................15 Figure 2.............. .....40 Figure 4........... .........4 Revacycle tool of Gleason. ....................... ... .......7 A spherical involute curve for differential bevel gears........... ..... . ..44 Figure 4.................. ..........12 The concept of tooth-profile modification.................1 Flowchart for the manufacture of forging dies with integrated CAD …………………………………………………………………………......7 Machining the forging die through EDM................24 Figure 3.. ............ . ..........35 Figure 4..................54 Figure 4................ ...................5 Flowchart for modeling a spherical involute tooth-form............................ .....................61 - ....8 Tooth-thickness definitions....13 Figure 2..48 Figure 4.................. .......... .....46 Figure 4.............15 Figure 2........10 Flowchart of tooth-form modification...... .............................. . ...................... ..List of Figures Figure 2.36 Figure 4.........................42 Figure 4..........................9 Tooth profile for the whole gear....

.14 A rolling action (envelope) of tooth flanks. ... .. .. .................... ....16 Contact pattern for a bevel gear set (side gear).........71 Figure 4..................3 Simulation of the tooth contact pattern ......20 Contact pattern simulations for shaft angle deviations .. ......... .72 Figure 4................80 Figure 5...................... ....................... ...73 Figure 4..... ..........7 Contact Patterns .........63 Figure 4..... .......................75 Figure 4............................1 3D-CAD model of the differential bevel gears.......17 Contact pattern for a bevel gear set (pinion)...70 Figure 4......85 - . ......................83 Figure 5...............85 Figure 5.................................... ..........13 The crowning concept.......... ....... ...65 Figure 4...... .................69 Figure 4............Figure 4.............. .......... ..............66 Figure 4....79 Figure 5.....76 Figure 5.................22 Input window of the CATIA-VBA ........ ..........21 Integrated design process by CATIA with VBA ............2 Simulation for CNC data transform .......4 Bevel gear contact test machine (Gleason Works).....84 Figure 5........................15 Contact pattern between the pinion and the side gear................................... ......81 Figure 5...... ........................6 Machined bevel gears for forging ........19 Contact pattern simulation of spiral bevel gear ...........18 Contact pattern simulations of the tooth flanks ........................... ..........................................................5 Prototype contact test .

2 Parameters to simulate contact pattern Table 4.1 Parameter definitions of the tooth modifications Table 4.3 Parameters of the differential bevel gears for forging Table 4.List of Tables Table 4.1 Parameters of the differential bevel gears for forging Table 5.2 Parameters of the tooth modifications .4 Parameters of the tooth modifications Table 5.

rotorcraft. Spiral and hypoid bevel gears have teeth that are curved and oblique. The majority of such gears are of the Gleason type with Coniflex and Revacycle tooth-forms that are manufactured on the precision machine tools of Gleason Works [4]. and hypoid bevel gears. In particular. The use of bevel gears with various numbers of teeth can change the speed of rotation.1 Motivation Bevel gears are machine elements that are commonly used for transmitting power and motion between intersecting shafts. Among these methods are the Gleason method. Bevel gears are usually mounted on a shaft and are offset from each other by 90°. straight bevel gears are of two types: Gleason and standard. the Klingelnberg system. spiral. These are conical with tapered teeth that are larger at the periphery and smaller at the center. and the Oerlikon system [5]-[6]. including straight. Spiral and hypoid bevel gears also are important components of automotive. Straight bevel gears are the simplest ones that have a straighttooth geometry. etc. they can be designed to work at other angles as well [1]-[3]. Straight bevel gears are used in complex.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. the most salient application of straight bevel gears is in bevel- -1- . Depending on the machining equipment. special automotive applications. There are several different types of bevel gear. agricultural and construction equipment. They are also different tooth-forms in light of the methods for generating the corresponding gear-tooth surfaces. and marine drive-train systems [7]. however. They are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed.

(1) through to (5). The straight bevel gear that has the same tooth-form geometry as the one that will be forged is manufactured on a Gleason machine with Revacycle methods [9]. Cutting methods that employ Gleason tools are mainly used to manufacture the bevel gears. (5) Forming.. The forging method for manufacturing differential bevel gears for automobiles comprises the following processes. The electrode is machined on a CNC machine tool based on the 3D-CAD model [9]. (2) 3D-CAD modeling for an electrode. The manufactured master gear has to undergo a contact test for ensuring the meshing of gears. and high capital expenditure on equipment. make it difficult and complicated to -2- . The above processes. The 3D-CAD model is constructed by measuring the master gear on a 3D coordinate measuring machine (CMM). a recent approach for manufacturing differential bevel gears for mass production is a precision cold forging method [8]. in the case of automotive applications. their associated technologies entail low productivity. viz. (3) Machining an electrode. Although these cutting methods can guarantee the stability of production. low utilization of materials. (4) Machining a precision forging die.gear differentials. Therefore. It is also necessary to revise the 3D-CAD model for the bevel gear geometry to be properly and easily forged [26]. The forging die is manufactured using electric discharge machining (EDM) with the machined electrode [10]. These bevel gears have generated or milled tooth-forms that are machined by either the Coniflex or the Revacycle tools of Gleason Works [14]. (1) Cutting a master gear to make an electrode.

it is necessary to improve both the kinematical performance (with conjugated action and interchangeability) of automotive differential gears and the productivity of the forging processes. Therefore.The bevel gear tooth-form does not enable interchange.The bevel gear pairs with the Octoid tooth form (the contact path is similar to the figure of ‘8’ [13]) that are machined on Gleason machines cannot be perfectly conjugated. . Furthermore. In addition. This has been identified as the primary cause of problems that are related to vibration and noise [32]-[37]. a trial-anderror method is needed to ensure a suitable area of contact because it is difficult to predict the area (or pattern) of contact between the straight bevel gears for which the teeth are milled by the Revacycle tools of Gleason Works [11]. there are major disadvantages of master gears. one bevel wheel works only with its complementary wheel and no other [34]-[37]. . as a result of which kinematical errors occur and cause variations in the angular velocities. -3- . Therefore. The difficulty and complexity of bevel-gear forging are mainly caused by processes (1) through to (3) for making the bevel-gear electrode [9].achieve high productivity and low cost of production for the forged bevel gears. these are listed below.

The face-hobbing process is of two types. which are applied for the generation of the tooth surfaces of gears [4]. The model was defined in terms of a trace on the tangent plane that rolls over the base cone but the edge of the tangent plane was regarded as a right line. hence. Ozel et al. which becomes the idealized tooth-form. The solid models of -4- . With regard to other means of manufacturing straight bevel gears.1. Tsai and Chin [18] proposed a mathematical model of the tooth surface for straight and spiral bevel gears based on a spherical involute surface. [15] proposed a method of using end mills in CNC milling through the CNC data that are generated from a solid model that is based on Tredgold’s method of approximation [16]. [19] described an exact spherical involute tooth-form and compared it with the model of Tsai and Chin. Coniflex and Revacycle tools of Gleason. The surface of a bevel-gear tooth can be mathematically modeled through a spherical involute surface. The standard and Coniflex tooth-forms are generated with straight-edged tools that simulate an imaginary crown gear [1]-[4]. almost all straight bevel gears are cut with the standard. Al-Daccak et al. The Revacycle tooth-form is milled with a circular broach-style form cutter for the high-volume manufacture of straight bevel differential gearing [14]. Face hobbing and milling are employed for cutting spiral and hypoid gears. such a model cannot apply to an exact tooth profile. non-generated (Formate) and generated methods.2 Literature Survey The researches related to this thesis can be classified as follows. (1) Manufacturing method of bevel gears (2) Modeling of bevel gear tooth surface (3) Straight bevel gear forging for differential gears (4) Tooth contact analysis of the bevel gears In practice.

it was verified through the contact pattern test. [21] proposed a computer-aided generation of spiral bevel gears with an improved geometry in order to investigate the influence of misalignments on both transmission errors and the shift of the bearing contact.straight and spherical bevel gears were obtained by the means of simple sweeping techniques. This research was carried out to achieve the minimization of trial-and-error and the reproducibility of differential gear forging. However. such as those of Gleason Works and Klingelnberg GmbH. [20] also discussed the normal deviation between the idealized surface (exact spherical involute surface) and the model of Tsai and Chin for straight bevel gears. Kawasaki and Shinma [9] developed a system for designing and manufacturing straight bevel gears for which the tooth-form is generated through a quasi-complementary crown gear. a CAD/CAM method for the direct -5- . Litvin et al. There is a method for modeling the bevel-gear tooth surface through the simulation of the envelope of the locus of the tool surface. Benedict [30] proposed the technique of the computer integrated manufacturing that enables the design and manufacture of forge tooling for net-shaped bevel gears. Shunmugam et al. Lee and Park [8] proposed an application of CAD/CAM to straight bevel gears with crowning for modeling and machining. the experimental verification was carried out through CAD/CAM. Park and Chung [32]-[37] studied the kinematical relationship of a spherical involute bevel gear set. Ichino et al. [22] proposed a method for cutting straight bevel gears using a quasicomplementary crown rack with a planar tool surface. the tooth-form that is modeled is based on Tredgold’s method for approximating a spherical tooth profile to a plane involute profile. instead of the usual crown rack. It is applicable to existing manufacturing machines. Studies of bevel-gear forging are also summarized. the gear cannot be correctly meshed and serious kinematical errors arise. In this study. therefore.

The analysis was based on the simultaneous generation of gear surfaces and contact simulation. [23] reported the contact analysis of uniformly-high teeth of epicyclic spiral bevel gears that stemmed from Klingelnberg’s CycloPalloid System. Shih et al. Lelkes et al.milling forging die was also proposed to improve the productivity and lower the cost of manufacture. it is advantageous to directly manufacture the forging die through a CNC machine. Furthermore. -6- . [17] developed a program for generating both standard and modified tooth-forms with spherical involutes of straight bevel gears.

Hence. The integrated CAD program is able to improve both the kinematical performance and the productivity of forging processes because it is based on a spherical involute tooth-form and has the following advantages. the objective of this thesis is to develop an integrated CAD program for the forging die for overcoming the demerits and disadvantages that arise from the use of a spherical involute tooth-form.There is excellent kinematical performance through conjugated action. and the good adjustment of assembly errors. a lead-modification (crowning) and profile-modification method is proposed for differential bevel -7- . Therefore. the scope of this thesis is determined as follows.1. Consequently. (1) A spherical involute tooth profile is mathematically formulated and implemented through a CAD program. (4) To quantitatively adjust the area of contact between gears. . (2) The CAD program is developed for integrating the forging process. (3) Through the CAD program. bevel gear sets with a spherical involute toothform are modeled for automotive differentials. . gear interchangeability.The tooth form is mathematically formulated so that it is easily understood and suitable for the construction of the CAD model. this thesis includes all the CAD activities for integrating the design and manufacture of an electrode for precision bevel gear forging. It enables the integration of forging processes and is appropriate for the forged bevel gears.3 Objective and Scopes This thesis focuses on the development of an integrated CAD program to design a forging die (or an electrode for die EDM) for automotive differential bevel gears through a spherical involute tooth-form.

(7) The actual contact patterns of the prototype are compared with the simulated patterns. (6) Prototypes of electrodes of two bevel gear sets are modeled and manufactured. (5) Contact patterns are simulated under light load conditions. -8- . It is also incorporated in the CAD program.gears.

Chapter 2 introduces the theoretical background of an automotive differential and its technology. The geometry of the spherical involute curve is described in this chapter as well as its basic parameters used to define the spherical involute tooth profile in the fixed coordinate system. Chapter 3 introduces the spherical involute surface and its function as defined in a mathematical procedure. Also included in Chapter 4 is the tooth modification to be properly applied to bevel gears for automotive differentials.4 Thesis Outline The rest of this thesis is presented in five chapters. Chapter 4 also focuses on the modeling of the spherical involute bevel gears by using CAD S/W and its significant modeling parameters. Chapter 6 summarizes the conclusion from this study and states the contributions of this study. Chapter 5 applies actual bevel gear models (side gear and pinion) for automotive differentials to the CAD modeling. Recommendations for future work are also listed in Chapter 6. In addition the manufacturing technology of the differential gears is presented. Later. -9- . Also included in Chapter 3 is the kinematical relationship of the spherical involute bevel gears. which are summarized in this chapter. Chapter 4 focuses on the design considerations in the manufacture of bevel gears for automotive differentials by forging. the definitions of the tooth addendum and dedendum values and tooth thickness to avoid tooth interference between the tip and root are presented. First.1. details of the geometrical considerations are described.

two differential-pinions. two side-gears. left/right axles. The numbers of teeth could be determined by the criteria of mechanical design and manufacturing. and a differential cage. The final-drive speed (ωR) is split by the differential gears into the left and right axle-speeds (ωS1 and ωS2). If there is a rigid connection between the two driving wheels. slippage will appear when driving on straight as well as curved roads because the diameters of the two tires cannot be perfectly equal.2. Figure 2.1 Automotive Differentials: Their Function and Architecture The primary function of an automotive differential is to allow two-wheel drive vehicles to rotate at different speeds in order to avoid tire slippage on the road. The two differential-pinions (at .1 shows a kinematic diagram of an automotive differential that is mounted on the axle in the case of a vehicle with either rear wheel drive (RWD) or four-wheel drive (4WD) transmission. This kinematical relationship [27] is given as follows: =ω (2-1) This relationship shows that the numbers of teeth of the differential pinions and side gears do not affect the differential. The most common architecture of differentials is presented in Figure 2.10 - . a ring gear.Chapter 2 Automotive Differential Bevel Gears 2. It is mainly composed of a final drive pinion.

rotate the axles. most cases employ four pinions. Other architectures are sometimes used to increase the number of differential pinions.2. the contact force on the tooth induces moments on the points of mounting between the left and right axles and the differential cage. The differential cage is attached to the final drive ring gear (commonly. drive the left and right axles. force the pinion gears against the side gears. two pinions are usually used. Moreover. It is thus possible to have three or four pinions for a differential. which. The two side-gears. (3) The differential pinions. In the case of the four pinions.11 - . in the case of a single pinion. The power flow through the differential is summarized as follows. it is possible to transmit a higher torque in the same space but more parts and additional costs are entailed. its exploded view is shown in Figure 2. . a single differential-pinion is enough but to reduce the forces that act on the teeth of the pinion. in turn. As a matter of pure kinematics.least) are mounted on the shafts (or studs) that are attached to the differential cage. (2) The ring gear rotates the differential cage. as they rotate with the cage. Under this option. respectively. a hypoid gear). which are meshed with the differential pinions. (1) The final drive pinion rotates the ring gear.

.12 - .Differential Pinion Differential Cage Left Axle Right Axle (ωs1) (ωs2) Differential Side Gear Final Drive Ring Gear (ωR) Final Drive Pinion Figure 2.1 A kinematic diagram of a bevel gear differential.

Differential Side Gear Differential Cage Final Drive Ring Gear Right Axle Left Axle Final Drive Shaft Differential Pinion Final Drive Pinion (a) Two pinion type (b) Four pinion type Figure 2. .13 - .2 The architectures of automotive differentials.

2. generated and milled methods. Through the Revacycle tool.14 - . 2.2 Manufacturing Differential Gears The differential pinion and side gears. the teeth are completed in one revolution of the circular broach-type cutter.3) allows a simple plunge-and-roll for completing the cycle and eliminates the typical need for additional motions. which has three types of blade (roughening.2. The crowned tooth permits the minor adjustment of gears in assembly and allows for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads without the concentration of the load on the end of the tooth. are generally straight bevel gear pairs with a shaft angle of 90°. These bevel gears can be manufactured by cutting or forging. these are applied to the cutting of the tooth-form of the gear. The Coniflex tool is used to cut teeth-forms that have a crowning (sometimes. . which are core components of differentials. These Coniflex-type straight bevel gears provide good control of tooth contact through the crowning. such as grinding and finishing. the Revacycle tool (Figure 2.1 Cutting Methods for Straight Bevel Gears for Differentials The cutting process for a straight bevel gear is of two types. and finishing). In other cases.4) is used for the high-volume manufacture of straight bevel differential gearing. semi-finishing. it is called a localized lengthwise tooth bearing). The generated and milled teeth are commonly cut on Gleason machines through Coniflex and Revacycle tools [28]. The Coniflex tool (Figure 2.

Figure 2. .4 Revacycle tool of Gleason.Figure 2.15 - .3 Coniflex tool of Gleason.

2. If the contact patterns are not around the middle portion of the tooth flank. Furthermore. there is a trend towards net-shaped forged differential gears. the associated technology entails low productivity. (3) Measuring the tooth flanks of the master gear set: The tooth flank surface data are obtained by measuring the gear set through a 3D coordinate measuring machine (CMM). (1) Master gear machining: A pair of straight bevel gears that have the same tooth-forms as the forged gears are machined on a Gleason machine with Coiflex or Revacycle tools. (4) Constructing 3D-CAD models for electrodes: 3D-CAD models are constructed for electrodes based on the tooth-surface data that are measured through CMM.5. however. The net-shaped process minimizes waste through precision dies and often eliminates machining. Today.16 - . the processes are quite expensive in terms of tooling and the capital expenditure that is required [30].2. The contact patterns are obtained when the gear set is run under a light load in a rolling test machine. 64% were forged) [29]. and high capital expenditure on equipment.. 18 were forged and 10 were machined (i. (2) Contact pattern test of the master gear set: The contact patterns of a machined pair of bevel gears are verified to ensure the meshing of gears. It is also necessary to revise the 3D-CAD models so that the .e. The forging processes for designing and manufacturing differential bevel gears for automobiles are shown in Figure 2. they are described below. low utilization of materials. the master gear set should be machined again.2 Forging for Straight Bevel Gears Although the cutting methods through the use of Gleason tools can guarantee the stability of production. in the 28 models studied.

[26]. (5) Machining an electrode: The electrode is machined on a CNC machine tool that is based on the 3D-CAD model [9].17 - . Figure 2. (7) Machining a precision forging die: The forging die is manufactured using electric discharge machining (EDM) with the machined electrode [10].6 shows the machining process and electrodes that are machined for automotive differential gears. (6) Contact pattern test of electrodes of the gear set: The contact patterns of electrodes of the gear set are verified for ensuring the meshing of gears.bevel-gear geometry can be properly and easily forged [9]. Figure 2.7 shows the machining of the forging die through EDM. . These contact patterns are also obtained on a rolling test machine.

18 - . .5 Flowchart for design and manufacturing of the differential bevel gear forging die.Start Master Gear Machining Contact Pattern Test of the Master Gear OK Measuring the Tooth Flank of the Master Gear Failure Constructing a 3D-CAD model for an Electrode Machining the Electrode Contact Pattern Test of the Electrode OK Machining the Forging Die by EDM Failure Completed Die Figure 2.

19 - .6 Electrodes for differential bevel gears.(a) Process for cutting electrodes through a CNC machine (b) Machined electrodes Figure 2. .

7 Machining the forging die through EDM.20 - .Figure 2. .

e. In addition. they have several disadvantages. i. as a result of which kinematical errors occur and cause variations in the angular velocities. this is a limitation in practice.) (2) A trial-and-error method is needed to ensure a suitable area of contact because . have the Octoid tooth-form.3 Problems: Differential Bevel Gear Tooth-Form and Forging Processes Almost all differential bevel gears. One bevel wheel is designed to work with its complementary wheel and no other. the processes of bevel gear forging make it difficult and complicated to achieve high productivity and low cost of production for the forged bevel gears. These demerits of bevel-gear forging are listed as follows. (1) They are not interchangeable. (Refer Subsection 2..2. which are listed below. (2) They cannot be perfectly conjugated. (3) There is poor adjustment of assembly errors.21 - . including those that are machined and forged. the tooth of which is practically generated through a straightedged crown tooth [31]. The above disadvantages are caused by the kinematical characteristics of the Octoid tooth-form.2. This has been identified as the primary cause of problems that are related to vibration and noise. the bevel gears operate as inseparable pairs. (1) The difficulty and complexity of bevel-gear forging are mainly caused by processes for making the bevel-gear electrode. (4) The tooth-form is not mathematically formulated and is distinct from a spherical involute tooth-form.

To improve both the kinematical performance of the Octoid tooth-form and the productivity of the forging processes. . gear interchangeability.22 - . The main advantages are as follows. a spherical involute tooth-form can be a particularly good solution.it is difficult to predict the area (or pattern) of contact between the straight bevel gears for which the teeth are milled by the Revacycle tools of Gleason Works. .The tooth form is mathematically formulated so that it is easily understood and suitable for the construction of the CAD model. It enables the integration of forging processes and is appropriate for the forged bevel gears. and the good adjustment of assembly errors.There is excellent kinematical performance through conjugated action. .

When the transverse sphere converges to a cylindrical gear.1 displays a spherical involute curve. Since it is a widely known fact that the bevel gear system is a generalized configuration of the parallel-axis gear system. it becomes a transverse plane that is perpendicular to the gear axis. Figure 3.Chapter 3 Spherical Involute Tooth Profile 3. A transverse sphere refers to a reference sphere with a radius of ξ and two axes that intersect at the center of the sphere. Whereas a tooth-profile curve generally involves complex mathematical procedures. . a bevel gear configuration will be expressed on a transverse sphere.1 Definition of the Spherical Involute Function The involute function is a means of mathematically defining the tooth-profile curve of a spur gear. the involute function facilitates the manipulation of the curve.23 - . This is a generalized form of the cylindrical involute function. in this thesis. it is believed that the geometrical procedures for the tooth-profile curve in a complex bevel gear system can be simplified by deriving the spherical involute function. Unless specified otherwise.

24 - .1 A spherical involute curve.Figure 3. .

The tooth-profile angle. is a right triangle. AC. The trajectory of point A at the tip of arc AB is the spherical involute curve. β. χ. (3-4) The spherical involute function refers to the angle. DA. AB.The edge of the base cone is referred to as the base circle. respectively. and the arc. ψ. cos γ = cos γb cos χ sin φ = (3-1) (3-2) (3-3) cos β = In the above. Eliminating the angle. (3-1) and (3-2). the relationships between γ. γb. Therefore. at an arbitrary point. on the curve is defined by the angle between the tangent to the curve and the arc. and BOA. AC and CD. A. DA. BC and AC. BC and AB are perpendicular and the spherical triangle. ABC. . The relationships between the angles and the sides of a spherical triangle are different from those of a plane triangle (refer Appendix 1). χ. In Figure 3. we obtain: sin γ = cos φ sin γ. The azimuthal angle.25 - . the center of which is represented by point C on the transverse sphere. and χ are angular parameters that represent COA. and β are as follows. γ. is the angle between the arcs. are always perpendicular. between the arcs. φ.1. Since the lengths of BD and AB are identical. The curve. γb. φ. from Eqs. in Figure 3.1. COB.

γ. (3-6). instead of φ. we obtain: ψ= cos − cos . we get: ψ= − β. ψ= tan − cos . Eq. (3-5) (3-6) In Eq.χ = (β + ψ) sin γ . From this. asymptotically converges to a generalized configuration of a cylindrical involute tooth profile.26 - . (3-5) in terms of ψ. the spherical involute function can be written as a function of φ and the base-cone angle. γb. (3-4) and rearranging terms. it can be confirmed that a spherical involute tooth-profile is Since γb → 0 if ξ → ∞. (3-7) implies that expressed in terms of the cone angle. (3-7) tan φ − φ. Expressing Eq. (3-8) . ψ can be By applying Eq.

the gear pressure angle and the rack (or tool) pressure angle α are identical. The gear's pitch circle is used as a reference for defining the tooth profile.2 Spherical Involute Tooth Profile Figure 3. in Figure 3. (3-10) Accordingly. B. the tooth thickness. The common normal of the tooth-contact point passes through the pitch point. and the pitch cone angle. sin γ = cos α sin γ (3-9) The relationship between the tooth thickness on the pitch circle. A.27 - (3-11) .2 is obtained from Eq. P. at an arbitrary point. The relationship between α. γp (angle COP). γb. (3-4). is: t = .2 depicts the basic parameters of a spherical involute gear. . the angle of the tooth-profile curve at that point is referred to as the gear pressure angle. is the intersection of a pitch circle and the center line of the axis. When the toothprofile curve passes through a pitch point. on the tooth-profile curve is: t=R + 2ψ − 2ψ . the space width. A pitch point. and the backlash. t. αg.3. In a standard gear.

The bevel gear's module is defined in the same way as that of a spur gear. (3-7) or γ = γ into Eq. and ψp is obtained by substituting − cos (3-12) which point ψ = 0. tb becomes: t =R + 2ψ . If the diameter of the pitch circle is Dp and the number of teeth is Z. at (3-13) Where R = A sin γ . (3-11). (3-7) or (3-8). (3-8). ψ = tan In Eq. (3-14) . R = A sin γ and R = A sin γ . The module. m. of the base circle is t when γ = γ in Eq. m= . ψ is obtained from either Eq. then.28 - . determines the tooth size. tb. (3-11).φ = α into Eq. The tooth thickness.

.Figure 3.29 - .2 Basic parameters of a spherical involute bevel gear.

0. Since a bevel gear has a thick tb.Spherical involute tooth profiles for different base-cone angles in a single module are depicted in Figure 3. Z = 20 and γ = 10~70°.1. When γb reaches its maximum of 70°. Rt is smaller than the pitch-circle learned that it has greater strength than a spur gear. which displays tooth-profile curves with addendum angle γa at m⁄ξ = 0.3 Teeth profiles of a spherical involute bevel gear. α = 20°. it can be Figure 3.30 - . tb increases in proportion to γb. increases. which is reduced as γb radius RP. m = 3. .3. The tooth-tip circle radius Rt becomes ξ sin γ + γ .

⃗ OA = ξn ⃗ and n ⃗ = sin γ sin η ı ⃗ + sin γ cos η ⃗ + cos γ k ⃗ η = ψ−ψ (3-15) (3-16) (3-17) In the above.3. η and γ are the angles of CgA and CgPr. . θg.31 - . with zg0 as the reference axis. of a gear. as shown in Figure 3.3 Coordinate System of a Spherical Involute ToothProfile Curve A spherical involute tooth-profile curve can be expressed with reference to the fixed coordinate system. respectively. of the tooth-profile curve and the tooth pitch circle. Therefore. The rigid body motion of the gear can be defined by the relationship between the spatially-fixed reference coordinate system of the gear. Cg is constructed by rotationally displacing Cg0 in the positive direction by the gear’s angular motion. In Cg. Cg0. Cg. Pr.4. and Cg. zg is the rotational axis of the gear and the yg axis is directed toward the intersection.

32 - . .Figure 3.4 A spherical involute tooth profile and its coordinate system.

Chapter 4 CAD for Differential Bevel Gears
4.1 CAD procedures
The existing processes for designing and manufacturing a forging die for differential bevel gears are shown in Figure 2.5. The existing processes mainly consist of master gear machining, a contact pattern test, CMM, construction of the CAD model of the electrode from CMM data, electrode machining, and EDM die machining. These processes are based on trial-and-error; hence, the design and characteristics of contact are difficult to modify and improve upon. In addition, the processes for designing and obtaining the electrode are varied and complicated. Moreover, forged differential bevel gears have the Octoid tooth form, which has several disadvantages as follows. (1) They are not interchangeable, i.e., the bevel gears operate as inseparable pairs. One bevel wheel is designed to work with its complementary wheel and no other. (2) They cannot be perfectly conjugated, as a result of which kinematical errors occur and cause variations in the angular velocities. This has been identified as the primary cause of problems that are related to vibration and noise. (3) There is poor adjustment of assembly errors. (4) The tooth-form is not mathematically formulated and is distinct from a spherical involute tooth-form; this is a limitation in practice.

Therefore, an integrated CAD process that uses a spherical involute tooth profile

- 33 -

is required and it overcomes these disadvantages. The main advantages of a spherical involute tooth profile are as follows. - There is excellent kinematical performance through conjugated action, gear interchangeability, and the good adjustment of assembly errors. - The tooth form is mathematically formulated so that it is easily understood and suitable for the construction of the CAD model. It enables the integration of forging processes and is appropriate for the forged bevel gears.

Figure 4.1 shows the flowchart for the integrated process of bevel gear design through forging. Several existing processes (in Figure 2.5) are eliminated; the entire process is integrated into one process of “3D-CAD by using a spherical involute tooth profile.” This one process has several steps that are shown in Figure 4.2. The 3D-CAD modeling is carried out according to the flowchart in Figure 4.2. The modeling processes for differential bevel gears with a spherical involute tooth form are developed for ensuring these specific conditions. The modeling processes are summarized in Figure 4.2. In this thesis, all the results, such as the solid models, are directly used for machining the electrode or forging die because all the CAD activities are carried out on CATIA V5 and its VBA programming interface.

- 34 -

Start

3D-CAD modeling of Differential Bevel Gears by the Use of aSpherical Involute Tooth Profile

Machining the Electrode

Contact Pattern Test of the Electrode

Failure

OK
Machining Forging Die by EDM

Completed Die

Figure 4.1 Flowchart for the manufacture of forging dies with integrated CAD.

- 35 -

2 Flowchart of the modeling process for differential bevel gears through the integrated CAD program.36 - .Start Preliminary Step: Specifying Parameters and Coordinate Systems Modeling a Spherical Involute Tooth-Form Tooth-Form Modification Contact Pattern Simulation Need Modification OK End Figure 4. .

OP. OP. shaft angle. (1) Determine an origin.Define the coordinate axes of x10 and y20 as being normal to the plane between z10 and z20. . number of teeth. This procedure is described in the flowchart and the coordinate system is shown in Figure 4.Lastly. define the coordinate axes of y10 and x20. . these parameters are customized for Gleason machines that are used for making various differential gears. these parameters are converted into the basic parameters of α.Place the coordinate axes of z10 and z20. addendum. etc.2 Preliminary Step: Specifying Parameters and Coordinate Systems The first step in the flowchart is concerned with gear parameters for defining the spherical involute bevel-gear geometry. (4) Define the gear-fixed coordinate systems (C1 and C2). . which are used to define the coordinate system. (3) Define the spatially-fixed reference coordinate systems (C10 and C20). pressure angle. .3. backlash. γp. (2) Define the vector OP (a line from the origin to the pitch point) by using the cone-distance parameter (ξ). from the vector.37 - . γp1 and γp2. and the coordinate axes of z10 and z20 are on the same plane. The rotating angles. Furthermore.4. However. These parameters are referred as the module. The procedure for defining the coordinate system is described below. in order to model the differential bevel gears through the spherical involute tooth profile. respectively. and ξ. which are rotated by γp1 and γp2. are the pitch-cone angles of the pinion and side gear. Both the vector. dedendum.

Σ(shaft angle). O.. α. pitch circles. and Z2. and contact normal (disc of action). is calculated via Eq. γb. The pitch and base circles are also determined by the pitch and base cone angles of γp and γb. The base cone angle.4 shows these basic geometries.38 - . the point. base circles.Rotate the spatially-fixed coordinate systems of the pinion and side gear around z10 and z20 by the angles. Z1. such as the pitch point. γ = tan (4-1) γ ξ= =Σ−γ (4-2) = (4-3) In addition. γp. θ1 and θ2. and ξ for defining the coordinate system are obtained from the gear parameters. (3-18) and the basic parameters of α. . m. is the apex of the pitch and base cones. The relational equations are as follows. Figure 4. In the gear-fixed coordinate systems. the necessary geometries for the bases of the spherical involute bevel gears are defined in terms of the basic parameters. respectively.

z2 y1 [Side Gear] Figure 4. y20 x1 A Contact normal O θ1 y10.39 - .3 Coordinate System of a pair of spherical involute bevel gears. z20. z1. .z10. x20 x2 C θ2 [Pinion] Base circle Pitch circle P y2 x10.

z1. .40 - . z20. x20 x2 C γb1 γp1 P ξ γp2 O γb2 A α Contact normal Pitch circle Base circle y2 x10. z2 y1 Figure 4. y20 x1 y10.4 Basic parameters of a pair of spherical involute bevel gears.z10.

For modeling the spherical involute tooth-form. For the application of the addendum and dedendum to the spherical involute tooth form. For automotive differential bevel gears. these two parameters are defined in terms of angles. face-width. In addition.5 shows the procedures for modeling the spherical involute tooth-form for a differential bevel gear set.4. . these procedures are performed on the basis of the gear-fixed coordinate systems (C1 and C2) that were defined in Subsection 4. and the face and root angles. In other words. the tooth thickness has to be properly resized because this also improves the strength and durability characteristics of the teeth. the tooth addendum and dedendum are specially modified to avoid tooth-tip interference. dedendum. For various reasons.3 Modeling the Spherical Involute Tooth-Form Figure 4.2. The long-and-short addendum system for side gears and pinions is used to reduce the undercut of the pinion and to more nearly equalize the strength and durability of the side gear and pinion. These parameters are defined as angles or ratios.41 - . the tooth shapes of the bevel gear have to be properly modified and these modifications have to be modeled. the addendum of a pinion is longer but the addendum of a side gear is shorter by the addendum modification. The main parameters in this procedure are the addendum. tooth thickness.

.5 Flowchart for modeling a spherical involute tooth-form.42 - .Start Defining Addendum and Dedendum Parameters Generating Spherical Involute Curve Defining Tooth Thickness Generating Whole Tooth Profile Defining Tooth Tip and Root Sweeping Tooth Profile End Figure 4.

1 Defining the Addendum and Dedendum Parameters Figure 4. In this manner. a = 1. For the side gear.3. if the spherical involute curve has a shorter length from the pitch point to the base line. its curve has to be extended to the dedendum line (the root circle) by extrapolation. The spherical involute curve is trimmed from the base circle to the addendum line (the tip circle) and will apply to the longaddendum pinion.6 shows the schematics of the addendum and dedendum for the spherical involute curve of the pinion. d = 1. However. the tooth profile is determined.43 - .4. The addendum and dedendum angles (θa1 and θd1) of the pinion are defined as per the following equations. the tooth profile can be similarly obtained.788m − a θ θ = tan (4-4) (4-5) (4-6) (4-7) These equations should be used only for differential gears.17m − = tan . .

44 - .6 Schematics of the addendum and dedendum for a spherical involute curve. .[Pinion] C Extrapolated Base circle dedendum Addendum P Pitch circle dedendum angle Spherical Involute Curve Addendum angle O Figure 4.

⃗ OA = ξn ⃗ θ . . OP ⃗ = ξn ⃗ =γ η γ n ⃗ = sin γ sin η ı ⃗ + sin γ cos η =ψ −ψ +θ ⃗ + cos γ k ⃗ (4-8) (4-9) (4-10) (4-11) For the above equations. is defined in the gear-fixed coordinate system that is defined in Subsection 4. ψ1 and ψp1 are obtained via Eqs. ψt1 and ψp1 are obtained through Eqs. (3-8) and (3-12).2 Generating Spherical Involute Curve The spherical involute curve for the pinion. The spherical involute curve is generated from the base-circle point (D) to the tip-circle point (Pt1).4.7. Once the angular variables. the spherical involute curve is defined from D to Pt1 and is also expressed by the following vector. OA.2.45 - In the above. γ n ⃗ = sin γ sin η ı ⃗ + sin γ cos η η = ψ −ψ ⃗ + cos γ k ⃗ (4-12) (4-13) ≤γ ≤γ (4-14) + . such as ηt1 and γt1.3. which is determined through the following vector. OPt1. As before. which is shown in Figure 4. respectively. respectively. (3-8) and (3-12). the concerned parameters satisfy the inequality. are determined.

z10. . z1 C Base circle Root circle γb1 γt1 B Pitch circle θd1 ξ θa1 Pr1 P Pt1 D Spherical Involute Tip circle ψt1 ψP O [Pinion] Figure 4.7 A spherical involute curve for differential bevel gears.46 - .

chordal thickness (tc1 and tc2).4. it is applicable only to differential bevel gears.3 Defining the Tooth-Thickness Factors The tooth-thickness factor of a differential bevel gear is a very distinct characteristic from that of a standard bevel gear. and angular thickness (θt1 and θt2). as follows. For a spherical involute bevel gear. In the case of the differential bevel gear. the tooth-thickness factors proposed by Gleason Works are applied to this study. hence. the tooth-thickness factors are specified to improve the strength and durability in line with the knowhow of experienced manufacturers such as Gleason Works.05m ( ) t = πm − t t t =t − = tan = tan =t − (4-15) (4-16) (4-17) (4-18) (4-19) (4-20) θ θ ( ) − − .3.8 shows definitions of the tooth thickness for a spherical involute bevel gear. hence. Figure 4. the tooth geometry is quite different from the Octoid tooth-form of Gleason bevel gears but the difference in the tooth size is slight. these are expressed as the circular tooth thickness (t1 and t2). t = − (a − a ) tan α + 0. The long-and-short addendum system can reduce the strength and durability of the pinion because the tooth form of the pinion is relatively thinner than that of the side gear.47 - .

48 - .8 Tooth-thickness definitions.C [Pinion] t1 Base circle t2 P Pitch circle θt1 θt2 O [Side Gear] Figure 4. .

the angle. (3-8) and (3-12). θ1 can be calculated as follows: θ = θ − 2(ψ − ψ ) (4-21) Through the foregoing value of θ1. γ In the case of the side gear. To achieve this. ψ1 and ψp1 are obtained via Eqs. the coordinates for the mirror-image are similarly . θ1. the concerned parameters satisfy the inequality. calculated.9 shows the whole tooth profile with a mirrored curve. For modeling the whole bevel gear tooth. respectively. In the above. Then. which is the angular thickness of the pinion tooth at any point on the calculated spherical involute curve.Figure 4. the coordinates for the mirror-image of the spherical involute curve are given by: ⃗ OA = ξn ⃗ n ⃗ = sin γ sin η ı ⃗ + sin γ cos η η = ψ −ψ +θ ⃗ + cos γ k ⃗ (4-22) (4-23) (4-24) ≤γ ≤γ + θ .49 - . a mirror-image of the spherical involute curve is obtained for a tooth about the tooth center line. is found from θt1 and ψP1.

50 - .9 Tooth profile for the whole gear.C γ1 Root circle θ1 Tip circle θt1 Base circle Pr1 θd1 Pitch circle P Pt1 θa1 ψ1 ψP ψP O [Pinion] Figure 4. .

4 Defining the Face and Root Parameters In the case of standard or commonly used bevel gears. in practice.3. However. Therefore. are defined to specify the tooth dimensions.7 shows the tooth-form in light of the face and root parameters.4. Figure 4.51 - . the face and root parameters are also defined for modifying the tooth. . tooth thickness. the tooth tip and bottom are sloped more steeply. simple geometric parameters. such as the addendum. differential bevel gears are usually manufactured through forging. hence. it is necessary to consider the suitability of geometries for forging. and backlash. dedendum.

hence. and reducing transmission errors [39]. The methods of modification are mainly divided into two categories: profile and lead modifications. it is also called crowning). which is effectively applied to the CAD model of a spherical involute bevel gear. Crowning is directly achieved by the tools. which is sometimes referred as crowning (the ground shape of the tooth is similar to that of a crown.52 - . reducing noise. Profile modification is commonly applied to reduce the tooth noise that arises from tooth deformations under conditions of loading. . a method of tooth-form modification. In this thesis.4. the common purposes of gear tooth-form modification are: localizing the tooth contact area. straight bevel gears with a milled tooth-form (via Revacycle tools) enable manual tooth-form modification [28]. In addition. the modification has to be applied for enabling some adjustment of the gears in assembly and for compensating loads without concentrating loads on the ends of teeth. improving upon the tooth strength. is proposed. In the case of straight bevel gear tooth-form modification. Lead modification [38].4 Tooth-Form Modification Tooth-form modification is generally known as tooth flank grinding through very thin cuts of the gear tooth face. is applied to position the area of contact at the middle without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth [1]-[2]. Straight bevel gears with a generated tooth-form (via Coniflex tools) are widely used for various purposes. In other words.

as shown in Figure 4. the tooth-flank model must be obtained. the parameters for modeling are also required and modeling procedures are formulated for adjusting the modified tooth flank.4.11 and the flowchart of tooth-form modification is shown in Figure 4.11.1 Geometrical Considerations For differential bevel gears that are machined or forged. some modification of the tooth form is entailed. .53 - . For modeling tooth-form modifications on a spherical involute tooth flank. further. For modeling the tooth modification. Therefore.1 lists the definitions of the parameters for modifying the tooth flank. The parameters to be applied for modification are as shown in Figure 4.10. Table 4. the tooth form is based on generation or milling. differential bevel gears with a spherical involute tooth-form must have similar tooth-form modifications. These parameters are customized to differential bevel gears.4.

.Start Preparing a Completely Modeled Tooth Flank Input Parameters of Tooth Modification Defining the Modification Range Profile Modification (root and tip relief) Lead Modification (Crowning) End Figure 4.54 - .10 Flowchart of tooth-form modification.

4. The position that is specified in this step will be the origin of tooth-form modification. However. Therefore.4.55 - . The procedures for defining the range are as follows. . these ranges have to be parametrically defined for modeling tooth-form modification.11. the range is defined as the centerpoint dimensions of the contact area and modifiable flank dimensions. (Refer to Figure 4. such as the tip and root reliefs.2 Defining the Range of Modification Almost all differential bevel gears have modified tooth flanks but it is difficult to know the exact range of modification as well as the extent of modification. (2) Specify the position of the contact area.) These dimensions of the range of modification are the basis for the next steps. (3) Specify the modifiable flank dimensions. (1) Prepare the modifiable tooth as determined by the basic geometries.

these are automatically calculated given that the contact is always at the center of the tooth flank. It determines the extend of root relief.Table 4.11. It determines the ranges of profile modification. Parameters Amount of Lead Contact (%) Amount of Profile Contact (%) Description It determines the lead crowning ranges. It determines the extend t of tip relief. It is determined by the coordinates (Distance1. It determines the extend of crowning. Position of Contact Area Amount of Tip Relief (μm) Amount of Root Relief (μm) Amount of Crowning (μm) .56 - . In the case of central contact. Distance2) in Figure 4.1 Definitions of the parameter for tooth modification.

57 - . .11 Range of tooth-form modification.Amount of lead contact Amount of profile contact Tip relief Center point of contact area Distance 1 Distance 2 Root relief Figure 4.

Therefore. The sectors near the tip and root will be eliminated and the middle sector remains a pure spherical involute. root-relief point (Pr-r).3 Profile Modification The range of the tooth flank to be modified is first defined. The modification procedure is as follows. θcd (the angular extent of root relief). The sectors of the spherical involute tooth profile are also determined.11. Pt-r and Pr-r are obtained in the gear-fixed coordinate system as follows. several important points are required. These parameters are determined from the values in Table 4. such as the tip-relief point (Pt-r). tip-relief range point (Pt-r-r). OP ⃗ = x ı⃗ + y ⃗+z k⃗ x z y = ξ cos γ = ξ[sin γ sin η cos θ = ξ[−sin γ sin η sin θ + sin γ cos η sin θ ] (4-25) (4-26) (4-27) (4-28) + sin γ cos η cos θ ] .2. The profile-modification concept and the relevant parameters are shown in Figure 4.1. Φca (the angular range of tip relief). To define the profile modification. and root-relief range point (Pr-r-r). and Φcd (the angular range of root relief). These sectors are shown in Figure 4.3. (2) Specify extents of the modification (Ca and Cd) and calculate these in angular terms (θca and θcd).12. The applied parameters are defined as angular values. (1) Confirm the sectors defined in Subsection 4. such as θca (the angular extent of tip relief).58 - .4. (3) Create offset points (Pt-r and P r-r) that are rotated from the tip and base points (Pt and Pb) as the angular amounts of modification (θca and θcd).4.

OP ⃗ = ξn ⃗ n η γ ⃗ = sin γ =ψ = γ +θ −φ −ψ sin η ı ⃗ + sin γ cos η ⃗ + cos γ k⃗ (4-36) (4-37) (4-38) (4-39) . respectively. these are defined in the gear-fixed coordinate system as follows.η = ψ −ψ γ = γ +θ (4-29) (4-30) ψt and ψp. η = −ψ = ξ cos γ = ξ[sin γ sin η cos θ = ξ[−sin γ sin η sin θ + sin γ cos η sin θ ] (4-31) (4-32) (4-33) (4-34) + sin γ cos η cos θ ] (4-35) (4) Specify the tip and root relief range points (Pt-r-r and Pr-r-r) between the tip and base points (Pt and Pb). OP ⃗ = x ı⃗ + y ⃗+z k⃗ x z y As before. ψp is obtained via Eq. (3-12). are obtained through Eqs. The points can be obtained by using the angles of φca and φcd. which feature in the above equations.59 - . (3-8) and (3-12).

C(t) = ∑ P N (t) (4-44) In the above. which feature in the above equations. which feature in the above equations. Therefore. = γ +θ +φ −ψ sin η ı ⃗ + sin γ cos η ⃗ + cos γ k⃗ (4-40) (4-41) (4-42) (4-43) (5) Connect the points of Pt-r. Pr-r-r.ψtrr and ψp. respectively. ψtrr and ψp. Pr-r. (3-8) and (3-12). Pt-r-r. the modified tooth-profile can be obtained as follows. (3-8) and (3-12). are obtained through Eqs. and Pr by a B-spline. respectively. are obtained through Eqs.60 - . OP ⃗ = ξn ⃗ n η γ ⃗ = sin γ =ψ As before. Pi are the specified position vectors and N (t) = N (t) + N (t) 1 for t ≤ t < t N (t) = 0 for otherwise (4-45) (4-46) .

12 The concept of tooth-profile modification.C Base circle Root circle Pr Pr-r Modified tooth profile cd Pb Pr-r-r Pt-r-r Pt ca Not modified Pitch circle Tip circle Φcd OPr-r Φca Pt-r Not modified tooth surface θca θcd OPt-r Figure 4. .61 - .

OP ⃗= OP ⃗ (4-47) (4-48) . The sectors near the toe and heel will be eliminated and the middle sector remains.4. are needed.3) around the z-axis of the gear-fixed coordinate system with respect to the two angles.4.3. The parameters are defined as θc-heel (angular extent of heel crowning). These parameters are determined from the values of Table 4. several important points. (2) Specify the extent of crowning for the heel and toe and calculate this in angular terms (θc-heel and θc-toe). θc-toe (angular extent of toe crowning). Cheel (crown length of heel crowning). To define the crowning.1.13. OP ⃗= OP ⃗ (5) Join the offset points and the toe and heel points by the B-spline. such as the crowning points between the heel and toe (Pcrown-r and Pcrown-t). and Ctoe (crown length of toe crowning).11. rotate the modified profile (in Subsection 4. The modification procedure is as follows. θc-heel and θc-toe. (1) Confirm the sectors defined in Subsection 4.4 Crowning The sectors in the lead direction are determined by the procedure of Subsection 4.2.2 and are shown in Figure 4. (3) To determine the crowned tooth. these are scaled points from the tip and root points and are therefore calculated as follows.4. The crowning concept and its relevant parameters are shown in Figure 4.3.62 - . (4) Define the crowning points between the heel and toe (Pcrown-r and Pcrown-t).

13 The crowning concept.O Θc-toe Ctoe Tip circle Base circle Not modified tooth surface Pr-r Tip and root relieved tooth profile F Pcrown-toe Pcrown-wheel Cwheel Θc-wheel Pt-r Tip-Root Relief and Crowned Tooth Amount of crown Pr Root circle Figure 4. .63 - .

the rolling action (envelope) of the side gear around the pinion is simulated.14 shows this rolling action.15. The example parameters of the tooth modification are listed in Table 4. which indicates that the contact is good and that the modifications are suitable. To predict the tooth contact pattern. the extent of relief and crowning is 100μm. A prediction of the tooth contact pattern between the pinion and side-gear tooth flanks for which the tooth-forms have been modified is required for adjusting the contact area and avoiding load concentration.64 - . .4.15 shows the contact pattern. Parameters Amount of Lead Contact (%) Amount of Profile Contact (%) Position of Contact Area Amount of Tip Relief (μm) Amount of Root Relief (μm) Amount of Crowning (μm) Pinion 65% 65% center 100 100 100 Side Differential 65% 65% center 100 100 100 Figure 4.2 Parameters for simulating the contact pattern. This is commonly undertaken for differential bevel gears.5.2.5 Contact Pattern Simulation 4. This modification makes the tooth contact to be 65% around the center area. Figure 4. The predicted contact pattern is shown in Figure 4.1 Simulation Algorithm The tooth contact pattern refers to the contact trace that is obtained by rolling between the tooth flanks of the bevel gears on a low-load condition. Table 4. This example shows that the rolling areas of the side-gear flank are in good contact with the pinion flank.

Rolling trace of side gear flank Pinion flank Figure 4. .14 A rolling action (envelope) of tooth flanks.65 - .

.15 Contact pattern between the pinion and the side gear.Figure 4.66 - .

18.67 - . The program is also used to predict the contact pattern of the spiral bevel gears and the example is shown in the Figure 4.5.19. It is very practical to minimize a trial-and-error and to correct the tooth contact pattern in the manufacturing processes because the program enables to predict the proper contact pattern.4.18). These contact patterns are simulated by using the parameters of profile modification and crowning listed in Tables 4. .3 and 4. The central contact shows that the tooth flank is properly modified. Figure 4. Figure 4.17 and Figure 4.17 and Figure 4. In the case of the central contact ((a) of Figure 4. the contact patterns are properly and easily adjusted and customized. The differences among the central. The tooth contact area is properly simulated in the middle of the tooth surface.16. The toe and heel contacts ((b) and (c) of Figure 4.16 through to Figure 4. By using the developed program for simulating the tooth contact patterns of bevel gear sets.18) are also simulated to show the contact is shifted toward one of the outer (heel) or inner (toe) portions of the tooth surface by changing the parameter as necessary to effect such a shifting of the contact position.4. toe and heel contact are shown in Figure 4.2 Simulation Examples Examples of simulations of the tooth contact pattern are shown in this subsection for demonstrating the ability to adjust and customize the contact patterns via the proposed profile modification and crowning methods.16. the areas of contact are located in the middle of the tooth surface (the areas of contact are shown as red-colored areas on the tooth flanks of the pinion and side gear).

107 22.5˚ 90˚ 10. Parameters Amount of Lead Contact (%) Amount of Profile Contact (%) Positions of Contact Area Amount of Tip Relief (μm) Amount of Root Relief (μm) Amount of Crown (μm) Pinion 40~80% 80% center.63 4. toe and heel 100 100 100 . Parameters NO.60 6.Table 4.72 54˚26’ 61˚40’ 41˚31’ Side Differential 14 EA Table 4.69 35˚32’ 48˚29’ 28˚20’ 3. toe and heel 100 100 100 Side Differential 40~80% 80% center. TEETH MODULE PRESSURE ANGLE AXIS ANGLE WHOLE DEPTH ADDENDUM DEDENDUM PITCH ANGLE FACE ANGLE ROOT ANGLE Pinion 10 EA 5.4 Parameters of tooth modifications.32 5.3 Parameters of differential bevel gears for forging.68 - .

.69 - .(a) Central contact (b) Toe contact (c) Heel contact Figure 4.16 Contact pattern for a bevel gear set (side gear).

.17 Contact pattern for a bevel gear set (pinion).(a) Central contact (b) Toe contact (c) Heel contact Figure 4.70 - .

(a) Central contact (b) Toe contact (c) Heel contact Figure 4.18 Contact pattern simulations of the tooth flanks .71 - .

72 - .Figure 4.19 Contact pattern simulation of spiral bevel gear .

The simulation is carried out to verify the contact merits of the spherical involute tooth form by using various shaft angles from 85degs to 95degs. although the spherical involute bevel gears have some machining errors or assembling errors. However. they can be smoothly contacted. the designed shaft angle is 90degs and the gear set is machined on the condition that the shaft angle is determined as 90degs.20 and the simulation shows that the each tooth contacts are equally made but its profile direction position is moved to the root or top. spherical involute bevel gears have better tooth contact and it is a unique merit.5.4. Therefore. On the other hands.73 - . the common bevel gears have some machining errors or assembling errors and these errors make the tooth contact poor. Shaft angle: 90deg 89deg 88deg 87deg 86deg 85deg Shaft angle: 91deg 92deg 93deg 94deg 95deg Figure 4.20 Contact pattern simulations for shaft angle deviations . The tooth contact simulation results for the shaft angle deviations are shown in Figure 4.3 Simulation for the Shaft Angle Deviations Common bevel gears are designed to be mounted on shafts which offset from each other by 90degs.

the conventional design steps. .6 Design Program that uses CATIA-VBA For better productivity. hence. the complete.2 are used in the program.74 - . Figure 4. because it has a spherical involute tooth profile.4. The parameters that have been defined in Subsection 4. integrated design process is implemented in the CATA-VBA module. the kinematical performance is improved. Furthermore. This is summarized in Figure 4. are reduced to one step. including the machining and measuring processes for the master gear and 3D-CAD of the master gear model for an electrode. this program can simulate the contact pattern of the gear flanks. All the procedures from inputting parameters through to complete solid modeling are programmed in CATIA through VBA. which has mainly two categories.21.22 shows the input windows of the program. it can easily improve the contact performance. one for spherical involute tooth profiles and the other for tooth-form modifications. In addition. Through this program.

1.21 Integrated design process by CATIA with VBA . Determine Tooth Form 5. Generating Spherical Involute Curve 5. Completed Bevel Gears Figure 4. Establish Gear Coordinate system Distance 2 Root relief 3 .75 - . Input Parameters Amount of lead contact Amount of profile contact Tip relief Center point of contact area Distance 1 2. Tooth Form Modification and its Contact Analysis 4.

22 Input window of the CATIA-VBA .Figure 4.76 - .

These modifications make the tooth contact to be 50% in the lead length but 100% in the profile direction.1. The design parameters. a conceptual model of a pair of automotive differential gears for forging is considered and its parameters are obtained.2. The extents of relief and crowning are 100μm. The contact pattern simulation is shown below.Chapter 5 Verification of the CAD Program 5. . The differential model is mounted on the transaxle of a commercial car of Hyundai Motors. The tooth-modification parameters are listed in Table 5.1 Design Parameters For applying this integrated design program (refer Chapter 4).77 - . which are input to the program. are listed in Table 5.

32 5.5˚ 90˚ 10.78 - .Table 5.72 54˚26’ 61˚40’ 41˚31’ Side Differential 14 EA Table 5.69 35˚32’ 48˚29’ 28˚20’ 3.63 4.60 6.1 Parameters of the differential bevel gears for forging Parameters NO.2 Parameters of the tooth modifications Parameters Amount of Lead Contact (%) Amount of Profile Contact (%) Center of Contact Amount of Tip Relief (μm) Amount of Root Relief (μm) Amount of Crown (μm) Pinion 50% 100% center 100 100 100 Side Differential 50% 100% center 100 100 100 .107 22. TEETH MODULE PRESSURE ANGLE AXIS ANGLE WHOLE DEPTH ADDENDUM DEDENDUM PITCH ANGLE FACE ANGLE ROOT ANGLE Pinion 10 EA 5.

The contact pattern will be analyzed through the contact test for the electrodes. Figure 5.5.79 - .2 Design Results The main results of the design are a 3D-CAD model of the differential bevel gears and the contact pattern.1 3D-CAD model of the differential bevel gears . The 3D-CAD model can be converted to CAM data for machine electrodes by PowerMill. (1) A 3D-CAD model is constructed for the electrode.

(2) CNC CAM data simulations are undertaken through PowerMill.80 - . (a) Rough cutting (b) 2nd semi-rough cutting (c) Finishing Figure 5.2 Simulation for CNC data transform .

Figure 5.3 Simulation of the tooth contact pattern .(3) Tooth Contact Pattern Simulations: The contact pattern is shown in the middle area of the tooth flank.81 - .

3 Manufacturing The 3D-CAD model has to be converted to CAM data through CAM S/W. Figure 5. . prototypes of the electrodes were machined by a machining center with a cutting speed of 42. These show that crowning has been reasonably applied on the gear surface and that the spherical involute profiles are perfectly modeled.4 Contact Pattern Test To verify the 3D-CAD model of the differential bevel gears that were designed by the integrated program. as shown in Figure 5.5 shows the contact test scene of the prototype gears. the electrodes that are modeled by the integrated design program can be manufactured.5. the contact areas have been properly located on the surfaces of the bevel gears.6.000 RPM but the materials were replaced by common alloy steel (AISI4140). 5. prototypes of the differential bevel gears were machined and these were tested on a bevel gear contact test machine. Based on these CAM data.7 shows the results of the contact test. In this thesis.4. a compound was pasted on the surface of the bevel gears for carrying out the contact test on the test-bench. Figure 5. such as PowerMill.82 - . As shown in Figure 5. for manufacturing electrodes. A pair of the prototype gears was installed on the contact test machine to ensure that the shaft angle was exactly 90°and that the shafts intersected.

83 - .4 Bevel gear contact test machine (Gleason Works) .Figure 5.

Figure 5.5 Prototype contact test

- 84 -

Figure 5.6 Machined bevel gears for forging

Figure 5.7 Contact Patterns

- 85 -

Chapter 6 Conclusion
In this thesis, an integrated CAD program was developed for an automotive differential bevel gear set by the use of a spherical involute tooth form. The CAD program integrated the processes for the modeling and contact-pattern analysis of electrodes of a forged differential gear set. Therefore, the prototype of the electrodes was directly machined, which reduced the extent of trial-and-error. In addition, because the tooth form was replaced with a spherical involute tooth form, the kinematical performance was improved. To verify the tooth forms and gear meshes of the modeled electrodes for a bevel gear set, prototypes were developed of electrodes for one gear set that had localized tooth-form modifications. The results of the rolling test of the gear were compared with the calculated results. The tooth flank surface was measured on a CMM. The results of this thesis are listed as follows. (1) A spherical involute tooth profile was mathematically formulated and implemented in a CAD program. (2) A CAD program was developed for integrating the forging process. (3) By the use of the integrated CAD program, bevel gear sets with spherical involute tooth forms were modeled for automotive differentials. (4) To quantitatively adjust the contact area between the gears, lead modification (crowning) and profile modification methods were proposed for differential bevel gears. (5) The contact patterns were simulated under conditions of light loads.

- 86 -

.87 - . (7) The actual contact patterns of the prototype were compared with the simulated results.(6) A prototype of a bevel gear set for an electrode was modeled and manufactured.

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Eng. pp. Ser. T. . Narayanan. “DESK EDITION: Tool and manufacturing engineers’ handbook. 1912. Autom. WHITE. B.. SENTOKU and M. Des. Grant. DOI. 503-511 [16] GEO. Wang. 1998. Transm. University Press Of The Pacific. pp. 1995. 1998.. 329-335 [13] George B. A.. W. Mech. “An Investigation on Manufacturing of the Straight Bevel Gear Using End Mill by CNC Milling Machine. H. NAMRI=SME.” THE BROADWAY SERIES OF ENGINEERING HANDBOOKS VOLUME IV: TOOTHED GEARING. 393-398 [12] K. C. Ali Inan and Latif Ozler. 28-24 ~ 28-25 [15] Cihan Ozel. XXVI: 299-304.89 - . Eng. London [17] Shan Shih.. Cubberly and R. 2000. Jpn.” Load Distribution and Tooth Root Stress of Conflex Gears” Trans.[10] Zhang. pp.M. “Surface Geometry of Straight and Spiral Bevel Gears.P.” Society of Manufacturing Engineers. K.. 2005. Mech. “Analytical Definition and Application of Straight Bevel Gear Tooth Form. Jpn. 443-449.. Jerry Tou and Fred Huscher. P. KAWASAKI and H. C. Bakerjian. Mech. C. K.” 10th Edition.. Ser.” SCOTT.. 109 (4).” ASME J. 1989.” Trans. and Chin.” ASME J. 1999. 61-586. pp. Soc.. Rajurkar. 127(8). “A Treatise On Gear Wheels. TAMURA. C.” Three-Dimensional Measurement for Straight Bevel Gear” Trans. Scott Kuan. [11] H. Des. GREENWOOD & SON. pp. Y. Mech. ICHINO. “Development of an EDM CNC system for conjugate machining. Soc. 85-89 [14] W. 64-626. pp. 1987.” SAE paper 1999-01-3745 [18] Tsai..

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2000.. 7(1). Hyoung Woo Lee and No Gill Park. No. No.”An Analytical Investigation on the Ratio of Angular Velocity in Spherical Involute Bevel Gearsets. The Gleason.40-45 [33] No-Gill Park. Avallone. Technol. Mische. Shigley and C. pp. 7-11 [31] Eugene A. 2006. 2000. No.23.1668-1675 [35] Dong Hyun Chung. 31: 247–257 [30] Dale K. 1995. New York [32] No-Gill Park.5. Manuf. New York [29] Laurent Berviller. 1990. Adv. 2006.91 - . E. Vol.” Edition 11.12. H. Régis Bigot and Patrick Martin. McGraw-Hill [28] Stadtfeld.” Journal of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Vol.12. “The Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) of net shape forged bevel gears. pp.” J. Benedict.”Kinematical Study on Bevel Gear Pair Made in perfect Involute Tooth Profile.10. Theodore Baumeister. Rochester.”Power Transmission Elements”.17.” Technological information concerning the integrated design of net-shape forged parts” Int. pp. 1995. Ali Sadegh and Lionel Simeon Marks.2.5. “Advanced Bevel Gear technology. J.. pp. Shaping Technol.[27] J. Mater. 1999.”The Experimental Investigation of the Spherical Involute Bevel Gear. pp. Works.” Journal of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Vol.”Kinematical Investigation and Geometry modeling of the Perfect Involute Bevel Gearsets. R. No.” Journal of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Vol.” Edition 2000. J. “Marks' standard handbook for mechanical engineers. 1989.105-113 .” Transaction of the KSME A.46-56 [34] No Gill Park and Dong Hyun Jeong. McGraw-Hill Professional.

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respectively. the following relationship holds for plane triangle ΔA1B1C1.1 displays triangle ΔA1B2C3 on the surface of a sphere with center O and radius ξ. Figure A.93 - . we obtain. If we denote the tangent lines that contact arcs A1B2 and A1C3 at apex A1 as A1B1 and A1C1. (B C ) = (OB ) + (OC ) − 2(OB )(OC )cosA A B = OA tanΓ (A-1) (A-2) and in ΔOA1B1 and ΔOA1C1 OB = OA /cosΓ A C = OA tanB (A-3) (A-4) (A-5) (A-6) OC = OA /cosB Substituting Equations (A-2) ~ (A-6) into Equation (A-1) and rearranging.Appendix A A. The relationships in the triangle formed by connecting three points on a sphere surface will be different from those of a plane triangle. (B C ) = (A B ) + (A C ) − 2(A B ) (A C )cosα In triangle ΔOB1C1. .1 Geometry of the Spherical Triangle A line connecting two points on the surface of a reference sphere is an arc.

we obtain the following relationships: cosB = cosΓcosA + sinΓsinAcosβ cosΓ = cosAΓcosB + sinAsinBcosγ (A-8) (A-9) If ΔA1B2C3 is a right spherical triangle with α= 90deg from Equation (A-7) cosA = cosBcosΓ (A-10) Eliminating Β or Α from Equations (A-8) and (A-10) and rearranging.94 - . .cosA = cosBcosΓ + sinBsinΓcosα (A-7) A. if we apply similar processes to plane triangles ΔA2B2C2 and ΔA3B3C3.1 Spherical triangle and its relations Likewise.

we obtain tanB = tanAcosγ (A-13) .95 - .tanB = tanβcosγ tanΓ = tanAcosβ (A-11) (A-12) Eliminating Γ from Equations (A-9) and (A-10).

그리고 베벨기어 모델에 크라우닝을 적용하였고 치물림을 시물레이션 하였다.CAD of Forged Involute Bevel Gear 부산대학교 대학원 기계설계공학과 박 문 우 초록 본 논문에서는 자동차 차동장치용 베벨기어의 금형 전극 모델을 완전한 구형 인벌루트 치형을 이용하여 설계하였다. 본 베벨기어 모델은 실제 상용차에 적용되는 차동장치의 베벨기어 제원을 그대로 적용하였으며 구 형 인벌루트 치형의 기구학적 특성을 그대로 갖도록 3D 모델러(CATIA) 에 의해서 만들어졌다. . 따라서 본 논문을 통하여 구형 인벌루트 치형을 갖는 베벨기어의 실용성 이 보여졌고 기존의 글리슨 치형 베벨기어와 대체 가능함이 확인되었다. 그 결과 제품이 시물레이션과 잘 일치함이 확인 되었다. 본 베벨기어 모델의 검증을 위하여 5축 머 니싱센터로 제품을 가공하였고 물림 시험을 실시하여 시물레이션 결과와 비교 하였다.96 - .