Review of Literature
Krasnikov, Alexander Jayachandran, Satish Kumar Journal of Marketing; Nov2009, Vol. 73 Issue 6, p61-76, 16p, 4 Charts The impact of customer relationship management (CRM) implementation on firm performance is an issue of considerable debate. This study examines the impact of CRM implementation on two metrics of firm performance—operational (cost) efficiency and the ability of firms to generate profits (profit efficiency)—using a large sample of U.S. commercial banks. The authors use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate cost and profit efficiencies and employ hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effect of CRM implementation on cost and profit efficiencies. They find that CRM implementation is associated with a decline in cost efficiency but an increase in profit efficiency. A firmlevel factor, CRM commitment, reduces the negative effect of CRM implementation on cost efficiency. The authors also find that two adoption-related factors, time of adoption and time since adoption, influence the relationship between CRM implementation and cost and profit efficiencies. Early adopters benefit less from CRM implementation than late adopters. However, time since adoption improves the performance of firms that implement CRM. By demonstrating the different ways CRM implementation influences cost and profit measures, the study provides valuable insights to CRM researchers and managers.

Han-Yuh Liu International Journal of Management; Mar2007, Vol. 24 Issue 1, p15-32, 18p This paper tells that Although Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is arguable the most important area of concern to enterprises in an era of electronic commerce (EC),

few studies have explored it from an industry-specific perspective to develop usable action plans. The banking industry is one of the major beneficiaries of the ‘explosion’ in CRM across all sectors of the economy, but there is an absence of information and support for it in Taiwan. Embracing CRM requires changes in many aspects of enterprises. This paper employs a four-strategic framework; of contact channel management, enterprise-wide management, customer data management, and information technology management, in its review of what constitutes best practice in the leading banks in Taiwan with respect to CRM. It is argued that if Taiwan's banking industry adopts this framework it should be able to respond effectively to the various internal and external challenges identified in this study as well as to develop its own CRM initiatives.

Wettemann Health Management Technology; Sep2007, Vol. 28 Issue 9, p48-50, 2p The article discusses the advantages of implementing customer relationship management (CRM) solutions to improve healthcare provision. Several factors affect the adoption of CRM solutions, such as customer data confidentiality concerns and information technology budget challenges. Many CRM vendors provide customized solutions for the healthcare vertical market and many implementation partners provide vertical-specific expertise in making CRM applications work in healthcare. These things also can relate in banking sector.

Peelen, Edvan Montfort, Kee Beltman, Rob Klerkx, Arnoud Journal of Strategic Marketing; Dec2009, Vol. 17 Issue 6, p453-471, 19p, 2 Diagrams, 2 Charts

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has attracted the attention of both marketing practitioners and researchers over the last decade. Significant progress has been made in identifying and researching the components of CRM individually and in the design of a strategic framework. The role of CRM applications, customer information, customer interaction, customer loyalty and a customer-centric strategy has been the subject of research lately. However no comprehensive research has been conducted into the role of these CRM components in achieving CRM success across the line. Also we have yet to find research that empirically shows evidence for the relationship between each CRM component. The goal of our research is to determine the impact of CRM components on each other and on CRM success. We will strive to do so by using explorative qualitative research into CRM practitioners to formulate propositions. These propositions will in turn be tested in a quantitative analysis of data collected from 250 Dutch companies. Through building a Structural Equations Model (SEM), we determine the role and influence of the key components of CRM on each other and on CRM success.

Koh Hian Chye Chan Kin Leong Gerry ``Singapore Management Review; 2002 2nd half, Vol. 24 Issue 2, p1, 27p, 11 Advances in computer hardware and data mining software have made data mining accessible and affordable to many businesses. Hence, it is no surprise that data mining has gained widespread attention and increasing popularity in the commercial world in recent years. Data mining provides the technology to analyse mass volume of data and/or detect hidden patterns in data to convert raw data into valuable information. This paper discusses the potential usefulness of data mining for customer relationship management (CRM) in the banking industry. First, the paper introduces the CRM concept and summarizes the data mining methodology and tools. Second, it discusses the data mining literature, particularly its applications in banks. Third, it illustrates a possible CRM

application of data mining in banking. Finally, it suggests other potential data mining banking applications and highlights some of the limitations of data mining.

Eid, Riyad Service Industries Journal; Dec2007, Vol. 27 Issue 8, p1021-1039, 19p, 2 Diagrams, 6 Charts In recent years, customer relationship management (CRM) has been the favored theme for numerous studies and reports. Yet, there is a lack of systematic empirical evidence regarding the critical success factors (CSFs) for the CRM implementation, the activities that are affected by the use of the CRM programmes, and their consequent performance outcomes. In this article, he document the role of the CRM programmes in the banking sector and identify marketing activities that are affected by CRM usage. Taking a sample of 159 banks that utilize a CRM system, we found a substantial positive effect of the CRM usage on relationships effectiveness and marketing objectives. The results of this study have major implications for marketing people, as they suggest the notion that the CRM critical success factors should be implemented holistically rather than piecemeal to achieve the full potential of the CRM. The findings also stress the central role of customer services in the successful implementation of CRM programmes within banks.

Dibb, Sally Meadows, Maureen Journal of Strategic Marketing; Jun2004, Vol. 12 Issue 2, p111-125, 15p, 3 Charts This paper considers the shift towards relationship marketing principles and the implementation of CRM in the retail financial services sector. Many players offering personal banking and related products have now 'bought in' to the concepts behind relationship marketing, and are investing heavily (particularly in new information technology) to enhance customer relationships and improve retention rates. This trend is

considered from the perspective of an organization that is one of those leading the change. An in-depth case study reveals the progress made in recent years towards the company's goals, focusing especially on the introduction of new systems and moves to enhance customer data. However, the analysis also suggests that major challenges remain if the benefits of CRM are to be fully realized. Issues involving the structure of the organization and its approach to a range of staff issues such as recruitment and training are of particular concerns for the implementation of CRM principles.

Economist; 9/6/2003, Vol. 368 Issue 8340, special section p18-21, 3p, 2 Color Photographs, 2 Graphs Once the most aggressive users of information technology (IT), financial institutions have learned to make do with less, as their technological developments now focus on costcutting, improved system integration and the revival of old-fashioned branch networks. For makers of computers, storage devices and high-speed networks, that is grim news. The fact is that no other sector of the global economy drives capital spending on IT as much as the financial-services business does, and until that recovers, the IT slump will continue. Mark Sievewright of TowerGroup, a Reuter’s subsidiary in Needham, Massachusetts, notes that financial-services firms continue to spend heavily on technology. He expects to see worldwide spending top $337 billion in 2003, a 2.3% increase over 2002. Wireless finance remains a dream in America, though there are hints that things might change when (if) the latest generation of mobile phones takes off. But compared with the rest of the world, America is still struggling in the dark ages of mobile telephony. Perhaps the most glaring lack of innovation in American financial services is in trading equities. While much of Europe and Asia eschews the use of cheques because they are slow and expensive, the United States Federal Reserve reckons that more than 60% of all financial transactions in America were paid by cheque in 2001. While it leads the world in processing transactions, America's backwardness in other aspects of financial technology stems from differences in national policy. one thing' that unites financial-services firms everywhere is the need to build a better relationship with their

customers. Few things in technology have promised so much and delivered so little as "customer (or client) relationship management" (CRM) software.

Blery, Evangelia; Michalakopoulos, Michalis Journal of Financial Services Marketing, Volume 11, Number 2, November 2006 , pp. 116-124(9) Today, banks are facing an aggressive competition and they have to make efforts to survive in a competitive and uncertain market place. Banks have realized that managing customer relationships is a very important factor for their success. Customer relationship management (CRM) is a strategy that can help them to build long-lasting relationships with their customers and increase their profits through the right management system and the application of customer-focused strategies. CRM in the banking sector is of strategic importance. In this study, a single descriptive case study of one major Greek bank that has implemented CRM is presented. The aim of this study is to analyse the design and implementation of CRM in the bank, identify the benefits, the problems, as well as the success and failure factors of the implementation and develop a better understanding of CRM impact on banking competitiveness as well as provide a greater understanding of what constitutes good CRM practices.

E.W.T. Ngai, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 23 Iss: 6, pp.582 – 605 The Purpose of this research to review the academic literature on customer relationship management (CRM), provide a comprehensive bibliography and propose a method of classifying that literature.A range of online databases were searched to provide a comprehensive listing of journal articles on CRM. Six hundred articles were identified and reviewed for their direct relevance to CRM. Two hundred and five articles were subsequently selected. Each of these articles was further reviewed and classified. The

review and classification process was independently verified. All papers were allocated to the main and sub-categories based on the major focus of each paper.Papers and research on CRM falls into five broad categories (CRM – General, Marketing, Sales, Service and Support, and IT and IS) and a further 34 sub-categories. The most popular areas covered by the papers lay in the sub-category of CRM management, planning and strategy; and CRM general, concept, and study followed by papers in software, tools and systems; data mining, knowledge management, and e-commerce.This is the first identifiable academic research. The bibliography provides an academic database of the literature between 1992 and 2002 covering 89 journals. The classification approach provides a means to conceptualise the coverage of CRM and the relative popularity of CRM topic areas.

Eleni K. Kevork and Adam P. Vrechopoulos International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management Issue: Volume 2, Number 4 / 2008 Pages: 376 – 417 While electronic customer relationship management (e-CRM) has been thoroughly investigated via multiple research perspectives and multidisciplinary approaches in the past, until today, there has been no available work providing an integrated framework of the relevant e-CRM literature and its corresponding classification schemes. To that end, this paper manipulates a database of approximately 400 references and classifies e-CRM research activity via classification variables, sector investigated, journal/year of publication, type of research employed (e.g., experiment vs. case study), discipline(s) involved, etc. This review paper serves as a useful point of reference for both researchers and practitioners, as it provides a broadened understanding of conceptual and functional e-CRM features, while clarifying the types of research conducted within the e-CRM spectrum as a whole. Further, this paper describes how e-CRM dimensions are labeled and treated within the boundaries of the various disciplines/research areas.

Andra Brige Baltic Journal of Management, Vol. 1 Iss: 1, pp.24 – 33 This paper aims to give a short overview on bank/customer relationship experience in the Latvian banking system and the impact of developing technology in banking. Without usage of technology commercial banks cannot provide customers with effective services, but short banking history increases the danger of such a reduced loyalty towards the services supplier.Satisfaction with services provided is not the only factor influencing customer loyalty level. Customers experiencing a short banking history can be loyal to the service provider due to the lack of financial literacy. A great impact on loyalty level is made by other factors, such as: image, prestige, word of mouth, etc. The sample used for research did not include all 23 commercial banks of Latvia. Further research should be developed to compare customer loyalty levels in the more technologically developed and less technologically developed banks, and additional loyalty-influencing determinants could be included.An analysis of ITC development in banking side-effects provides useful information not only for transitional countries but also for developing countries.

Eleni K. Kevork, Adam P. Vrechopoulos Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 27 Iss: 1, pp.48 – 85

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on customer relationship management (CRM) to obtain a comprehensive framework of mutually exclusive CRM research areas and sub-areas free of all potentially disruptive factors (plethora of CRM definitions, personal judgments, etc.).The keywords reported in 396 CRM articles published during the period 2000-2006 are used to uncover first a great number of detailed keyword subgroups and, by subject summation, the CRM-related research areas. This classification

scheme is considered unbiased, in contrast with any direct classification of articles alone among CRM research areas fixed in advance. An up-to-date conceptual and functional CRM framework emerges, consisting of a total of nine distinct research areas having their own weights, importance and popularity among the research community. Newly emerging CRM research areas are self-identified as attracting the interest of the researchers and managers. Keywords are activated, for a first time, as an added value characteristic reflecting genuinely the authors' beliefs about the subject content fields of their articles, important enough to reveal a self-supported and self-weighted unbiased and exhaustive CRM framework, useful to researchers and marketing practitioners. The paper offers strong evidence that e-CRM is too complex to be comprehensively classified by mere procedures and simple criteria alone.

Jegham, Sahut, Applications and the Internet Workshops, 2004. SAINT 2004 Workshops. 2004 International Symposium on Issue Date: 26-30 Jan. 2004 On page(s): 29 - 33 The implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) project constitutes a major change for any organization, the actual implementation appear to be very heavily biased toward the technological aspects while paying little attention to managing the changes in process, structure and culture. Besides, we wonder what kind of measures should be taken along with the shifts induced by the ICT in order to make them accepted by the users. To give a concrete answer to this challenge, we made a qualitative and exploratory study related to a CRM implementation project in a banking institution. To study the impact of change management measures of the ICT acceptation we propose for the future research adopting an empirical approach based on the technology acceptance model as stated in Davis (1989).

Kalyani Menon and Aidan O'Connor Correspondence: Kalyani Menon, School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue, Waterloo, ON, N2L3C5, Canada. Tel: (519) 884 0710 (X2704); e-mail: This paper argues that retail banks need to focus more strongly on components of their Customer Relationship Management (CRM) strategy that will generate customer affective commitment and lead to an increase in customer retention, share of wallet, and advocacy. It is suggested that affective commitment is generated during 'moments of truth' or episodes of interpersonal interaction between customers and bankers. As shown in social psychology, effective interpersonal interactions are a function of the assertiveness and affiliation demonstrated during the interaction. Applying this to retail banking, bankers should mine their databases to identify customers in terms of their levels of profitability and longevity, and should deliver levels of assertiveness and affiliation appropriate to each customer. Testable research propositions are developed regarding how affective commitment might evolve during a customer's tenure with a retail bank, when bankers should deliver assertiveness and/or affiliation to customers of differing longevity and profitability, and how these strategies to increase affective commitment will impact retention, share development, and advocacy. Overall, the call is to complement the emphasis on the use of high-tech CRM strategies that generate huge databases with a more high-touch strategy that will indicate to bankers how to interact with each individual customer.

S.S. Hugar and Nancy H. Vaz (D'Costa) International Journal of Business Innovation and Research Issue: Volume 4, Number 1-2 / 2010 Pages: 143 – 162 India is on the threshold of a stark global competition, especially so for the banking sector with the likelihood of the economy opened for global banks soon. The Indian

public sector banks which have come face-to-face with competition just since last decade are found wanting both with regard to performance as well as their customer orientation. This paper, first of all, evaluates the need for CRM implementation in the Indian public sector banks (PSBs) through the study of secondary as well as primary data. With the insight received from the exercise, and the review of other implementation models found in CRM and related IT literature, an optimum model for CRM implementation for Indian PSBs has been suggested in the second part.

Anumala, Srinivas; Kumar Reddy, Bollampally Kishore Master Thesis, Electronic Commerce / 2007:021 ISSN 1653-0187 / ISRN LTU-PB-EX--07/021--SE / NR 2007:021 The customer relationship management (CRM) is essential and vital function of customer oriented marketing. Its functions include gathering and accumulating customer-related information in order to provide effective services. e-CRM is a combination of IT sector but also the key strategy to electronic commerce. e-CRM is a combination of software, hardware, application and management commitment. Aim of e-CRM system is to improve customer service, develop a relationship and retain valuable customers. e- CRM is a concern for many organizations especially banking sector. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the benefits e- CRM to customers and organization in banking industry. To justify the purpose two research questions have been addressed and on the basis literature review, a frame of reference was developed which helped us to answer the research questions and collect data. A qualitative research approach was used for this study. Empirical data was collected through in- depth interviews were conducted with two Swedish banks and a group of their customers. In the last chapter findings and conclusions were drawn on the basis on research questions. Our findings indicate that Swedish banks are well aware of the benefits and applications of the e-CRM and use the system to maintain good relationships with their customers. Our findings also indicate that with the implementation of e-CRM and the latest technologies. We have found that

both the banks seem to have same description about the benefits of e-CRM. We found that both banks have maintained good relationships with customers due to the usage of eCRM. Our finding indicates that with the implementation of e-CRM and the latest technologies banks have ensured full security for the transactions of their customer’s. ECRM facilitates the organizations to provide one to one services and also maintain the transaction security of the customers.

Sivaraks, P. Krairit, D. Esichaikul Technology Management for Global Economic Growth (PICMET), 2010 Proceedings of PICMET '10: Issue Date: 18-22 July 2010 On page(s): 1 - 10 This research attempts to examine and measure outcomes of e-CRM system implementation in the Thai Banking industry. The research is divided into two main sections. The first section is based on a qualitative approach to define e-CRM implementation in Thai banks. The second section uses a quantitative approach to determine the relationships between e-CRM implementation and outcomes from the customers' point of view. The contribution of this research lies in the fact that most eCRM implementations are done in the back-office part, which cannot be directly seen or recognized by the customers, so a new construct called “e-CRM Service attribute” was introduced in this research in order to enable the measurement of e-CRM outcomes from the customers' perspectives. From the 13 constructs that have been collected from the literature, the exploratory factor analysis was performed and the results showed that the outcomes of e-CRM implementation from the customers' perspective can be grouped into three factors. The first one is the information factor, the second one is convenience and the third one is communication channel factor. In addition, the T-test was also employed to test the differences in e-CRM outcomes from the customers' perspectives between the customers of the banks that implemented e-CRM and those that did not.

Rajeev Kumra Journal of Advances in Management Research, Vol. 2 Iss: 2, pp.70 – 77 The potential impact of E-CRM on cost savings, revenue growth, and increased customer’s convenience has generated considerable interest and speculation across the industries. The immense growth of E-CRM market has opened new vistas of business for E-CRM vendors. However, with plethora of vendors and products available in the market it makes the choise of the companies difficult. The present study after reviewing the literature of E-CRM attempts to do a comparative analysis of various E-CRM vendors.

Tim Coltman Correspondence: Tim Coltman, Centre for Business Services Science, School of Information Systems and Technology, University of Wollongong, Northfields Rd, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Tel: +61 (2) 4221 3912; Fax: +61 (2) 4221 4170; e-mail: The market enthusiasm generated around investment in customer relationship management (CRM) technology is in stark contrast to the nay-saying by many academic and business commentators. This raises an important research question concerning the extent to which banks should continue to invest in CRM technology. Drawing on field interviews and a survey of senior bank executives the results reveal that a superior CRM capability can deliver improved performance. The paper then demonstrates that in order to be most successful, CRM programs require a combination of technical, human and business capabilities. Abbas Keramati , M. Farshid , E. Salehi-Sangari , J. Toufighi Zavareh International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management

Issue: Pages:

Volume 3, Number 3 / 2009 207 - 235

The aim of this research is to investigate customer relationship management (CRM) activities in e-banking among Iranian banks. These banks are already adopting CRM and approaching it differently, and achieving different rates of success in terms of customer satisfaction and CRM. A comparative approach of their attitudes toward CRM, therefore, will reveal important insights. Following similar approaches researchers have employed in Europe, Pakistan, Malaysia, the UK and Ireland, we investigated the touch points and services that connect banks to their customers. According to these researches in other countries, we have developed a theoretical framework to investigate CRM activities in public and private Iranian banks by interviewing with qualitative approach case study. The main components of our research framework are: communicational/collaborative CRM, operational CRM and analytical CRM. We also consider the relationship among the components. This research will reveal Iranian banks' positioning with regard to their view, concept and the benefits of CRM, with a cross-case comparison between Iranian banks' CRM activities and also some conclusions for practitioners.

Arpita Khare Correspondence: Arpita Khare, L.D.C. Institute of Management, Allahabad, India Technology is fast altering the business services cape. Its role in improving customer service levels is being used strategically and increasingly by service organizations. The service attributes and quality can be enhanced by deployment of technology. The Internet has facilitated convenience in customer interactions and transactions with the banks. Online banking is currently emerging as a new approach in India for providing improved accessibility and expediency to customers. Most banks have their own websites for improving the customer interface and offering online services. The article studies the applicability of online banking in India and its role in fostering relationships with customers and giving them more value. The research was conducted on customers

familiar with online banking in India, and their perceptions about online banking were studied. The findings reveal that customers are using the services but are skeptical about the financial transactions and service quality dimensions.

K. Askool, S.S.Nakata, Management of Innovation and Technology (ICMIT), 2010 IEEE International Conference on Issue Date: 2-5 June 2010 On page(s): 1055 - 1060

Web 2.0 at a high level is described as the convergence of technologies that enable people to easily interact and collaborate. The use of these tools as a channel for communication and sharing information by individuals has also an effect on customer relationship management (CRM). This paper reports on a scoping study that explored the current situation of CRM adoption in banking industry in Saudi Arabia. It aims to identify the factors that influence the use of social CRM (SCRM). Various models have been proposed to study technologies acceptance and usage. This paper proposes an enhancement of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), by incorporating a range of factors identified in the business relationships literature believed to influence SCRM adoption.

Manoj Patwardhan , Pankaj Srivastava , Kirti Kumar, Santosh Kumar , Abhishek Garg , Devesh Arya International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets

Issue: Pages:

Volume 1, Number 3 / 2009 282 - 295

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is no longer a new term but a reality for many organizations. Banking is a prime candidate for CRM transformation, as competition in this sector increases; an excellence in service becomes a critical success factor. The study discovers the factors that influence CRM in Indian Banking Sector and evaluates the current CRM implementation process. Respondents are from both private and public sector banks. Findings of this study have relevance for managers as these findings provide them with the current scenario of CRM. Further managers learn to identify CRM-related factors that could contribute to CRM implementation.

R.K. Mittal , Rajeev Kumra Delhi Business Review. Vol. 2, No. 1, January - June, 2001 The advancement in information and communication technology has made the new millennium, e-millennium. The dividing line between banks and non-banking financial institutions, like insurance and mutual funds, is getting blurred. Competition from players in the market has resulted into products and services traditionally offered by banks and financial institutions, are now being offered by non-banking organizations more efficiently and effectively. In India the monopoly of banks over payment systems would be broken very soon after the launching of satellite based money order services by the P & T department. Now banking activities are not confined to borrowing (collection of savings) and lending (disbursement of loans), but provides a plethora of services keeping in mind the requirement and convenience of customers In the fast changing banking environment worldwide, banks in India will not only have to learn the new rules but also upgrade the skills as well as the tools of banking. The challenge lies in addressing these issues and at the same time keeping the wheels of growth moving. Technology, people and customer are the three elements on which hinge the success of banking in the e-millennium. Technology will be an enabler in managing the pace and

quantum of change. Success in technology can be brought about by skilled human resources. In response to these technological challenges, organizations have to evolve internal capabilities and skilled human resource management which is fundamental in generating these capabilities. However, ultimately the bank’s performance depends upon the satisfaction of its customers. In the emerging competitive and technological driven banking era, banks have to strive hard for retaining and enlarging their customer base. E-CRM, which is the latest buzzword in the corporate sector, is perceived as one of the effective tool in this direction by the banks. The present paper attempts to analyze the concept of e-CRM in Indian banks from its various dimensions covering specifically its need, process, present status and future prospects.

Sami Alsmadi International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 2; February 2011 The purpose of this study is to develop a CRM model and empirically test its underlying constructs in the banking and financial sector in Jordan. The empirical data was collected from a convenient sample of 141 banks and financial institutions, drawn from three major Jordanian cities (Amman, Irbid, and Al-Zarqa). A drop-off method of data collection was used (Aaker et al. 2004). The findings show that Jordanian banks and financial institutions were likely to have a clear CRM strategic vision with specific goals and programs, possess necessary resources to establish CRM, be able to manage CRM programs, and use two way communications to handle CRM. Nevertheless, the analysis unveiled that these firms were not likely to have a sufficient marketing database, nor customer intelligence, with little motivation to either measure effectiveness of CRM programs or take actions to improve an unpopular CRM strategy. Further analysis of the findings indicated that the CRM concept did not seem to be well incorporated in the business strategy of most Jordanian banks and financial institutions. Several recommendations were made and certain directions for future research were highlighted.

Kallol Das, Jitesh Parmar, Vijay Kumar Sadanand European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11, Number 1 (2009) The current study explores the association between deployment of customer relationship management (CRM) best practices and loyalty of profitable customers in Indian retail banking sector. The study comprises two parts. The first part called the CRM best practices survey involves the use of descriptive research design. The second part viz. Case study research involves the use of embedded customer loyalty survey. The hypothesis testing based on literal and theoretical replication is done using the concept of pattern matching. The findings reveal that there is no perfect bank, as yet, across the three bank types, which has deployed all the 29 CRM best practices to the fullest extent. The results of literal and theoretical replication done by using pattern matching technique indicates no strong association between deployment of CRM best practices in scheduled commercial banks and loyalty levels of both high and medium relationship value retail customers. The study develops a list of 29 CRM best practices, which may be helpful to the organizations toward achieving comprehensive CRM deployment. The results also imply that going for CRM deployment may not be a profitable strategy for retail banks, particularly in the Indian context.

T. R. Coltman Coltman, T. R.: Can Superior CRM Capabilities Improve Performance in Banking 2007.

The market enthusiasm generated around investment in customer relationship management (CRM) technology is in stark contrast to the nay-saying by many academic and business commentators. This raises an important research question concerning the extent to which banks should continue to invest in CRM technology. Drawing on field interviews and a survey of senior bank executives the results reveal that a superior CRM capability can deliver improved performance. The paper then demonstrates that in order to be most successful, CRM programs require a combination of technical, human and business capabilities.

Dr. R.K.Uppal Journal of Arts Science & Commerce ISSN 2229-4686 180

The present paper exhibits the growth of information technology in various bank groups. In our country in 2009, 79 percent branches are under core banking. The maximum technology is taking place in new generation private sector banks as well as foreign banks. 43.5 percent are off site ATMs in our country. Public sectors banks have more on site ATMs where as new private sector banks and foreign banks have more off site ATMs. The paper also suggests some strategies to enhance e delivery channels in banks particularly in public sector banks.

Alexander Krasnikov, Satish Jayachandran, & V. Kumar © 2009, American Marketing Association Journal of Marketing

ISSN: 0022-2429 (print), 1547-7185 (electronic) 61 ,Vol. 73 (November 2009), 61–76 The impact of customer relationship management (CRM) implementation on firm performance is an issue of considerable the impact of CRM implementation debate. This metrics study examines on two of firm performance?

Operational (cost) efficiency and the ability of firms to generate profits (profit efficiency)? Using a large sample of U.S. commercial banks. The authors use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate cost and profit efficiencies and employ hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effect of CRM implementation on cost and profit efficiencies. They find that CRM implementation is associated with a decline in cost efficiency but an increase in profit efficiency. A firm-level factor, CRM commitment, reduces the negative effect of CRM implementation on cost efficiency. The authors also find that two adoption-related factors, time of adoption and time since adoption, influence the relationship between CRM implementation and cost and profit efficiencies. Early adopters benefit less from CRM implementation than late adopters. However, time since adoption improves the performance of firms that implement CRM. By demonstrating the different ways CRM implementation influences cost and profit measures, the study provides valuable insights to CRM researchers and managers.

Salma Rahman and Sarwar M. Azhar International Review of Business Research Papers Vol. 4 No.2 March 2008 Pp.249-264 CRM and service marketing are developing into competing paradigms in customer service marketing literature. Practicing managers are either ready to invest or already investing in CRM systems without substantiated results in terms of improved performance and resultant returns on investments. Should companies in developing countries get onboard this bandwagon? The hypothesis of this paper is that both CRM and service marketing practices show considerable similarities, which make these two paradigms close cousins rather than competitors. The paper

therefore builds an integrative model of commonalities of activities drawn from the two domains. Using academicians and common practicing managers these groups of activities are operational zed into current practices in the banking

industry of Pakistan. A survey is conducted using these items to verify if the banks are practicing these activities and if so then it is premised that such banks may be ready to fine tune their operations to become fully CRM systems oriented, which would mean incorporating further technology into the system OR else they should focus on continuing to improve their current service marketing operations as defined by the activities that form part of the integrative model. The results support the later strategy for banks in Pakistan, at this point in time.

Salim Hilal Al-Mamari, Miguel Baptista Nunes European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems 2008 (EMCIS2008) May 25-26 2008, Al Bustan Rotana Hotel, Dubai The paradigm shift from a product-focused view to a customer-focused view

advocates that organizations need to consider first and foremost the needs of their customers. In order for organizations to achieve competitive advantage they need to adopt customer-centric solutions such as CRM. However, the adoption of such systems entails barriers and risk events that may hinder successful use of CRM. This paper discusses the barriers that may have impact on potential adoption of CRM in banking sector in Oman. A range of previous studies have been critically examined to provide a background for the study and have resulted in the identification of different barrier categories, namely social, management and technical barriers. This initial categorization was used as a priori theory for an inductive study of the Banking sector in Oman. The study used in-depth interviews with top management of 3 out of the 4 of the more representative banks in the country. The

data collected was analyzed using a thematic analysis approach that enabled the identification and classification of barriers into categories. These categories were then translated into a narrative that forms the theoretical proposition of this paper. The awareness of the barriers presented and discussed here will help both practitioners and academics to better understand and overcome the difficulties of CRM implementation. The paper also aims at contributing to the debate on the adoption, use and improvement of CRM.


Mittal, Sanjay


Delhi business review, vol 8, No.1(January-June 2007) Indian banks are investing heavily in the technologies such as telebanking, mobile banking, banking, and automated teller machine (ATMs), credit cards, debit cards, smart cards, call centers, CRM, data warehousing etc. To convince the management, investors and other stakeholders for this heavy investment in technology, it is desirable to evaluate the impact of computerization on the performance of Indian banks in terms of their profitability and productivity. In this paper, after defining input and output parameters, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to study the impact of computerization on Indian banks profitability and productivity. Private sector banks, which took more IT initiative, were found to be more efficient in productivity and profitability parameters than public sector banks.

Shwu-Ing Jr-Ming Hung Total Quality Management & Business Excellence; Apr2008, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p321342, 22p

Recently, CRM (Cause-Related Marketing) has gradually been adopted by non-profit organizations. However, for the evaluation of CRM's effect, a non-profit organization still refers to traditional financial data, which could not understand the influence and effect of CRM on a non-profit organization completely. This research introduces the concept of the Balanced Scorecard as the framework for the evaluation of CRM, and utilizes the Balanced Scorecard's five dimensions in a non-profit organization to design a questionnaire. The questionnaire is used to collect the performance data of a non-profit organization after the execution of CRM, and uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to verify the relations and interaction between each performance dimension. The primary purposes of this research are (1) to analyze the influence and effect on a non-profit organization of its participation of CRM; (2) to design a reliable measurement index to evaluate the effect of CRM; (3) to establish the relationship structure model of the influence factors of the CRM's effect. This research shows that the measurement index developed by this research could measure the fact that the non-profit organization has effects in five dimensions after the execution of CRM - namely, organizational mission, financial, customer, internal process, learning and growth - and these five dimensions influence each other. Grau, Stacy Landreth Folse, Judith Anne Garretson Journal of Advertising; Winter2007, Vol. 36 Issue 4, p19-33, 15p Arguably, the majority of cause-related marketing (CRM) campaigns implemented since their inception over 20 years ago offer consumers who are highly involved with causes a strong reason to participate. Their involvement represents a significant motivating factor. However, a multitude of CRM campaigns competing for the limited number of socially conscious consumers and the emergence of new generations that are reportedly less socially conscious suggests that firms and their nonprofit partners should consider additional target-market opportunities. In two experiments, we assess the role of donation

proximity and message framing on campaign attitudes and participation intentions of less-involved consumers. Findings reveal that local donations and positive message framing serve as effective message cues to produce favorable CRM outcomes among this market segment that strategists consider fertile ground. Additional findings and implications for creating and communicating CRM campaigns are discussed.

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