RADAR HANDBOOK

Merrill I. Skolnik
Editor in Chief

Third Edition

Me Graw Hill
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CONTENTS

Contributors Preface xv

xiii

Chapter 1 An Introduction and Overview of Radar Merrill Skolnik
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 Radar in Brief / 7.7 Types of Radars / 7.5 Information Available from a Radar / 1.7 The Radar Equation / 1.10 Radar Frequency Letter-band Nomenclature / 1.13 Effect of Operating Frequency on Radar / 1.14 Radar Nomenclature / 1.18 Some Past Advances in Radar / 1.19 Applications of Radar / 1.20 Conceptual Radar System Design / 7.22

1.1

Chapter 2 MTI Radar t William W. Shrader andVilhelm Gregers-Hansen
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 Preface / 2.7 Introduction to MTI Radar / 2.2 Clutter Filter Response to Moving Targets / 2.9 Clutter Characteristics / 2.70 Definitions / 2.79 Improvement Factor Calculations / 2.23 Optimum Design of Clutter Filters / 2.25 MTI Clutter Filter Design / 2.33 MTI Filter Design for Weather Radars / 2.46 , ' Clutter Filter Bank Design / 2.52. f Performance Degradation Caused by Receiver Limiting / 2.59 Radar System Stability Requirements I 2.65 Dynamic Range and A/D Conversion Considerations / 2.78 Adaptive MTI / 2.80 Radar Clutter Maps / 2.83 Sensitivity-velocity Control (SVC) / 2.87 Considerations Applicable to MTI Radar Systems / 2.97

2.1

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RADAR HANDBOOK

Chapter 3 Airborne MTI James K. Day and Fred M. Staudaher 3.1 Systems Using Airborne MTI Techniques / 3.1 3.2 Coverage Considerations / 3.2 3.3 Airborne MTI Performance Drivers / 3.3 3.4 Platform Motion and Altitude Effects on MTI Performance / 3.3 3.5 Platform-motion Compensation Abeam / 3.10 3.6 Scanning-motion Compensation / 3.14 3.7 Simultaneous Platform Motion and Scan Compensation / 3.18 3.8 Platform-motion Compensation, Forward Direction / 3.21 3.9 Space-time Adaptive Motion Compensation / 3.23 3.10 Effect of Multiple Spectra / 3.31 3.11 Example AMTI Radar System I 3.32 Chapter 4 Pulse Doppler Radar John R Stralka and William G. Fedarko 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Characteristics and Applications / 4.1 Pulse Doppler Clutter / 4.14 Dynamic-range and Stability Requirements / 4.24 Range and Doppler Ambiguity Resoluton / 4.31 Mode and Waveform Design / 4.35 Range Performance / 4.39 List of Abbreviations / 4.48

3.1

4.1

Chapter 5 Multifunctional Radar Systems for Fighter Aircraft David Lynch, Jr. and Carlo Kopp 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Introduction / 5.7 Typical Missions and Modes / 5.70 A-A Mode Descriptions & Waveforms / 5.76 A-S Mode Descriptions & Waveforms / 5.28

5.1

Chapter 6 Radar Receivers Michael E.Yeomans 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 The Configuration of a Radar Receiver / 6.1 Noise and Dynamic-range Considerations / 6.4 Bandwidth Considerations / 6.9 Receiver Front End / 6.10 Local Oscillators / 6.14 Gain Control / 6.22 Filtering / 6.24 Limiters / 6.29 I/Q Demodulators / 6.57 Analog-to-Digital Converters / 6.35 Digital Receivers / 6.40 Diplex Operation / 6.46 Waveform Generation and Upconversion / 6.47 ' S

6.1

CONTENTS

Vii

Chapter 7 Automatic Detection, Tracking, and Sensor Integration W. G.Bath and G.V. Trunk 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Introduction / 7.1 Automatic Detection / 7.1 Automatic Tracking / 7.22 Networked Radars / 7.46 Unlike-sensor Integration / 7.49

7.1

Chapter 8 Pulse Compression Radar Michael R. Ducoff and Byron W. Tietjen 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Introduction I 8.1 Pulse Compression Waveform Types / 8.2 Factors Affecting Choice of Pulse Compression Systems / 8.26 Pulse Compression Implementation and Radar System Examples / 8.28 Appendix / 8.36

8.1

Chapter 9 Tracking Radar Dean D. Howard 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 Introduction / 9.7 Monopulse (Simultaneous Lobing) / 9.3 Scanning and Lobing / 9.76 Servosystems for Tracking Radar / 9.77 Target Acquisition and Range Tracking / 9.20 Special Monopulse Techniques / 9.24 Sources of Error "'/ 9.26 Target-caused Errors (Target Noise) / 9.26 Other External Causes of Error / 9.37 Internal Sources of Error / 9.42 Summary of Sources of Error / 9.43 Error Reduction Techniques / 9.46

9.1

Chapter 10 The Radar Transmitter Thomas A. Weil and Merrill Skolnik 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 Introduction / 70.7 Linear-beam Amplifiers / 10.4 _ Magnetron I 10.14 Crossed-field Amplifiers / 70.76 Gyrotrons I 10.17 Transmitter Spectrum Control / 70.79 Grid-controlled Tubes / 70.27 Modulators / 70.25 Which RF Power Source to Use? / 70.25

10.1

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*S '

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RADAR HANDBOOK

Chapter 11 Solid-State Transmitters Michael T. Borkowski 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Introduction / 77.7 Advantages of Solid State / 77.7 Solid-state Devices / 77.5 Designing for the Solid-state Bottle Transmitter / 77.77 Designing for the Solid-state Phased Array Transmitter / 11.24 Solid-state System Examples / 77.57

11.1

Chapter 12 Reflector Antennas Michael E. Cooley and Daniel Davis 12.1 Introduction / 72.7 12.2 Basic Principles and Parameters / 12.3 12.3 Reflector Antenna Architectures / 72.76 12.4 Reflector Feeds / 72.25 12.5 Reflector Antenna Analysis / 72.57 12.6 Mechanical Design Considerations / 72.55 Acknowledgments / 72.47 Chapter 13 Phased Array Radar Antennas

12.1

13.1

Joe Frank and John D. Richards 13.1 Introduction / 75.7 13.2 Array Theory / 75.9 13.3 Planar Arrays and Beam Steering / 75.75 13.4 Aperture Matching and Mutual Coupling / 13.20 13.5 Low-sidelobe Phased Arrays / 75.2S 13.6 Quantization Effects / 75.54 13.7 Bandwidth of Phased Arrays / 75.5S 13.8 Feed Networks (Beamformers) / 75.46 13.9 Phase Shifters / 75.57 13.10 Solid-state Modules / 75.55 13.11 Multiple Simultaneous Receive Beams / 75.54 13.12 Digital Beamforming / 75.56 13.13 Radiation Pattern Nulling / 75.57 13.14 Calibration of Active Phased Array Antennas / 75.60 13.15 Phased Array Systems / 75.62 Chapter 14 Radar Cross Section Eugene F. Knott 14.1 Introduction / 74.7 14.2 The Concept of Echo Power / 74.4 14.3 RCS Prediction Techniques / 74.76 14.4 RCS Measurement Techniques / 74.27 14.5 Radar Echo Suppression / 74.56 14.1

CONTENTS

IX

Chapter 15 Sea Clutter Lewis B.Wetzel 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Introduction / 75.7 The Sea Surface / 75.5 Empirical Behavior of Sea Clutter / 75.7 Theories and Models of Sea Clutter / 75.27 Summary and Conclusions / 15.37

15.1

Chapter 16 Ground Echo Richard K. Moore 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.9 16.10 Introduction / 76.7 Parameters Affecting Ground Return / 76.4 Theoretical Models and Their Limitations / 76.7 Fading of Ground Echoes / 76.72 Measurement Techniques for Ground Return / 76.79 General Models for Scattering Coefficient (Clutter Models) Scattering Coefficient Data / 76.55 Polarimetry / 76.46 Scattering Coefficient Data Near Grazing / 76.52 Imaging Radar Interpretation / 76.55

16.1

/

76.29

Chapter 17 Synthetic Aperture Radar Roger Sullivan 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 Basic Principle of SAR / 77.7 Early History of SAR I1 17.2 Types of SAR / 77.2 SAR Resolution / 77.6 Key Aspects of SAR / 77.70 SAR Image Quality / 77.76 Summary of Key SAR Equations / 77.27 Special SAR Applications / 77.22

17.1

Chapter 18 Space-Based Remote Sensing Radars R. Keith Raney 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 Perspective / 7S.7 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Altimeters / 7S.29 Planetary Radars / 7S.45 Scatterometers / 78.55 Radar Sounders / 7S.59 ' / 7S.5" V

18.1

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RADAR HANDBOOK

Chapter 19 Meteorological Radar R. Jeffrey Keeler and Robert J. Serafin 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 Introduction / 79.7 The Radar Equation for Meteorological Targets Design Considerations / 79.6 Signal Processing / 79.79 Operational Applications / 79.25 Research Applications / 79.55

19.1

/ 79.5

Chapter 20 HF Over-the-Horizon Radar James M. Headrick and Stuart J. Anderson 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.9 20.10 20.11 20.12 20.13 Introduction / 20.7 The Radar Equation / 20.5 Factors Influencing Skywave Radar Design / 20.7 The Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation / 20.75 Waveforms for HF Radar / 20.27 The Transmitting System / 20.23 Radar Cross Section / 20.26 Clutter: Echoes from the Environment / 20.29 Noise, Interference, and Spectrum Occupancy / 20.40 The Receiving System / 20.45 Signal Processing and Tracking / 20.49 Radar Resource Management / 20.54 Radar Performance Modeling / 20.55 Appendix: HF Surface Wave Radar / 20.70

20.1

Chapter 21 Ground Penetrating Radar David Daniels 21.1 Introduction / 27.7 21.2 Physics of Propagation in Materials / 27.6 21.3 Modeling / 27.75 21.4 Properties of Materials / 21.18 21.5 GPR Systems / 27.20 21.6 Modulation Techniques / 27.27 21.7 Antennas / 27.24 21.8 Signal and Image Processing / 27.50 21.9 Applications / 27.55 _ _ 21.10 Licensing / 27.59 Chapter 22 Civil Marine Radar Andy N orris 22.1 Introduction / 22.7 22.2 The Challenges / 22.3 22.3 International Standards / 22.7 22.4 Technology / 22.70 22.5 Target Tracking / 22.77

21.1

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V

22.1

CONTENTS

Xi

22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9 22.10

User Interface / 22.79 Integration with AIS / 22.23 Radar Beacons / 22.25 Validation Testing / 22.28 Vessel Tracking Services / 22.29 Appendix The Early Days of CMR / 22.57 List of Maritime Radar-related Abbreviations / Acknowledgments / 22.34

22.55

Chapter 23 Bistatic Radar Nicholas J.Willis
23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.9 Concept and Definitions / 25.7 Coordinate Systems / 23.3 Bistatic Radar Equation / 23.4 Applications / 23.9 Bistatic Doppler / 25.74 Target Location / 25.77 Target Cross Section / 25.79 Surface Clutter / 23.22 Unique Problems and Requirements

23.1

/

23.26

Chapter 24 Electronic Counter-Countermeasures Alfonso Farina
24.1 Introduction / 24.7 24.2 Terminology / 24.2 24.3 Electronic Warfare Support Measures / 24.2 24.4 Electronic Countermeasures / 24.5 24.5 Objectives and Taxonomy of ECCM Techniques 24.6 Antenna-related ECCM / 24.70 24.7 Transmitter-related ECCM / 24.57 24.8 Receiver-related ECCM / 24.32 24.9 Signal-processing-related ECCM / 24.33 24.10 Operational-deployment Techniques / 24.36 24.11 Application of ECCM Techniques / 24.37 24.12 ECCM and ECM Efficacy / 24.54 Acronym List / 24.56 Acknowledgments / 24.58

24.1

/

24.8

Chapter 25 Radar Digital Signal Processing James J. Alter and Jeffrey O. Coleman
25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 Introduction I 25.1 Receive Channel Processing / 25.2 Transmit Channel Processing / 25.20 DSP Tools / 25.22 Design Considerations / 25.34 Summary / 25.37 Acknowledgments / 25.38

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25.1

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RADAR HANDBOOK

Chapter 26 The Propagation Factor, Fp, in the Radar Equation Wayne L. Patterson 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 Introduction / 26.7 The Earth's Atmosphere / 26.2 Refraction / 26.3 Standard Propagation / 26.4 Anomalous Propagation / 26.6 Propagation Modeling / 26.75 EM System Assessment Programs / 26.78 AREPS Radar System Assessment Model / 26.25 AREPS Radar Displays / 26.25

26.1

Index

1.1

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