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Detection of Winding Deformation in Transformers during Short Circuit Tests
A Thesis to be submitted by
for the award of the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India
CPRI. .0 MVA. Some tests such as power frequency tests are routine tests. The reliability of such equipment can only be ensured by extensive tests in the factory during manufacturing. 450 kV for single phase. In this work alternative methods of testing and analysis are proposed which can significantly improve objective identification of failure. test . 765 kV exist in operation today. Here. The trend towards larger rating of transformers implies that facilities to test might not exist anywhere at all. etc. For example the largest rating of transformer that can be tested at KEMA is 8. There is hence an increasing use of design calculations in lieu of actual tests. The method is detailed in a 2006 amendment to IEC 60076 . untanking of the winding is done in order to confirm changes visually. 2.C. model based testing can serve as an alternative to the actual test.C) test is an example of a type test which is done for a particular design. test is by impedance comparison before and after the test. 1 . The short circuit (S. Further.4 MVA. The short circuit tests are done only in specialized short circuit testing laboratories such as KEMA. the mechanical integrity of the windings is tested by a short circuit conducted as specified in standards .1. This is an offline method.C. Motivation The conventional method for detection of winding deformation as a result of a S. involve considerable logistics and are time consuming. 245 kV for three phase and 5. Thus there is need to develop more sensitive methods of detection which reduce the dependence on visual inspection and also provides some analysis tools that help analyse failure modes. Ratings as high as 500 MVA. In this context. This might not be sufficient. A newer optional method is the use of frequency response analysis before and after the S. Introduction A Power Transformer is key equipment in enabling transfer of bulk power in a power system. A scaled model of the actual transformer is developed and is tested to destruction to establish design margin. The failure during test is detected by a change in reactance before and after the test. These tests are expensive.
Among them are the changes in real power and reactive power drawn by the test object.1s). As the test is done at 50 Hz. Improved methods for assessment with optimized concurrent high frequency excitation. Extension of scaled model testing to other power apparatus such as current transformer.0 voltage transformer (VT) shown in Fig. Objective and Scope The overall objectives and scope of the work can be summarized as follows • • Improved methods for assessment at power frequency (50 Hz) excitation. if a comparison method with an identical test object is possible. several relevant variables can be measured in conjunction with impedance changes. it is ensured that the test object to which the device under test (DUT 1) is being compared does not undergo deformation. A cycle to cycle deviation between the secondary currents from the DUT 1 and the reference is expressed as ratio error (RE) and phase error (PE). The plot of the RE and PE as the solenoid moves primary from position ‘A’ to position ‘B’ is shown in Fig. • • Use of scaled model short circuit testing to establish design margin. Here. The secondary is fixed rigidly over the core and primary is free to move over the secondary from position ‘A’ to position ‘B’. 1(a) whose cross sectional view is shown in Fig. A solenoid is used to move the primary from position ‘A’ to position ‘B’. 2 . Consider as an example a 11 kV/ 3 110 kV/ 3 . A standard VT of same voltage and current rating is used as the reference. Cycles 4 to 8 shows the period of movement (approximately 0.3.1 Improved Methods for Detection of Winding Deformation at Power Frequency The first improvement suggested over the conventional method is an analysis of impedance changes on a cycle to cycle basis during the S. 100 VA. 2. class 1. ‘errors’ with and without deformation are measurable.C. test. 1(b). Equivalently. 4.
2 0 0 5 15 10 5 0 0 5 Cycle 10 Fig. deformation is measured which is created by mechanical means. 3 . 1(a) A 11 kV VT with solenoid arrangement (DUT 1) (b) Cross sectional view of DUT-1 0. 4.2 Improved Methods for Short Circuit Testing of Power Transformer with High Frequency Excitation It has been known that frequency response analysis before and after the test is an alternative method for assessing deformation .a n N VT Core A Primary Core Secondary Solenoid actuator Solenoid actuator Reference position.6 Normalized PE (min) 10 Cycle % Normalized RE 0. Similarly the method is also extended to cater to deformation in windings with electrical excitation. A Position of primary winding at maximum travel. 2 Cycle to cycle measurement of ratio error (RE) and phase error (PE) in the VT of Fig. We propose a method that uses concurrent high frequency excitation along with the 50 Hz excitation in order to improve sensitivity of deformation detection. The high frequency signal is an optimized signal arrived after considering several alternative signals. B Fig.4 0.1 when compared with a standard VT In the above method.
A continual evaluation of deformation during the test is possible as the 50 Hz current is measured across Rl and high frequency current is measured across Rh. Similar results are obtained for radial inward and radial outward displacements of 5th section as shown in Fig. 5 shows the connection diagram for applying concurrent excitation.Simulation study: In order to study the sensitivity of methods to identify deformation it would be appropriate to consider a benchmark winding which has been validated for other studies. The winding was modeled by lumped parameters using 10 section model. deformation is assumed to occur in one section. It is proposed to use impedance changes at resonant frequencies due to winding displacement. Cs is used to decouple the 50 Hz source from the high frequency source fh. 4(b) shows impedance changes at different resonant frequencies. without any mechanical effects on the other sections. 4(a) shows impedance (Z) changes at 50 Hz due to 4% (of winding length) axial displacement in 1st section as shown in Fig 3(b). 3(c) and 3(d) Experimental demonstration: A power transformer model (DUT 2) with four disc windings and air core is chosen to demonstrate the method of concurrent excitation. its resonant frequencies are known and several practical measurements have been performed on it. To simplify the analysis. Different cases of the deformations are considered as shown in Fig. A comparison shows that the sensitivity of high frequency is higher than that of the 50 Hz frequency. Fig. Here a specific capacitance CP is introduced in parallel to the winding under test such that the circuit resonates at a frequency fh. 3. The shorted 4 . The frequency fh is chosen based on maximum sampling rate and data storage capacity of the measuring equipment. These are calculated and compared with impedance changes at 50 Hz. where nth resonant frequency is denoted as RF-n. The circuit shown in Fig. Similarly Fig. The top two discs of the model are connected in series and shorted. Fig. The bottom two are in series and excited with high frequency and 50 Hz frequency signals. We choose the coil proposed in  as it has a uniform layer winding. 3(a) shows the schematic of the coil without deformation.
5 2 2. the current changes at 50 Hz are only 0.2 Z-Changes (%) Z-Changes (%) -0. 3 Schematic of a single layer winding (a) Coil without deformation (b) Axial displacement (c) Radial inward compression (d) Radial outward buckling 80 0 70 60 50 -0.coil is moved by mechanical means and current waveforms are recorded using digital oscilloscope during coil displacement. impulse. An optimized signal maximizes the minimum accuracy obtained in a fixed measurement time for a specified maximum peak value of excitation . 3 (a) 50 Hz frequency (b) nth resonant frequency (RF-n) 5 .6 -0. Fig. while that of high frequency is around 4. . For the same deformation. The sensitivity of deformation detection at high frequency excitation is about 8 times and the resolution is 880 times more than that of 50 Hz.4 40 30 20 10 RF-1 RF-2 RF-3 RF-4 RF-5 RF-6 RF-7 RF-8 -0.5 4 -20 0 0.5 2 2. are used for simultaneous excitation along with power frequency for detecting winding deformation .4 %.8 0 -10 -1 0 0. 4 Variation in impedance with axial displacement expresses as % of winding length of the single layer winding shown in Fig.5 Winding displacement(%) 3 3.5 1 1.5 4 Fig. 6 shows cycle to cycle basis percentage changes in the rms currents for both 50 Hz and high frequency signal.58 %.5 Winding displacement(%) 3 3. Here we show that optimization of high frequency signal improves the sensitivity in detecting winding deformation. 4. etc. oscillating impulse.5 1 1.3 Signal Optimization for Improving Detection Sensitivity Various high frequency signals such as chirp. Core First section Fifth section Winding (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig.
6 .3 Time (s) 0.2 0.C. 5 Circuit for S. Preliminary analysis showed that 64 kHz is more sensitive and hence all further excitations are done centered at this frequency. test on DUT 2 at power frequency excitation (fl) with concurrent excitation (fh) currents in DUT 2 with and without deformation at fl and fh The device under test is the voltage transformer (VT) shown in Fig. The multisine is generated by the sum of 11 instantaneous voltages of equal amplitude in the range of 60 kHz to 70 kHz at an interval of 1 kHz. multisine and optimized multisine are used. These signals are superimposed on 50 Hz sine wave of amplitude 2 V and applied to the VT.4 0.1 0. Chirp signal frequency varies from 60 kHz to 70 kHz with duration of 1 ms. Currents IA and IB are measured at the two different positions of the primary. 6 Comparison of cycle to cycle variations of rms Fig. 1 (DUT 1).7 6 50 Hz High frequency % Change% Change in Irms in winding rms currents il Rl ih+il ih Rh 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 ih fl Winding Cp fh il CS 0 0. All the three signals have 20 V peak to peak voltage. whose resonant frequencies were measured to be at 21 kHz and 64 kHz. Three types of signals namely chirp. position-A and position-B respectively with each of the excitation. The sensitivity of current with winding displacement from position-A to position-B is given by Sensitivity (%) = (I B − I A ) × 100 IA (1) The comparison of the sensitivity from equation (1) in frequency domain indicates that the optimized signal is better than the other signals.5 Fig.
The total axial force on HV winding of the transformer is simulated in a FEM based software. as shown in Fig 7(a). The model is tested in two ways. A 2D axi-symmetric FEM analysis is performed and fV is integrated over the 2D winding surface. A zoomed view of high voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) windings is shown in Fig. FAxial = ∫ fV dV V (2) where. 7(b). fV = J × Bradial fV J Bradial (3) Axial force developed per unit volume ∆V. at the instant of peak short circuit current. We propose model based testing. which gives force per unit length f L . 8(a) shows the variation of fV along the length of the HV winding. fV is almost constant along the width of the winding as winding radius is much larger compared to its thickness. The first one involves electrical testing.. 22 kV/11 kV three phase transformer proposed in  for study. where ∆V → 0 (N/m3) Current density in ∆V (A/m2) Radial component of magnetic flux density in ∆V (T) Fig. 7 . the windings are assumed as single conductors.4 Model Based Testing for Establishing Design Margin of Power Transformer The improved methods of detection can also serve to analyse tests on model structures. The axial force developed in a winding is the summation of forces at all infinitesimal volumes through out the winding. The axial forces are calculated considering that the height of HV winding is 1% smaller than LV winding. We consider a 5 MVA. which involves developing a scaled model of the power transformer to be tested. For the sake of simplicity.4. The physical relation between the model and complete transformer winding can be established using finite element based field computations. Total force is obtained by multiplying f L with mean circumference of the winding. The second one is testing with hydraulic actuators which can simulate the forces under short circuit conditions.
A hypothetical 11 kV/ 415 V. As the windings are of different radii. Table 4. An arrangement for excitation was made similar to the requirements for short circuit test of a transformer. with two discs per section and 10 turns per disc.4 V. The distribution of axial forces in the Model is shown in Fig.5% experiences upward force (9778 N/m). the radial component has no useful purpose.The short circuit current in HV winding is 1303 A. The net force developed in the end sections is 632 N. The short circuit current is calculated to be 270 A.1 shows a comparison of 22 kV/11 kV transformer and the model. 9 (a). A current of 1550 A causes a total axial force of 48260 N/m in the downward direction in the model. The top 91. 8(b). As we are interested in the axial force.5% of the winding experiences a downward axial force (57700 N/m) and the bottom 8. 63 kVA transformer is considered to evaluate the axial forces using FEM. Testing the Physical Model by Electrical Excitation In order to demonstrate the principle. without altering the width of the core and windings. The model developed above produce similar ampere turn distribution and axial force as of the actual transformer. 20 kVA variac was connected to a 400 V/10 V. A 400 V. one in axial and other in radial direction as shown in Fig. 40 kVA transformer 8 . the developed force has two components. The winding is made of aluminum and has two sections. The total axial force is in downward direction (47922 N/m). 9(b) where all the force is only in axial direction. a 5% length model is constructed. We propose a model as shown in Fig. thus improving the force output for a given VA rating. A model with 5% of transformer length is simulated using FEM and axial force developed in the model is found to same as that of actual transformer at a voltage excitation of 11. A Model is developed with winding length 10% of the actual transformer.
5 % 9 .09h 82.5 % 50817 N/m 91.1e7 JxBY (N/m ) 0 9e6 JxBY N/m3 Fig.Core LV HV (a) (b) Fig. 8 Changes in the axial force in HV (outer) winding as a function of length at peak value of shortcircuited current in (a) simulated Transformer (b) simulated model Faxial Faxial LV Fradial LV CORE CORE HV HV Fig.1e7 0 3 1.1e7 -2. 9 (a) Model with two component forces (b) Improved model 2557 N/m 8.5 % 17. 7 (a) Winding arrangement in 5 MVA transformer developed in FEM software (b) Zoomed portion of the HV and LV windings LV HV 57700 N/m Length 9778 N/m 0.1e7 2.5 % -1.
The proposed Movable lower arm method is to apply mechanical force similar to that developed in a transformer during short circuit test. Thus the end plate is required to withstand this force. the current through the model is 778 A. an identical force can be applied to a winding with an actuator rather than through electromagnetic forces.C. With recent advancements in the field of hydraulic actuators with a good frequency response. 10 . A timer was used to restrict the time of energisation to 0. For the case of the 5% winding length model we know that the required Immovable Upper arm Load Cell Winding under test force is of the order of 632 N. Comparison of transformer and the model (FEM simulation) Parameter Winding Height No. Testing the Physical Model by Hydraulic Actuator It is known that FEM can be used to obtain exact force profile as a function of time during an S. It was easy to demonstrate that the upper clamp plate could move if not adequately restrained. At full excitation. The force is applied till the breakdown of end plate. of turns SC Current Total Axial Force Transformer 1420 mm 804 1303 A 47922 N/m Model 142 mm 80 1550 A 48260 N/m which could source up to 8000 A with a short across its terminals. 10 Arrangement for proving end clamping structure with a hydraulic actuator thus the design margin of end plate is established. We place the winding in between the upper and lower arms of a hydraulic actuator as shown in Fig 10. We propose that an alternative method of excitation using mechanical means be considered such that the force profile obtained from the mechanical device matches that from the FEM solution.5 s. test. Fig.Table 1. This causes a net axial force that needs to be restrained by the end plate.
no. vol. No.  R. K Feser and H.5 Force Calculations for Other Components with Short Time High Currents The currents in the secondary of a power transformer are limited by the short circuit impedance Thus there is an upper limit to the ratio of the short circuit current to the rated current which depends on the transformer itself and not on system parameters. Conclusions Improved methods for assessment of winding deformation at power frequency during short circuit test in power transformers are proposed. Christian. C.19. IEEE Trans. Power and Energy. Mohseni. 423-430.  S. “A general method for determining resonance in transformer winding”. No. June 2006. March/April 2003. 126. A method is proposed for concurrent high frequency excitation during short circuit test.2. Jagadeesh Kumar. vol. Simulation and experimental results shows that the high frequency excitations are more sensitive than power frequency for detection of axial as well as radial winding displacements. March/April 1977. 18. 6. J. The forces can hence be very high. Jayalalitha.2. vol.4. Rahimpour. 2 pp. On the other hand for a device such as a current transformer the primary short circuit current depends on network parameters and can be sometimes 100-500 times the normal full load current. V. S. 11 . pas-96. IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine. no. References  IEC 60076-5: 2006. 5. “Diagnosing transformer faults using frequency response analysis”. “Detection of winding deformations during short time current tests”. Jayashankar. pp 493-505. on Power Apparatus and Systems.  E. Model based testing method is also extended to current transformers. V. April 2003. Jayashankar. 712-713. on Power Delivery. May 2005. The model based test method is extended to current transformers for establishing a design margin.  S. Degeneff. A method using scaled model is proposed to establish design for the power transformer during short circuit. IEEJ Trans. “Continual assessment of winding deformation during a short circuit test”. Santhi. Santhi and V. “Transfer function method to diagnose axial displacement and radial deformation of transformer winding”.Ability to withstand short circuit. The designed scaled model is tested by either ways (1) using electrical excitation (2) using hydraulic actuators. A. IMTC-2005. Ryder.7 pp. Canada. Vol. V. Jayalalitha.  S. IEEE Trans. Power transformers.16-22. pp.
pp. 2010. “Design Margin for Short Circuit Withstand Capability in Large Power Transformer”. Introduction 1. S. Mumbai. 4. Jayashankar. Gopalakrishna. “Real Time Techniques to Measure Winding Displacement in Transformers during Short-Circuit Tests”. and V. Jan. Conference 3. “Sensitive Method for Detection of Winding Deformation During Short Circuit Test”. pp. International Symposium on Electrical Insulating Materials (ISEIM-2008). 2001. pp. April 2008. on Power Del. 3-6. S. in Proc. India. and V. Mie. Proposed Contents of the Thesis 1. in Proc. Singapore. Mumbai.. 5. “On the Use of Concurrent High Frequency Excitation during a Short Circuit Test in a Power Transformer”. pp.2 Introduction Deformation created by mechanical means 12 . pp. 2009. Yokkaichi. Gopalakrishna. M. vol. 8. “System Identification”. 24. Jan. India. (IPEC-2007). in Proc. no. Palani. “Model based short circuit testing for standardisation of transformer winding structures”. vol. no. London. 18-19.1258 – 1261. Boby George. 1732-1737. pp. 2008. 2. May 5-7.2 1. Jayashankar. Dharini. Jayashankar.1 1. 480-481. Jayashankar. on Power Del. IEEE Press. S. M. Kishore Kumar.. “A Designer’s Guide to Rationalizing Short Time Current Tests”. 7. Santhi. 2. K Ilampoornan and V. Sep. in Proc. and V. S.3 1. Jayashankar. Japan. 7-11. in Proc. 2010. 8th International Power Eng. Conf. Gopalakrishna. MacDonald. Jayashankar. Gopalakrishna. Rik Pintelon and Johan Schoukens. S.  M. Jayashankar. Jan. Waters. “The short-circuit strength of power transformers”. 2007. 1. S. 2nd International Conference on Instrument Transformers (TECH-IT 2010). Ilampoornan. Online Methods for Detection of Winding Deformation during SC Test 2. J Joseph. K. IEEE Trans. C.4 Short circuit test in power transformers Motivations Objectives Organization of the Thesis 2. A. Dec. 1966.170. “On the Conformance Test for Mechanical Short Time Rating of a Current Transformer”. 167 .1 2. and V. 23. International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC – 2009). Gopalakrishna and V. 115-138. 21-22. and V. IEEE Trans. Gopalakrishna. Singapore. 726-732. Gopalakrishna. 8th International Conference on Transformers (TRAFOTECH-2010). 7. S. S. 6. List of Publications Journal 1.
2 4.2 5.2.3 4. 22 kV/11 kV transformer Improvement in the model to increase axial force Conclusions 5.2 Summary Scope for Future Work 13 .3 Introduction Computation of forces in primary of a CT during short time current test Conclusions 6.5 Introduction Improvement of sensitivity and resolution by high frequency excitation Concurrent high frequency excitation during SC test Signal optimization for improving detection sensitivity Conclusions 4.3 2. Model Based Testing For Establishing Design Margin of Power Transfomers 4.1 4.2 3. 5 MVA.5 Deformation due to electrical excitation Deformation detection from real & reactive powers Discussion Conclusions 3.1 5.1 6. Force Calculations in CT with Short Time High Currents 5.4 2. Conclusions 6. Improved Online Methods for Short Circuit Testing Of Power Transformer 3.4 3.5 2.3 3.1 3.4 Introduction Scaled model of a 3Ф.
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