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of WFLHD projects shall be the Western Federal Lands Highway Division’s “Project Development and Design Manual” (PDDM), and the Federal Highway Administration’s “Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and Bridges on Federal Highway Projects, FP-03” (FP-03). The following information is to be used as a general basis for providing engineering and design services for WFLHD Projects. The information is contained in various sources and supplements the PDDM. The information is not intended to be all-inclusive. Chapter 3 - ENVIRONMENT..................................................................B-2 Chapter 5 - SURVEYING AND MAPPING..........................................B-13 Chapter 6 - GEOTECHNICAL...............................................................B-16 Chapter 7 - HYDROLOGY/HYDRAULICS.........................................B-24 Chapter 9 - HIGHWAY DESIGN..........................................................B-27 Chapter 10 - STRUCTURAL DESIGN....................................................B-34
Supplement to CHAPTER 3 - ENVIRONMENT Environmental Procedures and Requirements may be found at the following web site: http://environment.fhwa.dot.gov/guidebook/index.htm All environmental reports shall be developed using the following criteria: Typed single-space or space-and-a-half, using Times New Roman 12 point font, and bound margins shall be 12-inches. Documents shall be fully proofed and edited, and a consistent writing style shall be used. All written material prepared shall be reproduced front to back in standard book format with page numbers at the bottom center of each page. Measurements and quantities shall be shown in U.S. Customary units. Consistency of capitalization and punctuation usage, format, and style shall be maintained throughout documents submitted. All documents shall be prepared on white paper in a standard 8 ½-inch by 11-inch size with the exception that maps or other illustrations may be wider than 8 ½ inches (but no wider than 17 inches) provided they are folded to fit within the standard size. All documents shall contain, at a minimum, a general area map showing the location of the project in the state, an area map showing the project location with respect to nearby towns and other features (the general area map can be an inset on the area map), a vicinity map showing the specific location of the route and project, and appropriate alignment maps. Other maps and illustrations should be used that will help demonstrate or clarify points or items of interest in the document. All reports are subject to review and acceptance by the FHWA. Revisions are to be made to the draft document based on the FHWA's review. Copies of the documents shall be provided to the FHWA on compact discs, 650 MB or greater, capable of being read on any standard computer CD reader drive, or via electronic transfer, at the time of approval and at other times FHWA may request information contained in working copies of documents. A. Preparation of the Environmental Document A.1. Alternatives Discussion Each alternative discussed shall cover the following information: Description of the condition of any roads (e.g., paved, graded, etc.) on an alignment alternative, the name and location of adjacent and intersecting roads, and relevant elevations for roads with steep grades. Description of the alternatives’ termini, location, road attributes, proposed rightof-way, and property ownership.
Description of the terrain type, vegetation, streams, and wildlife areas from the beginning to the end of the project. Description of the cities, towns, communities, major businesses, schools, and churches served. Description of any nearby projects or current construction of roads, dams, or bridges that might effect project development, construction, or traffic. Discussion of construction and maintenance costs and factors contributing to those costs.
A.2. Affected Environment, Environmental Consequences, and Mitigation Measures All studies performed shall identify the following: All impacts along with classification as positive (beneficial) or negative (adverse), direct (primary) or indirect (secondary), and long-term (greater than five years) or short-term. Project specific and cumulative (additive and interactive) impacts Positive and negative values defined on the basis of widely accepted values and industry standards. Direct impacts defined as impacts without intermediate causal links. Impact significance shall be determined as specified under the requirements of NEPA. Evaluations of significance shall include an assessment of the intensity and extent of potential impacts. The measure of intensity is based on the following: Changes in the unique characteristics of the area, Impacts which are likely to be controversial, Cumulative impacts, Changes which may set a precedent for future actions, Impacts on resources considered to be important or valuable from the perspective of scientific opinion and agency concerns, and Impacts involving uncertain, unique or unknown risks. A.3. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Report Format 1. The cover may be designed by the Firm, subject to FHWA approval, but should not be too complicated or detailed, and shall also contain the type of document, the forest highway number, the State or county route numbers, and local route names. “Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Western Federal Lands Highway Division" shall be placed on the cover. Immediately following the inside cover page shall be the Table of Contents, List of Figures, List of Tables, and List of Abbreviations, in order. Executive Summary, maximum length of 20 pages, shall be placed after the List of Abbreviations and shall follow the general outline for the body of the EIS. The body of the DEIS shall follow the general outline below (consult TA 6640.8A for additional information):
2. 3. 4.
Organizations. Long-Term Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Irreversible and Irretrievable Commitment of Resources Secondary and Cumulative Impacts List of Preparers and Reviewers List of Agencies.1 Separate Section for each Social. the State or county route numbers. Environmental Consequences. or Environmental Issue Relationship Productivity of Local Short-Term Uses vs. Economic.4.4 Purpose and Need 1.1 Design Criteria Common to All Build Alternatives 2. but should not be too complicated or detailed.Chapter 1 Purpose and Need for Action 1. and local route 6/15/2005 B-4 . and shall also contain the type of document.2 Description of Existing Roadway 1. Comments and Coordination Environmental Commitments Summary BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX APPENDICES A.2 Alternatives Under Consideration 2. the forest highway number. and Persons Receiving Copies of the EIS.1 Subsection for each alternative including the “nobuild” Alternatives Considered but Eliminated Affected Environment. subject to FHWA approval. and Mitigation Measures 3.6 Project Process and Status Alternatives 2.3 Background 1.2.1 Proposed Action 1. Environmental Analysis (EA) Report Format The cover may be designed by The Firm.5 Project Scoping 1.
Conduct background research to ascertain the occurrence. only direct construction effects need be considered. and State DF&G shall also be reviewed. All references shall be clearly documented. Detailed field notes are to be maintained that shall provide sampling methodology. Supplementary data shall also be collected from other sources as needed.1. “Department of Transportation. and consultant files. B. including existing EAs.3 A detailed description of survey methods selected for each task assignment is to be provided for the project files. including phone logs and personal contact reports. temporal periods of occurrence. For many plants. and responses to disturbance. Biological Resources B. Regional experts associated with other groups may also be contacted to collect information. vegetation. USACE. These shall be maintained on a daily basis and placed in the project files for the administrative record.- names. the resource agency will determine the area necessary for survey. Survey protocols may also 6/15/2005 B-5 . EISs. experts with specific expertise. abundance. if available. unpublished information. and/or communities shall be mapped at an appropriate scale to show the geographic distribution in the project area.1 Determine the presence or absence of Species of Concern (SOC) and Indicator species. USFWS. 1. location. Define and document applicable vegetation and wildlife within and adjacent to the proposed project alignments. USFWS. developed by the USFS. and a list of all species identified. characteristics of the population. Species. 1 Mapping shall be accomplished using a 1 The “project area” is dependent upon the species under consideration. taxonomic data. In some cases. and State DF&G. including experts at University/Colleges among other sources.2 1. other technical and scientific literature. distribution. Focus of Studies The primary focus of the biological technical studies shall be to: 1. The data shall be collected from various sources. concentration area. date. habitat utilization patterns. and life history of federally protected or Forest Service Sensitive species within or adjacent to the proposed alignments. Specific types of data which shall be sought include population levels. federally listed or proposed Threatened and Endangered species. Evaluate the affect of the proposed project alternatives on these resources. Follow the report format utilized in the example EA document provided as Government Furnished data. Existing management plans. including published and unpublished information available from the USFS. and Sensitive species. Western Federal Lands Highway Division" shall be placed on the cover. Federal Highway Administration. food utilization.
slope. and Forest Service Sensitive Wildlife Species (TES Wildlife). the occurrence. and abundance of specific vertebrate and invertebrate species. (Total and relative area of each vegetation type shall be determined from the mapped data). Geological Survey topographic quadrangle maps reproduced at appropriate scales as approved by the FHWA shall be used as base maps. The possible impacts (both positive and negative) that the proposed project may have on these species and any proposed mitigation designed to avoid or minimize these impacts is also to be evaluated and defined. and other community and site characteristics. including edaphic soil and water relationships.2 If present. Define possible impacts that the proposed project may have (both positive and negative) on these species. disturbed and developed areas determine the “project area” for other species. Specific vertebrates to be considered shall be defined by Indicator species lists of the U. 2 The “project area” is dependent upon the species under consideration. in relation to the habitat types in the project corridor vicinity. on the basis of existing data and limited field surveys. and any proposed mitigation designed to avoid or minimize these impacts. on the basis of existing data and limited field surveys.1 Define. aspect. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1. In some cases. species richness/diversity. and may include plant species composition (primarily dominants).2 General Botanical 1. including commercially and recreationally valuable species. The vegetation types and/or communities shall be mapped at an appropriate scale to show the geographic distribution in the project area. the occurrence. distribution. 1.S. Survey protocols may also determine the “project area” for other species.2 Threatened.1 Each vegetation type shall be defined on the basis of existing data and limited visual reconnaissance. 6/15/2005 B-6 . Endangered. Forest Service. 1. distribution. For many plants. and species of concern identified by the Department of Game and Fish and the U. elevation and land use history. Color U.combination of available aerial photography interpretation and ground-truthing. only direct construction effects need be considered. and abundance of any federally protected or Forest Service Sensitive vertebrate or invertebrate species in relation to the habitat types in the corridor vicinity.1 Define. General Wildlife 1.S. the resource agency will determine the area necessary for survey.S.
any possible adverse impacts of the proposed project preferred alternative on these species.1 Any mapping or exhibits necessary to supplement the text. minimize. Historic background of the species. on the basis of existing data and limited field surveys.2 An Introduction with a description of the biological setting. and Forest Service Sensitive Plant Species (TES Botanical). including roads. or mitigate these impacts. Distribution of the species within the project area. 1. and abundance of any federally protected or Forest Service Sensitive plant species in relation to the proposed alignments. existing vegetation maps shall be used to assist vegetation mapping. 1. Endangered. and recommend alternative actions or measures to avoid. including USGS maps. distribution. The Biological Report shall include: 1. Limited ground-truthing surveys shall be completed to verify the results of aerial photography interpretation and to identify the successional stage of each vegetation community mapped.1 Define. and any proposed mitigation designed to avoid or minimize these impacts. including biomes and dominant plant communities.2. temporal and spatial distributions and densities of TES species shall be defined on the basis of existing information and limited field surveys.2 Listed species to be considered will be determined by the appropriate regulatory agency.shall be mapped. Successional status shall be determined based on evidence of natural and human-caused environmental irregularities. An analysis of the effects of the proposed project alignments on the species and habitat. Define possible impacts that the proposed project may have (both positive and negative) on these species. and other recreational areas. B. the occurrence. Threatened. campgrounds. and status/success of protection efforts. towns. including consideration of cumulative effects and the results of any related actions. 1. and other types of housing areas. Ground-truthing shall consist of evaluating selected representative areas of each vegetation type. Biological Assessment/Biological Evaluation (BA/BE) Report In general. 6/15/2005 B-7 . the BA/BE shall address the temporal and spatial occurrence of listed or proposed Threatened or Endangered species in the project area. If available. including the views of recognized experts in the field. and sufficient detail to present an adequate description of the environment affected by the proposed project alignments relative to Indicator species and Species of Concern. For the proposed alignments and immediate vicinity. Forest Service Sensitive species will be determined by the USFS.
September 29. and archival and record searches for historic periods. or traditional cultural properties within or adjacent to the proposed project alignment. Tabulated estimates of the costs of suggested alternative actions or mitigation measures. Suggested mitigation for adverse impacts.1 1.- A determination of whether the proposed project is likely to affect the species and whether that effect is adverse or not. Map all resource sites discovered by determining site boundaries and establishing a permanent site datum. work on this work item shall cease and a contract modification will be issued. Perform a 100 percent pedestrian walk-through of the alignment corridors in order to determine the presence of historical. Bibliography for referenced literature. Map the location of any properties discovered. Historical and Archeological Studies Conduct background research of the project area within a regional archeological framework to include a literature review of documents for both prehistoric and historic periods. Historical and Archaeological Survey C.3 Record all resources discovered within an Area of Potential Effect on site forms and isolated artifact forms acceptable to the FHWA and the SHPO and provide an artifact collection strategy and technique which is clearly supported and documented in the final report. taking bearing and distance measurements from the site datum to prominent natural features or project survey traverse points. including the views of recognized experts.3 Determine the presence of historical. 1983). C. All work shall be conducted in accordance with the Department of the Interior's Archeological and Historic Preservation: Secretary of the Interior's Guidelines (Federal Register 48(190):44716ff. including education and experience qualifications for this work.2 1. and cultural resources. 6/15/2005 B-8 . and Determine the need for and extent of further site testing or laboratory analysis.1. archaeological. evaluate specific sites to determine eligibility for the National Register of Historic Places (NHRP). archaeological. Focus of Studies The primary focus of the historical and archeological studies shall be to: 1. computing - 3 If no historical or archaeological sites are discovered during the research and pedestrian survey. Summary of coordination. List of preparers. including the views of recognized experts.
1. for NHRP eligibility.The executive summary is to serve as an interim planning document for the FHWA so that it may consider any necessary future cultural resource investigations at the earliest possible time. and organizations.5 minute quadrangles. groups. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. field studies. maps. Identify traditional cultural properties within or adjacent to the proposed corridor.4 Testing outside of the survey corridor shall be limited to two 3 feet by 3 feet pits for each site.1 Executive Summary . Evaluate. recommendations for the sites’ eligibility.- - - - coordinates of the site datum and recording same in field notes and on site record forms. eligibility and effect determinations and document all correspondence. drawings. and plotting site boundaries on full size USGS 7. Coordinate with the FHWA and SHPO during research. a contract modification will be issued. All work shall be conducted in accordance with National Register Bulletin #38. and exhibits necessary to augment the text and fully document the findings. Perform testing of resource sites discovered as determined and approved by the FHWA. or mitigate impacts identified and the resulting effect determination proposed if the measure(s) are implemented. pp. Identified properties shall be evaluated for significance in accordance with 36 CFR 60. Conduct appropriate historic and ethnographic background research in the corridor area. and shall be performed only when it can be clearly justified by the FHWA that tests within the corridor are insufficient to provide recommendations for NHRP status. all resource sites that have been identified as likely to be affected by the proposed project. and conduct field work in consultation with these groups to inspect and record significant traditional cultural properties. - Historical and Archeological Report A final report shall be prepared for submission by the FHWA to the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) in a request for concurrence with eligibility. evaluate these impacts with respect to criteria of Effect and Adverse Effect. This report shall contain a description of the resource sites discovered. 6/15/2005 B-9 . contact and interview knowledgeable individuals. Five sites are to be assumed. and recommend measures to avoid. Sites shall be recommended as either eligible or not eligible with respect to specific criteria of eligibility in accordance with 36 CFR 60. Traditional Cultural Properties. minimize. including phone logs and personal contacts. Identify the nature of potential impacts to all resource sites that are likely to be affected by the proposed project. the site locations and other pertinent features with respect to the 4 If sites discovered do not require testing. This report shall contain all of the information required in performance of the Historical and Archaeological Studies work task.4 and step-by-step procedures outlined in NRB #38. 11-16. The report shall contain all photographs.
Completed Department of Commerce. No oversize materials shall be accepted in the final report. to make a contribution to the understanding of the history and prehistory of the area. and visual inspection to identify the extent and type of wetlands within and adjacent to the project corridor.7 1.8 D. the significance of the work. 1. to reference. A Scrutiny of the Abstract. Examine alternative measures to avoid or minimize impacts.(see: Landes. plans. 1. II.A. title page. (1966) for guidance on preparation of a technical abstract). Determine the type and importance of any wetlands identified. photographs. develop mitigation measures for all identified wetland impacts. and to meet the accepted standards for a professional report. The report shall also include recommendations for further testing or laboratory analysis of the sites. Determine the extent of impacts from the proposed alternatives on wetlands.proposed project. and a summary of potential impacts.4 1. thesis in anthropology from an accredited university.6 1. Wetland Delineation Wetland delineation studies shall require USGS 7.5 Minute Quadrangle maps. and build on the available literature. maps.1999. If alternatives are not available to avoid or minimize impacts. Forward . and any other background information relating to the manner in which the work was accomplished. The report shall be written in a scholarly tone. The report must contain sufficient detail so that it can be used by the FHWA to seek concurrence on eligibility to the NRHP. aerial photographs. and drawings must be technically and professionally suitable for publication and prepared in a format reflecting standards of professional archaeological journals. the following shall be performed: Identify all wetland areas within or adjacent to the project corridor. Locate identified wetlands on project mapping. The cover. 6/15/2005 B . tables. Geological Notes 50(90): 1992 .5 1. Kenneth K.Written by principal investigator describing the overall research context.10 . and the acknowledgements section of the final report must bear a reference to the contract number and the source of funds and the name of the Principal Investigator. Technical abstract . use. In performing the wetland delineation study.. project mapping.3 1. NTIS Form OF 272.2 Text. The final report shall be of a quality equal to or surpassing that for an M.
1. the report shall describe in the "Findings and Conclusion" section a description of those sites as having a potential for hazardous waste involvement within or adjacent to the proposed corridor and recommendations. F. Mitigation Commitment Summary The purpose of Mitigation Commitment Summary is to document how environmental commitments for a project will be accomplished. The report shall include the following: The total area of the wetlands identified.The accuracy of the delineation shall be commensurate with the scale of the mapping on which the boundaries shall be marked (boundaries can be marked within about 3 m [10 feet]). In addition to the ASTM Standard's requirements. Hazardous Waste Investigations. Identify sites as having a potential for hazardous waste involvement within or adjacent to the proposed corridor and recommendations for further investigation of those sites having a potential hazardous waste involvement including. and approximate number of samples anticipated to be tested. by type. Survey personnel shall adhere to requirements for delineation of wetlands in accordance with the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual (1987). The Mitigation Commitment Summary 5 Identification of wetland types will be general in nature. type(s) of testing. A brief discussion of delineation methods and procedures. Discussion of mitigation measures proposed for each alternative which impacts wetlands. E. The area of each wetland impacted by each alternative alignment.5 D. A brief narrative description of the major functions for each wetland identified. Initial Site Assessment (ISA) E. these work tasks will be considered in future contracts. E. Focus of Studies The primary focus of the studies shall be to: Address requirements in the ASTM Standard. 6/15/2005 B .2 Report A concise report shall be prepared (from 5 to 20 pages depending on the complexity of the assessment) with appropriate appendices. if any. The format for the report shall be as recommended in the ASTM Standard. If functional analysis and specific mitigation plans are required.2 Wetland Report Results shall be presented of the wetland delineation study in a Wetland Report. Location or design alternatives to avoid or minimize wetland impacts.11 .
SCR Subsection. Lists the specific locations (sheet. See SOW Section VI GOVERNMENT FURNISHED MATERIALS AND SERVICES. the summary will also document how each mitigation commitment will be accomplished for the project. page. The Mitigation Commitment Summary will be completed before PS&E sign-off. Provide Mitigation Commitment Summary on 8 ½ x 11 inch sheets. the mitigation commitments should be addressed in the plans and specifications as early as possible.12 . However. Format to be supplied by WFLHD. 6/15/2005 B . In addition.will list all mitigation commitments included in NEPA documents and permits. and paragraph) in the plans and SCR’s where each of the requirements and stipulations are satisfied.
Control points shall be a number 4 rebar. film processing. print making and diapositives shall be in accordance with the U.Supplement to CHAPTER 5 . length 4 feet. with a yellow plastic cap stamped “FHWA”. Control points shall be numbered sequentially beginning with point number HV1. etc. Each control point shall be referenced with double swing ties using aluminum tags provided by WFLHD. minimum length 18 inches.13 . Deliver the negatives to the COTR. whichever is prevalent. All photography. side lap is to be 25%. The Project number symbol [i. double-weight paper. GPS controlled aerial photography for mapping. First and last photographs in each flight line shall contain the photography scale and date. Project control shall be tied to state plane coordinate system and adjusted to project datum. All photography shall require three sets of color contact prints on a semi-gloss. Establish the horizontal and vertical control needed to control the aerial photography for the project. Y. Control points shall be marked with a lath. then HV2. Endlap is to be 60%. Exposures are to be numbered in the direction of the flight line. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REFERENCE GUIDE OUTLINE & SPECIFICATIONS FOR AERIAL SURVEYS AND MAPPING BY PHOTOGRAMMETRIC METHODS FOR HIGHWAYS. & Z coordinates. OR PFH 244] shall also appear on each exposure. Furnish vertical aerial photography at a scale of 1:5000 for mapping purposes using Kodak 2445 color film and a camera with a six inch focal length lens equipped with eight fiducial marks. with the point identification written on both sides of the lath set near the point.SURVEYING AND MAPPING A. Provide controlled color vertical aerial photography for mapping of the project corridor with the approximate number of flight lines and exposures required in Section 3 SOW Tasks. Distances and bearings to references shall be recorded on the tags and in a sketch drawn for each point. color film diapositives. HV3. and tip or tilt shall not exceed six degrees. A BUREAU OF STANDARDS CAMERA CALIBRATION is required. Flight lines are to be flown from south to north or west to east.e. Aerial photography shall be fully controlled for mapping with pug points and X. Red or fluorescent pink flagging shall be attached to the lath. 6/15/2005 B .S.
14 . each with a red "stake chaser. Control points shall be a No. Station staking shall be set along one edge of the roadway. Offset stakes shall show the station with the offset distance circled facing the staked point. Unroaded terrain. Provide the datum adjustment factor calculated and used for the project. Take measurement from side of feature facing control point. B. Provide a bound printout of the control points showing point number. or 10 inch wooden hub as appropriate. coordinates (at project datum). Provide the raw and adjusted closures of the control point traverses for the control points set. and elevation. 4 rebar. Points shall be marked using PK nail. Stationing may be set using a measuring wheel. Existing roadway. Red or fluorescent pink flagging shall be attached to the lath. Rebar shall be driven to + 4 inches below ground surface. C. Preliminary alignment (station staking). Differential levels shall be run over all project control. Offset stakes shall be set for all station staking points. spike. Each control point shall be referenced with double swing ties using aluminum tags provided by WFLHD. Station staking shall be set along tangent between control points.Remove aerial target materials when survey data and photography is verified as acceptable. Control points shall be placed such that the point is not within the traveled way. Set project control points within the project limits so that points are spaced not to exceed 800 feet. Offset stakes shall not be set on the roadway shoulder where they may be destroyed by roadway maintenance equipment or errant traffic. A PK nail with red stake chaser shall be set at even 150 feet intervals near the edge of pavement.” Points shall be set at even 150 6/15/2005 B . Control points shall be marked with a 4 feet lath with the point identification written on both sides of the lath set near the point. The location preference for offset stakes is on a cut slope above the ditch rather than on a fill slope where the option exists. Set project control. boat nail. minimum rebar length 18 inches. with yellow plastic cap supplied by WFLHD. Place tag on side of feature away from road. Distances and bearings to references shall be recorded on the tags and in a sketch drawn for each point. Provide for each point a reference sketch of its location.
6/15/2005 B . All right-of-way points shall be marked with a wooden hub and blue stake chaser.feet intervals. Measurement from centerline with a cloth tape is acceptable. and at all changes in width of the new rightof-way. Offset stakes shall not be set on the roadway shoulder where they may be destroyed by roadway maintenance equipment or errant traffic. When off the existing roadway yellow flagging shall be attached at eye level to vegetation near the point set. Offset stakes shall be used when there is a possibility that the centerline stake may be lost due to traffic or other causes. spike. TS's. Right-of-way points shall be set opposite all beginning (TS) and ending (ST) curve points. and ST's) shall be set. boat nail. Stakes shall have the top 2 inches painted yellow. When off the existing roadway yellow flagging shall be attached at eye level to vegetation near the point set.” Intermediate centerline points shall be set at even 50 feet intervals. or 10 inch wooden hub as appropriate. D. The location preference for offset stakes is on a cut slope above the ditch rather than on a fill slope where the option exists. Centerline staking. Intermediate right-of-way points shall be set along the right-of-way line such that right-of-way points are intervisible. Centerline design alignment staking. each with a yellow "stake chaser. each with a red "stake chaser. Stakes shall have the top 2 inches painted yellow. Offset stakes may be set using a cloth tape at an approximated angle perpendicular to the centerline at the Station set. SC's. Stationing may be set using a cloth tape and compass. Stationing shall begin at station 10+00 at the beginning of the project in either situation. All centerline control points (PC's. Maximum distance between rightof-way points shall not exceed 200 feet. The purpose of the offset stake is for ease in locating the centerline point.” Stakes shall be set facing back on line and labeled with the Station. Offset stakes shall show the stationing with the offset distance circled and facing the centerline point. or 10 inch wooden hub as appropriate. boat nail. spike. A 4 feet lath shall be set at each point and shall be labeled “ROW” followed by the station and distance from centerline written on both faces of the lath. Blue flagging shall be attached to the lath. Points shall be marked using PK nail. All right-of-way points shall be set to a horizontal accuracy of 6 inches.15 . Stakes shall be set facing back on line and labeled with the Station. PT's. Points shall be marked using PK nail. Right-of-Way Staking. CS's.
Adequate traffic safety shall be provided. Traffic control devices shall comply with the requirements of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). Project Mapping. Weekly progress reports for weeks in which field work was in progress shall be completed and shall be received by the end of the week following the reporting period. G. All centerline points and right-of-way points shall be set to a horizontal accuracy of 2 inches and a vertical accuracy of 3 inches. F.16 . H. Federal Lands Highway Project Development Design Manual. Survey precision. Chapter 5).E. General requirements. Progress report content to be similar to examples contained in Chapter 5. Offset stakes may be set at a distance determined by cloth tape measure and positioned normal to the alignment by commonly accepted field practice. Control points shall be set to Second Order. Field crew daily reports may be submitted in lieu of weekly reports. Cut brush shall be properly disposed of. Use object descriptor codes from the SIDE SHOT FEATURE CODE listing (provided by WFLHD) as appropriate. 6/15/2005 B . dated 1988. Class II Survey Standards (Project Development and Design Manual. See Survey section of Appendix C for project mapping requirements. Brushing shall be kept to the minimum required to perform the needed surveys and impacts shall not be visible from the roadway. Progress Reports. No trees shall be felled. Terrain topography shall be accurate to 4 inches vertical within 65 feet of the existing roadway centerline and within ½ % of the horizontal distance from the existing roadway centerline when beyond 65 feet.
B. C. structure foundations. foliation. Evaluate the depth to rock and quality of rock within proposed cuts. e. Field Investigation and Laboratory Testing of Samples 1. embankments. Field Investigation and Laboratory Testing of Samples Subsurface Exploration Program Engineering Analysis of Field and Laboratory Data Geotechnical Report A. stability hazard analysis. D. retaining walls.Supplement to CHAPTER 6 . b. and development of material sources. Identify the rock type and define the attitude and spacing of bedding.GEOTECHNICAL General The geotechnical investigation shall be comprised of the following major elements: A. Visual assessment and geological mapping of the project corridor to determine the spatial distribution and characteristics of the soil and bedrock units that exist within the project corridor. c. Identify materials that are likely to be unstable or unusable in construction. rockfall problems. f. Identify. Obtain representative samples of materials from a sufficient number of cuts to characterize the materials and their engineering properties. d. 6/15/2005 B . fill failures or slumps. such as moist or wet silts or clays. Describe the extent of each geologic or soil unit on a station-to-station basis. springs or seeps. Determination of the existence of such features as landslides. non-frost-susceptible materials (select topping) that can be used to construct the top 8 to 12 inches of the roadbed. Provide an estimate of the anticipated shrink or swell of the cut materials for calculation of excavation and embankment quantities. 2.17 . if present. Cut slopes a. and areas of wet or soft soils that could impact the project design and that should be mitigated during project construction. Evaluate the type and density of excavation materials within proposed cuts. perform the following tasks: a. General Employ geologist(s) or geotechnical engineer(s) having experience in the geotechnical investigation of highway projects. c. Gather information for the design of pavement structure. or jointing that will control cut slope stability. To complete the field investigation. b. fracture. cut slopes.
k. i. recommended method of excavation (excavator. d. Obtain the samples from cuts that are most likely to be excavated during construction (i. Evaluate the stability of proposed cuts in both overburden and rock. and any pertinent comments. Perform classification tests on representative soil samples: Sieve Analysis AASHTO T 11 and T 27 Hydrometer Analysis to 0. Testing. or to the base of soft materials which extend below the ditch level. embankment design. Where potential for the proposed cut slope to fail exists. Provide site-specific. cut slope recommendations in table form.e. l. station-to-station. sections in which the roadway widening will probably be accomplished on the cut side). Provide recommendations for embankment foundation preparation. Show station intervals.. 6 – 16 ft. c. Embankments a. 0btain rock core samples from core drill holes in rock cuts. To the extent possible.g. the need for maintenance rock. j. or controlled blasting). 6/15/2005 B . Obtain representative samples of each type of material for soil classification and for embankment suitability evaluation. provide recommendations to mitigate the anticipated failure. h. Sampling. recommended cut slope inclination.02 mm AASHTO T 88 Specific Gravity AASHTO T 100 Atterberg Limits AASHTO T 89 and T 90 Field Moisture Content AASHTO T 265 Perform rock strength testing as required for cut slope design. and up to 500 feet apart for more uniform conditions. and the need for subgrade reinforcement. explorations should be made within the prism of the proposed cut. Method of Evaluation Visual and/or Test Pits Test Pits and/or Borings Borings Space the explorations approximately 200 feet apart for variable conditions. Identify and explore areas of potentially soft soils at proposed embankment locations. Determine the potential for groundwater to be encountered in the cut excavation or in the subgrade and provide underdrain or horizontal drain recommendations as appropriate. Identify possible embankment construction problems. > 16 ft. Anticipated exploration methods: Proposed Cut Height 0 – 6 ft. ripping. and embankment construction. suitability of materials for embankments. 3.18 . Extend explorations to the bottom of the proposed ditch. such as “pumping” soils. Evaluate subsurface conditions and suitability for embankment support. material type. b.
19 .0008 in. f. including settlement analysis. if appropriate. AASHTO T 88 Specific Gravity AASHTO T 100 Atterberg Limits AASHTO T 89 and T 90 Field Moisture Content AASHTO T 265 Perform shear strength or consolidation tests as required for embankment foundation analysis. if appropriate. Sampling. c. Where foundation conditions are unknown. b. and wall construction. Explorations. 5. Extend explorations to competent material or to a depth of twice the proposed embankment height in soft material. Provide recommendations for constructing a stable subgrade. Testing. Explorations are not required where the surface reconnaissance indicates firm foundation conditions exist. To the extent possible. 6/15/2005 B . Sampling. AASHTO T 88 Specific Gravity AASHTO T 100 Atterberg Limits AASHTO T 89 and T 90 Field Moisture Content AASHTO T 265 Perform shear strength or consolidation tests as required for embankment foundation analysis. Extend explorations to competent material or to a depth equal to twice the base width below the wall foundation. e. Provide recommendations for wall foundation preparation. Perform classification tests on representative soil samples: Sieve Analysis AASHTO T 11 and T 27 Hydrometer Analysis to 0.e. Testing.0008 in. d. Perform classification tests on representative soil samples: Sieve Analysis AASHTO T 11 and T 27 Hydrometer Analysis to 0. Evaluate subsurface conditions and suitability for foundations. Obtain representative samples of each type of material for soil classification and for embankment support evaluation. Evaluate subsurface drainage conditions and provide drainage recommendations and provisions for wall designs. including settlement analysis. Retaining Walls a. f. Space explorations approximately 65 feet apart for variable conditions and up to 150 feet apart for more uniform conditions. wall design. locate explorations near the deepest portions of proposed embankments. 4. g. Obtain representative samples of each type of material for soil classification and for wall foundation analysis. explorations should be made along the face of the proposed wall. Pavement Design—Reconstruction a.
including the extent and composition of overburden materials. b. 7. Identify areas by station limits within the existing subgrade where weak or wet soils will require subexcavation. Describe the geology of the site(s). a. Pavement Design—3R a. Investigate potential materials sources as required in the Statement of Work. Obtain a sealed moisture sample from each R-value sample location for determining in situ moisture contents. Materials Sources. Identify areas of wet subgrade where underdrains may be required.20 . obtain samples and layer thicknesses of the existing roadway surfacing. Determine actual pavement layer thickness measurements.b. Supplement boring and backhoe test pits described under cuts and embankments. b. to obtain subgrade samples. c. Sampling. 6/15/2005 B . at 1 mile intervals.6 miles. Provide recommendations for the development of the source(s). (Fill and patch all pavement core holes with cold mix asphalt patching material). such as degrading particles. by coring through the pavement with pavement coring tools. Perform R-Value and classification tests on representative soil samples: Sieve Analysis AASHTO T 11 and T 27 Hydrometer Analysis to 0. Explorations. which may have a negative effect on the production of aggregates from the source. as necessary. d. e. Recommend station limits for proposed underdrains. Using pavement sampling drilling tools. AASHTO T 88 Specific Gravity AASHTO T 100 Atterberg Limits AASHTO T 89 and T 90 Field Moisture Content AASHTO T 265 R-Value AASHTO T 190 6. or mechanical equipment. Testing. obtain samples of cut slope materials from a minimum of six representative road cuts or natural backslopes. Determine the potential for frost heaving or thaw weakening of the pavement to occur. Identify areas by station limits within the existing subgrade where weak or wet soils will require subexcavation. base. or fines that adhere to coarse particles.0008 in. Identify areas of wet subgrade where underdrains may be required. c. poor-quality natural fines. g. if any. Obtain overlay design information by nondestructive deflection methods in accordance with ASTM D 4694. and subgrade materials at a minimum interval of 0. Recommend station limits for proposed underdrains. Highlight characteristics. hand tools. f. Using either hand tools or mechanical equipment.
c. Providing an approximate location of the boring or test pit in reference to the preliminary alignment so that the survey crew can locate the exploration point. Atterberg Limits. b. g. Field verify utility locations with the utility locator. and backhoe pits in gravel deposits. 6/15/2005 B . h. to supplement drill core samples.21 . Subsurface Exploration Program 1. Recording subsurface conditions and obtaining samples at each boring and test pit exploration. test pit. f. The drill inspector is responsible for the following tasks: a. B. Additional duties described in the following sections. Coordinating test pit explorations with the backhoe operator and flagging subcontractor. with pink and blue flagging at each completed boring and test pit. Coordinating with landowners regarding access for explorations on private land. c. d. e. e. perform Sieve Analysis. Testing: Crush the core and bag samples to a maximum size appropriate for the material and perform the following aggregate quality tests: Sieve Analysis on lab crushed materials AASHTO T 11 and T 27 Atterberg Limits AASHTO T 89 and T 90 Sand Equivalent AASHTO T 176 Durability Index AASHTO T 210 Los Angeles Abrasion AASHTO T 96 Sodium Sulfate Soundness AASHTO T 104 Accelerated Weathering by DMSO WFLHD-DMSO For gravel deposits. Locating underground utilities prior to drilling or digging backhoe pits. length 4 feet. Drill inspector Provide a qualified and experienced drill inspector for logging all borings and test pits. Upon completion of the Geotechnical Report. f. deliver the drill core to WFLHD Geotechnical Section. d. Identify any impacts utility locations will have on exploration locations and relocate explorations impacted by the underground utilities. Explorations. Placing a lath. Mark lath with boring or test pit number. Sampling. Call and coordinate with the appropriate underground utility services to locate the utilities at each boring. and subgrade sample location. Evaluate the quality of the material and determine if any special treatments or additives will be required. and Sand Equivalent tests on both the natural soil fines and the lab-crushed fines. Obtain representative bag samples. as appropriate. Perform sufficient explorations to characterize the quality and quantity of the source. Core drill borings will be the most likely technique utilized in quarries.
3. e. Sample depths. c. and approximate station and offset (or coordinates) referenced to the preliminary alignment. contacts denoting changes in material. Provide the following information. such as rock outcrops and fill material.5 foot intervals in soft or wet materials that may be detrimental to slope stability or construction). Providing flaggers if required during drilling. Notes regarding the reaction of the drill or excavator and other information and observations provided by the operator. percent recovery. as appropriate: a. h.2. 6/15/2005 B . Note depth and extent of seepage. In each sketch show the location of the test pit with respect to the existing road. Depth to groundwater if encountered. Advance borings in overburden material with hollow-stem augers to auger refusal or to the bottom depth of the boring. and RQD (ASTM D 6032). b. Providing core boxes and sample bags for samples obtained from borings and subgrade sampling. and other pertinent features in the cross section. b. Overburden Materials a. Obtaining and hauling drill water. depth interval. Provide final boring and test pit logs in a graphical format acceptable to the COTR. core run number. The Firm or the subconsultant driller shall be responsible for: a. Each boring shall include Standard Penetration Tests (SPTs) at 5 foot intervals (2.22 . A field description of the materials encountered in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM D 2487). groundwater or seepage level. An estimate of the relative density of granular materials (very loose to very dense) and the consistency of fine-grained soils (very soft to hard). Depths of any changes in material. if encountered. Boring and Test Pit Logs. Exploration number. b. f. Drilling Provide drilling crew or subcontractor experienced in geotechnical drilling techniques. c. including estimated size range of boulders. d. g. Incorporate test pit logs into a sketch of the test pit drawn on the nearest cross section. limits of the test pit excavation. 4. sample locations. elevations. SPT blow counts.
Begin sampling by carefully augering through the pavement. Use wireline core-drilling equipment to advance borings in material that cannot be augered. b. using water-proof ink. Direct the backfilling of test pits.c. Obtain sufficient samples of representative material encountered in the test pit excavations for classification and correlation purposes. 7. The Firm is also responsible for providing flaggers. Record logs of the test pits. without disturbing the underlying base material. Bedrock or Dense Materials: a. if present. The Firm or drilling subcontractor is responsible for obtaining subgrade samples in a manner that avoids contaminating materials in different layers. boring number. Reslope ground to natural contours and cover disturbed areas with conserved topsoil. Place recovered core samples in core boxes labeled with the project name. b. Record a log of the core drilling. The drill inspector shall: i. with the project name. The typical process is: i. 6. if more shallow. iv. The drill inspector shall record a log of the drilling and place SPT samples in air-tight plastic bags and label each bag. Test Pits The Firm is responsible for providing the backhoe and operator for excavating the test pits and providing plastic or canvas sample bags of adequate size to collect representative samples. to safely control traffic during test pit excavation and backfilling operations. sample number. Take color photographs of the core in boxes. Secure core boxes with fiberglass-reinforced tape. v. f. Direct excavation of test pits to the depth established in Task B or to refusal in rock. if necessary. Separate core runs with blocks identifying the run number and depth. iii. 5. depth interval. Subgrade Sampling a. The drill inspector shall: a. boring number. ii. 6/15/2005 B .23 . Label all sample bags with the test pit number and representative depth interval. and box number. and depth interval. d. c. e. Take photographs of the test pits showing the excavation face and spoils pile.
Sample each distinct strata encountered using the same process to a depth of 5 feet or to auger refusal. and should be prepared with those users in mind. culvert. if shallower. Additional items are listed in the SOW. Hand clean the bottom of the hole to avoid mixing the base with the underlying material. Geotechnical Report Prepare a report that presents the results of the investigations. pavement and overlay designs. ii. The geotechnical report shall provide the basis for the highway design. per bag. and other aspects of the project design requiring engineering analysis. material source development plans. iii. for new pavement and pavement overlay design on this project. analyses. structure or embankment settlements. Hand excavate the fragmented pavement to the top of the base. usability of excavation materials for common borrow. and recommendations. bridge. Obtain 66 lb. See Appendix C for the items required in the Geotechnical report. and retaining wall foundation designs. silty. Carefully loosen the underlying material with the auger while avoiding mixing individual. It shall be utilized by the highway design engineer. iv. v. or drainage materials. and provided to the construction engineer.24 . Place this sample inside the bulk sample bag. select borrow. conclusions. and 130 lb.ii. Label the moisture content sample and the subgrade sample bags with project name. distinct layers. samples of sandy. Carefully loosen the base materials with the auger while avoiding mixing the base with the underlying materials. Limit samples to 66 lb. hole number. and depth. Hand excavate and place all base material in a sample bag(s). The drill inspector shall: i. C. D. Engineering Analysis of Field and Laboratory Data Field and laboratory test data shall be analyzed and utilized in the determination of such aspects of the project as slope stability. iii. or clayey materials. Place a representative sample of soil from each sample in a plastic bag for moisture content determination.Record a log of each subgrade boring. b. 6/15/2005 B . made available to prospective bidders. Guide For Design of Pavement Structures 1993 edition. Utilize the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AASHTO publication. samples in gravelly materials. sample number.
Provide a rough check of the capacity.e. 25. This work includes verifying the basin characteristics for the gaging station(s) against those estimated from USGS maps. 3. and local scour and deposition characteristics. and 50-year peak discharges. Conduct one or more field review of the project as needed. road elevations versus water elevations). Check for USGS gaging station(s) within the area to verify regression input and output variables. and condition of existing structures. assume inlet control for a circular metal pipe. Provide a log-log plot of drainage area versus discharge for the 2. Discuss local stream stability (i. Include a summary of the information developed below: 1.. Show on the plot the drainage area that a selected culvert size could handle for the 25-year flood with a headwater to diameter ratio of one. bed material size (D50). take photographs and provide written comments. degrading. 50. 25. Hydraulic Structure Design Culvert Structures. At prescribed flood plain. fish passage capability. obtain or perform a Log Pearson type III flood frequency analysis. 100. Skew 6/15/2005 B . Delineate the drainage basin for the specified stream crossings and river locations. Provide observations on the possible structural type for each stream crossing (culvert versus bridge) and on possible river or lake characteristics relative to the road (i. If stations exist. Compare the Log Pearson results against those estimated using the regression analysis.. debris abundance. 2. lateral erosion of embankments. Support all observations with written justification (i.Supplement to CHAPTER 7 .5. lateral shifts). Check that culverts will pass the 100-year storm without water overtopping the road. A detailed hydraulic analysis is not needed unless it is determined that existing structure needs to be replaced. and lake locations. The selected culvert sizes should range in 12 inch increments from 24 to 120 inches in diameter.e.e.25 . 4. Contact the appropriate State Department of Fish and Game to determine all fish issues on the project. Design structures to pass the 50-year storm with HW/D less than 1.HYDROLOGY/HYDRAULICS Hydraulic Reconnaissance Provide a Hydraulic Reconnaissance Report that identifies the hydraulic issues on the project. may need bridge to pass up-stream debris flows). For the particular culvert size. Design culverts structures according to the FLH PDDM. 10. To determine peak discharges use the most recent and applicable USGS multiple regression equations.. and 500-year events. stream and river crossings. Minor hydraulic structures are culverts with a diameter equal to or less than 48 inches. aggrading. Determine the peak discharges for the 2.
fixed boundary computer model. Collect topographic data and stream cross-sections at each floodplain encroachment site. or a comparable one dimensional. D90). Design cross drain ditch relief culverts on a 2-6% culvert gradient.e. Design culverts requiring fish passage consistent with applicable regulatory agency guidelines. Roadway Drainage. top of bank and high water mark elevations.culverts to match natural drainage channels. The upstream section shall be located approximately one bridge length or hydraulic opening upstream of the bridge. Do not specify bevels flatter than 1:3. Evaluate the need for culvert anchors according to the FLH PDDM. high water marks. State in the report whether or not the road profile requires raising. Do not specify a drop inlet or mechanical catch basin unless there is a specific design rationale. bed material sizes (D50. Prepare a hydraulic report for the floodplain analysis. hydraulic controls. Hydraulic and hydrologic analysis is to be submitted for alternate pipe diameters and spacing.. and if so by how much. the 50-year flood overtops the road approaches or structures). The survey shall tie into locally established horizontal and vertical control at each bridge sites. Calibrate the HEC-RAS model by comparing computed water surface profiles to survey and site investigation information (i. Include comments on lateral channel stability.e. The two downstream sections shall be located approximately at one and three bridge lengths or hydraulic openings downstream of the bridge. If 24-inch culverts are spaced 500 feet on sustained ditch grades.5 percent. To limit cover depth and flatten culvert invert profile.02 ft. 25. Develop water surface profiles using the peak discharge estimates (2. Maintain minimum ditch grade of 0. Provide ditch line and toe of fill profiles. and any other features that may significantly affect the bridge hydraulics. Ensure drainage structures can be incorporated within minimum ditch depths. approach roads. Collect topographic data at bridge location. 100 and 500 year) and the USCOE computer program HECRAS. In addition. Using the computed water surface profiles. one section should be obtained upstream and two sections downstream of the structure. Design and specify appropriate ditch-lining material to minimize erosion assuming a 25-year storm. WFLHD preference is to not install culverts under high fills or on steep grades. Also summarize other environmental or engineering problems and solutions identified at the specified floodplain locations.e. debris problems. document the occurrence and general location of overtopping floods (i. stream bed particle sizes). 50.10.26 . Cross-sections should be obtained at the upstream bridge face and downstream bridge face.. Culverts under approach roads may be 18 inch. Manning’s “n” values. Elevations on structures shall have an accuracy of 0. Bridges. Summarize recommended erosion protection and mitigation measures for the specified floodplain locations. floodplain slopes and widths. Ground elevations shall 6/15/2005 B . and existing erosion protection features (i. Bevel inlets and outlets to match proposed slopes. evidence of local scour. aggradation and degradation trends. use down drains with energy dissipaters. riprap). The survey shall consist of enough data points (horizontal and vertical) to define main and overflow channels. Design roadside ditches with minimum depth of 12 inches below top of subgrade. hydrologic and hydraulic analysis is not required. Floodplain Hydraulics.
e. top of bank and high water mark elevations. Apply FHWA or other acceptable methods to evaluate and design riprap scour protection. check the computer scour depth against foundation depths determined from record drawings. D90). piers well-aligned with the stream flow).have an accuracy of (0. At existing bridges. and stream and bridge compatibility (i. aggradation and degradation trends.01ft). Horizontal distances from previously established controls shall have an accuracy of 0.. Estimate the bridge scour depths using FHWA HEC-18 and HEC-20. At proposed bridges. riprap). Calibrate the HEC-RAS model by comparing computed water surface profiles to survey and site investigation information (i. Assume that the riprap extends at least 1 foot above the 50-year flood elevation. document the occurrence and general location of any overtopping floods (i. 6/15/2005 B .75 (horizontal) to 1 (vertical). 25. or a comparable one dimensional. 50. determine maximum scour depth. recommend appropriate scour protection (i. hydraulic controls. high water marks. Using the computed water surface profiles. Manning’s “n” values. existing scour protection features (i. fixed boundary computer model.0. riprap). Compute pier and contraction scour and determine bank stability for the abutments using the 50 and 500-year flood events.e. the 50-year flood overtops the road approaches but not the bridge itself). debris problems.01ft. stream bed particle sizes). and has an embedded toe. has a slope no steeper than 1. evidence of local scour. bed material sizes (D50.27 .e.e. Develop water surface profiles using the flood peak estimates (2.e... If the scour depths exceed foundation depths. 100 and 500 year) and the USCOE computer program HEC-RAS.. Documentation on bridge scour shall include comments on lateral channel stability.10.5 percent of the horizontal distance.
Adjust plotting software. Refer to WFLHD Standard Format for Plans found at http://www. Microsoft Project files. Microsoft Word special contract requirements. Utilize Geopak files tracking sheet.tin files.fhwa. Electronic Files Provide electronic copy of all plan and cross section sheets in Microstation V8 format. AASHTO 2. Drafting Utilize WFLHD Standard Format for Plans found at http://www. Plans. General Design Guidelines 1. 3. 4. Provide an index of all electronic files and a brief description of their content. and all other design files including .dot. B. D.gov/design/manual. level and line code. Software Complete and submit all work in Microstation V8. Provide a CD ROM at Final PS&E phase of the project containing all electronic files in the following format.gpk and .fhwa. 6/15/2005 B . Microstation plan sheet files utilizing WFLHD’s V8 level library. and Excel in formats acceptable to WFLHD. Microstation and Microsoft Word Permit application files. and any example WFLHD plans provided as Government furnished data for guidance in developing final plan sheets for a complete contract package.Highway Design A. Evaluate the alignment for curve widening requirements using the “Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. These standards specify text size and element color.Supplement to Chapter 9 . and the CPM schedule in Microsoft Project format.wfl.28 . SCR’s in Microsoft Word format. pen tables.dot. C. Geopak. WFLHD Engineers Estimate program files. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Also provide electronic version of individual files such as permits at the time specified in the project submittals table. and resource files to make plan sheets look like WFLHD example plans. ASCII report. All Geopak input. Design cross-sections. 5.wfl. Microsoft Project. 7. weight. 6. 1. Provide a listing of all files and their contents. 2.gov/design/manual. Word.
Regulations.gov/realestate/index. Develop CADD files.fhwa.g. 6/15/2005 B . guardrail terminal sections. 4. utilizing Geopak and Microstation.29 . To assure deck drainage. design exceptions.dot. Whenever possible.htm http://www.dot. In addition. culverts. guardrail shy distance. policy and guidance for Right-Of-Way and Utility tasks may be found at the following web sites: http://www. If the manual does not cover a specific situation. set the grade on bridges to allow a minimum one to three meters freeboard (clearance between soffit elevation of the bridge superstructure and water surface elevation) at Q50. Perform all work in accordance with the PDDM. culvert inlet and outlets. mailboxes.” Widen the roadway to include curve widening. maintain a minimum three meters clearance between the soffit and the stream bed. new bridge construction should include a minimum 0.5% grade on structures less than 150 feet long.) Show guardrail. Adjust cut and fill slopes to meet Geotechnical recommendations and meet WFLHD recommended slope ratios based on cut and fill heights per the FLH PDDM. AASHTO 2001” or the respective State agencies design manual. use the current version of either the “Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. See Section III Statement of Work Tasks for specific requirements. Whenever possible. and a minimum 1% grade on bridges over 150 feet long. Obtain concurrence and provide mitigation measures if design exceptions are required. which show the Existing Land Lines and Property lines of all Landowners along the project corridor. Right-of-way.gov/design/row Place existing right-of-way information on the plan and profile sheets. culvert catch basins and inlet ditches. etc.wfl. Provide cross sections at all changes to the roadway and other critical areas (e.fhwa. shoulder widening for guardrail terminal sections. under drains. and mitigation on WFLHD Highway Design Standards form (WFLHD-3). 3. Adjust horizontal alignment to assure that all spirals and template transitions (superelevation to crown. and turnouts/parking areas. crown to superelevation) are fully off the ends of bridges. Review existing right-of-way agreements and ensure that all commitments are included in the plans.2001. etc. Document design standards. curve widening. adjust the vertical alignment for the road to assure that there is this minimum grade. on cross sections. Alignment and Safety.
miscellaneous excavations. etc. excavations. Prepare draft notices to utility companies of scheduled dates for award of contracts. Include quantities in summary table. Provide sufficient details to show the location and extent of work involved in roadway obliteration. Coordinate the selection of the terminal end section through the COTR. Utilize the AASHTO Roadside design guide cost effectiveness analysis where needed. Design new intersections and approaches. Locate or verify approach roads and intersections to be impacted by project improvements. Show location and approach road type on the plan and profile sheets. Obtain from utility company when the relocation can commence and how long it will take to complete the relocation. Upon completion of right-of way plans or construction plans. that may conflict with the location of existing facilities. 7. 5. Obliterate by removing all culverts and eliminating all ditches. as appropriate. Evaluate approach road intersections for adequate sight distance and safety. Utilize WFLHD standard details which are based on the respective State Department of Transportation’s standards. determine initial estimate to do Government’s portion of relocation work. Roadway obliteration. Request and review utility company’s relocation plan to insure that their relocation will facilitate construction of the project. Use the AASHTO Roadside Design Guide for determining clear zone. Show the location and extent of work involved in roadway obliteration on the plan view of the Plan and Profile sheets. 6/15/2005 B . recovery area and extent of guard rail need. Prepare Right-of-Way Plats and Legal Exhibits necessary for Federal Land Transfers and private property acquisition. Provide design criteria and calculations to support design. Upon determination by FHWA. request and review company’s cost estimate at the direction of FHWA. structures and guardrail locations. Utilize approved WFLHD standard guardrail drawings. Document criteria used at each guardrail installation.30 . With FHWA guidance. that all or part of the relocation work will be paid by the Government.Prepare Right-of-Way Plans and Property Descriptions for private property acquisition. Design for guardrail locations using the FLH PDDM and the respective State Department of Transportation’s Design Manual. Approach Roads. crosssections. drainage summary. send design package to utility companies including plans. It 6. Guardrail.
and then develop a revegetation plan for the project. provide a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan in compliance with the respective State’s Department of Transportation guidelines suitable for application for the Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit by WFLHD. Provide an erosion control plan in a separate section of the plans using only the plan view of the project showing the horizontal alignment (two plan views will fit on one sheet). Type and location of signing and striping should be in conformance with MUTCD. Do not use straw bales. 8. Show necessary drainage features. removing roadway fill and construction of barriers. Provide energy dissipators at culvert outlets with steep grades or near riparian areas. Design detours where necessary. Temporary Traffic Control. Coordinate with owner agency on the placement of regulatory signs. Mail Boxes. 6/15/2005 B . Show contours and erosion control symbols along the alignment. Coordinate these recommendations with the affected agencies and WFLHD. Provide initial revegetation recommendations based on soil samples taken from the project site and knowledge of native vegetation in the area. Revegetation.is preferred that the road shoulder be removed and excess excavation be utilized to “fill in the roadway” (20% out slope) where possible. Extend riprap lining in cut to fill transitions that may contribute sediment to live water. Using the plan developed above. Do not waste in areas of flat terrain that result in a strip mound. Locate/verify mailboxes that will be impacted by the road improvement. riprap ditches with gradients over 4%. Provide typical sections to detail removal of culverts. Include widening for mailbox turnouts. 10. placing excess excavation or recontouring existing ground. In erodible soils.31 . Prepare plans to relocate mailboxes. Include all permanent and temporary erosion control measures in the plan section. Note removal and replacement of existing signs. 9. Incorporate the respective State’s Department of Transportation Best Management Practices for temporary erosion control. 12. Erosion Control and Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan. 11. Design type and location of signing and striping in conformance with Manual of Uniform Traffic and Control Devices (MUTCD). Place the alignment with a lower stationing above the alignment with higher stationing. Permanent Traffic Control. Show areas to be top soiled and revegetated. if applicable. Utilize WFLHD standard details which are based on the respective State Department of Transportation’s standards. Compute “passing and no-passing” areas. Take soil samples from five locations throughout the project. Design a permanent traffic control plan. Design a temporary traffic control plan.
and unit price information for the project into WFLHD’s Engineer’s Estimate program. Make requests for proposed new pay items to the COTR. Engineer’s Estimate. a request may be made to include a new item in the WFLHD data base. Request the following updated file from the COTR for Plan-In-Hand and Final Design phase submittals or as needed: Item_Tbl. i. Provide the Engineer’s Estimate printout and electronic files to WFLHD. The estimate program database is periodically updated with new pay items or bid tabulation data. 14. Summarize all the individual tables into a Summary of Quantities Table plan sheet(s) using the Engineer’s Estimate program supplied by WFLHD. Use the lastest version of the specification from the LOS at http://www. Enter bid items. deleting. Provide tables of quantities for each section of the plans. traffic control etc. Provide documentation for all plan quantities.13.. Provide printout of GEOPAK generated quantities. plan and profile.32 . include the Item Description and Unit of Measurement.wfl. provide a table with estimated quantities associated with the lump sum item. Show calculations adjusting from plan quantity to bid quantity.dot. Provide sketches and dimensions to illustrate quantity calculations. Quantities. Tables are to be located at the start of sections. Specifications. on separate sheets if they cannot be conveniently fit on the first detail sheet of the section.e. Supplement and edit WFLHD’s standard Library of Specifications (LOS) to develop the SCRs needed. WFLHD will prepare the complete contract specification document. Use active voice when writing all SCRs. 6/15/2005 B . Follow the LOS’s format and method of adding. Summary of Quantities.fhwa. 15. and e) designate if the pay item is a contract quantity. Quantity Tables. Provide special contract requirements on both a hard copy and in an approved electronic format. b) total item quantity. d) bid schedule quantity. If pay items are needed that are not included in the list of approved pay items. 16. and supplementing the FP-03. 17.dbf. New pay items may only be added by WFLHD. quantities. Provide special contract requirements (SCRs) which describe in detail the project work required when read in conjunction with the FP-03. guardrail. With the request. For lump sum pay items.gov/design for each review submittal. Develop the bid quantities from the plan quantities in conformance with the FLH PDDM. Refer to sample PS&E for guidance of needed tables. The location and quantity of all work for every pay item must be shown in a table. c) plan section where item is shown (may include multiple sections). Information included in the Summary of Quantities is a) Pay Item Number.
6/15/2005 B . The book shall consist of a loose leaf binder with index sheets provided by WFLHD. Construction Staking Data. It is not expected that the Firm will have information for every section. As a minimum. staking. production estimates. 19. Unit Price Documentation and Analysis. signing/stripping. The Project Engineer’s (PE) Hold file submittal includes all information and number of copies identified in the PE Hold File Checklist. Calculate critical path of construction activities to determine construction time. 21. show the following as individual activities: mobilization. The book shall be the last item submitted to WFLHD at the conclusion of this project. Contract Time. location. The CPM shall be used to document the contract time to be used in A+B Bidding when required. The purpose of this book is to document the scoping. Utilize Microsoft Project software to prepare a Critical Path Method (CPM) Schedule for construction. environmental. drainage with permit restrictions. clearing. guardrail. asphalt concrete surfacing. Indicate the resources (equipment and workforce) and production rates for all activities. Follow procedures and support unit prices as outlined in the FLH PDDM. A Design Data Book shall be prepared during the development of this project. Utilize WFLHD report printing program. and quantities. Furnish one set of notes on write-inthe-rain paper. In the CPM schedule. excavation. Design Data Book. two copies on regular paper and an electronic copy. quantity and location of each activity. Document basis for unit prices. 20. aggregate base. Utilize WFLHD’s Unit Bid Price Analysis form. Provide the following data needed for construction of the project. Provide critical path printout using Gantt chart type graphics. revegetation.33 . The COTR can address any questions regarding book content. and design considerations involved in the development of a construction project. and demobilization. Utilize either bid-based or cost-based estimating. Prepare a written narrative that adequately defines the type of work.18. Show all limitations of operations. depict the order and interdependence of all activities. structures.
elevation.34 . Slope stake notes excavation and embankment slope ratios. and superelevation. Red Tops station. centerline and shoulders. xyz coordinates Seeding notes station. station. profile grade. 6/15/2005 B . Blue Tops elevation. offset and quantities Control points Topography List of horizontal and vertical control points Design topography information (. offset and quantities.centerline and shoulders. slope stake catch point.Staking Detail Report --Design centerline and stationing. offset. subgrade. Clearing notes station. Electronic copy only. y coordinates profile Earthwork quantities Computer generated listing.tin file). xyz coordinates top of aggregate layers . and x. offset.
Likewise. II. per cubic foot. III. Detailed work items are as follows. and retaining walls in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. with current Interims except as noted. per cubic foot for cast-in-place concrete and 160 lb. For design of vertical abutments and retaining walls. use soil pressure based on the internal angle of friction as recommended in the goetechnical report. Any interpretations or deviations from these criteria must be coordinated with and approved by the COTR. per square foot for provision of 2 inch AC wearing surface at the time of construction. In the absence of a specific recommendation. use the coefficients given in AASHTO. Typically.35 . Use 24 lb. Design for HL 93 design live load. 3rd Edition. culverts. This shall include. a conservative design assumption is to compute active soil pressure based on an assumed angle of internal friction of 32° and a triangular soil pressure distribution. Perform single-mode or multi-mode analysis. per cubic foot for precast concrete. Design Criteria.Specific design criteria are as follows: Use concrete density equal to 150 lb. and recommendations regarding construction issues that should be addressed in the plans or specifications. 2004. as appropriate. use those coefficients. soil bearing capacity for spread footings. Alternatively. Provide deck drainage as noted on the TS&L. Specific design values for foundations shall be contained in the geotechnical report.Supplement to Chapter 10 . per square foot to provide for future paving allowance over the deck surface. In states where local seismic acceleration has been mapped by the local DOT. hydraulic analysis and recommendations shall be addressed separately. Design for the appropriate seismic acceleration coefficient. Specific hydraulic recommendations must be considered on an individual basis. IV. assume soil pressure to be equivalent to a fluid weighing 36 lb. Design phases are the same as those called for under the section “Standard Highway Design Submittals/Deliverables” above.Structural Design I. pile size and capacity recommendations. In all other cases. and design for an additional 24 lb. Design bridges. WFLHD does not put deck drains or scuppers on the bridge. soil loads. 6/15/2005 B . for example.
prepare a Type.V. In addition. culvert. length of wall. deck width. Include typical roadway section information and a line graph of centerline roadway grade in the space provided. For culverts. Indicate curve data for the segment of roadway shown. size. indicate the proposed structure type. footing elevation.5% grade on structures less than 150 feet long. new bridge construction should include a minimum 0. Retaining wall TS&L shall indicate wall type. plot roadway centerline with station tic marks. length. Size. culvert. set the grade on bridges to allow a minimum one to three meters freeboard (clearance between soffit elevation of the bridge superstructure and water surface elevation) at Q50. and a minimum 1% grade on bridges over 150 feet long. and finish ground profile along the face and top of wall. crown to superelevation) are fully off the ends of bridges. or retaining walls. On the plan view. Consideration of structure type should include cost of construction. Indicate existing topography to no greater than 2 foot contours. wingwall size and alignment. Adjust horizontal alignment to assure that all spirals and template transitions (superelevation to crown. Plot the vicinity map on M. indicate the alignment (skew). Select a structure type that is appropriate to the site. Whenever possible. If called for in the Statement of Work. beginning and ending stations. On the elevation view. allowing for a longer crossing than currently exists. If necessary. Plot the locations of geotechnical borings. Use the same scale for both plan and elevation views.36 . maintain a minimum 10 feet clearance between the soffit and the stream bed. and Location (TS&L) drawing of the proposed bridge. construction constraints (including 6/15/2005 B . Choose a scale which shows sufficient surrounding topography to show the entire stream width plus some additional length of roadway. See Section III Statement of Work Tasks for specific requirements. adjust the vertical alignment for the road to assure that there is this minimum grade. On a separate drawing. Intermediate Design. contained in the WFLHD cell library. hydraulic data.BRDG. Indicate in the grade diagram the VPIs immediately upstation and downstation from the crossing plus vertical curve data for these VPIs. Prepare a vicinity map drawing of the proposed bridge. span length. and any utilities to be accommodated on the bridge. To assure deck drainage. On bridge TS&L. Preliminary Design. or retaining wall site. VI. and end treatment for the proposed structure. foundation type. provide a plan view contour map showing the proposed roadway centerline and additional ground contours for a sufficient reach of the stream to indicate general streamflow alignment and the bank width at some reasonable distance away from the existing or proposed bridge crossing. plot the existing ground contour along centerline road. rail type.
Provide dead load deflection (camber) diagram. Girders. prestressing steel strand patterns. and along the face of wall for retaining walls. maintenance costs. FLH or state DOT standard drawings for some structures or structure elements. and stresses at critical sections. and orientation of the proposed culvert. Design and prepare contract drawings and draft specifications for the proposed structure. a. develop a staged construction phasing plan as necessary for traffic maintenance during construction. VII. On the elevation view. show a typical cross section through the bridge superstructure or retaining wall. Summarize the data used to select the recommended alternative. Calculate moments. foundation loads and design calculations. Plan drawings shall include plan and elevation views to indicate the 6/15/2005 B . If the bridge is to be constructed with partial width stages. d. Retaining walls. dead load. For concrete deck bridges. c. Culverts.). size. and with prior coordination with the COTR. plot the existing and finish ground contour along centerline road for bridges. Produce plan and elevation drawings of the abutments so that design sections can be identified. etc.37 . unless otherwise indicated on the TS&L or in the Statement of Work. produce the loading calculations. Plan-in-Hand Design. b. Plan drawings shall clearly indicate the length. availability of prefabricated sections. and overall aesthetics. Prepare preliminary cost estimates of the proposed bridge alternative(s). Indicate precast culvert sections and cast-in-place portion. Produce design calculations for those portions of retaining walls which do not utilize standard plans. Provide construction details for cast-in-place concrete portions of the culvert including connection to precast sections. and shear stirrup diagrams. Abutments. Produce design calculations for the cast-in-place concrete portion of the culverts. shears. and shrinkage. it may be necessary to modify standard drawings before incorporating them into the contract plans. load groupings. On a separate drawing. Depending on the specific application.remoteness of site. Show moment and shear capacities. Produce the calculations for the deflections of the entire structure due to prestress camber. detail the abutment endwalls to be integral with the superstructure (no deck joints or independent backwalls). availability of cast-inplace concrete. For each different design section. When available. Specific elements of retaining walls requiring design calculations will depend on the wall type selected. it may be permissible to use WFLHD. creep.
6/15/2005 B . Compute contract quantities for all items to be incorporated into the bridge. and any additional details required to construct the wall. typical sections through the wall at critical locations. Use FLH standard pay item numbers and quantities. e. 4. Make revisions to the design based on review comments by COTR and comments received in Plan-in-Hand review. Compute and check all required construction contract quantities for the bridge and list these on the plans. f. The design check shall consist of an independent set of calculations prepared by an engineer not involved with the initial design calculation. Perform an independent design check. Compare loads. Prepare an Engineer's Estimate of the cost of construction. Final Design. stresses.38 . and capacities at critical sections in the superstructure and substructure.line and grade of the proposed wall.
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