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# CALCULUS

Differentiation
Instantaneous Slope / Rate of Change by Division Finding f ' (a) , the Slope [ number ] of a function at x = a

Mathematics of Change

Integration
Multiplication
[when one factor is changing] ; Repetitive Addition
Area under a curve, Volume under a surface, Any calculation involving multiplication Any accumulation process or repeated summation

Finding f ' (x), the Slope [ function ] of the Tangent line to f(x)

Derivative
Limit as dx 0 , Average Slope Tangent line dy/dx d/dx f(x) Dx f(x) L'Hopital's Rule Instantaneous Slope Secant line Symbols ; f ' (x)

Definite Integral
Integral with defined limits of integration Results in a Number Approx = to average value of f(x) over the interval times the size of the interval

Indefinite Integral

## F ' (x) = f (x)

Integral with no limits of integration [interval] Results in a Function called AntiDerivative F(x) Table of Integrals of Elementary Functions 2nd Fundamental Theorem of Calculus . Definite Integral = F(b) - F(a)

## Table of Derivatives of Elementary Functions

Rules .
Power Product Quotient Constant Summation Chain

Rules ..
Power Summation Constant Inverse Chain [Linear only]

Integration Techniques ..
Finding the Antiderivative F(x) U Substitution ; f and f ' present Integration By Parts ; Integral of f(x) g(x) Tabular Integration By Parts Trig Substitution Partial Fractions Inverse Trig Substitution; Quadratic Binomials Long Division & Complete the Square xx Weierstrass Tangent Half Angle

Integration Identities

Applications ..
Simplification of a function by Linear Approximation Finding the equation of line tangent to a function at a point Minimization / Maxima / Optimization Problems Critical Points and Local Extrema (local min & max) Newton's Method for finding polynomial roots xx Sketching Curves, Graphing w Calculus

## Numerical Integration Techniques .

Yields results even when no Antiderivative exists Riemann Midpoint Trapezoid Averaging Method Simpson's Rule

Applications .
Area between curves Arc Length & Surface Area Calculations Volume Calculations Projectile Motion xx Solids of Revolution xx Disc, Shell & Cylindrical Methods xx Multiplication of Vector Quantities xx Ex; Work = Force x Distance

Topics ..
Limits ; Existence of a Limit, One Sided Limit, Left & Right Limits Finding the derivative using the Definition [Elementary Functions] Implicit Differentiation , L ' Hopital's Rule Absolute & Relative Rates of Change xx Improper Integrals

Topics ..
Strategy; How to choose the best method for finding the AntiDerivative, F(x) Using www.wolframalpha.com Using www.khanacademy.org Videos Using U of Houston Calculus Videos

## Derivative Definition ; df / dx = Limit x

0 [ f ( x + x ) - f (x) ] / x

## Integration Definition ; Limit x

0

f (x)

dx =
Paul Freda
Assumption College 24 April 2011

f ( x i ) x