A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service Program : Consists of related projects Four Project Dimensions

People Process Product Technology Tradeoff Traingle: know which of these are fixed/variable for each project

People problems:
y y y y y

Matching people to tasks Career development Balance: individual and team Clear communication Noisy, crowded offices

y y y y y y y Customer-Developer friction Unrealistic expectations Politics over substance Wishful thinking Lack of effective project sponsorship Lack of stakeholder buy-in Lack of user input Process related: y y y y y y y y Optimistic schedules Insufficient risk management Contractor failure Insufficient planning Abandonment of plan under pressure Shortchanged upstream activities Inadequate design Shortchanged quality assurance Product related Requirements gold-plating Gilding the lily Feature creep Developer gold-plating Beware the pet project Push-me. pull-me negotiation Research-oriented development Technology Related Silver-bullet syndrome Overestimated savings from new tools and methods Fad warning Switching tools in mid-project Lack of automated source-code control SPM2: Processes and Organization .

All projects are divided into phases All phases together are known as the Project Life Cycle Project Success factors : Executive support User involvement Experienced project manager Clear business objectives Minimized scope Standard software infrastructure Firm basic requirements Formal methodology Reliable estimates Selecting a project: One categorization: whether project addresses a problem an opportunity a directive Why Outsource? .

often used by consultants Unit price contracts: require the buyer to pay the seller a predetermined amount per unit of service Contract type vs risk Statement of Work: A description of the work required for the project .To reduce both fixed and recurrent costs To allow the client organization to focus on its core business To access skills and technologies To provide flexibility To increase accountability Procurement process COTS: Commercial Off-The-Shelf software Types of Contracts Fixed price or lump sum: involve a fixed total price for a well-defined product or service Cost reimbursable: involve payment to the seller for direct and indirect costs Time and material contracts: hybrid of both fixed price and cost reimbursable.

Project Phases: Plan. product. assumptions(Precedes SOW) System Analysis and Design Information System: A SYSTEM THAT PROVIDES THE INFORMATION NEEDED TO ACCOMPLISH THE ORGANIZATION S TASKS A good system : y Useful and Usable makes people s lives easier Reliable have few bugs Flexible Possible to make changes as users needs change over time Affordable to buy and to maintain Available Run on available hardware and operating system Sufficiently portable Must complete successfully and deliver the software promised System Analysis and Design is the process of creating or modifying an information system to meet the needs and goals of the given business system System Analysis: understanding and specifying in detail what an information system should do System Design: specifying in detail how the parts of an information system should be implemented Definition of SAD: The complex organizational process whereby computer-based information systems are developed and maintained. Requirement. Planning. Analyze..Analysis . No maintain) Rapid Application Development Model : Incremental software development method. And then parallel design/Implementation Risk Management Types of Risks: Schedule. Design. Cost. Implement.Project Charter : A high-level project description: Business need. Maintain ( Waterfall Mehtodology . Quality. Operational .

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