APPENDIX

231

Appendix I

Definitions of the SI Base Units

Metre (m): The metre is the length of path travelled by light in vacuum during a time
interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second (17th CGPM, 1983).
Kilogram (kg): The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the
international prototype of the kilogram (3rd CGPM, 1901).
Second (s): The second is the duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation
corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state
of the caesium-133 atom (13th CGPM, 1967).
Ampere (A): The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight
parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed
1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to
2 × 10-7 Newton per metre of length (9th CGPM, 1948).
Kelvin (K): The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16
of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (13th CGPM, 1967).
Mole (mol): The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as
many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12. When
the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms,
molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles
(14th CGPM, 1971).
Candela (cd): The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source
that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 × 1012 hertz and that has a
radiant intensity in that direction of (1/683) watt per steradian (16th CGPM, 1979).
(The symbols listed here are internationally agreed and should not be changed in
other languages or scripts).

231

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

232

CHEMISTRY

Appendix II

Elements, their Atomic Number and Molar Mass

Element

Actinium
Aluminium
Americium
Antimony
Argon
Arsenic
Astatine
Barium
Berkelium
Beryllium
Bismuth
Bohrium
Boron
Bromine
Cadmium
Caesium
Calcium
Californium
Carbon
Cerium
Chlorine
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Curium
Dubnium
Dysprosium
Einsteinium
Erbium
Europium
Fermium
Fluorine
Francium
Gadolinium
Gallium
Germanium
Gold
Hafnium
Hassium
Helium
Holmium
Hydrogen
Indium
Iodine
Iridium
Iron
Krypton
Lanthanum
Lawrencium
Lead
Lithium
Lutetium
Magnesium
Manganese
Meitneium
Mendelevium

Symbol

Atomic
Number

Molar
mass/
(g mol–1)

Element

Ac
Al
Am
Sb
Ar
As
At
Ba
Bk
Be
Bi
Bh
B
Br
Cd
Cs
Ca
Cf
C
Ce
Cl
Cr
Co
Cu
Cm
Db
Dy
Es
Er
Eu
Fm
F
Fr
Gd
Ga
Ge
Au
Hf
Hs
He
Ho
H
In
I
Ir
Fe
Kr
La
Lr
Pb
Li
Lu
Mg
Mn
Mt
Md

89
13
95
51
18
33
85
56
97
4
83
107
5
35
48
55
20
98
6
58
17
24
27
29
96
105
66
99
68
63
100
9
87
64
31
32
79
72
108
2
67
1
49
53
77
26
36
57
103
82
3
71
12
25
109
101

227.03
26.98
(243)
121.75
39.95
74.92
210
137.34
(247)
9.01
208.98
(264)
10.81
79.91
112.40
132.91
40.08
251.08
12.01
140.12
35.45
52.00
58.93
63.54
247.07
(263)
162.50
(252)
167.26
151.96
(257.10)
19.00
(223)
157.25
69.72
72.61
196.97
178.49
(269)
4.00
164.93
1.0079
114.82
126.90
192.2
55.85
83.80
138.91
(262.1)
207.19
6.94
174.96
24.31
54.94
(268)
258.10

Mercury
Molybdenum
Neodymium
Neon
Neptunium
Nickel
Niobium
Nitrogen
Nobelium
Osmium
Oxygen
Palladium
Phosphorus
Platinum
Plutonium
Polonium
Potassium
Praseodymium
Promethium
Protactinium
Radium
Radon
Rhenium
Rhodium
Rubidium
Ruthenium
Rutherfordium
Samarium
Scandium
Seaborgium
Selenium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Strontium
Sulphur
Tantalum
Technetium
Tellurium
Terbium
Thallium
Thorium
Thulium
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Ununbium
Ununnilium
Unununium
Uranium
Vanadium
Xenon
Ytterbium
Yttrium
Zinc
Zirconium

Symbol

Atomic
Number

Hg
Mo
Nd
Ne
Np
Ni
Nb
N
No
Os
O
Pd
P
Pt
Pu
Po
K
Pr
Pm
Pa
Ra
Rn
Re
Rh
Rb
Ru
Rf
Sm
Sc
Sg
Se
Si
Ag
Na
Sr
S
Ta
Tc
Te
Tb
Tl
Th
Tm
Sn
Ti
W
Uub
Uun
Uuu
U
V
Xe
Yb
Y
Zn
Zr

80
42
60
10
93
28
41
7
102
76
8
46
15
78
94
84
19
59
61
91
88
86
75
45
37
44
104
62
21
106
34
14
47
11
38
16
73
43
52
65
81
90
69
50
22
74
112
110
111
92
23
54
70
39
30
40

The value given in parenthesis is the molar mass of the isotope of largest known half-life.

232

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

Molar
mass/
(g mol–1)
200.59
95.94
144.24
20.18
(237.05)
58.71
92.91
14.0067
(259)
190.2
16.00
106.4
30.97
195.09
(244)
210
39.10
140.91
(145)
231.04
(226)
(222)
186.2
102.91
85.47
101.07
(261)
150.35
44.96
(266)
78.96
28.08
107.87
22.99
87.62
32.06
180.95
(98.91)
127.60
158.92
204.37
232.04
168.93
118.69
47.88
183.85
(277)
(269)
(272)
238.03
50.94
131.30
173.04
88.91
65.37
91.22

APPENDIX

233

Appendix III
A. Specific and Molar Heat Capacities for Some Substances at 298 K and
one Atmospheric Pressure
Substance

Specific Heat Capacity
(J/g)

Molar Heat Capacity
(J/mol)

0.720
4.184
2.06
0.797
0.360
4.70
2.46
2.42
2.06
0.861
0.5980
0.817
1.03
0.477
0.473
0.460
0.385
0.902
0.128
0.720

20.8
75.4
35.1
29.1
29.1
79.9
113.16
152.52
37.08
132.59
72.35
39.2
20.7
33.8
75.6
25.1
24.7
24.35
25.2
8.65

air
water (liquid)
ammonia (gas)
hydrogen chloride
hydrogen bromide
ammonia (liquid)
ethyl alcohol (liquid)
ethylene glycol (liquid)
water (solid)
carbon tetrachloride (liquid)
chlorofluorocarbon (CCl F )
2 2
ozone
neon
chlorine
bromine
iron
copper
aluminium
gold
graphite
B.

Molar Heat Capacities for Some Gases (J/mol)

Gas
Monatomic*
helium
argon
iodine
mercury
Diatomic†
hydrogen
oxygen
nitrogen
hydrogen chloride
carbon monoxide
Triatomic†
nitrous oxide
carbon dioxide
Polyatomic†
ethane

Cp

Cv

C p - Cv

Cp / Cv

20.9
20.8
20.9
20.8

12.8
12.5
12.6
12.5

8.28
8.33
8.37
8.33

1.63
1.66
1.66
1.66

28.6
29.1
29.0
29.6
29.0

20.2
20.8
20.7
21.0
21.0

8.33
8.33
8.30
8.60
8.00

1.41
1.39
1.40
1.39
1.41

39.0
37.5

30.5
29.0

8.50
8.50

1.28
1.29

53.2

44.6

8.60

1.19

*Translational kinetic energy only.
†Translational, vibrational and rotational energy.

233

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

234

CHEMISTRY

Appendix IV

Physical Constants

Quantity

Symbol Traditional Units

Acceleration of gravity
Atomic mass unit (1/12
the mass of 12C atom)
Avogadro constant
Bohr radius

g
amu
or u
NA
ao

Boltzmann constant
Charge-to-mass
ratio of electron
Electronic charge

k
e/m
e

Electron rest mass

me

Faraday constant

F

Gas constant

R

980.6 cm/s
1.6606 × 10-24 g

9.806 m/s
1.6606 × 10-27 kg

6.022 ×1023
particles/mol
0.52918 C
5.2918 × 10-9 cm
1.3807 × 10-16 erg/K
1.7588 ×l08 coulomb/g

6.022 × 1023
particles/mol
5.2918 × 10-11 m

1.60219 × 10-19 coulomb
4.8033 × 10-19 esu
9.10952 ×10-28 g
0.00054859 u
96,487 coulombs/eq
23.06 kcal/volt. eq

0.8206

1.987

L atm
mol K

cal
mol K

Molar volume (STP)

Vm

22.710981 L/mol

Neutron rest mass

mn

Planck constant
Proton rest mass

h
mp

Rydberg constant

R∞

1.67495 × 10-24 g
1.008665 u
6.6262 × 10-27 ergs
1.6726 ×10-24 g
1.007277 u
3.289 × 1015 cycles/s
2.1799 × 10-11 erg
2.9979 ×1010 cm/s
(186,281 miles/second)

Speed of light
(in a vacuum)

c

SI Units

1.3807 × 10-23 J/K
1.7588 × 1011 C/kg
1.60219 × 10-19 C
9.10952 ×10-31 kg
96,487 C/mol e96,487 J/V.mol e-

8.3145

6.6262 × 10-34 J s
1.6726 ×10-27 kg
1.0974 × 107 m-1
2.1799 × 10-18 J
2.9979 × 108 m/s

e = 2.71828

2.303 RT (at 25°C) = 1364 cal/mol = 5709 J/mol

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

mol K

22.710981 × 10-3 m3/mol
22.710981 dm3/mol
1.67495 × 10-27 kg

2.303 R = 4.576 cal/mol K = 19.15 J/mol K

234

3

8.3145 J/mol.K

π = 3.1416
ln X = 2.303 log X

kPa dm

APPENDIX

235

Appendix V

Some Useful Conversion Factors

Common Unit of Mass and Weight
1 pound = 453.59 grams

Common Units of Length
1 inch = 2.54 centimetres (exactly)

1 pound = 453.59 grams = 0.45359 kilogram
1 kilogram = 1000 grams = 2.205 pounds
1 gram = 10 decigrams = 100 centigrams
= 1000 milligrams
1 gram = 6.022 × 1023 atomic mass units or u
1 atomic mass unit = 1.6606 × 10–24 gram
1 metric tonne = 1000 kilograms
= 2205 pounds

1 mile = 5280 feet = 1.609 kilometres
1 yard = 36 inches = 0.9144 metre
1 metre = 100 centimetres = 39.37 inches
= 3.281 feet
= 1.094 yards
1 kilometre = 1000 metres = 1094 yards
= 0.6215 mile
1 Angstrom = 1.0 × 10–8 centimetre
= 0.10 nanometre
= 1.0 × 10–10 metre
= 3.937 × 10–9 inch

Common Unit of Volume
1 quart = 0.9463 litre
1 litre = 1.056 quarts
1 litre = 1 cubic decimetre = 1000 cubic
centimetres = 0.001 cubic metre
1 millilitre = 1 cubic centimetre = 0.001 litre
= 1.056 × 10-3 quart
1 cubic foot = 28.316 litres = 29.902 quarts
= 7.475 gallons
Common Units of Energy
1 joule = 1 × 107 ergs
1 thermochemical calorie**
= 4.184 joules
= 4.184 × 107 ergs
= 4.129 × 10–2 litre-atmospheres
= 2.612 × 1019 electron volts
1 ergs = 1 × 10–7 joule = 2.3901 × 10–8 calorie
1 electron volt = 1.6022 × 10–19 joule
= 1.6022 × 10–12 erg
= 96.487 kJ/mol†
1 litre-atmosphere = 24.217 calories
= 101.32 joules
= 1.0132 ×109 ergs
1 British thermal unit = 1055.06 joules
= 1.05506 ×1010 ergs
= 252.2 calories

Common Units of Force* and Pressure
1 atmosphere = 760 millimetres of mercury
= 1.013 × 105 pascals
= 14.70 pounds per square inch
1 bar = 105 pascals
1 torr = 1 millimetre of mercury
1 pascal = 1 kg/ms2 = 1 N/m2
Temperature
SI Base Unit: Kelvin (K)
K = -273.15° C
K = ° C + 273.15
° F = 1.8(° C) + 32

°C =

°F − 32
1.8

* Force: 1 newton (N) = 1 kg m/s2, i.e.,the force that, when applied for 1 second, gives a
1-kilogram mass a velocity of 1 metre per second.
** The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.50C to
15.50C.
† Note that the other units are per particle and must be multiplied by 6.022 ×1023 to be strictly
comparable.

235

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

236

CHEMISTRY

Appendix VI

Thermodynamic Data at 298 K
INORGANIC SUBSTANCES
Substance

Enthalpy of formation,
ΔfHJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Gibbs Energy of formation,
ΔfGJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Entropy,*
SJ/(J K–1 mol–1)

Aluminium
Al(s)
Al3+(aq)
Al2O3(s)
Al(OH)3(s)
AlCl3(s)

0
– 524.7
–1675.7
–1276
–704.2

0
–481.2
–1582.3

–628.8

28.33
–321.7
50.92

110.67

Antimony
SbH3(g)
SbCl3(g)
SbCl5(g)

145.11
–313.8
–394.34

147.75
–301.2
–334.29

232.78
337.80
401.94

0
–169.0
–888.14

0
–168.6
–648.41

0
–537.64
–553.5
–1216.3
–1214.78

0
–560.77
–525.1
–1137.6
–1088.59

62.8
9.6
70.42
112.1
–47.3

0
–1272.8
–1137.0

0
–1193.7
–1120.3

5.86
53.97
254.12

Arsenic
As(s), gray
As2S3(s)
AsO43–(aq)

35.1
163.6
–162.8

Barium
Ba(s)
Ba2+(aq)
BaO(s)
BaCO3(s)
BaCO3(aq)
Boron
B(s)
B2O3(s)
BF3(g)
Bromine
Br2(l)
Br2(g)
Br(g)
Br–(aq)
HBr(g)
BrF3(g)

0
30.91
111.88
–121.55
–36.40
–255.60

0
3.11
82.40
–103.96
–53.45
–229.43

152.23
245.46
175.02
82.4
198.70
292.53

0
178.2
–542.83

0
144.3
–553.58

41.42
154.88
–53.1

Calcium
Ca(s)
Ca(g)
Ca2+(aq)

(continued)

236

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APPENDIX

237

Substance

Enthalpy of formation,
ΔfHJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Gibbs Energy of formation,
ΔfGJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Entropy,*
SJ/(J K–1 mol–1)

Calcium (continued)
CaO(s)
Ca(OH)2(s)
Ca(OH)2(aq)
CaCO3(s), calcite
CaCO3(s), aragonite
CaCO3(aq)
CaF2(s)
CaF2(aq)
CaCl2(s)
CaCl2(aq)
CaBr2(s)
CaC2(s)
CaS(s)
CaSO4(s)
CaSO4(aq)

–635.09
–986.09
–1002.82
–1206.92
–1207.1
–1219.97
–1219.6
–1208.09
–795.8
–877.1
–682.8
–59.8
–482.4
–1434.11
–1452.10

–604.03
–898.49
–868.07
–1128.8
–1127.8
–1081.39
–1167.3
–1111.15
–748.1
–816.0
–663.6
–64.9
–477.4
–1321.79
–1298.10

39.75
83.39
–74.5
92.9
88.7
–110.0
68.87
–80.8
104.6
59.8
130
69.96
56.5
106.7
–33.1

Carbon**
C(s), graphite
C(s), diamond
C(g)
CO(g)
CO2(g)
CO32–(aq)
CCl4(l)
CS2(l)
HCN(g)
HCN(l)

0
1.895
716.68
–110.53
–393.51
–677.14
–135.44
89.70
135.1
108.87

0
2.900
671.26
–137.17
–394.36
–527.81
–65.21
65.27
124.7
124.97

5.740
2.377
158.10
197.67
213.74
–56.9
216.40
151.34
201.78
112.84

0
–696.2
–537.2

0
–672.0
–503.8

0
121.68
–167.16
–92.31
–167.16

0
105.68
–131.23
–95.30
–131.23

223.07
165.20
56.5
186.91
56.5

0
71.67
64.77
–168.6
–157.3
–771.36
–2279.7

0
49.98
65.49
–146.0
–129.7
–661.8
–1879.7

33.15
40.6
–99.6
93.14
42.63
109
300.4

Cerium
Ce(s)
Ce3+(aq)
Ce4+(aq)

72.0
–205
–301

Chlorine
Cl2(g)
Cl(g)
Cl–(aq)
HCl(g)
HCl(aq)
Copper
Cu(s)
Cu+(aq)
Cu2+(aq)
Cu2O(aq)
CuO(s)
CuSO4(s)
CuSO4.5H2O(s)

** For organic compounds, a separate table is provided in continuation.

237

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

(continued)

238

CHEMISTRY

Substance

Enthalpy of formation,
ΔfHJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Gibbs Energy of formation,
ΔfGJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Entropy,*
SJ/(J K–1 mol–1)

Deuterium
D2(g)
D2O(g)
D 2O(l)

0
–249.20
–294.60

0
–234.54
–243.44

144.96
198.34
75.94

Fluorine
F2(g)
F–(aq)
HF(g)
HF(aq)

0
–332.63
–271.1
–332.63

0
–278.79
–273.2
–278.79

202.78
–13.8
173.78
–13.8

Hydrogen (see also Deuterium)
H2(g)
0
H(g)
217.97
H+(aq)
0
–285.83
H 2O(l)
H2O(g)
–241.82
H 2O 2(l)
–187.78
H2O2(aq)
–191.17

0
203.25
0
–237.13
–228.57
–120.35
–134.03

130.68
114.71
0
69.91
188.83
109.6
143.9

0
19.33
–51.57
1.70

116.14
260.69
111.3
206.59

0
–78.90
–4.7
–1015.4
–742.2
–100.4
6.9
–166.9

27.28
–137.7
–315.9
146.4
87.40
60.29

52.93

0
–1.7
–277.4
–919.94
–278.7
–244.8

0
–24.43
–217.33
–813.14
–261.92
–232.34

64.81
10.5
68.6
148.57
161.5
175.3

0
147.70
–466.85
–601.70
–1095.8
–524.3

0
113.10
–454.8
–569.43
–1012.1
–503.8

32.68
148.65
–138.1
26.94
65.7
117.2

Iodine
I2(s)
I2(g)
I–(aq)
HI(g)

0
62.44
–55.19
26.48

Iron
Fe(s)
Fe2+(aq)
Fe3+(aq)
Fe3O4(s), magnetite
Fe2O3(s), haematite
FeS(s,α)
FeS(aq)
FeS2(s)

0
–89.1
–48.5
–1118.4
–824.2
–100.0

–178.2

Lead
Pb(s)
Pb2+(aq)
PbO2(s)
PbSO4(s)
PbBr2(s)
PbBr2(aq)
Magnesium
Mg(s)
Mg(g)
Mg2+(aq)
MgO(s)
MgCO3(s)
MgBr2(s)

(continued)

238

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

APPENDIX

Substance

239

Enthalpy of formation,
ΔfHJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Gibbs Energy of formation,
ΔfGJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Entropy,*
SJ/(J K–1 mol–1)

Mercury
Hg(1)
Hg(g)
HgO(s)
Hg2Cl2(s)

0
61.32
–90.83
–265.22

0
31.82
–58.54
–210.75

76.02
174.96
70.29
192.5

0
90.25
82.05
33.18
9.16
–174.10
–207.36
–205.0
–46.11
–80.29
–132.51
–114.2
294.1
50.63
–365.56
–314.43
–295.31

0
86.55
104.20
51.31
97.89
–80.71
–111.25
–108.74
–16.45
–26.50
–79.31

328.1
149.34
–183.87
–202.87
–88.75

191.61
210.76
219.85
240.06
304.29
155.60
146.4
146.4
192.45
111.3
113.4

238.97
121.21
151.08
94.6
186.2

0
142.7
–229.99

0
163.2
–157.24

205.14
238.93
–10.75

0
58.91
5.4
–2984.0
–964.8
–1266.9
–1277.4
–319.7
–287.0
–374.9

0
24.44
13.4
–2697.0


–1018.7
–272.3
–267.8
–305.0

41.09
279.98
210.23
228.86



217.18
311.78
364.6

0
89.24
–252.38
–424.76
–482.37
–567.27

0
60.59
–283.27
–379.08
–440.50
–537.75

64.18
160.34
102.5
78.9
91.6
66.57

Nitrogen
N2(g)
NO(g)
N2O(g)
NO2(g)
N2O4(g)
HNO3(1)
HNO3(aq)
NO3– (aq)
NH3(g)
NH3(aq)
NH+4 (aq)
NH2OH(s)
HN3(g)
N2H4(1)
NH4NO3(s)
NH4Cl(s)
NH4ClO4(s)
Oxygen
O2(g)
O3(g)
OH–(aq)
Phosphorus
P(s), white
P4(g)
PH3(g)
P4O10(s)
H3PO3(aq)
H3PO4(1)
H3PO4(aq)
PCl3(1)
PCl3(g)
PCl5(g)
Potassium
K(s)
K(g)
K+(aq)
KOH(s)
KOH(aq)
KF(s)

(continued)

239

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

240

CHEMISTRY

Substance

Enthalpy of formation,
ΔfHJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Gibbs Energy of formation,
ΔfGJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Entropy,*
SJ/(J K–1 mol–1)

Potassium (continued)
KCl(s)
KBr(s)
KI(s)
KClO3(s)
KClO4(s)
K2S(s)
K2S(aq)

–436.75
–393.80
–327.90
–397.73
–432.75
–380.7
–471.5

–409.14
–380.66
–324.89
–296.25
–303.09
–364.0
–480.7

82.59
95.90
106.32
143.1
151.0
105
190.4

Si(s)
SiO2(s,α)

0
–910.94

0
–856.64

18.83
41.84

Silver
Ag(s)
Ag+(aq)
Ag2O(s)
AgBr(s)
AgBr(aq)
AgCl(s)
AgCl(aq)
AgI(s)
AgI(aq)
AgNO3(s)

0
105.58
–31.05
–100.37
–15.98
–127.07
–61.58
–61.84
50.38
–124.39

0
77.11
–11.20
–96.90
–26.86
–109.79
–54.12
–66.19
25.52
–33.41

42.55
72.68
121.3
107.1
155.2
96.2
129.3
115.5
184.1
140.92

0
107.32
–240.12
–425.61
–470.11
–411.15
–407.3
–361.06
–287.78
–947.7
–1130.9

0
76.76
–261.91
–379.49
–419.15
–384.14
–393.1
–348.98
–286.06
–851.9
–1047.7

51.21
153.71
59.0
64.46
48.1
72.13
115.5
86.82
98.53
102.1
136.0

0
0.33
33.1
–296.83
–395.72
–813.99
–909.27
–909.27
–20.63
–39.7
–1209

0
0.1
85.8
–300.19
–371.06
–690.00
–744.53
–744.53
–33.56
–27.83
–1105.3

31.80
32.6
–14.6
248.22
256.76
156.90
20.1
20.1
205.79
121
291.82

Silicon

Sodium
Na(s)
Na(g)
Na+(aq)
NaOH(s)
NaOH(aq)
NaCl(s)
NaCl(aq)
NaBr(s)
NaI(s)
NaHCO3(s)
Na2CO3(s)
Sulphur
S(s), rhombic
S(s), monoclinic
S2–(aq)
SO2(g)
SO3(g)
H2SO 4(l)
H2SO4(aq)
SO42–(aq)
H2S(g)
H2S(aq)
SF6(g)

(continued)

240

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

APPENDIX

241

Substance

Enthalpy of formation,
ΔfHJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Gibbs Energy of formation,
ΔfGJ/ (kJ mol–1)

Entropy,*
SJ/(J K–1 mol–1)

Tin
Sn(s), white
Sn(s), gray
SnO(s)
SnO2(s)

0
–2.09
–285.8
–580.7

0
0.13
–256.9
–519.6

51.55
44.14
56.5
52.3

0
–153.89
–348.28
+130.73

0
–147.06
–318.30
+95.14

41.63
–112.1
43.64
160.93

Zinc
Zn(s)
Zn2+(aq)
ZnO(s)
Zn(g)

*The entropies of individual ions in solution are determined by setting the entropy of H+ in water equal to
0 and then defining the entropies of all other ions relative to this value; hence a negative entropy is one
that is lower than the entropy of H+ in water.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Substance

Enthalpy of
Enthalpy of
Gibbs Energy of
combustion,
formation,
formation,
Entropy,
ΔcHJ/ (kJ mol–1) ΔfHJ/ (kJ mol–1) ΔfGJ/ (kJ mol–1) SJ/(J K–1 mol–1)

Hydrocarbons
CH4(g), methane
C2H2(g), ethyne (acetylene)
C2H4(g), ethene(ethylene)
C2H6(g), ethane
C3H6(g), propene (propylene)
C3H6(g), cyclopropane
C3H8(g), propane
C4H10(g), butane
C5H12(g), pentane
C6H6(l), benzene
C6H6(g)
C7H8(l), toluene
C7H8(g)
C6H12(l), cyclohexane
C6H12(g),
C8H18(l), octane

–890
–1300
–1411
–1560
–2058
–2091
–2220
–2878
–3537
–3268
–3302
–3910
–3953
–3920
–3953
–5471

–74.81
226.73
52.26
–84.68
20.42
53.30
–103.85
–126.15
–146.44
49.0

12.0

–156.4

–249.9

–50.72
209.20
68.15
–32.82
62.78
104.45
–23.49
–17.03
–8.20
124.3

113.8

26.7

6.4

186.26
200.94
219.56
229.60
266.6
237.4
270.2
310.1
349
173.3

221.0

204.4

358

–726
–764
–1368
–1409
–3054

–238.86
–200.66
–277.69
–235.10
–164.6

–166.27
–161.96
–174.78
–168.49
–50.42

126.8
239.81
160.7
282.70
144.0

Alcohols and phenols
CH3OH(l), methanol
CH3OH(g)
C2H5OH(l), ethanol
C2H5OH(g)
C6H5OH(s), phenol

(continued)

241

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

242

CHEMISTRY

Substance

Enthalpy of
Enthalpy of
Gibbs Energy of
combustion,
formation,
formation,
Entropy,
ΔcHJ/ (kJ mol–1) ΔfHJ/ (kJ mol–1) ΔfGJ/ (kJ mol–1) SJ/(J K–1 mol–1)

Carboxylic acid
HCOOH(l), formic acid
CH3COOH(l), acetic acid
CH3COOH (aq)
(COOH)2(s), oxalic acid
C6H5COOH(s), benzoic acid

–255
–875

–254
–3227

–424.72
–484.5
–485.76
–827.2
–385.1

–361.35
–389.9
–396.64
–697.9
–245.3

128.95
159.8
86.6
120
167.6

–571

–108.57

–102.53

218.77

–1166

–192.30

–128.12

160.2

–1192
–1790

–166.19
–248.1

–128.86
–155.4

250.3
200

Aldehydes and ketones
HCHO(g), methanal
(formaldehyde)
CH3CHO(l), ethanal
(acetaldehyde)
CH3CHO(g)
CH3COCH3(l), propanone
(acetone)
Sugars
C6H12O6(s), glucose
C6H12O6(aq)
C6H12O6(s), fructose
C12H22O11(s), sucrose

–2808

–2810
–5645

–1268

–1266
–2222

–910
–917

–1545

212


360

Nitrogen compounds
CO(NH2)2(s), urea
C6H5NH2(l), aniline

–632

–333.51

–197.33

104.60

–3393

31.6

149.1

191.3

NH2CH2COOH(s), glycine

–969

–532.9

–373.4

103.51

CH3NH2(g), methylamine

–1085

242

–22.97

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

32.16

243.41

APPENDIX

243

Appendix VII

Standard potentials at 298 K in electrochemical order
Reduction half-reaction

E J /V

Reduction half-reaction

E J /V

H4XeO6 + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ XeO3 + 3H2O
F2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2F–
O3 + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ O2 + H2O
2–
2–
S2O8 + 2e– ⎯→ 2SO4
+

+
Ag + e ⎯→ Ag
Co3+ + e– ⎯→ Co2+
H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ 2H2O
Au+ + e– ⎯→ Au
Pb4+ + 2e– ⎯→ Pb2+
2HClO + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ Cl2 + 2H2O
Ce4+ + e– ⎯→ Ce3+
2HBrO + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ Br2 + 2H2O

MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e– ⎯→ Mn2+ + 4H2O
3+
Mn + e– ⎯→ Mn2+
Au3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Au
Cl2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2Cl–
2–
Cr2O 7 + 14H+ + 6e– ⎯→ 2Cr3+ + 7H2O
O3 + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ O2 + 2OH–
O2 + 4H+ + 4e– ⎯→ 2H2O
ClO–4 + 2H+ +2e– ⎯→ ClO–3 + 2H2O
MnO2 + 4H+ + 2e– ⎯→ Mn2+ + 2H2O
Pt2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Pt
Br2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2Br–
Pu4+ + e– ⎯→ Pu3+
NO–3 + 4H+ + 3e– ⎯→ NO + 2H2O
2Hg2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Hg 2+
2
ClO– + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ Cl– + 2OH–
Hg2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Hg
NO–3 + 2H+ + e– ⎯→ NO2 + H2O
Ag+ + e– ⎯→ Ag

Hg 2+
2 +2e ⎯→ 2Hg
3+

Fe + e ⎯→ Fe2+
BrO– + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ Br– + 2OH–
Hg2SO4 +2e– ⎯→ 2Hg + SO42–
MnO42– + 2H2O + 2e– ⎯→ MnO2 + 4OH–
MnO–4 + e– ⎯→ MnO42–
I2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2I–

I3 + 2e– ⎯→ 3I–

+3.0
+2.87
+2.07
+2.05
+1.98
+1.81
+1.78
+1.69
+1.67
+1.63
+1.61
+1.60
+1.51
+1.51
+1.40
+1.36
+1.33
+1.24
+1.23
+1.23
+1.23
+1.20
+1.09
+0.97
+0.96
+0.92
+0.89
+0.86
+0.80
+0.80
+0.79
+0.77
+0.76
+0.62
+0.60
+0.56
+0.54
+0.53

Cu+ + e– ⎯→ Cu
NiOOH + H2O + e– ⎯→ Ni(OH)2 + OH–
Ag2CrO4 + 2e– ⎯→ 2Ag + CrO42–
O2 + 2H2O + 4e– ⎯→ 4OH–
ClO–4 + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ ClO–3 + 2OH–
[Fe(CN)6]3– + e– ⎯→ [Fe(CN)6]4–
Cu2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Cu
Hg2Cl2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2Hg + 2Cl–
AgCl + e– ⎯→ Ag + Cl–
Bi3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Bi

SO42 + 4H+ + 2e– ⎯→ H2SO3 + H2O
2+
Cu + e– ⎯→ Cu+
Sn4+ + 2e– ⎯→ Sn2+
AgBr + e– ⎯→ Ag + Br–
Ti4+ + e– ⎯→ Ti3+
2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ H2

+0.52
+0.49
+0.45
+0.40
+0.36
+0.36
+0.34
+0.27
+0.27
+0.20
+0.17
+0.16
+0.15
+0.07
0.00
0.0 by
definition
–0.04
–0.08
–0.13
–0.14
–0.14
–0.15
–0.23
–0.26
–0.28
–0.34
–0.34
–0.36
–0.37
–0.40
–0.40
–0.41
–0.44
–0.44
–0.48
–0.49
–0.61
–0.74
–0.76

Fe3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Fe
O2 + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ HO–2 + OH–
Pb2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Pb
In+ + e– ⎯→ In
Sn2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Sn
AgI + e– ⎯→ Ag + I–
Ni2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ni
V3+ + e– ⎯→ V2+
Co2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Co
In3+ + 3e– ⎯→ In
Tl+ + e– ⎯→ Tl
PbSO4 + 2e– ⎯→ Pb + SO2–
4
Ti3+ + e– ⎯→ Ti2+
Cd2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Cd
In2+ + e– ⎯→ In+
Cr3+ + e– ⎯→ Cr2+
Fe2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Fe
In3+ + 2e– ⎯→ In+
S + 2e– ⎯→ S2–
In3+ + e– ⎯→ In2+
U4+ + e– ⎯→ U3+
Cr3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Cr
Zn2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Zn

(continued)

243

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

244

CHEMISTRY

Appendix continued
Reduction half-reaction

E J /V

Reduction half-reaction

E J /V

Cd(OH)2 + 2e– ⎯→ Cd + 2OH–
2H2O + 2e– ⎯→ H2 + 2OH–
Cr2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Cr
Mn2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Mn
V2+ + 2e– ⎯→ V
Ti2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ti
Al3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Al
U3+ + 3e– ⎯→ U
Sc3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Sc
Mg2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Mg
Ce3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Ce

–0.81
–0.83
–0.91
–1.18
–1.19
–1.63
–1.66
–1.79
–2.09
–2.36
–2.48

La3+ + 3e– ⎯→ La
Na+ + e– ⎯→ Na
Ca2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ca
Sr2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Sr
Ba2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ba
Ra2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ra
Cs+ + e– ⎯→ Cs
Rb+ + e– ⎯→ Rb
K+ +e– ⎯→ K
Li+ + e– ⎯→ Li

–2.52
–2.71
–2.87
–2.89
–2.91
–2.92
–2.92
–2.93
–2.93
–3.05

244

C:\ChemistryXI\Appendic\Appenxix.pmd 19.1.6

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