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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the writing of this Seminar report. My deepest thanks to Lecturer, MR. SUNIL KUMAR NAIR The Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed. I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality.

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CONTENTS
SL.NO
1.

TOPIC
INTRODUCTION

PG.NO
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2.

SEED PRODUCTION

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3.

SEED EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING SEED STORAGE

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4.

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5.

Kinds of Storage Facilities

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6.

METHODS OF SEED STORAGE

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7.

SAFE GRAIN STORAGE METHODS.

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8.

SEED DIAGONISIS

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9.

CONCLUSION

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The quality of seed is totally responsible for the future return/performance of each and every seedling. Seed collection: It requires good planning in advance regarding deployment of trained staff. ² must be uniform in its texture. ² must be pure and free from inert materials and weed seeds. size. ² prefer seeds of well-adapted local source to the unadapted sources of different places. a protective cover. These are a concentrated source of carbohydrate. The most essential factor for the success of plantation is the ready availability of quality seeds. reserve food.3 INTRODUCTION A seed has been defined as a 'mature ovule' or a reproductive unit formed from fertilized ovule. ² avoid isolated trees of naturally cross pollinating species. arrangement of transportation facilities. They also provide raw materials for industrial products. and maintenance of the records. ² information about the periodicity of seed crop. and. packing and labeling material. Seeds of woody plants exhibit a great range of variation in shape. structure and look. healthy and true to type. serving as to propagate plants from one generation to the next as human food. and ² must not be damaged. proteins. measures to ensure the safety of workers. etc. as animal feed and as an important commodity in international trade. time of flowering and fruiting. broken and affected by pests and diseases. Seeds from such trees are likely to be few or may have low viability and . seed collection equipments. vitamines and fibre. since these are likely to be self-pollinated. The other important points are: ² information about the location. ² must be viable and have good germination capacity. consisting of an embryo. colour and behaviour. fats for human and livestock and are a signi ficant source of minerals. The poor quality seeds may have following problems: ² low germination percentage ² poor emergence ² poor survival ² poor adaptability to site ² susceptible to disease and pests ² poor growth ² low productivity Seeds play a central role in agriculture. Both physical and physiological technique can be used to improve seed performance in establishing crop plants. Characteristics of good seeds: ² must be well ripened.

off-color. yield and periodicity. Eucalyptus) produce heavy seed crops every year when grown in plantation. ² fruit count on standing trees. Seed Periodicity: Most species do not produce abundant crops of seed annually. Seed crop can be estimated by: ² flower count. produce good seed crop every year. Delonix regia. Good seed year occurs at intervals that are better thought of as sporadic rather than predictably periodic. The first essential requirement is an ill-defined state of physiological readiness for flowering and supply of nitrogen and phosphorus. ² Dipterocarps like hollong and mekai bear irregular heavy seed crops at an interval of one to six years. and ² species like Teetasopa (Michelia champaca). Sometimes good seed crops follow years of total failure. the more frequent are good crops of seed. Pinus kesiya.g. humidity..g.4 produce weak or malformed seedlings. Bombax ceiba. some trees e. ² fruit ripening gets delayed due to rains and advanced due to high temperature and drought. . excessively flimsy. ² immature fruit and seed count. Pines and Araucaria take one to two years from pollination to ripen their fruits. temperature and attack of pests greatly affects the seed quality. ² some species (e. Tectona grandis. In general. ² avoid stands of poorly formed. Gmelina arborea. abnormal or diseased trees. ² change in latitude. the more favorable the conditions of soil and climate for plant growth.

seed development can occur without pollination and fertilization. This phenomenon known as hybrid vigor or heterosis. Maize is the oldest example for hybrid seeds but also sorghum. Rather each flower pollinates itself. To produce hybrid seeds. The two parent lines must flower at the same time. two inbred parent lines. The offspring grow much larger and more vigorously than either of the parents. These parent lines are then crossed in a controlled way. In these plants. This has one advantage that is once it developes. because to succeed. the producer must control the following factors: For pollen to be available when the female flowers are open and receptive. rice. is essentially the same as when a potato is vegetative propagated by a tuber or a fruit tree by grafting. so that the genetic compositions of the seeds are identical to that of the plant. In some plants. y If the male flowers are not releasing pollen when the female flowers are receptive. The phenomenon is known as Apomixis. soybeans and cotton.5 SEED PRODUCTION The production of seeds for planting it can be essentially the same as producing the crop or it can be a completely different. Seed produced on the female plants are then sold to farmers. The primary advantage of hybrid varieties are that when two distinct inbred plants are crossed. each possessing beneficial trait are developed by repeated self pollination. Production of hybrid seeds: Hybrid seeds are widely produced by seed companies and sold to farmers. sunflower and in developed countries some vegetables. resulting in seed genetically identical to the parent plant. For a number of the world¶s major crops including wheat. y Management of pollination is also crucial for seed production. cabbage and onions are grown almost exclusively from hybrid seeds. with one line (male) pollinating the other (female) to produce F! hybrid seeds. y . then fertilization will not occur and no seeds will be produced. who plant them to produce the commercial crop. it can be propagated indefinitely by simply harvesting by simply harvesting the seeds each year and replacing them. including tomatoes. These crops do not outcross with other plants of the same species. carrots. Seed are produced primarily using a self-pollinated or pure line system. peppers. Producing hybrid seeds is a challenge. seeds naturally develop directly from cells of the ovary.

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seed scarifier.g. ² empty seeds can be removed by liquid floatation. Seeds from fleshy or pulpy fruits may be removed by macerating/crushing and washing. and ² seed drier. Dipterocarpus. etc. It is done as follows: ² remove weak and damaged seeds. Abies. while the seeds borne in pods or husks can be extracted by thrashing. make upgrading possible. de-winging and picking by hand. are some of the useful equipments of seed processing. Quercus. Seed Cleaning: It can be done by the following methods : ² screen cleaning by using sieves of different pore sizes. sieves. Shorea). The cones and dry fruits generally shed seeds if dried in open air or sunlight. ² air separation/winnowing or by aspirators. are used as per the morphology of seed/fruit. seed separator. care should be taken during all these activities so that seeds are not damaged . However. ² remove empty. immature. Hopea. etc. sowing easier and removes pathogen. and discolored seeds. thrashing. quantity of the seed to be procured as well as its costs. seed blower. Seed Upgrading: It reduces the chances of disease. Other methods like drying of seeds under cover (e. ² de-winging reduces storage volume. seed grader. .7 SEED EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING The method of seed extraction depends on the type and nature of fruits. Cedrus.

It is important to dry the seed uniformly to prevent fluctuation in moisture content during storage. and members of family Lauraceae. The respiration continues at low temperature. The longevity of seeds is a species specific characteristic. Betula. champ. rubber. Fraxinus. Acacia. Aesculus and Quercus. cane. which is necessary to keep the embryo alive. y y Temperate-Recalcitrant Seeds : Seeds are desiccation sensitive and can be dried to 35 to 50 per cent moisture content of fresh weight. Anthocephalus. It is essential to offset the uncertainty of seed production/availability during bad seed years. but only for six months to a maximum of six years in some cases.g. y Recalcitrant Seeds : Seeds which cannot tolerate drying below a relatively high moisture content (often in the range of 20% to 50% net basis) and which cannot be stored successfully for long periods. However. Polythene bags make good containers because they are impermeable to water but less so to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Storage temperature varies from 3°C to-3°C e. Acer. For example. Salix and Poplar loose viability within a few months in open air. . neem.g. maintains viability and protects seed from rodent and insect damage. Sub-Orthodox Seeds : Seeds of Abies. many species of moist tropical forests are so thoroughly adapted for germination that their seeds are almost impossible to store or even to transport. Duabanga. Eucalyptus. These can be stored under same condition as true orthodox. loss of viability ranges from 0% to 34% when stored at -5°C to -20°C and moisture content between 5 to 10 per cent. It delays deterioration. The moisture content of most of the seeds for storage ranges between 10 to 12 percent. Pinus. The seed of most of the species can be stored at low temperature and low moisture content in sealed containers. Juglans. Hollong. e.8 Seed storage Seed storage is the preservation of viable seed until their sowing/requirement. On the basis of storage behavior seeds can be divided into following broad categories: y Orthodox Seed : Seeds. which can withstand drying down to low moisture content of around 5% to 10% and successfully stored at low or sub freezing temperature for long periods. Mekai and other dipterocarps. and Picea etc.

Kinds of Storage Facilities y On The Ground: Grain is piled on the ground unprotected only between harvest and the availability of transport equipment with which it can be moved to a safer place. Before the grain is threshed. but runs down the stack by virtue of the slope provided without affecting the quality of grains. But with time. birds. Their seeds are sensitive to low temperature. These are most difficult group to store even for short period. allowing rain to soak downward and destroy columns of grain. Before putting the grains. depressions develop in the surface. Losses are small for short periods because a smooth±surface pile of grain sheds rain down its slopes quite well.9 etc. It is elevated on stones to facilitate inspection for signs of rodent activity. chilling damage and death may occur if stored in low temperature. Temporary crib for field storage: This structure of sticks and heavy twine is used for crops like corn and rough rice. This large box has been used for many years for storing beans and threshed corn. the ground surface also is well covered with the paddy straw. By this method the raw grain also attains good shape and shining colour that would be appealing to the user. Paddy grains after they are fairly dried are put into this structure again covered with paddy straw tightly in the shape of a cone. Many a times the farmers erect a storage bin made of paddy straw by twisting a bundle of the straw to a rope like structure and then laying it in circular fashion to get a bin like structure. the harvested crop is stacked near the threshing yard in such a way that any down pour of rain does not get an entry into the stacking. and surface water creeps under the edges of the pile. The corn will be transferred as needed to the house. y . The grain is exposed to rodents. so that the grains are well stored inside the structure. insects and wind so that losses become severe within a few weeks. permitting it to penetrate only an inch or two. The shifting agriculture practiced in this tropical lowland often results in fields being far from the farmstead. The floor of the pile absorbs moisture from the ground.

and it can still be found in our time. to hold the crop immediately after harvest. y Bagged: Bags of grain may be piled under any convenient shelter away from weather and predators.and simple construction methods. y Farm Bins: Farm storage space is needed for three reasons. Its advantages are the grain¶s protection from seasonal and dail temperature fluctuations. provided grain is not exposed to any moisture increase or to rodents birds or insects. until it can be moved to better storage space or to market.10 y T l T l i l i i li i ll y Underground: Underground storage was probabl the principal method used to accumulate surpluses in primiti e societies. Grain stored in bins maintains quality better in smaller than in larger lots. Its principal drawback is the high cost of grain handling. The farmers have developed the oriental bins by using burnt clay which are in use by the farm families from time immemorial. inhibition of insects and molds by a tendency towards low oxygen and high carbon dioxide contents in the inter seed air. . Farm storage tends to maintain the original condition of grain better than elevator storage.

broken. After drying the seeds well. moldy and vulnerable to insect attacks. If the seeds are to be put . Storing seeds in a cool dry environment keeps them viable for longer. malformed. undersi ed and diseased seeds. To store seeds use containers that are airtight and moisture-proof. the seeds spread on a mat in the morning should be heaped for some time and again spread frequently to avoid sun -burn and damage of the embryo. Seeds with moisture in them become damp.11 ME H S SEE E Only well dried seeds should be stored. On a hot sunny day. These seeds must now be stored properly. other crop seeds. Earthen pots of burnt clay are used for the storage in traditional agricultural practices. Mix and turn the seeds 4 to 5 times in a day. To maintain dryness. Repeat the process for about 2 to 3 days. weed seeds. lay the seeds under the sun on a mat and spread them thinly. chaff and other rubbish. Seeds have a tendency to absorb moisture. For drying. clean them to remove all stones. the storage containers could be filled to a quarter capacity with either dry wood ash or dry charcoal.

y . In case thecontainer is opened frequently. The floor of the structure is generally covered with cow dung paste to avoid insect pests by its repellent action. or mud warehouses have long been used for grain storage. These containers are coated with a paste of neem leaf or dry Neem cake powder. These are just a few very commonly used traditional seed storage practices . tends to hold soil moisture away from grain mass. The viability and quality of seeds depend on how well they are protected from insects and pests. The floor and room in which the seeds are stored is plastered with cow dung to keep pests away. Generally the seedsto be stored are smeared with neem / castor oil which checks the pest attack. more hygroscopic than the grain. change the wood ash or charcoal every time it is opened. Farmers have been using various indigenous methods of seed storage for ages. Grains are usually stored in clay vessels or gunnysacks.12 directly into the earthen pot then cover the dry ash with a layer. Stone. There are simple ways of protecting seeds from insects. brick. Storage Structures: y Pits storage: Pits are usually excavated to be wide at the bottom and taper to a small opening at the top.

The bigger door is seldom opened unless the entire quantity of stored grains are to be shifted to market and the like. . Small door is provided in such a way that only one man can enter the storage. The decorative design varies by zones within the country.13 y For storing major grains like cereals and pulses. one door being smaller than the other. mud and brick structures with double door system are constructed. y Mud jar for threshed cereals and pulses: This un-burnt mud vessel placed over stones contains threshed grains. y Corn ears tied and hanged on sticks or ropes: Unhusked corn ears are hung with the tip downward to prevent moisture entry. take out the required quantity and close the same immediately without giving room for the larger quantity being affected by external factors. a technique that is used almost throughout the world.

followed by wheat bags as done earlier. which helps to protect the seed/grain from insect pests and moisture. Quantity of Neem oil should be one percent by . Neem leaves are dried in shade and powdered. Using neem oil is more efficient as the seeds have the maximum concentration of the active ingredients (azadiragtim. After drying. they are cleaned and put in an open place for sun drying. salanin and malandriol). Safe Grain Storage ethods for Wheat. storage capacity. c) The leaves. It is repeated like this till the container is filled. After this these are conveniently put into Bottleguard. The quantity of oil depends on the quantity of seeds used. But in case of rice.14 y Vegetable Seed Storage Method: The vegetable seeds are normally stored by women folk for their kitchen garden requirements by securing the seeds of different vegetables into knots tied around them in a white cloth. b) Use of garlic for safe storage on cereals and pulses: Take a container of one qtl. After one layer. Pulses and Oilseeds a) After harvesting of Rabi crops like wheat. Again a second layer of 200 gm of garlic and 20 kg of cereals poured into the container. about 200 gm of matured garlic are kept and then about 20 Kg of wheat poured into the container. A store room of 20¶x15¶ size is used for keeping 50 to 80 qtls of seed. The door has to be opened only when needed. use turmeric instead of garlic. kernels and oil of neem (Azadirachta indica) have been found to be very effective against a wide variety of storage pests. sprinkled woodash on the top and closed the mouth of the bottleguard. This process is repeated to accommodate maximum produce till the room is filled. While doing so the seeds are mixed with woodash / dried neem leaf powder. pulses and oilseeds. Ensure that the container is closed tightly. after which all bags are kept at a distance of one foot away from all the walls of the room. At the bottom of the container. This practice is also followed for safe storage of rice. seed grains are packed in jute bags. spread again wheat husk of 6´ layer. This powder is added to the bags or containers in which the grain is stored. after which the room is closed. Spread wheat husk on the floor upto 1-2 feet. This is a low cost technology and can be easily practiced.

e) f) Using bamboo bins for storage: Paint the bamboo bins with the solution prepared from neem cake. the outer surface can be conveniently coated with cow dung and red earth slurry with little neem oil to drive away the insect pests. To the dry neem cake powder water is added and a thick paste of this is painted all over the grain bin. Bamboo grain storage structure plastered with cow dung slurry covered with a layer of paddy straw and a layer of dried leaves of µneem¶ at the bottom to store paddy. the process should be repeated every 4 months. When coated well with oil the seeds appear shiny. d) For safe storage of bean seeds. The bamboo baskets are also used for storing jaggery. Generally this method is used for vegetable seeds. reduces storage insect pests of paddy and prolongs storage life. to one kilogram of bean seed add 2 teaspoons of vegetable oil. If one wishes to store it for more than 4 months. Cow dung slurry acts as disinfectant while neem acts as an insect repellent. Mix the oil with 250 gms of seed and put it into a clean container. Add the remaining seeds and mix till all the seeds are coated with oil. Grain stored for seed purpose can be treated with two percent by weight of seed (storing grains). . However.15 weight of seed. The inside surface is coated with woodash and red soil.

As a result of this. they should be soaked for half an hour. residual action of the neem product is obtained and the repellent effect persists for 4 months. For gunny bags with close meshes and small pores. The same could also be used for the mud wa Neem lls. In case the gunny bags are new. cake solution or neem kernel extract could also be sprayed. there is no fluctuation in temperature and not much sunlight. thinner solution can be used. dip the gunny bag into this solution for 15 minutes. Dry the gunny bags under shade and this can be used for storing grains. . The stored grain pests will be repelled by the action of neem. along with the cow dung that is used for cleaning the mud floor. Once the solution is made. If the seeds or grains are kept inside the house or in the godowns.16 g) Treatment of gunny bags for storing grains: Prepare a 10% neem kernel solution. neem cake or neem oil can be used straight away (in the same concentration as used for spraying purposes). In store rooms. longer. Make sure that the gunny bags are impregnated on al sides l with this extract.

Sensitivity that is fit for the purpose of the test. and For the detection of plant quarantine organisms. The objective of testing is to determine the pathogen infection status of a seed sample and by inference that of the seedlot from which it was taken. seed health testing method must deliver: y y y Specificity ± the ability to recognize the target pathogen from all other organisms present on the seeds. viruses. test determine the presence of storage fungi. nematodes and of disease-insects. . though physiological conditions such as trace element deficiency may de casual elements as well. Additionally for grain. Information relating to the field performance of the crop (except in case of quarantine inspections). which is important for two main reasons: y y For quality assurance ± in evaluation of planting value. such as to meet phytosanitary regulations for seed that is exported for trade.17 DIAGNOSIS OF SEEDs Seed health is one of the main aspects of the seed quality testing system that underpins commerce and trade in seed for sowing. and to support decisions about the need for seed treatment. which can affect the storage quality or its value for feed and human consumption. in certification schemes. To be worthwhile. bacteria. Seed health refers primarily to the presence or absence of disease-causing organism ± pathogens such as fungi.

It is often difficult to meet all of these requirements. each other in some test methods such as incubation tests. regardless of who performs the test. Quantitative tests are designed to estimate the true level of infection in a seedlot: that is. Bacterial and viral pathogens. Qualitative tests are necessary in the case of plant quarantine. However. or synergistic with. or to encourage the liberation of fungal spores. and between. and the level of information or contamination. where severe epidemics can result from relatively low number of infecting microorganism and there are few control measures in field. y Qualitative and Quantitative tests: There is a wide range of seed health testing methodologies. Seed samples may be immersed in water or other liquid to make fungal bodies (for example. And . which may be antagonistic to. with a very low probability of µfalse negatives¶. The test used depends on the organism that is being tested for. at pre-defined tolerance and accuracy levels. such as Seporia on early seed. Most fungal pathogens are currently determined using quantitative methods. And they must be cost effective. and the purpose of the test. how many individual seeds are infected. within statistical limits and sample variability. y Fungal seed borne pathogens: y Direct inspection methods ± Samples of seed may be visually examined for the presence of ergots (Claviceps purpurea in cereals and grasses). anthracnose or seed coats) more visible. Qualitative assay establish whether seed is infected with a plant pathogen. incubation test. where seeds are immersed in liquid and shaken. are commonly determined using qualitative methods. other selerotia (Sclerotinia sclerotorium in brassieas) and smut balls (bunts caused by Tilletia tritiei in wheat). hyphae and so on that are attached to or carried within the seed. bacterial extraction and bacterial identification. where the aim is to prevent non-indigenous diseases establishing in the important country. growing -on tests. sample of the same seedlot. the viability of any detected fungi is uncertain. Although this type of tests provides information quickly and may be readily applied in seed testing stations in conjunction with purity testing only a few disease are adequately detected in this way. Moreover. Only a few fungi are adequately detected using these methods. a test can also be used for quality control purposes. Such information can inform decisions about whether or not seed treatment is justified. and the more complex ELISA and polymerized chain reaction (PCR). Examination of soaked seeds in by means of a stereoscopic microscope or. including relatively simple direct inspection methods for macroscopic fungal bodies.18 y y Test results that are repeatable within. pyenidia) or symptoms (for example. because seed health testing is not only dependent on the pathogens themselves but also on the presence of other microorganisms on the seed. the liquid is examined at a higher magnification using a compound microscope.

stained using a combinatio n of lactic acid:lactophenol and aniline:trypan blue dyes. Aschyta pisi on pea and Phomopsis spp. to increase the ability of pathogens to grow. Sample size is normally from 200 to 400 seeds. usually seven. antibiotic or fungicides. y Bacteria and viruses: Because of the virulence of some of the many bacterial and viral pathogens infection thresholds are very low. On soybean. are common for example: 1. and for statistical reasons their testing requires large number of seeds. Some examples of pathogen tested foe using the agar plate method are Microdochium nivale on wheat. In some cases seed germination is suppressed or seeds are killed using chemicals or by deep-freezing. as shown by the presence of mycelium and fruiting bodies and. which are evenly placed on to solidified sterile agar medium in lidded plates (normally Petri dishes). Potato dextrose agar and malt agar are commonly used to encourage the growth of seed borne fungal pathogens but there are many variations: for example. fungal staining methods are used. and is best used for high-incidence pathogens that occur in seed samples with greater than 1% infection. Sample of 10. Near infrared light may be used to encourage the development of fruiting bodies. in the case of common or stinking bunt. The agar plate test gives an indication of the viable fungal or bacterial inoculums present in an infected seed sample. or whether it is desirable to identify internal infection only. seeds may be surface sterilize by soaking in 1% available chlorine bleach. to the extent that the pathogen is concealed. y Incubation tests ± agar plate and blotter substrates. Tissues are normally extracted or macerated in sodium hydroxide. They have been used for testing for the effects of . Grow-out / Growing on tests: These tests are performed on plants grown from seed samples beyond the seedling stage in a greenhouse. acidic agar may be used to reduce bacterial contamination and media may be made semi-selective by addition of specific chemicals. Where seed borne infection is more deep-seated within the seed tissues. by symptoms on young plants. The blotter (paper) test gives an indication of seed borne fungi on the seed.000 seeds for testing Xanthomonas on horticultural brassicas and 30. and normally under alternating cycles of light and dark) and detection of fruting bodies by microscopic examination.000 seeds for seed borne lettuce mosaic virus. and examined for fungal mycelium under a stereoscopic microscope.19 additional tests may be required. for example. Examination of seed washings in only valuable if the spores are known to lead to field infection. such as embryo. controlledenvironment chamber or tiled and the seedlings/plants are observed for symptoms of the pathogen. Where growth of fungal saprophytes is excessive. in some tests. The planted seeds are incubated at a fixed temperature in the dark for a specified number of days. After incubation the characteristic microbial growth of the fungi is used to identify the seed borne pathogen(s) under test. Test involves sowing seeds in sterile containers on moist absorbent paper blotters (usually 7 days in petri dishes or boxes at a specified temperature.

quick. All these tests give presumptive diagonisis and most require contamination by a host pathogenicity test. both fluctuations in those conditions and viability of the seed stock may influence the result. Laboratory tests: Laboratory methods for the detection of seed borne bacteria involve three stages: (a) their extraction from seeds. by immunoassay or other molecular biological methods. The non-selective media methods are more effective when high levels of pathogen and low levels of saprophytes are present in extracts. Host pathogenenicity test: Either the pure culture of a bacterium or the crude seed extract medium is inoculated into the host plant or seeds to test the pathogenicity of the bacteria. Grow-out tests give an indication of potential transmission from external and internal seed inoculums underthe environmental condition used. for example anthracnose in lupin. The majority of viruses have RNA genomes that at first made them unsuitable . semi-selective media can be used. The volume and agitation of the liquid medium together with the duration and temperature of soaking are all critical to the optimum recovery of the target pathogen. Once developed and validated. spraying following leaf abrasion and vacuum infiltration. and (c) identification Bacteria are extracted from seeds or from seed flour in a liquid medium ± usually sterile PH-buffer saline.incidence pathogens. The tests are also time consuming and require testing for the presence of low. anthracnose in lupin. Where high levels of saprophytes and low level of pathogen are present. in which chemical agents are used to reduce the growth of saprophytes. high-throughput diagnosis. ELISA). in barley. Some seed borne bacteria can be identified directly following isolation on general plating agar media. and PCR mainly for viruses and bacteria.20 many seed borne bacteria and viruses. the application of DNA molecular techniques in routine seed health testing has not been fully exploited. y Molecular methods: The relative expense of traditional seed health testing methods and the capacity requirement for trained personnel has led to interest in using new techniques to improve the use of immune-detection using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in immunoassays (eg. However. for example lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. However. Although a series of commercial tests now exists including PCR tests for Pyrenophora ssp. 3. Phaseolicola. Plants are inoculated by a number of different methods. which may also be affected by the saprophytic microflora of seed and inhibitor compounds in seeds. molecular assays can provide relatively simple. 2. and advantages have to be considered against the cost of cheaper methodologies. (b) isolation into culture. Further identification may be achieved by morphological and biochemical tests. these methods tend to be expensive to set up and apply. including injection. through buffered sterile water with various other enrichments can be used. and for fungi.

because y y y large quantity to be stored exchange of varieties and species exchange of genes The type of material to be stored decides the techniques to be followed for safe storage. But the same practices are not hold good for the present day agriculture. The practice of storing the seeds starts from the ancient days itself.g. Placing the seeds in salt. the farmers were used farm saved seeds. Storage starts in the mother plant itself when it attains physiological maturity. following simple and cheap techniques e. in the detection of pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV). in little quantity. . red earth treatment to red gram etc. but introduction of high yielding varieties and hybrids and modernization of agriculture necessitated the development of storage techniques to preserve the seeds. but this has been overcome by the development of reverse-transcription PCR assay. Now a day¶s storage technique changed from ordinary go-down storage to cryogenic tank storage and even gene storage. During the old age days .21 for PCR. which has been the basis of a successful method. Conclusion The ability of seed to tolerate moisture loss allows the seed to maintain the viability in dry state. for example. After harvesting the seeds are either stored in ware houses or in transit or in retail shops.

y URL: http://www. clean hands. y Tamilnadu Agricultural university. AHLAWAT. 7. common sense. Derek Bewley. It is also done periodically on seed lots kept in long storage. research article. y N. 13th edition 2006. Michael Black.angoc. REFERENCE y J. SEED TECHNOLOGY.pdf . STATE FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE . The encyclopedia of seeds: science. Coimbatore. Seed tests are commonly done immediately after extraction and shortly before actual sowing. Seed certification. For small nurseries. BISHT AND S.org/dmdocuments/07%20Seed%20Storage. S F R I.S. a clean working table and one good knife are sufficient for most seed testing tasks.22 Seed testing is essential to assess the physical and biological aspects of seed. INFORMATION BULLETIN N O .Department of Environment & Forests Government of Arunachal Pradesh. Peter Halmer . technology and uses .P.