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I have started on the revision questions but in no particular order of

subject. I had a lot of trouble with the Oscillators questions as the
circuit diagrams didn't seem to stack up too well against those in the

But first I think there is a boo boo in the xtransistor.pdf file

Question 8 - Option C would be the correct answer but I think it should
read PNP (not NPN ?).

8. The symbol shown below represents a:

(a) n-channel MOSFET

(b) p-channel MOSFET
(c) pnp BJT transistor
(d) JFET

Yes John ( C) is the correct answers and it should

read pnp – all of these questions came straight from exam papers and I have left them
as they are – good work.

Question 15, I went for option A - employing inverse current feedback ?

15. In transistor circuits thermal runaway can be eliminated by:

(a) employing inverse current feedback

(b) bypassing the emitter resistor
(c) forward biasing the bass emitter junction
(d) reverse biasing the base emitter junction.

Note: above - badly worded but you should know the answer

Well done John a badly worded question but you got the correct answer (a)
Now to the oscillator problems
Q1 I think option B is correct, but what does 'sub-multiple' mean in
option D ?

1. An overtone oscillator:

(a) is used in a receiver filter for telegraphy (CW) reception

(b) Is one in which the frequency of operation is a multiple of a lower
frequency to which the crystal is cut
(c) is designed to produce tone modulated output for two tone tests
(d) is one in which the frequency of operation is a sub-multiple of the
frequency to which the crystal is cut

John sub-multiple means nonsense the examiner has put it there to make it hard. The
correct answer is (b)

Q3 Option C - Quartz xtal (??)

3. The diagram shown below is the equivalent circuit of a:

(a) low-pass filter

(b) mechanical filter
(c) quartz crystal
(d) radio-frequency probe

Correct – it is covered in the readings (c)

Q4. There is no circuit diagram for an overtone oscillator in the

readings. I don't think it is a Colpitts, Pierce or Hartley ??

4. The following circuit it diagram represents:

(a) an overtone oscillator
(b) a Colpitts oscillator
(c) a Pierce oscillator
(d) a Hartley oscillator

It is a Colpitts John – the two capacitors in series between the gate and ground are the
two capacitors across the inductor at the left and they are centre tapped. If you look at
these two caps that are in series, centre tapped and in parallel with the inductor shown
at the far left.

Q5 Think it is an overtone oscillator but a bit of a guess ??

Q6 - Option C Hartley ??

5. The following circuit diagram represents:

(a) an overtone oscillator

(b) a Colpitts Oscillator
(c) a Pierce Oscillator
(d) a Hartley Oscillator

Correct John L1 and L2 are one inductor with a centre tap.

Q8 Option B - Adjust the Crystal Frequency ??

Correct John

Q10 Don't know

10. The following circuit diagram represents:

(a) an overtone oscillator
(b) a Colpitts oscillator
(c) a Pierce oscillator
(d) a Hartley oscillator

It is a Pierce Oscillators John – Pierce is always a crystal oscillator and the crystal is
always connected in series between the output (drain) and the input (gate)
Pierce can also use an electron tube in which case the crystal is connected between the
anode and the control grid.

Q11 Option B - Colpitts however your readings show a variable capacitor

below the crystal ??

11. The following circuit diagram shows a:

(a) crystal overtone oscillator

(b) Colpitts oscillator
(c) Pierce oscillator
(d) variable frequency crystal oscillator (VXO

Yes John – Colpitts – the two capacitors in series and tapped at the centre are the clue.
I am talking of the two series capacitors between the base and ground – they are in
parallel with the crystal – so this is a Colpitts crystal oscillator to be precise.

Q12 Option C - Physical dimensions of the Quartz Crystal ??


Q13 Option C - Only fixed capacitors ??

13. A Clapp oscillator uses:

(a) a series resonant circuit

(b) a parallel resonant circuit
(c) only fixed capacitors
(d) only variable inductors

The Clapp Oscillator has an inductor capacitor in series with it – the circuit is series

Here is a copy and paste from the notes:

The Clapp Oscillator

And the clapp oscillator is best identified by the series-resonant circuit

employed as part of the total feedback network as ('C3' and the inductor
in series with it) shown in the schematic.

Be voltage-divider capacitors 'C1 and 'C2' perform the same function as

in the colpitts oscillator. The frequency of oscillation is slightly higher
than the series-resonant frequency. Due to the fact that a series circuit has
low impedance, the clapp oscillator is less effected by variations in load
conditions. The clapp oscillator has excellent frequency stability and has
frequently found applications in amateur transceivers.

C3 and the L that it is in series with identifies the circuit as a clap oscillator.

Good work John – I hope this is some help –

Ron VK2DQ/4