I.

PRONUNCIATION

Theory

1. Pronunciation?
Pronunciation is a set of systems (sounds, stress and intonation) which combine together to create spoken language that any E-speakers can understand.

2. The aim of teaching pronunciation?
The aim of teaching pronunciation is to: • • Help students acquire native-like pronunciation or intelligible pronunciation. Focus: - on students’ ability to identify and produce English sounds themselves. - not on the reading and writing phonetic transcripts of words. • Teach stress and intonation from the very beginning.

3. Why can most learners not acquire native pronunciation?
1. 2. Age The amount of exposure to English

3. The learner’s innate ability: students have different phonetic abilities. Some are more sensitive to sounds.

4. Common pronunciation problems:
Some common pronunciation problems :
1.

Difficulty in pronouncing sounds that don’t exist in L1. Difficulty in pronouncing plosive sounds /p/ and final sounds. Difficulty in pronouncing consonant clusters. Ex: /desks/ Confusion of similar sounds. Ex: /i:/ and /i/, /b/ and /p/. Tendency to have equal stress for all syllables and flat intonation.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Use of simple vowels instead of diphthongs, triphthongs. Ex: /i:/ instead of /i /.

• Procedures for teaching individual sounds: 1.Don’t correct ss’ mistakes at this stage. Conduct repetition individually. Presentation : a) Warm up: . 6. 3. Ex: /i:/ Say the sound in one or two sounds. The kinds of pronunciation errors that should be corrected Pronunciation errors should be corrected if they: • • • Hinder understanding of listeners. Opportunistic teaching: teacher teaches pronunciation when it becomes a problem to learning. meat. . Are mistakes that Ss make without being aware of. 2.5. 4. Conduct repetition chorally.imitation. Integrated teaching: teacher teaches pronunciation as an integral part of the teaching of skills. Ex: tea. Discrete slots: teacher spends some portion of the lesson on pronunciation. 2. .explanation. Ways pronunciation are taught Pronunciation can be taught in 4 ways: 1.Don’t write any words on the board at this stage. 7. . Make listeners uncomfortable. Say the sound alone. Teaching a sound-lesson stage: A. Whole lesson: teacher spends the whole lesson on pronunciation. 4. b) Presenting: technique: demonstration.Lead into the lesson: use pics/games. 3.

4. Say the sound in isolation 2. T: bit. One or two drill: I’m going to give you some pairs of words. Ex: T: deep T: dip Ss: two Ss: one 2. Say the sound in phrases. 6.5.bit Ss: three . Ss: different 3. Say the sound in words (of different spelling for vowels) (of different positions for consonants). heat and hit.beat. 3. One/two/three drill: groups of three words Ex: T: bit-beat-bit Ss: one. Ex: sheep and ship. Odd one out: choose the one that’s different from another by giving me the number of the word Ex: *Oral drill: 1. B. Say the sound in sentences. Describe how the sound is pronounced if the ss have difficulty in producing it. If you hear the sound/i/ say “1”….bit.three 4. Same or different drill: …. Practicing: *Aural drill: 1. This could be done physically or in simple English or in L1.if you hear the same sound say “same”… Ex: T: bit-bit T: bit-beat Ss: same. /i:/ say “2”. Contrast with other similar sound if ss are confused.

Advs. Secondary stress refers to syllables that are said with more breath effort than unstressed syllables but less than primary stress. secondary stress and unstressed syllables. Missing words: T says short sentences or phrases and ask ss to give the missing word which has the sound ss have learned. Auxiliary verbs in negative sentences. Production: 1.C. Use tongue twisters: 8. Minimal pairs Minimal pairs are pairs of words which differ in one feature. • Primary stress refers to syllables that are said longer. Words at the end of the sentences. Stressed words are: • • • Content words such as Ns. Sentence stress: in a normal E sentence certain words are stressed and certain words are unstressed. main Vs. Adjs. Minimal pairs are used to focus on differences in vowel or consonant sounds. demonstratives. 2. louder and with more breath effort. Stress? word stress – sentence stress? Stress is the amount of force with which a sound or a syllable is uttered. lightly and with very little breath effort. Examples: ship-sheep. 3. • • Unstressed syllables are said very quickly. Word stress includes primary stress. sing-song… 9. . Making sentences: T writes words on BB and ss say sentences using them.

Ex: a kilo of sugar = de-DA-de-de-DAde Using gestures: 1. Writing the stressed syllable in heavier letters: a Kilo of Sugar 4.Ex: Who are you writing to? Are you writing to Mark? Unstressed words are: • • Function words. Using stroke: a ‘kilo of ‘sugar . Make a downward stroke of the hand 3. Underlining the stressed syllable: a kilo of sugar 2. exaggerating the difference between stressed and unstressed syllables. Bang your hand against something At the text stage: Using blackboard: 1. Using squares 3. Clap your hand 5. 10. Auxiliary verbs in affirmative and interrogative sentences. Thump the air when saying the stressed syllable 2. • Representing each syllable with a sound. Punch the palm of your other hand 4. Writing the stressed syllable in different color chalk 5.How to show the stress of a word at the text/ non-text stage At the non-text stage: Using your voice: • Saying the sentence.

3. It can change meaning.Functions of intonation: 1. Harry. (The son is called Harry) I want to see your son. Falling tone is used for normal statements. Make sure that the ss pay attention to the stress and intonation when they report sent. commands and for WH-questions . Give a good model of the sentence by: -saying it at a normal speed.Produces for teaching stress: 1. you always want a drink”) Sorry? (Please repeat. Ex: A: I’d like a drink. using gestures. and expressing surprise. etc. Ex: Do you come from London? You come from London? 2. Indicmmate the stress and intonation clearly. It indicates functions. .Rising tone/ falling tone Rising tone is used in asking Yes/No questions. Ex: I want to see your son Harry. .11. It indicates grammatical meaning. (the implication is : “well. 12. (the speaker is talking to Harry who has a son) 4.making a clear different b/w stressed and unstressed syllables.) 13. It indicates the speaker’s attitude. B: You would? (asking for confirmation of the statement) You would. Ex: Sorry ! (Apology) 3.using natural intonation. 2. disbelief.

Think of minimal pairs for … 2. VOCABULARY Theory 1. Decide the intonation pattern. Describe how you teach the intonation/ conduct repetition of the following sentence II.Back-chaining technique Back-chaining technique is the technique that is used to practice saying the sentence in sections.. then mark it with an arrow 3. Teacher gives the model of the sentence using gestures to show the intonation: 2.? 5. How do you help Ss pronounce/ recognize the sound…? 4. Identify the problem sound(s) in …. Practice 1. Give key phonetic transcription (mark the sounds that seem to be problems for students) (âm nối) 6. 3. Lexical item? Concrete/ abstract? Active/ passive? (definition? Why distinguish b/w them?) . starting with the end of the sentence and gradually working backwards to the beginning.14. Design oral drill for the sound / / 6. How do you teach the sound. How to conduct repetition using back – chaining technique: 1. squares or underlining) 4. Decide stressed syllables and mark them (using strokes. Mark the stress of the sentence 7. Conduct the repetition of the sentence from the end towards the beginning. Divide the sentence into sections 5.

Give form (key sound. Show meaning through situation: example. *Procedure for teaching vocab. objects that are available to the senses. Ways to show meaning? 1. Choose appropriate technique to show form/meaning. active (ask question) 7. we should cover all such cases by talking about lexical items rather than words. Write meaning: an explanation+example. Because there are some lexical items that are made up of two or three words but express a single meaning. Active vocabulary is the one that students will need to understand to use them. . word formation. picture. superordinates… 4.Lexical item may be more than a single word. word class). stress. realia. Ex: [pic.example. Select the new word. (Family words) 3. Combine several techniques. 2. 4. Therefore. Passive vocabulary is the one that students will only understand but have no need to use them. 6. Conduct repetition of word list. 3. situation+translation 3. actions. 5. facial expression 2. Abstract vocabulary is the one that refers to ideas. 2. Use other techniques: synonym/antonym/contrast. Passive/ active items. Passive (teach quichly).: 1. stress. Concrete vocabulary is the one that refers to events.trans]) 1. concepts that have no physical referents. sounds. Form: spelling. 8. What need to be taught: (technique. Show meaning visually: miming. Say the word aloud and write it on BB. gesture.

connotation. Collocation: the way words are used together Aspects of meaning: a) b) Meaning of words: denotation. Grammar: regular. 4. . 5. Ways to review a lexical item There are some ways to review a lexical item: • • • • • • • • Gap filling. irregular. followed by V-ing or prep. word formation (prefixes and suffixes). Multiple choice. 4. Meaning relationship: synonyms. Grammar of a lexical item? We will teach the grammar of a lexical item when: • • • • Whether it’s an transitive or intransitive verb. 3. Vt. Whether it’s a noun and its plural form is regular or irregular. Vi. Matching. Whether it’s an adjective and it’s followed by an infinitive or a gerund. translation. antonyms.2. Whether it’s a regular or irregular verb. Gap filling with a pool of answers. Sentence completion Writing sentences Odd one out Translation.