# Systems of Particles

Introduction
• In the current chapter, you will study the motion of systems of particles. • The effective force of a particle is defined as the product of it mass and acceleration. It will be shown that the system of external forces acting on a system of particles is equipollent with the system of effective forces of the system. • The mass center of a system of particles will be defined and its motion described. • Application of the work-energy principle and the impulse-momentum principle to a system of particles will be described. Result obtained are also applicable to a system of rigidly connected particles, i.e., a rigid body. • Analysis methods will be presented for variable systems of particles, i.e., systems in which the particles included in the system change.

Application of Newton’s Laws. Effective Forces
• Newton’s second law for each particle Pi in a system of n particles,
Fi +

∑ fij = mi ai
j =1

n

ri × Fi +

∑ (ri × fij ) = ri × mi ai
j =1

n

Fi = external force mi ai = effective force

fij = internal forces

• The system of external and internal forces on a particle is equivalent to the effective force of the particle. • The system of external and internal forces acting on the entire system of particles is equivalent to the system of effective forces.

Application of Newton’s Laws. Effective Forces
• Summing over all the elements,
n n n n

∑ Fi + ∑ ∑ f ij = ∑ mi ai
i =1 n i =1 j =1 n n i =1 n

∑ (ri × Fi ) + ∑ ∑ (ri × f ij ) = ∑ (ri × mi ai )
i =1 i =1 j =1 i =1

• Since the internal forces occur in equal and opposite collinear pairs, the resultant force and couple due to the internal forces are zero,

∑ Fi = ∑ mi ai ∑ (ri × Fi ) = ∑ (ri × mi ai )
• The system of external forces and the system of effective forces are equipollent by not equivalent.

Linear & Angular Momentum

• Linear momentum of the system of particles,
L= L=

• Angular momentum about fixed point O of system of particles,
H O = ∑ (ri × mi vi )
n i =1 n

∑ mi vi
i =1 n

n

∑ mi vi = ∑ mi ai
i =1

n

H O = ∑ (ri × mi vi ) + ∑ (ri × mi vi ) = ∑ (ri × mi ai )
i =1 i =1 n i =1

n

i =1

• Resultant of the external forces is equal to rate of change of linear momentum of the system of particles,

∑F = L

• Moment resultant about fixed point O of the external forces is equal to the rate of change of angular momentum of the system of particles,

∑ M O = HO

Motion of the Mass Center of a System of Particles
• Mass center G of system of particles is defined by position vector rG which satisfies
mrG = ∑ mi ri
i =1 n

• Differentiating twice,
mrG = mvG =

∑ mi ri
i =1 n

n

∑ mi vi = L

i =1

maG = L = ∑ F

• The mass center moves as if the entire mass and all of the external forces were concentrated at that point.

Angular Momentum About the Mass Center
• The angular momentum of the system of particles about the mass center,
′ HG = ′ HG =

∑ (ri′ × mi vi′ )
i =1 n i =1 n

n

∑ (ri′ × mi ai′ ) = ∑ (ri′ × mi (ai − aG ))
i =1  n

n

ai = aG + ai′

= =

• Consider the centroidal frame of reference Gx’y’z’, which translates with respect to the Newtonian frame Oxyz. • The centroidal frame is not, in general, a Newtonian frame.

i =1 n i =1

∑ (ri′ × mi ai ) −  ∑ mi r ′  × aG  
 i =1
n i =1

 

∑ (ri′ × mi ai ) = ∑ (ri′ × Fi )

= ∑ MG

• The moment resultant about G of the external forces is equal to the rate of change of angular momentum about G of the system of particles.

Angular Momentum About the Mass Center
• Angular momentum about G of particles in their absolute motion relative to the Newtonian Oxyz frame of reference.
H G = ∑ (ri′× mi vi ) = ∑ (ri′× mi (vG + vi′ ))
i =1 n n

′ vi = vG + vG

• Angular momentum about G of the particles in their motion relative to the centroidal Gx’y’z’ frame of reference,
′ HG = ∑(ri′×mivi′)
i=1 n

HG

n  =  ∑ mi ri′ × vG + ∑ (ri′× mi vi )    i =1  i =1 ′ = HG = ∑ M G

i =1  n

• Angular momentum about G of the particle momenta can be calculated with respect to either the Newtonian or centroidal frames of reference.

Conservation of Momentum
• If no external forces act on the particles of a system, then the linear momentum and angular momentum about the fixed point O are conserved.
L = ∑F = 0 L = constant HO = ∑ M O = 0 H O = constant

• Concept of conservation of momentum also applies to the analysis of the mass center motion,
L = ∑F = 0 L = mvG = constant vG = constant H G = constant HG = ∑ M G = 0

• In some applications, such as problems involving central forces,
L = ∑F ≠ 0 L ≠ constant HO = ∑ M O = 0 H O = constant

Sample Problem 14.2
SOLUTION: • Since there are no external forces, the linear momentum of the system is conserved. • Write separate component equations for the conservation of linear momentum. A 10-kg projectile is moving with a velocity of 30 m/s when it explodes into 2.5 and 7.5-kg fragments. Immediately after the explosion, the fragments travel in the directions θA = 45o and θB = 30o. Determine the velocity of each fragment. • Solve the equations simultaneously for the fragment velocities.

Sample Problem 14.2
SOLUTION: • Since there are no external forces, the linear momentum of the system is conserved.

• Write separate component equations for the conservation of linear momentum.

m Av A + mB vB = mv0 2.5v A + 7.5vB = 10v0
x components:

25v A cos 45° + 7.5vB cos 30° = 10(30)
y x • Solve the equations simultaneously for the fragment velocities.
vA = 62.2 m s vB = 29.3m s

y components:

2.5v A sin 45° − 7.5vB sin 30° = 0

Kinetic Energy
• Kinetic energy of a system of particles,
T=
1 2

∑ mi (vi • vi ) = ∑ mi vi2
i =1
1 2

n

n

i =1

• Expressing the velocity in terms of the centroidal reference frame,
T= =
n 1 2∑ i =1

[mi (vG + vi′) • (vG + vi′)]
+ vG • ∑ mi vi′ +
i =1 n n 1 ∑ mi vi′2 2 i =1

n 1  m v 2   2∑ i  G  i =1  1 mv 2 G 2

vi = vG + vi′

=

+

n 1 ∑ mi vi′2 2 i =1

• Kinetic energy is equal to kinetic energy of mass center plus kinetic energy relative to the centroidal frame.

Work-Energy Principle. Conservation of Energy
• Principle of work and energy can be applied to each particle Pi ,
T1 + U1→2 = T2 where U1→2 represents the work done by the internal forces f ij and the resultant external force Fi acting on Pi .

• Principle of work and energy can be applied to the entire system by adding the kinetic energies of all particles and considering the work done by all external and internal forces. • Although f ij and f ji are equal and opposite, the work of these forces will not, in general, cancel out. • If the forces acting on the particles are conservative, the work is equal to the change in potential energy and
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 which expresses the principle of conservation of energy for the system of particles.

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

∑F = L ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 − L1
t1

∑ M O = HO ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2 − H1
t1 t2

t2

L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2
t1

t2

H1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = H 2
t1

t2

• The momenta of the particles at time t1 and the impulse of the forces from t1 to t2 form a system of vectors equipollent to the system of momenta of the particles at time t2 .

Sample Problem 14.4
SOLUTION: • With no external horizontal forces, it follows from the impulse-momentum principle that the horizontal component of momentum is conserved. This relation can be solved for the velocity of B at its maximum elevation. • The conservation of energy principle can be applied to relate the initial kinetic energy to the maximum potential energy. The maximum vertical distance is determined from this relation.

Ball B, of mass mB,is suspended from a cord, of length l, attached to cart A, of mass mA, which can roll freely on a frictionless horizontal tract. While the cart is at rest, the ball is given an initial velocity Determine (a) the velocity of B as it reaches it maximum elevation, and (b) the maximum vertical distance h through which B will rise.

Sample Problem 14.4
SOLUTION: • With no external horizontal forces, it follows from the impulse-momentum principle that the horizontal component of momentum is conserved. This relation can be solved for the velocity of B at its maximum elevation. L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 y x
t1 t2

x component equation: m Av A,1 + mB vB ,1 = m Av A, 2 + mB vB , 2 Velocities at positions 1 and 2 are v A,1 = 0 vB ,1 = v0 vB , 2 = v A,2 + vB
A, 2

= v A, 2 (velocity of B relative to A is zero at position 2)

v A, 2 = vB ,2 =

mB v0 m A + mB

Sample Problem 14.4
• The conservation of energy principle can be applied to relate the initial kinetic energy to the maximum potential energy.

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
Position 1 - Potential Energy: Kinetic Energy: Position 2 - Potential Energy: Kinetic Energy:
1 m v2 2 B 0

V1 = m A gl
2 T1 = 1 mB v0 2

V2 = m A gl + mB gh T2 = 1 (m A + mB )v 2 , 2 A 2

+ m A gl = 1 (m A + mB )v 2 , 2 + m A gl + mB gh A 2
2

2 2 2  v0 m A + mB v A, 2 v0 m A + mB  mB  h= − = − v0  2g mB 2g 2g 2 g mB  m A + mB   
2 2 v0 mB v0 h= − 2 g m A + mB 2 g

2 mA v0 h= m A + mB 2 g

Sample Problem 14.5
SOLUTION: • There are four unknowns: vA, vB,x, vB,y, and vC. • Solution requires four equations: conservation principles for linear momentum (two component equations), angular momentum, and energy. Ball A has initial velocity v0 = 3 m/s parallel to the axis of the table. It hits ball B and then ball C which are both at rest. Balls A and C hit the sides of the table squarely at A’ and C’ and ball B hits obliquely at B’. Assuming perfectly elastic collisions, determine velocities vA, vB, and vC with which the balls hit the sides of the table. • Write the conservation equations in terms of the unknown velocities and solve simultaneously.

Sample Problem 14.5
SOLUTION: • There are four unknowns: vA, vB,x, vB,y, and vC. • The conservation of momentum and energy equations,
L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 mv0 = mvB , x + mvC
H O ,1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = H O , 2 − (0.6 m )mv0 = (2.4 m )mv A − (2.1 m )mvB , y − (0.9 m )mvC

0 = mv A − mvB , y

vA = vA j vB = vB , x i + vB , y j vC = vC i

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
1 mv 2 0 2

2 2 2 2 = 1 mv A + 1 m vB , x + vB , y + 1 mvC 2 2 2

(

)

Solving the first three equations in terms of vC, v A = vB , y = 3vC − 20 vB , x = 10 − vC Substituting into the energy equation,
2 2(3vC − 6) + (3 − vC ) + vC = 9 2 2 2 20vC − 78vC + 72 = 0

y x

v A = 1.2 m s vC = 2.4 m s vB = (2i − 4 j )m s vB = 1.342 m s

A bullet is fired with a horizontal velocity of 500 m/s through a 3-kg block A and becomes embedded in a 2.5-kg block B. Knowing that blocks A and B start moving with velocities of 3 m/s and 5 m/s, respectively, determine (a) the mass of the bullet, (b) its velocity as it travels from block A to block B

20

A bullet is fired with a horizontal velocity of 500 m/s through a 3-kg block A and becomes embedded in a 2.5-kg block B. Knowing that blocks A and B start moving with velocities of 3 m/s and 5 m/s, respectively, determine (a) the mass of the bullet, (b) its velocity as it travels from block A to block B (a) the mass of the bullet mv0+mA(0)+mB(0) = mvB+mAvA+mBvB m = mAvA+mBvB / (v0-vb) = (3) (3) + (2.5) (5) / (500-5) = 43.434 x10-3 kg (b) velocity as it travels from block A to block B mv0+mA(0) = mv1+mAvA => v1 = mv0 - mAvA / m =
= 43.434 x10-3 (500) – (3) (3) / 43.434 x10-3 = 292.8 m/s

21

A system consists of three particles A, B, and C. We know that WA = WB = 17.79 N and Wc = 124.55 N and that the velocities of the particles, expressed in m/s are, respectively, vA = 42i + 63j, vB = −42i + 63j, and vC = −9j − 6k. Determine the angular momentum HO of the system about O.

22

A system consists of three particles A, B, and C. We know that WA = WB = 17.79 N and Wc = 124.55 N and that the velocities of the particles, expressed in m/s are, respectively, vA = 42i + 63j, vB = −42i + 63j, and vC = −9j − 6k. Determine the angular momentum HO of the system about O.

H0 = ZERO

23

The ball A of mass 10 kg is attached to the light rod of length l = 0.8 m. The mass of the carriage alone is 250 kg and it moves with an acceleration a0 as shown. If θ = 3 rad/s when θ = 900, find the kinetic energy T of the system if the carriage has a velocity of 0.8 m/s (a) in the direction of a0 and (b) in the direction opposite to a0. Treat the ball as particle.

Figure shows a disc which has a rod PQ attached by a pivot which allows the rod to move through angle θ in the plane of the disc. At a given instant the disc is rotating about its polar axis at constant speed acceleration θ and the rod has angular displacement
θ

, angular velocity θ

and angular

respectively, relative to the disc, as shown in the figure. Derive expressions for

, the absolute velocity and absolute acceleration of point Q in components along axes Oxyz which

rotate with the disc as shown.