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Three Dimensions
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Introduction
• The fundamental relations developed for
the plane motion of rigid bodies may also
be applied to the general motion of three
dimensional bodies.
ω
I H
G
= • The relation which was used
to determine the angular momentum of a
rigid slab is not valid for general three
dimensional bodies and motion.
G G
H M
a m F
=
=
∑
∑
dimensional bodies and motion.
• The current chapter is concerned with
evaluation of the angular momentum and
its rate of change for three dimensional
motion and application to effective
forces, the impulsemomentum and the
workenergy principles.
• Angular momentum of a body about its mass center,
( ) ( ) [ ]
∑ ∑
= =
′
× ×
′
= ×
′
=
n
i
i i i
n
i
i i i G
m r r m v r H
1 1
∆
ω ∆
• The x component of the angular momentum,
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
∑
∑
=
− − − =
′
× −
′
× =
n
n
i
i
y
i i
z
i i x
m z x z x y y
m r z r y H
1
∆
∆
ω ω ω ω
ω ω
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in Three Dimensions
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
∑ ∑ ∑
∑
= = =
=
− − + =
− − − =
n
i
i i i z
n
i
i i i y
n
i
i i i x
i
i i x i z i i y i x i
m x z m y x m z y
m z x z x y y
1 1 1
2 2
1
∆ ∆ ∆
∆
ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω
( ) dm zx dm xy dm z y H
z y x x ∫ ∫ ∫
− − + = ω ω ω
2 2
z xz y xy x x
I I I ω ω ω − − + =
z z y zy x zx z
z yz y y x yx y
I I I H
I I I H
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
+ − − =
− + − =
• Transformation of into is characterized
by the inertia tensor for the body,
ω
G
H



¹

\

+ − −
− + −
− − +
z zy zx
yz y yx
xz xy x
I I I
I I I
I I I
• With respect to the principal axes of inertia,



′ x
I 0 0
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in Three Dimensions
z z y zy x zx z
z yz y y x yx y
z xz y xy x x x
I I I H
I I I H
I I I H
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
+ − − =
− + − =
− − + =



¹

\

′
′
′
z
y
x
I
I
I
0 0
0 0
0 0
z z z y y y x x x
I H I H I H
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
= = = ω ω ω
• The angular momentum of a rigid body
and its angular velocity have the same
direction if, and only if, is directed along a
principal axis of inertia.
G
H
ω
ω
• The momenta of the particles of a rigid body can
be reduced to:
v m
L
=
= momentum linear
G H
G
about momentum angular =
z xz y xy x x x
I I I H ω ω ω − − + =
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in Three Dimensions
z z y zy x zx z
z yz y y x yx y
z xz y xy x x x
I I I H
I I I H
I I I H
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
+ − − =
− + − =
− − + =
• The angular momentum about any other given
point O is
G O
H v m r H
+ × =
• The angular momentum of a body constrained to
rotate about a fixed point may be calculated from
G O
H v m r H
+ × =
• Or, the angular momentum may be computed
directly from the moments and products of inertia
with respect to the Oxyz frame.
( )
n
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in Three Dimensions
z z y zy x zx z
z yz y y x yx y
z xz y xy x x x
I I I H
I I I H
I I I H
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
+ − − =
− + − =
− − + =
( )
( ) [ ]
∑
∑
=
=
× × =
× =
n
i
i i i
n
i
i i O
m r r
m v r H
1
1
∆
∆
ω
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
• The principle of impulse and momentum can be applied directly to the
threedimensional motion of a rigid body,
Syst Momenta
1
+ Syst Ext Imp
12
= Syst Momenta
2
• The freebody diagram equation is used to develop component and
moment equations.
• For bodies rotating about a fixed point, eliminate the impulse of the
reactions at O by writing equation for moments of momenta and
impulses about O.
• Kinetic energy of particles forming rigid body,
) 2 2
2 (
∆
∆
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
y x xy z z y y x x
n
i
i i
n
i
i i
I I
I I I I v m
m r v m
v m v m T
ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω ω
ω
− −
− + + + =
′
× + =
′
+ =
∑
∑
=
=
Kinetic Energy
) 2 2
x z zx z y yz
I I ω ω ω ω − −
• If the axes correspond instantaneously with the
principle axes,
) (
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
1
z z y y x x
I I I v m T
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
+ + + = ω ω ω
• With these results, the principles of work and
energy and conservation of energy may be applied
to the threedimensional motion of a rigid body.
• Kinetic energy of a rigid body with a fixed point,
) 2 2
2 (
2 2 2
2
1
x z zx z y yz
y x xy z z y y x x
I I
I I I I T
ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω ω
− −
− + + =
• If the axes Oxyz correspond instantaneously with
Kinetic Energy
• If the axes Oxyz correspond instantaneously with
the principle axes Ox’y’z’,
) (
2 2 2
2
1
z z y y x x
I I I T
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
+ + = ω ω ω
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and
momentum. Since the initial momenta
is zero, the system of impulses must be
equivalent to the final system of
momenta.
• Assume that the supporting cables
remain taut such that the vertical velocity
Problem: 1
Rectangular plate of mass m that is
suspended from two wires is hit at D in
a direction perpendicular to the plate.
Immediately after the impact,
determine a) the velocity of the mass
center G, and b) the angular velocity of
the plate.
remain taut such that the vertical velocity
and the rotation about an axis normal to
the plate is zero.
• Principle of impulse and momentum
yields to two equations for linear
momentum and two equations for
angular momentum.
• Solve for the two horizontal components
of the linear and angular velocity
vectors.
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. Since the initial momenta is zero,
Problem: 1
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. Since the initial momenta is zero,
the system of impulses must be equivalent to the final system of momenta.
• Assume that the supporting cables remain taut such that the vertical velocity and the
rotation about an axis normal to the plate is zero.
k v i v v
z x
+ =
j i
y x
ω ω ω + =
Since the x, y, and z axes are principal axes of inertia,
j ma i mb j I i I H
y x y y x x G
ω ω ω ω
2
12
1
2
12
1
+ = + =
• Principle of impulse and momentum yields two equations for linear momentum and
Problem: 1
• Principle of impulse and momentum yields two equations for linear momentum and
two equations for angular momentum.
• Solve for the two horizontal components of the linear and angular velocity vectors.
x
mv = 0
0 =
x
v
z
v m t F = − ∆
m t F v
z
∆ − =
( )k m t F v
∆ − =
x
x
mb
H t bF
ω
2
12
1
2
1
∆
=
=
mb t F
x
∆ 6 = ω
y
y
ma
H t aF
ω
2
12
1
2
1
∆
=
= −
( ) ma t F
y
∆ 6 − = ω
( ) j b i a
mab
t F
+ =
∆ 6
ω
Problem: 1
( )k m t F v
∆ −
( ) j b i a
mab
t F
+ =
∆ 6
ω
j ma i mb H
y x G
ω ω
2
12
1
2
12
1
+ =
A homogeneous disk of mass m is
mounted on an axle OG of negligible
SOLUTION:
• The disk rotates about the vertical axis
through O as well as about OG.
Combine the rotation components for
the angular velocity of the disk.
• Compute the angular momentum of the
disk using principle axes of inertia and
Problem: 2
mounted on an axle OG of negligible
mass. The disk rotates counter
clockwise at the rate ω
1
about OG.
Determine: a) the angular velocity of
the disk, b) its angular momentum about
O, c) its kinetic energy, and d) the
vector and couple at G equivalent to the
momenta of the particles of the disk.
disk using principle axes of inertia and
noting that O is a fixed point.
• The kinetic energy is computed from the
angular velocity and moments of inertia.
• The vector and couple at G are also
computed from the angular velocity and
moments of inertia.
SOLUTION:
• The disk rotates about the vertical axis through O as well
as about OG. Combine the rotation components for the
angular velocity of the disk.
j i
2 1
ω ω ω + =
Noting that the velocity at C is zero,
r v
C C
0 ω = × =
Problem: 2
( ) ( )
( )
L r
k r L
j r i L j i
r v
C C
1 2
1 2
2 1
0
0
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω
=
− =
− × + =
= × =
( ) j L r i
1 1
ω ω ω − =
• Compute the angular momentum of the disk using
principle axes of inertia and noting that O is a fixed point.
( ) j L r i
1 1
ω ω ω − =
k I j I i I H
z z y y x x O
ω ω ω + + =
( )
( )( )
( ) 0 0
2
4
1
2
1
2
4
1
2
1
2
2
1
= + = =
− + = =
= =
mr mL I H
L r mr mL I H
mr I H
z z z
y y y
x x x
ω
ω ω
ω ω
Problem: 2
( ) j L r i
1 1
ω ω ω − =
( )
4
z z z
( )( ) j L r r L m i mr H
O
1
2
4
1
2
1
2
2
1
ω ω + − =
• The kinetic energy is computed from the angular velocity
and moments of inertia.
( )
( )( ) [ ]
2
1
2
4
1
2 2
1
2
2
1
2 2 2
2
1
L r r L m mr
I I I T
z z y y x x
ω ω
ω ω ω
− + + =
+ + =
2
1
2
2
2
8
1
6 ω


¹

\

+ =
L
r
mr T
( ) j L r i
1 1
ω ω ω − =
• The vector and couple at G are also computed from the
angular velocity and moments of inertia.
k mr v m
1
ω =
( ) j L r mr i mr
k I j I i I H
z z y y x x G
ω ω
ω ω ω
− + =
+ + =
′ ′ ′
2
4
1
1
2
2
1



− = j
r
i mr H
2
1
ω
Problem: 2

¹

\

− = j
L
r
i mr H
G
2
1
2
2
1
ω
The electric motor with an attached disk is running at a constant low speed of 120 rev/min
in the direction shown. Its housing and mounting base are initially at rest. The entire in the direction shown. Its housing and mounting base are initially at rest. The entire
assembly is next set is rotation about the vertical Zaxis at the constant rate N = 60
rev/min with a fixed angle γ of 30
0
. Determine (a) the angular velocity and angular
acceleration of the disk, (b) the velocity and acceleration of point A at the top of the disk
for the instant shwon.
A thin homogeneous square plate of mass ‘m’ and side ‘a’ is
welded to a vertical shaft AB with which it forms s an angle
of 45°. Knowing that the shaft rotates with a constant angular
velocity ω, determine the angular momentum H
A
of the plate
about point A.
Y’
Y
Y’ Z’
45°
Y’Z’ as principal axes
ω
Y
’ = ω
Y
cos 45; ω
z
’ = ω
z
sin 45
R. Ganesh Narayanan 25
A X’
Z
ω
Y
’ = ω
Y
cos 45; ω
z
’ = ω
z
sin 45
ω
x
’ = 0
To describe the motion of an aircraft, a set of axes Gxyz, fixed to the
aircraft is defined. In level flight Gx is forward, Gz is downward and Gxz is
the vertical plane of symmetry; G is the centre of gravity of the mass. The
moments of inertia of the aircraft about these axes are:
Kgm 400 = Kgm 12000 = Kgm 8000 = Kgm
2
xz
2
zz
2
yy
2
I I I
4000 =
I xx
The aircraft flies at 400m/s toward north; it then follows a curve of 12Km
radius at the same speed so that it is finally heading West. If it banked at radius at the same speed so that it is finally heading West. If it banked at
30° during this change of course, find the resulting inertia torques.
Answer: 1.92 Nm 0.333 Nm 0.192Nm
r
x
Ω
O
z
G
A
L
z
z (k)
P
3
ω
po
r
Angular Momentum (Moment of Momentum) of a rigid body
The relative angular momentum of a rigid body:
Assume a body to be rotating with angular velocity ω and consider a particle P of
mass m
p
positioned at r
po
relative to some point O so that:
po
= xi + y j
r
+ zk
and
O
z
y (j)
x (i)
x
y
1
ω
2
ω
po
r
1 2 3
= i + j + k ω ω ω ω
where i, j and k refer to arbitrarily chosen
axes Oxyz.
O fixed and Oxyz axes could be fixed and
rotating
29
( ) ( )
(from (2))
p P po po po o po
= m = m h v r r r
ω ∑ ∧ ∑ ∧ ∧
If we express h
o
in the form h = h
1
i + h
2
j + h
3
k, we find that:
( )
[ ] [ ]
[ ] ( ) [ ]
[ ] [ ]
( )
1 1 2 3
2 1 2 3
2
2
P P P
2 2
P P P
2
2
h = m +  m xy  m xz y
z
h =  m yx + m +  m yz
x z
h =  m zx  m zy + m + y
x
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
∑ ∑ ∑
∑ ∑ ∑
∑ ∑ ∑
[ ] [ ]
( )
3 1 2 3
2
P P P
h =  m zx  m zy + m + y
x
ω ω ω
∑ ∑ ∑
are the Moments of inertia of the body about Oxyz and
( )
2
2
xx P
I m + y
z
= ∑
( )
2 2
yy P
I m +
x z
= ∑
( )
2
2
zz P
I m + y
x
=
∑
xy P
I m xy = ∑
yz P
I m yz = ∑
zx P
I m zx = ∑
are the products of inertia referred to Oxyz.
30
1 1 2 3
2 1 2 3
3 1 2 3
xx xy zx
yx yy yz
zx yz yy
h = I  I  I
h =  I + I  I
h =  I  I + I
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
(5)
3 1 2 3 zx yz yy
h =  I  I + I ω ω ω
relative angular momentum of body about O relative to i, j, k
31
In general, if the reference axes Oxyz rotate w.r.t. the body (or vice versa) then the
products and moments of inertia will vary with time. By considering the axes to
rotate with the body the moments and products of inertia will be constant. Further,
if we choose Oxyz as principal axes of inertia then, by the definition of principal
axes, the products of inertia will be zero and the expression (5) for the relative
angular momentum simplifies to:
1 2 3 xx yy zz o
= I i + I j + I k h ω ω ω
(6)
Relative angular momentum
32
Equations of Motion
Consider a system of n particles of which p is typical. r
po
defines the position of p
relative to O and v
po
the velocity of p relative to O. Oxyz rotates with angular
velocity Ω and O is moving. The angular momentum of the system relative to O is:
z
z (k)
P
3
Ω
po
r
po
v
O does not necessarily coincide with the
centre of mass
Oxyz rotating axes with angular
(6)
O
y (j)
x (i)
x
y
1
Ω 2
Ω
po
r
Oxyz rotating axes with angular
velocity Ω
( )
( by equation (2))
n
p
po o po
p=1
= h v r
m
∧
∑
(6)
(7)
33
The forces acting on the particle may be separated into two groups: (i) due to
influences received from outside the system, called external forces F
p
and (ii) due
to interaction between particles of the system, called internal forces F´
p
.
From Newton's second law we may write, for a single particle,
( )
p p p p
d
+ = m v F F
dt
′
(8)
dt
where v
p
is the absolute velocity of p.
Equation (8) describes the linear motion of particle p. The corresponding equation
for the rotational motion of p about O follows from (8) by considering the moment
about O of the forces acting on the particle. Thus,
( )
p
po p po p po p
d
+ = v r F r F r
m
dt
′
∧ ∧ ∧
34
Now, by Newton's third law is zero since it represents the
summation of the moment of equal and opposite pairs of reaction forces. Also
represents the sum of the moments about O of all the external forces. This is
the total externally applied moment, which we will denote by T
o
.
po p
r F
′
∧
∑
p po
F r ∧
∑
which, summing over all the particles becomes
( )
p
p po po p po p
d
F + = v r r F r
m
dt
′
∧ ∧ ∧
∑ ∑ ∑
o
35
Thus
( ) p
o po p
d
= v T r
m
dt
∧
∑ (9)
Returning now to equation (7) we may write
( )
o
p
po po
dh d
= v r
m
dt dt
∧
∑
It can be shown that
( ) ( )
o
p p
po po p o
dh d d
=  v v r r
m m
dt dt dt
∧ ∧
∑ ∑
(10)
From equation (9) it can be seen that the first term on the right hand side of
equation (9) is equal to T
o
. Noting also that dv
o
/dt = a
o
, the absolute acceleration
of O, equation (10) may be expressed as:
dh
36
( )
o
p o po o
dh
=  m a T r
dt
∧
∑
where G is the centre of mass of the system of particles.
o Go o
=  M a T r
∧
[ ] ) v
m
( r
dt
d
=
dt
h d
po
p
po
o
∧ ∑
∧ ∑ +
∧ ∑
dt
) v
m
d(
r ) v
m
(
dt
r d
=
dt
h d
po
p
po po
p
po
o
v
dt
r d
po
po
=
Thus
So that
0 =
∧ ∑ ) v
m
(
r d
po
p
po
So that
0 =
∧ ∑ ) v
m
(
dt
po
p
and
v v v
o p po
− =
∧ ∑
∧ ∑ ) v
m
(
dt
d
r  ) v
m
(
dt
d
r =
dt
h d
o
p
po p
p
po
o
37
Thus,
( )
o
o Go o
dh
 M = a T r
dt
∧
(11)
In the special cases where either a
o
= 0 or O and G coincide (r
Go
= 0) equation
(11) takes the form:
h +
h
=
h d
= T
o o
∧ Ω
∂
(12)
h +
t
h
=
dt
h d
= T
o
o o
o
∧ Ω
∂
∂
(12)
38
Scalar versions of the Equations of Motion
Let h
o
= h
1
i + h
2
j + h
3
k be defined in components along references which are rotating with
angular velocity Ω = Ω
1
i + Ω
2
j + Ω
3
k.
It can be shown that (see handout) the equations of motion given by equation (12)
(i.e. the special case when either a
o
= 0 or r
Go
= 0 ) may be written as:
1 1 2 3 3 2
2 2 3 1 1 3
T h h h
T h h h
= − Ω + Ω
= − Ω + Ω
(13)
2 2 3 1 1 3
3 3 1 2 2 1
T h h h
T h h h
= − Ω + Ω
= − Ω + Ω
(13)
where T
1
, T
2
, T
3
are the components of externally applied moment (T
o
) along i, j and
k respecively.
Equations (13) are referred to as the Momentum equations and have almost
universal application in the study of gyroscopic phenomena and motion with
respect to moving axes.
39
In general, the components (h
1
, h
2
, h
3
) of angular momentum for a rigid body,
rotating with angular velocity ω, may be calculated from equations (5) and (6),
noting that the body angular velocity must be specified in components along the
moving reference axes which, in general, are not fixed in the moving body. In
other words, Ω and ω are not, in general, equal.
If however, in a special case the reference axes are fixed in the body along
principal axes, then Ω = ω and if the principal moment of inertia along reference
axes Oxyz are A, B, C respectively, then equations (6) and (13) may be combined
to give:
( )
( )
( )
1
1 2 3
2
2 3 1
3
3 1 2
= A  B C
T
= B  C  A
T
= C  A B
T
ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω
(14)
Equations (14) are called the Euler dynamical Equations.
40
• Angular momentum and its rate of change are
taken with respect to centroidal axes GX’Y’Z’ of
fixed orientation.
• Convenient to use body fixed axes Gxyz where
moments and products of inertia are not time
dependent.
• Transformation of into is independent of
the system of coordinate axes.
ω
G
H
Motion of Rigid Bodies in Three Dimensions
G
H M
a m F
=
=
∑
∑
dependent.
• Define rate of change of change of with
respect to the rotating frame,
G
H
( ) k H j H i H H
z y x
Gxyz
G
+ + =
Then,
( ) ω Ω Ω
= × + =
G
Gxyz
G G
H H H
( )
G
Gxyz
G G
H H M
× + =
∑
Ω
• With and Gxyz chosen to correspond
to the principal axes of inertia,
ω Ω
=
( )
( )
x z x z y y y
z y z y x x x
I I I M
I I I M
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
− − =
− − =
∑
∑
Euler’s Equations:
Euler’s Equation Motion and d’Alembert’s Principle
( )
( )
y x y x z z z
x z x z y y y
I I I M
I I I M
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
− − =
− − =
∑
∑
• System of external forces and effective forces
are equivalent for general three dimensional
motion.
• System of external forces are equivalent to
the vector and couple, . and
G
H a m
• For a rigid body rotation around a fixed point,
( )
O
Oxyz
O
O O
H H
H M
× + =
=
∑
Ω
• For a rigid body rotation around a fixed axis,
ω ω ω
z z yz y xz x
I H I H I H − = − = − =
( ) ω H H M
O
Oxyz
O O
× + =
∑
Motion About a Fixed Point or a Fixed Axis
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
ω α
ω ω
ω
ω
i I j I k I j I i I
k I j I i I k
k I j I i I
H H M
yz xz z yz xz
z yz xz
z yz xz
O
Oxyz
O O
+ − + + − − =
+ − − × +
+ − − =
× + =
∑
α
ω α
ω α
z z
xz yz y
yz xz x
I M
I I M
I I M
=
+ − =
+ − =
∑
∑
∑
2
2
α
ω α
ω α
z z
xz yz y
yz xz x
I M
I I M
I I M
=
+ − =
+ − =
∑
∑
∑
2
2
• For a rigid body rotation around a fixed axis,
• If symmetrical with respect to the xy plane,
α I M M M = = =
∑ ∑ ∑
0 0
Motion About a Fixed Axis
α
z z y x
I M M M = = =
∑ ∑ ∑
0 0
• If not symmetrical, the sum of external moments
will not be zero, even if α = 0,
0
2 2
= = =
∑ ∑ ∑
z xz y yz x
M I M I M ω ω
• A rotating shaft requires both static and
dynamic balancing to avoid excessive
vibration and bearing reactions.
( ) 0 = ω
( ) 0 ≠ ω
• Expressing that the system of external
forces is equivalent to the system of
effective forces, write vector expressions
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate the system of effective forces
by reducing them to a vector
attached at G and couple
a m
.
G
H
Problem: 3
Rod AB with weight W= 20 kg is
pinned at A to a vertical axle which
rotates with constant angular velocity
ω = 15 rad/s. The rod position is
maintained by a horizontal wire BC.
Determine the tension in the wire and
the reaction at A.
effective forces, write vector expressions
for the sum of moments about A and the
summation of forces.
• Solve for the wire tension and the
reactions at A.
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate the system of effective forces by reducing them
to a vector attached at G and couple a m
.
G
H
( )
( )I
I L I r a a
n
2
2
2
1
2
s m 5 . 112
cos
− =
− = − = = ω β ω
( ) ( )I a m
N 2250 5 . 112 20 − = − =
k I j I i I H
ω ω ω + + =
Problem: 3
k I j I i I H
z z y y x x G
ω ω ω + + =
0 sin cos
0
2
2
1
2
2
1
= = − =
= = =
z y x
z y x
mL I I mL I
ω β ω ω β ω ω
i mL H
G
β ωcos
2
12
1
− =
( )
( ) ( )
( )k k mL
i mL j i
H H H
G Gxyz G G
m N 5 . 649 cos sin
cos sin cos 0
2 2
12
1
2
12
1
⋅ = =
× + − + =
× + =
β β ω
β ω β ω β ω
ω
• Expressing that the system of external forces is equivalent
to the system of effective forces, write vector expressions
for the sum of moments about A and the summation of
forces.
( )
eff
A A
M M
∑ ∑
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )K K T
K I J J I I T J
649 5 . 1948 2 . 196 732 . 1
5 . 649 2250 886 . 0 2 . 196 1 732 . 1
+ = −
+ − × = − × + − ×
Problem: 3
( ) ( )K K T 649 5 . 1948 2 . 196 732 . 1 + = −
N 1613 = T
( )
eff
F F
∑ ∑
=
I J I K A J A I A
Z Y X
2250 2 . 196 1613 − = − − + +
( ) ( )J I A
N 96.2 1 N 97 6 + − =
• A gyroscope consists of a rotor with its mass center
fixed in space but which can spin freely about its
geometric axis and assume any orientation.
• From a reference position with gimbals and a
reference diameter of the rotor aligned, the
gyroscope may be brought to any orientation
through a succession of three steps:
a) rotation of outer gimbal through j about AA’, a) rotation of outer gimbal through j about AA’,
b) rotation of inner gimbal through q about
c) rotation of the rotor through y about CC’.
• ϕ, θ, and ψ are called the Eulerian Angles and
spin of rate
nutation of rate
precession of rate
=
=
=
Ψ
θ
φ
• The angular velocity of the gyroscope,
k j K
Ψ θ φ ω + + =
( )k j i
j i K
θ φ Ψ θ θ φ ω
θ θ
cos sin
cos sin with
+ + + − =
+ − =
• Equation of motion,
( )
O O O
H H M
× + =
∑
Ω ( )
O
Oxyz
O O
H H M
× + =
∑
Ω
( )
j K
k I j I i I H
O
θ φ Ω
θ φ Ψ θ θ φ
+ =
+ +
′
+
′
− = cos sin
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) θ φ Ψ
θ φ Ψ θ φ θ θ φ θ
θ φ Ψ θ θ φ θ θ φ
cos
cos sin cos sin
cos cos 2 sin
2
+ =
+ + −
′
=
+ + +
′
− =
∑
∑
∑
dt
d
I M
I I M
I I M
z
y
x
Steady precession,
constant are , , ψ φ θ
k i
k I i I H
k i
z O
z
θ φ θ φ Ω
ω θ φ
ω θ φ ω
cos sin
sin
sin
+ − =
+
′
− =
+ − =
( ) j I I
H M
z
O O
θ φ θ φ ω
Ω
sin cos ′ − =
× =
∑
Couple is applied about an axis
perpendicular to the precession
and spin axes
When the precession and spin
axis are at a right angle,
j I M
O
φ Ψ
θ
=
° =
∑
90
Gyroscope will precess about an
axis perpendicular to both the
spin axis and couple axis.
• Consider motion about its mass center of an
axisymmetrical body under no force but its own
weight, e.g., projectiles, satellites, and space craft.
constant 0 = =
G G
H H
• Define the Z axis to be aligned with and z in a
rotating axes system along the axis of symmetry.
The x axis is chosen to lie in the Zz plane.
G
H
H θ sin
x G x
I H H ω θ
′
= − = sin
I
H
G
x
′
− =
θ
ω
sin
y y
I H ω
′
= = 0 0 =
y
ω
z G z
I H H ω θ = = cos
I
H
G
z
θ
ω
cos
=
• θ = constant and body is in steady precession.
• Note:
θ γ
ω
ω
tan tan
I
I
z
x
′
= = −
Two cases of motion of an axisymmetrical body
which under no force which involve no precession:
• Body set to spin about its axis of symmetry,
aligned are and
0
G
x x
H
H
ω
ω = =
and body keeps spinning about its axis of
symmetry. symmetry.
• Body is set to spin about its transverse axis,
aligned are and
0
G
z z
H
H
ω
ω = =
and body keeps spinning about the given
transverse axis.
The motion of a body about a fixed point (or its mass
center) can be represented by the motion of a body
cone rolling on a space cone. In the case of steady
precession the two cones are circular.
• I < I’. Case of an elongated body. γ < θ and the
vector ω lies inside the angle ZGz. The space
cone and body cone are tangent externally; the
spin and precession are both counterclockwise spin and precession are both counterclockwise
from the positive z axis. The precession is said to
be direct.
• I > I’. Case of a flattened body. γ > θ and the
vector ω lies outside the angle ZGz. The space
cone is inside the body cone; the spin and
precession have opposite senses. The precession
is said to be retrograde.
k C j B i A = h
3 2 1 0
ω ω ω + +
k h j h i h = h
3 2 1 0
+ +
∧
3 2 1
3 2 1 0
h h h
k j i
= h ω ω ω ω
( ) ( ) ( )k h h j h h i h h = h
2 1 2 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 3 2 0
ω ω ω ω ω ω ω − + − − − ∧
∧
3 2 1
3 2 1 0
ω ω ω
ω ω ω ω
C B A
k j i
= h
k C j B i A = h
3 2 1 0
ω ω ω + +
( ) ( ) ( )k B A j A C i B C = h
2 1 2 1 1 3 1 3 3 2 3 2 0
ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω − + − − − ∧
54
Angular Momentum
( )
Go o G Go
= + M h h v r ∧
Angular Momentum (Rigid Body)
(4)
(5)
1 1 2 3
2 1 2 3
3 1 2 3
xx xy zx
yx yy yz
zx yz yy
h = I  I  I
h =  I + I  I
h =  I  I + I
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
Angular Momentum (if Principle Axes used)
(6)
55
3 1 2 3 zx yz yy
h =  I  I + I ω ω ω
1 2 3 xx yy zz o
= I i + I j + I k h ω ω ω
Equations of Motion
Equations of Motion (if O and G coincide and/or
a
0
=0)
h +
t
h
=
dt
h d
= T
o
o o
o
∧ Ω
∂
∂
Equations of Motion ((12) expressed as Scalar Components)
(11)
(12)
( )
o
o Go o
dh
 M = a T r
dt
∧
Equations of Motion ((12) expressed as Scalar Components)
See Equation (14) for the special case in which the reference axes are fixed
along the principle axes of the body.
(13)
56
1 1 2 3 3 2
2 2 3 1 1 3
3 3 1 2 2 1
T h h h
T h h h
T h h h
= − Ω + Ω
= − Ω + Ω
= − Ω + Ω
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